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Publication numberUS3388573 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date18 Jun 1968
Filing date20 Sep 1965
Priority date20 Sep 1965
Publication numberUS 3388573 A, US 3388573A, US-A-3388573, US3388573 A, US3388573A
InventorsPresley Jr Ned H
Original AssigneeNed H. Presley Jr.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tube bending method and machine
US 3388573 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

`une 18, 1968 N. H, PRESLEY, JR 3,388,573

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June 18, 1968 N. H. PRESLEY, JR 3,388,573

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June 18, 1968 N. H. PRESLEY, JR 3,388,573

TUBE BENDING METHOD AND MACHINE Filed Sept. 20, 1965 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 3,/ XIV/?! IN VEN TO R Ned /v Presley, Jr

B We im ATTOR/Vfl/ June 18, 1968 N, H, PRESLEY, JR 3,388,573

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TUBE BENDING METHOD AND MACHINE Filed Sept. 20, 1965 ne. la

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INVENTOR ATTR/Vy United States- Patent O 5,338,573 TUBE BENDING METHD AND MACHINE Ned H. Presley, Jr., 3124 Lorman Drive, acksonville, Fla. 32217 Filed Sept. 2t), 1965, Ser. No. 438,445 2@ Clmfms. (Cl. 72-7) This invention pertains to methods and machines for bending tube stock, pipes, bars and similar objects, and particularly to methods and machines for bending, fashioning, or shaping of rigid and/or metallic tubes into selected or desired configurations.

A general object of the invention is to improve the bending of tube stock and similar objects by the methods and machines hereof.

Another `general object is the provision of an improved tube bending machine which is selectively manually or automatically controlled in its operations.

A particular object of the invention is to provide an improved tube bending machine which may be readily lconstructed and easily operated thereby affording economies in the construction, maintenance and operation of the machine.

Another particular object of the invention is the provision of an automatic machine which may be manually controlled as desired thereby providing versatility in the bending of tube stock and the like into novel shapes while permitting the machine to perform repeated bending operations on tube stock in a uniform pattern duplicating manner to insure `that the finished bent tubes are substantially identical.

It has 'been customary, lfor example, for suppliers of automobile tailpipe and the like to stock a large number of different tailpipes for appropriate replacements of the installed tailpipes on many different types of automobiles, such tailpipes varying, inter alia, in length, number and location of bends. and cross-sectional shapes and dimensions. An additional particular object of the present invention is to provide a tube bending method and machine which reduces and substantially eliminates the inventory of pre-formed -or pre-bent tailpipes presently stocked.

A specific object of the invention is to provide a machine which is both durable and rugged in construction yet is easily operable to accurately bend tube stock in the proper direction and degree.

A still further object of this invention is to provide a machine which records bending operations of tube stock during the manual operation of the machine whereby a pattern is produced which may be used to control the machine for automatic operation and for producing repeated bending operations on other tube stock which are exactly identical to the manual operations so recorded on the pattern.

Economic considerations dictate that a tube bending machine, not designed Afor use in a production line in industry, require that the machine be manually controllable thereby providing a larger number of possible bends which might lbe required in a particular job and that the machine be capable of automatic operation for bending a number of tube stock at the same locations. To satisfy such considerations a pattern assembly -is provided which is keyed into the manual controls for automatically recording or cutting a pattern as the manual controls are operated to perform bending operations of the tube stock 'being fed through the movable bending head assembly of the machine.

An additional specific object of this invention Iis the provision of Ian improved bending machine readily adaptable to various tube stock of differing ydiameters and/or cross-sectional configurations, and provided with variable controls for regulating the rate of tube stock feed, the

3,388,573 Patented June 18, 1968 "ice bending pressures and the heat intensity to accommodate tube stock having various physical characteristics.

Other objects of the invention accordingly, are to provide a simple machine and a simple method for ben-ding tube stock and lthe like. The novel features which are believed to be characterlstic of this invention are set for-th with particularity in the appended claims. The invention itself, however, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in `connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIG. 1 is a right side elevational view yof the -tube bending machine in accordance with the invention, the hydraulic connections 'being shown by broken lines;

FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the machine of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional View taken .along line 4 4 of FIG. l;

FIG. 5 is a horizontal sectional view taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is an enlarged frontal view of the automatic control system, including a cam actuator and valve assemblies, for operating the machine of FIG. 1, valve assemblies being shown partially in section;

FIG. 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken along line 7--7 of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is an enlarged vertical sectional view taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 9 is an enlarged horizontal sectional view taken along line 9 9 of FIG. l;

FIG. 10 is an end elevational view of the movable head assembly of the machine of FIG. 1;

FIG. 11 is a sectional View of the `horizonally movable block portion of the movable head assembly of FIG. 10;

FIG. l2 is a frontal view of a manual control system for operating the machine of FIG. 1, similar to the .automatic control system shown in FIG. 6, and a cam cutting assembly attached to such manual control system;

FIG. 13 is a top plan view of the manual control system of FIG. l2, one ofthe handles being broken away for clarity;

FIG. 14 is a horizontal sectional view of the cam cutting assembly taken along line 14-14 of FIG. 12;

FIG. 15 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 15-15 of FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is a vertical sectional view taken along line 16-16 of FIG. l2;

FIG. 17 is a perspective view of the heat induction assembly illustrated in FIG. 9;

FIG. 18 is a yfirst alternate construction of the roller blocks for use with rectangular shaped tube stock;

FIG. 19 is a second alternate construction of a block for use with triangular shaped tube stock;

FIG. 2O is a third alternate construction of a block for use with square shaped tube stock;

FIG. 21 is a fourth alternate construction of a block for use with round tube stock; and

FIG. 22 is a schematic representation of the hydraulic fluid system and the electrical system for the tube bending machine of the invention.

Referring to FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 4, the tube bending machine has a supporting frame shown generally at F, the components of which may take any suitable form known in the art for the accommodation of the particular assembly to which the principles of the invention may be applicable.

Arranged on the frame F is an elongated worm screw or auger shaft 20 journalled in thrust bearings at 21 and 22 in a position such that the axis of shaft extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tube bending machine. A tail stock support 23 is selectively keyed to shaft 20 -by manually controlled connecting means 24, and support 23 carries an adjustable chuck or clamping means 25 for gripping the work or tube stock 26 adjacent its end portion 27. It is understood that the tube stock may be gripped at any desired location along its length by manually working of chuck 25. The lower end 28 of tail stock support 23 is slidingly disposed within a channel 29 corresponding in shape to the cross-sectional shape of support end portion 28, as depicted in FIG. 3.

A suitable source of electrical power is connected to the machine and controlled by switch 30 which powers a motor 31, as seen in FIG. 22, which is controlled by a rheostat 32 for selective adjustment of the speed of motor 31. Through suitable gearing, described more fully in connection with FIGS. 4 and 5, shaft 20 is rotated to move tail stock support 23 from its rearward position shown in FIG. 1 forwardly toward bending head assembly 35, described more fully in connection with FIGS. 8 and 9, thereby advancing tube stock 26 therethrough. Also connected to the source of electrical energy is a variable transformer 36 which in turn is in circuit with an induction heating element 37 disposed within bending head assembly beneath removable cover plate 38. A pump 39 is suitably coupled with the motor 31 for providing pressurized uid, regulated by pressure regulator 40, through valves 41 and 42 which respectively control fluid cylinders, in the 'form of hydraulic cylinders 43 and 44. A uid reservoir 45 completes the components of the hydraulic system which are appropriately connected by a multiplicity of lines collectively designated at 46. Considering again the electrical system, a micro-switch 47, connected to frame F adjacent bending head assembly 35, is engaged and activated by stop 48, attached to tail stock support 23, for disabling the motor 31 upon the full advance of the tail stock 23. Thereafter tube stock 26 is released from chuck 25 and support 23 is released from shaft 20 by disengaging the connecting means 24 therefrom to permit tail stock 23 to be moved rearwardly into its rearmost position, as indicated in FIG. 1. The operation of the machine will be more fully understood after a detailed explanation of the bending head assembly (as seen in FIGS. 8 through l0) and the other various systems and components of this machine.

The bending head assembly 35 is best shown in FIGS. 8 and 9 wherein the assembly includes an elongated housing mounted on frame F and having a passageway 51 extending longitudinally therethrough in alignment with the hollow of clamp 25 and in parallel with auger shaft 20. An elongated sleeve or tube guide 52, having a predetermined cross-sectional shaped opening or passage 53 extending therethrough, is removably attached by bolts 54 `to the rearward end 55 of housing 50. The rearward end portion 56 of the sleeve 52 is flared outwardly to assure easy access thereinto by the tube stock 26. Adjacent the forward end portion 57 of sleeve 52, a cavity 58 is formed within housing 50 which communicates with sleeve passage 53. An induction coil element 37 is disposed within cavity 58 through which tube stock 26 extends, the tube stock also extending within passage 53 of sleeve 52. The tolerance between tube stock 26 and sleeve passage 53 is maintained small to prevent any undesired deformation of such tube stock as tail stock support 23 forces tube stock 26 forwardly through the tube bending head assembly 35. The induction heating assembly is clearly illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 17 and includes a mounting plate 38 which is removably mounted to head assembly 35 by bolts 136 passing through appropriate openings 137 in plate 38. The induction coil element 37 is supported on insulating block 139 by rigid connectors 140 which are embedded within block 139 and a female plug 141 is also embedded within block 13 9 which is mated to male plug 142 for connecting the induction heating element 37 to transformer 36 and as depicted in FIG. 22. The induction coil element 37 may be operated at line frequency of 60 c.p.s. for preheating the tube stock 26 before bending thereof, although higher frequencies may be used and/or required depending on the material composition of the tube stock. It is understood in bending many different types of tubes heating is not absolutely necessary. A venting passageway 59 extends through support 80 and into housing S0 for communication with cavity 58 in which induction heating element 37 is disposed. Vents 67 are provided through cover plate 38 permit the circulation of air therethrough, into cavity 58 and out through passageway 59 thereby preventing overheating of the tube stock 26 as well as maintaining the other components of the machine within acceptable temperature ranges. Induction heating of the tube stock is preferred because of the skin effect or localization of the heating adjacent lthe surface of the tube stock thereby allowing the tube stock inwardly of the surface to function as a self-supporting core to inhibit distortion during the bending operations on the tube stock.

The front face 6d of stationary housing 56 has a rearwardly extending depression 61 therein for the reception thereinto of a stationary roller block 62 removably attached thereto by bolts 63. The roller block 62 comprises an open frame or base 64 and plurality of rollers 65 are mounted for rotation on base 64 around tube stock 26 which extends between such rollers 65. In the specific embodiment shown herein wherein tube stock. 26 has a round cross-sectional shape, the rollers 65 have an arcuately formed surface which contacts and conforms to a portion of the outer surface of the tube 26. There are preferably four rollers 65 equally spaced around tube stock 26 for closely engaging and maintaining the tube stock in its proper position as such stock is being fed through the bending head assembly 35 and forwardly of stationary roller Iblock 62. The construction of the roller block 62 will be more fully understood hereinafter with the full description of the movable roller block as depicted in FIGS. 10 and l1.

The movable head assembly is disposed forwardly of face 60 of housing 50 and is connected thereto by a pair of T-shaped male guide .members 76 extending vertically and forwardly of front face 60, members 76 being nestn ingly disposed within correspondingly shaped female vertical channels 77 in movable housing 75. A double acting hydraulic cylinder 44 is attached by support 80 to stationary housing 5G and its piston 81 is removably connected to movable housing 75 by bolts 82. In response to pressure within the upper portion of cylinder 44, pist0n 81 extends downwardly to forcibly urge housing 75 vertically downwardly along its channels 77 which are mated within and guided by T-shaped members 76. Upon pressure in the lower portion of hydraulic cylinder 44 the piston 81 is retracted upwardly to move housing 75 upwardly to the selected position determined by control of valve 42.

Another roller block 70 is removably mounted within a receess 85 within housing 75, and a pair of elongated plates 86 and 87 are attached to housing 75 by bolts 88, plates 86 and 87 engaging frame 89 or roller block 70 respectively above and `below the tube passage 9d between the rollers collectively designated by 91.

An elongated guideway is formed within housing 75, recess 85 constituting the rear face or wall of guideway 95 and plate members 86 and 87 constituting the forward face of such guideway. The roller block 70 is mounted for horizontal movement through guideway 95 as best seen in FIGS. 9 and l0. The movement of roller block 70 is determined by double action hydraulic cylinder 43 mounted on and movable with housing 75 by bolts 97, and the piston rod 98 extends through a horizontally extending opening 99 within housing 75. The forward end 100 of piston rod 98 is removably connected to roller block 70 by bolts 101.

During the tube bending operation as the tube stock 26 is forcibly moved forwardly of roller block 62 and through roller block 70, the roller block 70 is positioned in the desired Vertical position by actuation of piston and rod 44, 81 and moved to its desired horizontal position by actuation of piston and rod 43, 98 which will be hereinafter more fully described in connection with FIGS. 6, 7, 12 and 16. Upon movement of the movable roller block '70 to its desired location with its opening therethrough oifset from the longitudinal axis of the tube stock and offset from at least one ofthe axes of movement of the roller block to effect bending of the tube stock as it is passed therethrough, the bending forces exerted on the tube stock by the movable roller block 70 is generally equal and opposite to the counter forces extered by the stationary roller block 62 on the tube stock with the bending forces being generally uniformly distributed along the arc of the bend of the tube stock in the free space between the movable roller block and the stationary roller block.

The construction of the roller block 7i) is best understood by consideration of FIG. 11 in which a rectangular frame or base 89 is provided with a plurality of slots 11i) equally spaced each from the next around a central opening 111 extending through 'base 89. Bores 112 and 113 extend through base 89 between its vertical side edges 114 and 115. Spaced cross-bores 116 and 117 are provided between the upper edge 118i and the lower edge 119 of base 89, bores 116 and 117 intersecting bores 112 and 113 within base S9. Rollers 120 and 121 are positioned within their respective cavities 110 and short shafts 122 and 123 are inserted through respective bores 112 and 113 to the positions indicated in FIG. 1l, shafts 122 and 123 extending through respective rollers 120 and 121 thereby rotatably mounting the rollers to base S9. Thereafter, rollers 125 and 126 are positioned within their respective cavities 110 and elongated shafts 127 and 128 are positioned within respective bores 116 and 117 for rotatably mounting respective rollers 125 and 126 to base 89. Shafts 127 and 128 are maintained in their respective positions in passageways 116 and 117 by the use of ush plugs or Allen screws 130, and the short shafts 122 and 123 terminate inwardly of bores 116 and 117 and are maintained in the respective bores 112 and 113 by the respective shafts 127 and 128 within bores 116 and 117.

The distance between rollers 120 and 121 and between rollers 125 and 126 is such as to provide sufficient clearances for the tube stock to be bent by movement of such roller block 70. For example, if the outside diameter of the tube stock is to be two inches, the distance between the rollers in the stationary block 62 is merely two inches plus a small amount of working clearance for such tube stock, it being understood that such tube stock Ivaries slightly in the irregular outer surfaces and the like. However, the distance between the rollers in the movable block 70 is approximately two and one-halfl inches and the distance between the plane defined by axes of the rollers on the stationary block 62 and the plane defined by axes of the rollers on the movable block 70 is about two and one-half inches, to permit sufficient clearances for the arcs or bends of the tube caused by the displacement of the movable block 70 in both the vertical and horizontal directions. When bending tube stock of approximately one inch, the distance between the rollers of the movable block would be about one and one-fourth inches whereas the distance between the rollers of the stationary block would be approximately one inch plus clearance.

Rollers 120, 121, 125 and 126 each have a shape of an hourglass configuration with the inwardly concaved outer surface of each of the rollers being located closely adjacent the outer circumference of the tube stock passing between the equally spaced rollers. The rollers in the stationary .block 62 contact the tube at two, three, or all four of the rollers mounted therein, whereas the rollers in movable roller block may contact the tube at one, two, three or all four points of `Contact with all the rollers 91. While the tube stock is being passed through the movable roller block 70 with roller block 7i) in alignment with roller block 62, as shown in FIGS. 8, 9, 10 and 1l, none of the rollers 91 of movable roller block 70 contact the straight tube stock 26. When roller block 70 is moved horizontally causing tube stock 26 to be bent in a uniform arc the horizontal direction either left or right as viewed in FIGS. 10 and l1, tube stock 26 will normally contact rollers 125 and 126 during such bending of the tube stock as it is being fed therethrough. Similarly when roller block 70 is moved vertically tube stock 26 will bend in the vertical direction either up or down and the tube stock 26 will contact rollers 126 and 121. If the roller block 7i) is displaced in both the horizontal and vertical directions, al1 four of the rollers 121), 121, 125 and 126 in roller block '70 will normally be in contact with the tube stock 26. For bends of tube stock wherein the included angle of the bent stock is less than 180, the tube stock may only, for example, contact roller 121.

The provision of rollers substantially about the openings in the roller block through which the tube stock passes, thereby substantially encasing about of the tube stock circumference, provides support for the tube stock whether the bend is a simple one, i.e., along either of the horizontal and vertical axes, or a complex one i.e., offset from both the horizontal and vertical axes, and/ or a large bend of about Such support of the tube stock, particularly during the bending of the tube stock about an arc of 90, substantially prevents inadvertent kinking and/or distortion of the tube stock during such bending operations.

In FIGS. 18 through 21 other constructions of the roller blocks for various cross-sectional shapes or tube stock to be fed through the tube bending machine are depicted. For rectangular shaped tube stock a pair of elongated cylindrical rollers 151 and 152 are oppositely disposed within the roller block 153 for engagement with the upper and lower surfaces of rectangular tube stock 150, and short cylindrical rollers 154 and 155 are mounted in roller block 153 for engagement with the side surfaces of tube stock 150. Tube stock having a equilateral triangular cross-section is engaged by a plurality of spaced cylindrical rollers 161 mounted in roller block 162 in a generally triangular configuration to engage respective surfaces of tube stock 160, as shown in FIG. 19. The tube stock 165 has a square ycross-sectional shape and plurality of cylindrically shaped rollers 166 are mounted in spaced locations in roller block 167 such that rollers 166 engage respective surfaces of such tube stock 165, as illustrated in FIG. 20. In FIG. 2l an alternate embodiment of the roller block 170 for handling round tube stock 171 is depicted wherein the rollers, rather than rollers 91 as illustrated in FIG. l0, now comprise a plurality of balls 172 suitably -mounted in a ball bearing race 173 around such tubular stock 171. The constructional etails of the various roller blocks illustrated in FIGS. 18, 19, 20 and 2l may be determined by consideration of the constructional details of roller block 70 in FIG. 11 as well as other common practices in the art. These alternate roller blocks may be selected and easily mounted in the tube bending head 35 by removal of bolts 82 and disconnecting movable head 75 from housing 50, removing bolts 63 to remove stationary roller block 62. Also, the movable roller block 70 may be removed by removal of bolts S8 and plates S6 and 87. Thereafter any selected alternate roller blocks of various constructions, as shown in FIGS. 1l, and 18-21, may be mounted in the tube bending machine, and it is understood that other roller blocks having different sizes of openings between the rollers for the reception therein of Various sizes of tube stock, may be selected and mounted on the machine as desired. In this connection, the sleeve 52 would also be replaced by removal of bolts 54, and a sleeve having a passageway generally corresponding to the cross-sectional size and conguration of the tube stock will be attached to the machine for proper operation thereof.

Shaft which advances tail stock support 23 forwardly toward tube bending head 35 is connected to a spur gear 180 driven by spur gear 181 which is in turn meshed with spur gear 182 and ultimately driven by spur gear 183 attached to motor shaft 184 as seen in FIGS. 4 and 5. A movable bevel gear 185 is slidingly connected onto shaft 184 by splines 186 and a shift lever' 187 is operable to control the position of bevel gear 184 to locate same in mesh with bevel gear 188 or to disengage bevel gear 18S from bevel gear 188 as shown in FIG. 5. Shift lever 187 has a bifurcated upper end portion 189 engaged with spur gear 185, lever 187 permitting rotation of bevel gear 185 upon rotation of shaft 134 by motor 31. One end of lever 190 is pivotally attached to the lower end of lever 187, lever 187 being pivotally connected to the frame by pivot means 191 intermediate the ends thereof. The other end of lever 190 is connected to another lever 192 which passes through the frame F which is connected to an operating handle 193 which is pivotally attached to the frame F at 194. In the position shown in FIG. 1, handle 193 locates bevel gear 185 in its position shown in FIG. 5, i.e., the machine is in condition for manual operation which is to be described more fully in connection with FIG. l2. Upon movement of the handle counterclockwise into its automatic operation, the bevel gear 18S is meshed with bevel gear 188 to drive spur gear 200 which is attached to shaft 201; shaft 201, spur gear 200 and bevel gear 188 being connected for simultaneous rotation thereof. Meshed with spur gear 200 is another spur gear 202 which is connected to the end of shaft 203 journalled at 204, shaft 203 extends through an opening in the frame F and terminates in a cam mounting shaft end portion 204, as illustrated in FIG. 6.

An idling spur gear 206 is in mesh with spur gear 202 and is also meshed with spur gear 207 for rotating gear 207 is connected to shaft 208 which is journalled to frame F at 209 and extends through an opening in frame F which thereafter terminates in a cam blank mounting end portion 210, as shown in FIGS. l, 4, 12 and 14-16.

When bevel gear 185 is meshed with bevel gear 188, power is transmitted through the gear train including gears 200, 202, 206 and 207 thereby rotating shafts 203 and 208, such shafts rotating when the operating handle 192 is in its automatic position. When lever 193 is in the manual position, as for example when the machine is to be manually controlled by the manual control system 215 in FIG. 12, without the cam cutting assembly 220, neither of the shafts 203 and 208 rotate since bevel gear 185 is not meshed with bevel gear 188.

The automatic control and operation of the tube bending machine may best be understood by consideration of FIGS. 6 and 7 together with FIGS. l, 8 and 9. The cam control system 225 includes a mounting plate 226 attached to the lframe F on spaced lugs 227 and nuts 228, lugs 227 extending outward from frame F and are preferably spaced around cam mounting end portion 205 of shaft 203. Cam 230 is connected for rotation with cam shaft end portion 205 by a nut 232. The shaft 205 has a at 231 thereon and the cam 230 has a circular opening therethrough with a correspondingly Hat wall defining the opening to appropriately position and key the cam 203 to shaft end portion 205. Likewise the shaft 205 is shown as being in its proper orientation for starting the tube bending machine into operation, i.e., the flat is positioned parallel to the axis of the tube stock 26. It is understood that other appropriate and common indicating means for properly positioning and orienting the cam and shaft at the beginning of any particular cycle may be provided on the tube bending machine.

The valves 41 and 42 are respectively mounted on plates 235 and 236, plates 235 and 236 being selectively located and maintained in such selected locations by respective bolts 237 and 238 passing through elongated slots 239 and 240 Within plates 235 and 236 for attachment to the frame F. The valve 41 includes a valve body 245 in which a reciprocable cam following member 246 is mounted, member 246 having a plurality of lands 247, 248 and 249 within housing 245, such cam follower member being spring-loaded by compression spring 250 within housing 245 between the end wall 251 and 247 to yieldingly urge cam following member 246 toward and into Contact with cam 230 at its cam following end portion 252. Prcssurized fluid from pump 39, after passage through pressure regulator 40, is supplied to the valve 41 by line 253, return lines 254 and 255 being connected to the valve 41 for returning uid to the reservoir 45. Flexible lines 256 and 257 are respectively connected to the upper portion 258 above the piston and the lower portion 259 below the piston of the hydraulic cylinder 43. Similarly lines 260 and 261 are respectively connected to the lower portion 262 below the piston and the upper portion 263 above the piston of the hydraulic cylinder 44, such lines also being connected to the housing 265 of valve 42. Valve 42 comprises a reciprocable cam following member 266 having a cam engaging end portion 267 at one end thereof and a plurality of lands 268 and 269 and 270 disposed within housing 265, and cam following member 266 is yieldingly yurged into engagement with cam 230 by compression spring 271 within housing 265. Hydraulic pressurized fluid from pump 39 through pressure regulator 40 is supplied to valve 42 through pressure line 272 while return fluid passes through lines 273 and 274 into reservoir 45.

In the tube bending machine illustrated and described herein cam 230 controls both the vertical displacement of hydraulic cylinder 44 and the horizontal displacement of hydraulic cylinder 43 during 180 degrees of its rotation. The various bending operations are pre-recorded on the cam 230 by appropriate lands and valleys to control the positions of cam followers 246 and 266 thereby controlling valves 41 and 42 for appropriately moving movable head assembly 75 to cause a predetermined length of tube stock 26 to be accordingly bent at proper locations throughout its length. However, it is understood that a pair of individual cams or cam surfaces may be provided for 360 degree rotation of the cam if desired. The pair of cams or a cam having a pair of cam surfaces around the circumference thereof would permit the tube bending machine described herein to be converted into a continuous feed type tube bending machine including a plurality of pressure force feed rollers appropriately driven from a power source, for example, from motor 31, such. force feed rollers withdrawing tube stock from around a free turning reel or spool mounted onto the frame F of the machine for forcibly passing such tube stock through the tube bending head assembly. In such an arrangement a continuous cam surface 360 degrees for each of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic pistons would permit the tube to continuously feed and bend appropriately tube stock from a reel without, for example, moving the tail stock back after completing the bending operation of the machine, as shown in FIG. l, and inserting another length of tube stock into the machine in the appropriate location and clamped to the tail stock support 23 before the machine may again be operated.

Cam 230 is provided with the usual lands and valleys to control the relative inward and outward positions of cam followers 246 and 266 which in turn control the uid dow through valves 41 and 42 thereby controlling the locations of pistons of hydraulic cylinders 43 and 44. When the tube bending machine is operated by cam 230, the manual operating handle 193 is in its automatic position which. causes bevel gear to mesh with bevel gear 188 thereby rotating shaft 203 and shaft end portion 205. When the machine is to be manually operated, the operating handle 193 is pivoted into its manual operative position shown in FIG. 1, and the manual control system 215, as shown in FIG. 12, is operatively positioned on frame F.

Manual control system 215 comprises a mounting plate 280 attached to outstanding lugs 227 mounted to frame F, and nuts 128 are releasably secured to lugs 227 for maintaining frame 280 in its operative position. A guide block 281 extends outwardly from and is affixed to plate 280, guide block 281 including a pair of guideways 282 and 283 disposed adjacent respective vertical extending side surfaces 284 and 285 thereof. A pair of wedge shaped cam members 286 and 287 are mounted in respective guideways 282 and 283 for limited sliding movement thereof, the sliding movement of cam members 286 and 287 being effected by movement of manual operating handles 288 and 289 pivotally attached at 290 and 291 to mounting plate 280, and operating levers 292 and 293 are respectively attached between operating handle 288 and wedge member 286 and operating handle 289 and wedge member 287. Wedge members 286 and 287 include operative camming surfaces 294 and 295 which respectively engage cam followers 246 and 266, previously described in connection with FIG. 6, for controlling valves 41 and 42 thereby controlling the position of the pistons of hydraulic cylinders 43 and 44. In operation of the manual control handles 288 and 289, the tube stock 26 is being fed to the tube bending head assembly 35 and the movable head assembly 75 is properly oriented in the vertical direction by movement of control handle 289 and the movable block 70 is properly oriented in its horizontal position by movement of operating handle 288. Attached to and pivoted with each of operating handles 288 and 289 is an integrally mounted indicator 296 and 297 which register with appropriate indicia 298 and 299 on plate 280 so that the operator of the machine may vary the positions of wedge members 286 and 287 a predetermined selected amount by viewing the positions of the indicators 296 and 297 with respect to the appropriate indicia 298 and 299. It is to be understood that levers 292 and 293 are connected by pivot means to each of handles 288 and 289 and to each of wedge members 286 and 287.

When it is desired to cut or grind a cam from a cam blank 300 during the manual operation of manual control assembly 215, a cam cutting assembly 220 is positioned with its mounting plate 301 attached to lugs 302 outstanding from frame F by nuts 303, as shown in FIG. l2. The cam cutting assembly 220 is depicted in FIGS. l2, 14 and 15 and comprises a spacer and bushing support 305 for cam 300 which surrounds shaft end portion 210 and positions cam 300 in its proper planar location with respect to grinding wheels 306 and 307 on the ends of shafts 308 and 309 of cutting motors 310 and 311. Cam 300 is properly oriented on flattened shaft end portion 210 and mounted `for rotation therewith by nut 312 similarly to the constructional details specified above in the description of FIG. 6.

A pair of guide members 315 and 316 are mounted to plate 301 and respective wedge camming members 317 and 318 are slidingly disposed within guideways 319 and 320 in substantially the same manner that wedge members 286 and 287 are disposed in guideways 282 and 283 of member 281. Wedge members 317 and 318 are provided with camming surfaces 321 and 322 on which cam followers 323 and 324 yieldingly bear. Cam follower 323 is mounted for sliding movement by an elongated slot 325 therein, and a stationary pin 326 extends through slot 325 and in connected to plate 301, it being understood that cam follower 324 is similarly mounted. End portion 327 of cam follower 323 opposite cam bearing end portion 328 is connected to shaft 308 to move the shaft 308 inwardly or outwardly with respect to cam 300 limited in movement by the slot 325 and guiding pin 326. Shaft 308 is journalled within end portion 327 of cam follower 323, cam follower 323 being spring-loaded for maintaining end portion 328 bearingly against cam surface 321 by springs 330 acting on motor mounting portions 331 which movably suspend motor 310 to plate 301. As more clear- 1y illustrated in FIG. 15, motor 311 is shown as being movably suspended within socket members 335 and 336 which are attached by welding to plate 301. Motor mounting portions 337 and 338 tit and are slidingly disposed within the elongated sockets 339 and 340. Upon movement of wedge members 317 and 318 downwardly cam followers 323 and 324 move outwardly with respect to cam blank 300 thereby causing grinding heads 306 and 307 to remove a portion of the cam blank 300. When cam members 317 and 318 move upwardly to force cam followers 323 and 324 inwardly with respect to cam blank 300, grinding wheels 306 and 307 take a greater cut or remove more material from cam blank 300.

The upper ends of rods 345 and 346 are releasably connected to cam members 286 and 287 by pivot means 327 and 328 and the lower end of levers 345 and 346 are pivotally connected to cam members 317 and 318 thereby providing movement of cam member 317 upon movement of cam member 286 as well as movement of cam member 318 when cam member 287 is moved. It may be seen that when it is desired to displace cam follower 246 a greater amount by moving cam member 286 downwardly, this downward movement is translated into downward movement of cam member 317 so that grinding wheel 306 is moved outwardly with respect to cam blank 300 to remove less material therefrom. In other words when lands are desired on cam blank 300 cam members 286 and 287 are moved downwardly and when valleys are desired to be cut on cam blank 300 cam members 286 and 287 are moved upwardly to properly position cam members 317 and 318.

A switch 350 is provided on plate 301 which appropriately connects motors 310 and 311 to the source of electrical energy as shown in FIG. 22.

The cam blank 300 is properly oriented on the ilatened end portion 210 of the shaft 208 so that the cam blank begins to be ground upon the start of an appropriate cycle with the tail stock support 23 of the machine in its rearward position as shown in FIG. 1. While the tube stock 26 is being forced fed through the tube bending head assembly 35 the manual controls 288 and 289 are moved by the operator and a pattern is cut simultaneously by the cam cutting apparatus 220. It is to be noted that when a cam is to be cut with the cam cutting assembly 220, the tube bending machine is placed in automatic operation so u that shaft 208 and cam blank 300 is rotated.

While only a certain preferred embodiment of this invention has been shown and described by way of illustration, many modifications 'will occur to those skilled in the art and it is, therefore, desired that it be understood that it is intended in the appended claims to cover all such modifications as fall Within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

What is claimed as new and what it is desired to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. A tube bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a sleeve member mounted in said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough for the reception therein of the tube stock, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing having an opening therethrough in alignment with said passageway and communicating therewith for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a roller block connected to said movable housing and having an opening therethrough in alignment with said opening in said stationary roller block and said passageway, means for moving said movable housing to selected positions whereby tube stock passing therethrough is bent, and means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said opening in said stationary roller block and out through said opening in said roller block attached to said movable housing.

2. The tube bending machine as defined in claim 1 wherein said stationary housing includes a cavity disposed between said stationary roller block and said sleeve which communicates with said passageway and said opening in said stationary roller block, and induction heating means in said cavity for heating the tube stock after said tube stock exits from said passageway and prior to the tube stock advancing through said opening in said stationary roller block.

3. A tube bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, an elongated sleeve connected to said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough conforming in size and crosssectional shape to the tube stock to be fed therethrough, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing and having a plurality of rollers therein defining an opening conforming in size and cross-sectional shape to the tube stock, said stationary roller block opening being in alignment and communicating with said passageway for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block mounted for movement in said movable housing and having a plurality of rollers therein defining an opening conforming in cross-sectional shape to the tube stock, said movable roller block opening being larger than said stationary roller block for receiving the tube stock therethrough, means for moving said movable housing and said roller block for positioning same into selected positions whereby the tube stock passing therethrough is bent, and means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said openings 1in said stationary roller block and said movable roller bloc 4. An automatic tube bending machine for Ibending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a sleeve member mounted in said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough for the reception therein of the tube stock, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing having an opening therethrough in alignment with said passageway and communicating therewith for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block connected to said movable housing and having an opening therethrough communicating with said opening in said stationary roller block, means for moving said movable housing in one direction laterally of the tube stock and for moving said movable roller block in another direction generally perpendicular to said one direction to locate said opening in said movable roller block in positions offset from an axis extending through said opening in said stationary roller block and said passageway whereby tube stock passing therethrough is bent, means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said opening in said stationary roller block and out through said opening in said movable roller yblock attached to said movable housing, and automatic means for controlling said means for moving said movable housing and said movable roller block.

5. The automatic tube bending machine as defined in claim 4 wherein said stationary housing includes a cavity disposed between said stationary roller block and said sleeve which communicates with said passageway and said opening in said stationary roller block, and induction heating means in said cavity for heating the tube stock after said tube stock exists from said passageway and prior to the tube stock advancing through said opening in said stationary roller block.

6. .A tube bending machine for bending tu-be stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, an elongated CFI sleeve connected to said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough conforming in size and crosssectional shape to the tube stock to be fed therethrough, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing forwardly of said sleeve and having a plurality of rollers therein defining an opening conforming in size and cross-sectional shape to the tube stock, said opening in said stationary roller block being in alignment and communicating with said passageway for receiving the tube stock from said passageway and through its said opening, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing forwardly of and adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block mounted for movement in said movable housing and having a plurality of rollers therein defining an opening comforming in cross-sectional shape to the tube stock, said opening in said movable roller block. being larger than said opening in said stationary roller block for receiving the tube stock. therethrough thereby permitting movement of said movable housing and roller block, means connected to said movable housing for moving said movable housing into selected positions in one direction. laterally of the tube stock, means connected to said movable roller block for moving same into selected positions in another direction laterally of the tube stock, and means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said opening in said stationary roller block and said movable roller block whereby tube stock passing therethrough is bent when said movable housing and movable roller block are appropriately located in certain of said selected positions thereof,

7. An automatic tube bending machine for bending elongated tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and movable housing, a sleeve member mounted in said stationary housing and having a passageway extending along the longitudinal axis of the tube stock for the reception into one of its ends of the tube stock and for discharging the tube stock at its other end, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing adjacent said passageway other end and having an opening therethrough in alignment and communicating with said passageway other end for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block connected to said movable housing at a location spaced from said stationary roller block along the longitudinal axis and having an opening therethrough communicating with said stationary roller block opening, means connected to said movable housing for moving said movable housing in one direction laterally of the longitudinal axis, means connected to Said movable roller block. for moving said movable roller block in another direction generally perpendicular to said one direction to locate said movable roller block opening in positions offset from the longitudinal axis of the tube stock which extends through said passageway and stationary roller block opening whereby tube stock passing through said movable roller block opening is bent upon appropriate locations in certain of said positions, means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said stationary roller block opening and out through said movable roller block opening, and automatic means connected to each and for controlling each of said means for moving said movable housing and said means for moving said movable roller block.

8. A tube bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a removable sleeve member having a passageway substantially conforming in cross-sectional size and shape t0 the tube stock to be passed therethrough for the reception therein of the tube stock of a predetermined cross-sectional size and shape, detachable means for readily removably connecting said sleeve to said stationary housing, a stationary roller block having a plurality of spaced rollers therein defining an opening therethrough conforming generally in size and shape to the predetermined cross-sectional size and shape of the tube stock and in alignment and communicating with said passageway for receiving the tube stock therethrough, detachable means for readily removably connecting said stationary roller block to said stationary housing, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block having a plurality of spaced rollers therein defining an opening therethrough conforming in shape to the predetermined cross-sectional shape of the tube stock and in siZe being larger than said stationary roller block opening and said sleeve passageway and said pretedermined cross-sectional size of the tube stock and being located in alignment with said stationary roller block opening and passageway, detachable means for readily removably connecting said movable roller block to said movable housing, means for moving said movable housing and said movable roller block to selected positions whereby tube stock passing through said movable roller block opening is bent, and means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway `and through said stationary roller block opening and out through said movable roller block opening, each of said sleeve stationary roller block and movable roller block being adapted and arranged to be replaced by correspondingly like components determined by the cross-sectional size and shape of the tube stock to be bent by the machine hereof.

9. An automatic tube bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a sleeve member mounted in said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough for the reception therein of the tube stock, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing having an opening therethrough in alignment with said passageway and communicating therewith for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block connected to said movable housing and having an opening therethrough communicating with said stationary roller block opening, a first fluid means for moving said movable housing in one direction laterally of the tube stock, a second fiuid means for moving said movable roller block in another direction generally perpendicular to said one direction, each said fluid means cooperating with the other to 1ocate said movable roller block opening in positions offset from an axis extending through said stationary roller block opening and said passageway whereby tube stock passing through said movable roller block opening is bent when said movable roller block opening is located in certain of said positions offset from said axis, means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said stationary roller block opening and ont through said movable roller block opening attached to said movable housing, and automatic means for controlling each of said fluid means for moving said movable housing and movable roller block.

10. The automatic tube bending machine as defined in claim 9 wherein said automatic means comprises a preshaped cam having lands and valleys and rotating at a rate dependent on the feeding rate of the tube stock, a first and second valve respectively connected to said first and second fiuid means for controlling same, and a first and second cam follower operatively associated with said cam for operating respective said first and second valve in response to said lands and valleys of said cam.

11. A tube bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a sleeve member mounted in said stationary housing and having a passageway therethrough for the reception therein of the tube stock, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing having an opening therethrough in alignment with said passageway and communicating therewith for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block connected to said movable housing and having an opening therethrough in alignment with said opening in said stationary roller block and said passageway, manually controlled means for selectively moving said movable housing and said movable roller block to selected positions whereby tube stock passing therethrough is bent, said manually controlled means including a first and second reciprocating fluid cylinder respectively connected to said movable housing and said movable roller block, a first and second valve respectively associated with said first and second cylinders for controlling the fluid pressure thereto thereby controlling the position of said movable housing and said movable roller block, manual means for independently operating said first and second valve, and means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said sleeve passageway and through said opening in said stationary roller block and out through said opening in said roller block attached to said movable housing.

12. The tube bending machine as defined in claim 11 wherein said manual means for independently operating said first and second valve includes a rst and second cam follower respectively operating respective said first and second valve, a first and second `cam member for engagement by respective said first and second cam follower, and a first and second handle attached to respective said first and second cam member to control the movement thereof thereby controlling the operative movement of said first and second cam follower.

13. The tube bending machine as defined in claim l2 further comprising a rotating stub shaft rotating at a rate dependent on the feeding rate of the tube stock, a blank cam mounted for rotation with said stub shaft, a cam cutting assembly for simultaneously cutting the blank cam into a pattern cam having lands and valleys during manipulation of said first and second handle, said cam cutting assembly including a rst and second movable cam cutter engaged with the blank cam and mounted for movement inwardly and outwardly with respect to the blank cam, said first and second cam cutter being responsive to movement of said first and second handle thereby recording the selected positions of said first and second handle and the positions of said first and second cam followers on the blank cam.

14. The tube bending machine as defined in claim 12 further comprising a stub shaft rotating at a rate dependent on the feeding rate of the tube stock through the bending head assembly, a blank cam mounted for rotation with said stub shaft, a cam cutting assembly for simultaneously cutting the blank cam into a pattern cam having lands and valleys during manipulation of said first and second handle, said cam cutting assembly including a first and second moveable `cam cutter engaged with the blank cam and mounted for movement inwardly and outwardly with respect to the blank cam, a third and fourth cam follower respectively mounted to said first and second cam cutter, a third and fourth cam member connected to said first and second cam cutter, connecting means for connecting said third and fourth cam member to respective said first and second cam member for movement therewith whereby the movement of said first and second cam member which control said first and second cam follower are translated through said connecting means to said third and fourth cam member and through said third and fourth cam follower into respective said first and second cam cutter, said first and second cam cutter being adapted to record the positions of l said first and second cam member onto the blank cam by cutting lands and valleys therefrom.

15. A selectively manual and automatic bending machine for bending tube stock and the like comprising a bending head assembly including a stationary housing and a movable housing, a stationary roller block mounted to said stationary housing having an opening therethrough for receiving the tube stock therethrough, attaching means for connecting said movable housing to said stationary housing adjacent said stationary roller block, a movable roller block connected to said movable housing and having an opening therethrough in alignment with said opening in said stationary roller block, means for moving said movable housing and for moving said movable roller block to selected positions to dispose its said opening in selected positions offset from its aligned position with said stationary roller block opening, said means being selectively manually controllable and automatically controllable and including a first and second reciprocating fluid cylinder connected to respective said movable housand said movable roller block, a rst and second valve associated with respective said first and second fiuid cylinder for controlling the reciprocation of said cylinders, a first and second cam follower connected to respective said first and second valve for controlling the operations thereof, first and second cam means contacting and moving respective said cam followers for operating same, means for forcibly feeding the tube stock through said opening in said stationary roller block and out through said opening in said movable roller block, said first and second cam means being adapted for manual movement independent of the feeding rate of the tube stock and for automatic movement dependent on the feeding rate of the tube stock.

16. The method of bending elongated tube stock and the like comprising forcibly feeding the tube stock along its longitudinal axis through a closely fitting sleeve member, inductively heating the tube stock as it is exiting from the sleeve member, advancing the heated tube stock through an opening in a stationary roller block which closely fits around the tube stock, selectively moving a movable roller block to dispose its opening with the tube stock disposed therein in any of a number of positions offset from the longitudinal axis of the tube stock while maintaining the stationary and movable roller blocks substantially parallel, and simultaneously advancing the tube stock through the movable roller block.

17. The method of bending elongated tube stock and the like having a predetermined cross-sectional shape comprising forcibly feeding the tube stock along its longitudinal axis through a sleeve member having a passageway therethrough wherein the passageway conforms in cross-sectional shape to the cross-sectional shape of the tube stock in which the tube stock closely fits, advancing the tube stock through a stationary roller block having a plurality of rollers spaced around and defining an opening therethrough in which the tube stock closely fits, and simultaneously advancing the tube stock through a movable roller block spaced from the stationary roller block while selectively moving the movable roller block to dis- 16 pose its opening defined by a plurality of rollers therein with the tube stock disposed in such opening in any of a number of positions offset from the longitudinal axis of the tube stock.

18. The method of bending elongated tube stock and the like comprising forcibly feeding the tube stock along its longitudinal axis through a closely fitting sleeve member, advancing the tube stock through an opening in a stationary roller block which extends in a plane generally laterally of the longitudinal axis, advancing the tube stock through an opening in a movable roller block which extends in a plane generally laterally of the longitudinal axis wherein the planes of the roller blocks are substantially parallel and the openings therein are in alignment along the longitudinal axis before the tube stock is bent, and simultaneously selectively moving the movable roller block to move its opening with the tube stock disposed therein into a number of positions while maintaining the distance as measured longitudinally between the planes from the central point of the opening in the stationary roller constant during such selective movement of the movable roller block.

19. The method as defined in claim 18 further comprising inductively heating the tube stock as it is exiting from the sleeve member and before the tube stock is advanced through. the stationary roller block opening.

20. The method of automatically bending elongated tube stock and the like comprising forcibly feeding the tube stock along its longitudinal axis through a closely fitting sleeve member, advancing the tube stock through an opening in a stationary roller block which extends in a plane generally laterally of the longitudinal axis, advancing the tube stock through an opening in a movable roller block which extends in a plane generally laterally of the longitudinal axis wherein the planes of the roller blocks are substantially parallel and the openings therein are in alignment along the longitudinal axis before the tube stock is bent, and simultaneously and automatically moving the movable roller block to move its opening with the tube stock disposed therein into a number of preselected positions in time sequence with the advance of the tube stock passing through the movable roller block opening while maintaining the distance as measured longitudinally between the planes from the central point of the opening in the stationary roller constant during such selective movement of the movable roller block.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,021,662 3/1912 Cox 72-175 3,145,756 8/1964 Hill 72--7 3,198,926 8/1965 Melmoth 72-364 3,198,928 8/1965 Allison 72-364 3,229,489 1/1966 Huet 72-364 3,299,681 1/ 1967 Hautau 72-7 RICHARD J. HERBST, Primary Examiner. R. D. GREFE, Examiner.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4052878 *2 Aug 197611 Oct 1977Connelly Dennis ETube bending apparatus
US4391116 *2 Dec 19805 Jul 1983Teruaki YogoLace bending apparatus
US5390538 *30 Jul 199321 Feb 1995Spath; Walter E.Process for bending metal hollow sections and apparatus for carrying out the process
US5471857 *7 Mar 19945 Dec 1995Mascotech Tubular Products, Inc.Process for hydroforming a vehicle manifold
US5485737 *22 Mar 199523 Jan 1996Mascotech Tubular Products, Inc.Apparatus for hydroforming a vehicle manifold
Classifications
U.S. Classification72/7.3, 72/172, 72/342.4, 72/128, 72/369, 72/364
International ClassificationB21D7/12, B21D7/00
Cooperative ClassificationB21D7/12
European ClassificationB21D7/12