|Publication number||US3076491 A|
|Publication date||5 Feb 1963|
|Filing date||28 Mar 1960|
|Priority date||28 Mar 1960|
|Publication number||US 3076491 A, US 3076491A, US-A-3076491, US3076491 A, US3076491A|
|Inventors||Bruderlin Henry H|
|Original Assignee||Bruderlin Henry H|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (17), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
F 5, 1963 H. H. BRUDERLIN WIRE FORMING MACHINE Filed Marci; 28/1960 3 Sheets-$heet 1 I NV E NTOR. dwmszz/A Feb. 5, 1963 H. H. BRUDERLIN 3,076,491
WIRE FORMING MACHINE Filed March 28, 1960 3 heets-Sheet 2 625 F 63 E l i 6/ E E z 59 INVENTOR.
Feb. 5, 1963 H. H. BRUDERLIN 3,
WIRE FORMING MACHINE Filed March 28. 1960 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. fle/ve/ 521/052; w
United States Patent 3,076,491 WIRE FORMING MACHINE Henry H. Bruderlin, Los Angeies, Calif. (111 Via Undine-Lido Isle, Newport, Calif.) Filed Mar. 28, 1960, Ser. No. 17,850 4 Claims. (El. 153-2) This invention relates to improvements in wire bending machines and particularly to an improved machine operable in cycles for continuously making a pre-selected series of bends in a length of wire.
Many wire bending and forming machines have been designed and marketed and many patents have issued covering various features of such machines. Among these designs are machines which relate generally to winding mechanisms and more particularly to such specialized applications as an automatic coil winding machine for automatically winding coils of any number of steps and of any number of windings per step within the predetermined capacity of the machine.
Machines have also been developed which are adapted to'bend preformed corrugated or zigzag wire. The latter machines were needed, for corrugated or zigzag wire has been used extensively as spring supports for seats and backs of seats and particularly in the seat constructions of motor vehicles. Machines have also been designed to make such specialty items'as partly open rings which preferably have pointed ends, such rings being commonly known as hog rings. Other machines have been developed to provide a wire forming and bending device which fabricates wire garment hangers having swivel hooks.
These machines, in general, are well designed to the extent that they will perform their intended task satisfactorily. However, many of them are extremely compli cated in operation and require considerable maintenance work. Such complexity of design, in addition to the service expenses just mentioned, usually results in the machine having a relatively high initial cost.
There are many commercial items being utilized today in connection with various applications which items have as some basic part or structural element a piece of wire bent into some relatively simple shape. An excellent example of such a part or element is shown in United States Patents No. 2,472,280 and No. 2,472,281. Depicted there is a frame of generally C-shape in plan view which can be formed of wire and defines in general a figure eight in vertical projection. Such fairly simplified wire designs are not uncommon in other fields, the above patents being cited merely for purposes of illustration.
To form such simplified designs requires the use of a machine which has a relatively low original cost, is simple to operate, and which has a minimum number of moving parts, thus assuring relatively trouble free operation. The machines first discussed above, although perhaps adaptable to bending fairly simplified patterns, are much too detailed in design and complicated in operation.
The present invention was designed to provide an improved machine for rapidly bending wire into the desired formations and which is fully automatic in cycles for making the preselected configuration. In addition to these characteristics, the present design comprises parts which may be fabricated and assembled at low cost and which are arranged in a distinctly novel relation to one another. The present invention is arranged in a novel manner for the convenience of the operator and is capable of quickly engaging the wire and accurately and rapidly producing the desired bent formation.
Other features and advantages will become apparent as the description proceeds.
While the invention may take numerous forms, those ice which are presently preferred are illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:
FIGURE 1 is a side elevational view of a machine embodying the present invention;
FIGURE 2 is a front elevational view of the machine shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is a plan view of the forming unit of the machine shown in FIGURES 1 and 2;
FIGURE 4 is a perspective view of a portion of the forming unit shown in FIGURES 1, 2, and 3 and depicts the operation and arrangement of the bend and twist cams respectively;
FIGURE 5 is a perspective view of the means used to cut the wire to a length sufficient to form one part and depicts the operation and arrangement of the shear cam;
FIGURE 6 is a partial perspective view taken from forward and left of the machine as shown in FIGURE 3 and shows the gear arrangement and associated parts used to drive the feed rollers and bend, twist and shear cams;
FIGURE 7 is a three-quarter rear view in perspective of typical part which the machine of the present invention is well adapted to make; and
FIGURE 8 is a top plan view of the part shown in FIGURE 7.
Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIGURE 1, the embodiment of the invention there illustrated comprises a wire feed unit 12 and a wire forming unit 13, both units being carried in aligned spaced apart relationship by a common mounting base 14. Al- I though any suitable material may be selected, it is presently preferred to use wood for constructing the base piece 14, the thickness being determined by the weight of the machine. Base pieces of approximately 1 /2 inches in thickness have proven satisfactory for most applications.
The feed unit 12 is constructed as a generally U-shaped frame 15 with spaced apart parallel upwardly extending arms 17, only one of which is shown in FIGURE 1, with the bight of the frame attached to base piece 14. Although the parallel members 17 are indicated to be fastened to a spacer block, not shown, by means of fasteners 18 the mounting frame 15 may be constructed as a single integral piece in any of the well recognized methods, or the fasteners 18 may be replaced by welding, brazing or otherwise connecting the parallel members 17 to the spacer block. It is presently preferred to construct the frame member 17 of aluminum or steel, although any of the common structural materials are perfectly suitable.
Suitably and rotatably mounted within the upper portion of frame member 15 are two feed rollers 19 and 20 respectively. To straighten or rectilinearize the wire as it unrolls from a supply coil and feeds into the machine, rollers 24, 25 and 27 are suitably mounted and positioned relative to one another in frame member 15 as shown in FIGURE 1. By adjusting the position of rollers 25 and 27 relative to roller 24, the machine is adapted to remove varying amounts of precurl from the wire which is to be bent into a pro-selected shape. The two upper rollers 19 and 24 are properly journaled in the cap of the frame member 15, said cap being formed in two sections 22, 23, and held in spaced apart relationship from the main portion of the frame member by means of leaf springs 29 and suitable fasteners 30. By tightening or loosening certain of the fasteners 30 the rear portion 23 of the cap of frame member 15 is moved in or out, thus providing pre-curl adjustment and also permitting adjustment of the gap between upper roller 24 and lower rollers 25 and 27 to thereby permit the machine to be adapted to bending a large number of wire sizes. It should also be understood that by tightening or loosening other appropriate fasteners 30' the front portion 22' of the cap can be moved in or out to insure that the feed rollers maintain firm frictional contact with the wire, thus assuring a positive wire advancement for various size wires.
Referring again to the drawing and more particularly FIGURES l, 2 and 3 thereof, the forming unit 13. is-
composed of the same identical U-shape frame construction of aluminum, steel or thelike as the feed'unitdistance between the main portion of the frame carryingro-ller-44 and the cap 38: carrying. roller. 45.
Referring now particularly to FIGURES 2, 3' and 6- of; the drawing, shaft 47 extends through the two.vertical: members. 32 and 33 of the U-shaped frame and: is suitablymounted so asto' be capable of-continuous rotation.
Keyed: to one end of shaft 47' are bend cam 48, twist cam 49, and shear cam 50; said cams being attached: and; held. in s 'racedrelation tosone anotherfby means of suitable spacers and fasteners. Although many. suitable materials can be used to manufacture satisfactory cams, itispresently preferred to utilize, brass in their construction,
Main drive shaft 54 is connected throughuniversal iointS-Sto prime mover 56. Theoppositeendi of shaft: 54. extends through the-twovertical; members 32 and 33v of. the U-shaped frame and is suitably mounted therein. for. continuous rotation, Drive roller 44 is splined orkeyed. to said shaft and is positioned thereon between thetwo framemembers 32 and 33- and is thus suitably mounted for continuous rotation. Splined or keyed to shaft. 60.. and. positioned wholly between frame members 32Iand'33 is the second drive roller 45. As shown more clearly in FIGURES 3. and 6 a fourth shaft-61 is affixed to frame; member 32 and has splined, keyed, or other:
wise fastenedthereon a gear train consisting of; gears- 62;. and 63'. An adjustable baseplate 65 v permits-shaft 61 to'be moved, thus permitting. the machine to accommodate'ditferent gear sets. As. shown in:FIGUR ES 2, 3, and 6. gear 62v is meshed. with gear 57 while gear 63,
also, carriediby shaft 61, is. shown. meshed'with gear 66 which is splined, keyed-or otherwise suitably attached as by means of, collar 69 and set screw. 74 to. shaft 47.;
To drive the feed rollers. 19and. 29, on the wire feed.
hereinafter described in detail. To assure stability ofthe bell crank 71, the axle 76 extends beyond arm 84 andthrqugh the, members 32 and 33 of the U-shaped frame and is rotatably mounted therein.
Pork 77 formed with one end defining a wire receiving throat or slot 78 and the other end an elongated cylindrical extension 80, is rotatably mounted within an apertured rectangular block 81 which is positioned between the frame members 32 and 33 and rigidly held therein by suitable fastening means. One end 83 of the fork 77 is rigidly attached to the center portion of link 85v which in turn is pivotally connected to one end of a second link 86. Link 86 is pivotally connected at itsopposite end 87 to link 75 which as above described is rigidly attached to the arm 84 of bell crank 71. A biasing spring 88 is connected at one end'to the frame of the machine and is connected at its opposite end to the pin 91 which pivotally connects links and 86. As shown more clearly in FIGURE 4, the action of the biasing spring 88 holds the cam follower 72 in firm rolling contact with twist cam 49;
A yoke or support member 92. for bend roller 93 is formed with two apertured cars 95, through which is rotatably mounted shaft 96 carrying said bend roller. The opposite end of yoke 92 is pivotally connected to and positioned between the frame members 32 and 33by rneansof pin 112. Shaft 114'. attached to yoke 92 carries cam follower 115' riding on bend cam 48;
Referring now particularly toFIGURES 1 and 5; a cutting block 118 is positioned between the feed unit 12 and forming unit 13, andv is also attached to the common mounting base 14. Bell crank 119'is pivotally attached to cutting block: 118: and is spring biased in, a
counter clockwise direction'of' rotation by=meansof springend a cam follower 146 riding against the face of shear cam 50. The horizontal arm of'bellcrank 1119 is connected to actuating'rod112S which in turn is pivotally attached to a. blade carrying member 128' pivotallyconnected to forming unit 13 by means of bracket l29 andpin 142. Member 128, carries. at one end a pivotally mounted blade 143 spring biased upwardly, against shoulder 144. by means of spring 145.
As previously mentioned, the" machine of the present invention is adapted to continuously. make a preselected, series of'bends in a length of wire to thus form a structural element of the type whichisextensively used today in manyvaried commercial applications. Such a part or element is illustrated in FIGURES 7 and 8 of the drawings, being designated by the numeral 130 there-. in. It willbe; noted that the illustrated part, generally indicated by the numeral 130, comprises an upper por tion 132: and' a lower portion 1-33.v The latter lies substantially in'a horizontal plane andis generally C-shaped in plan as is apparent in FIGURE 7-. The upper portion lies more or less vertically above the. lower'portionand is similarlyQ-shaped in plan. However, in elevation it is seen that this portion is provided with a relatively high arch.
The adjacent ends of the, arched halves. are provided: with interengaging bridge members. 137; 138; each provided with a loop or eye 139 for rotatable and slidable engagement with the cooperating straight member. The lower halves are provided with a similar connection. The outer free ends of the. upper and lower portions converge toward each other and are curved to form a C-shape. The partjust illustrated and described is a self supporting frame. for use, in certain, types of brassieres. The construction and use of this and similar parts'are discussed in detail in United Statesv Letters Patents No. 2,472,280 and No. 2,472,281 issued toHenry H; Bruderlin.
The part is mentioned here for it is of the type which the present machine is well adapted to form; for the entire frame may be made of wire. The right and left halves of the frame are each formed from a single length of wire.
The present machine isv operable continually in cycles, one part or portion of a part being made during each cycle. Throughout the detailed description, various parts have been or will be described as being vertical or horizontal and as being movable upwardly or downwardly or horizontally. It will be understood that these,v and similar terms are used chiefly for convenience of description to show the relationship of parts and motions, and that they are not intended to necessarily limit the scope of the invention.
To operate the machine, a coil of wire such as that shown in FIGURE 4 is suitably mounted at the rear of the wire feed unit 12. The end of the wire is then slipped between the straightening rollers 24, 25, 27 and feed rollers 19, 2t), and the fasteners 30 tightened against the biasing action of leaf springs 29 to obtain the necessary roller pressure to insure the necessary straightening action and positive advance of the wire through the machine.
When the wire has been pulled over the cutting block 118, the end of the wire is passed through guide funnel 140 and inserted between the cap 38 and main frame portion of the forming unit 13 and positioned between rollers 44, 45 and then over bend roller 93 and out through the wire receiving groove 78 of fork 77. As with the feed unit, a suitable adjustment is made by means of the fasteners 39 to insure firm driving pressure of rollers 44, 45 against the wire. With the wire in the position just described, the bending operation is commenced by the operator starting the prime mover 56.
The wire is advanced through the machine by the action of two separate sets of feed rollers. Rollers 44 and 45 are mounted in the forming unit 13 as previously described, roller 44 being directly driven by prime mover 56 rotating shaft 54 through the universal joint 55. Roller 45, carried by means of shaft 60 is rotated in the opposite direction to that of roller 44 by means of gear 57 driving through gear 58 to thereby rotate shaft 60. The second set of feed rollers 19 and 20 is mounted in the wire feed unit 12 and is rotated by prime mover 56 driving through the sprocket and chain assembly 67 and suitable gearings 68 and 99 shown in FIGURES 1, 3
Shaft 47 carrying the three cams 48, 49, and 50 is also rotated by prime mover 56 by means of a gear train consisting of gears 57, 62, 63 and 66. As shown in FIGURES 2, 3 and 6, gear 57 meshes with gear 62 thereby rotating shaft 61, said shaft carrying gear 63 which in turn meshes with gear 66 which is affixed to the end of shaft 47. Thus when the operator energizes the prime mover the continuously rotating feed rollers constantly carry the Wire to be formed through the machine and by virtue of the gear train just described the cams mount ed on shaft 47 are also continuously rotated. To fabricate a part such as that shown in FIGURES 7 and 8, the shape of each cam is designed so that one rotation will normally finish one completed part. The cams shown are illustrative only and are not specifically designed to make the parts depicted in FIGURES 7 and 8.
Referring now particularly to FIGURE 4, as the bend cam 48 rotates, its cammed surface is in continuous engagement with the follower or roller 115. As the radius of the cam increases and decreases, the cam follower arm 114 is moved upwardly and downwardly a corresponding amount and thereby causes the yoke 92 to pivot about a horizontal axis through the pin 112. As best depicted in FIGURES 1 and 4, the action of yoke 92 pivoting about the pin 112 causes the bend roller 93 to move up or down relative to the upper feed roller 45 and to the length of wire which is being advanced through the machine in the manner previously described. As the bend roller 93 moves upwardly in response to the increasing radius of the cam 48, the advancing wire is caused to bend in an upward are as depicted in FIGURE 4. The wire will commence to bend when the vertical distance between bend roller 93 and upper feed roller 45 becomes less than the diameter of the wire and the degree of curvature is directly dependent upon the distance the bend roller is moved upwardly in response to the action of cam 48. If desired to form a so-called reverse bend, a second roller similar to roller 93 can be tion of the fork 77 about its upwardly extending axis.
As best depicted in FIGURE 4, the wire after passing over the bend roller 93 comes through the wire receiving slot or throat 78 provided in fork 77. As the fork rotates in a clockwise direction, the action of the two prongs imparts into the advancing wire a curvature to the right as seen in either FIGURE 2 or 3 and similarly a counterclockwise rotation will cause a corresponding curvature to the left. The degree of curvature will of course be regulated by the extent of rotation of the fork and this in turn is controlled by twist cam 49 in the manner to be hereinafter described.
The action of retaining spring 88 holds the cam follower 72 firmly against the cammed surface of twist cam 49. The reciprocating movement of the cam follower as it rides along the cammed surface causes the arm 79 of bell crank 71 to pivot about the horizontal axis of axle 76, thereby rotating said shaft and in turn causing arm 84 to rotate about the same axis in a direction opposite to that of arm 79. The pivotal movement of arm 84 is translated into the rotary motion of fork 77 by means of the three bar linkage 75, 86, 85. For example, when the radius of the twist cam decreases, the bell crank arm 79 is pivoted upwardly and the opposite arm 84 moves downwardly carrying with it the link 75. As the pinned end of the link 75 is not free, it carries with it the second link 86, which in turn exerts a force on the pinned end of the third link 85 which is rigidly attached to the elongated cylindrical extension of the fork 77. Such. force causes the link to pivot about the vertical axis of the. extension 80 which, as seen in FIGURE 4, causes rotation of fork 77 about its vertical axis in a clockwise direction. An increasing radius on the twist cam will correspondingly result in the counterclockwise rotation of the fork 77.
Fork 77 with its associated mechanism illustrates one way in which the twist can be provided in the wire. The wire can be twisted equally as well by moving rollers 44 and 45 in opposite directions on their own axes laterally to the axis of feed of the wire; A simple crank and pin connection to the ends of the axles of rollers 44 and 45 will cause them to move equally in opposite directions so as not to move the wire laterally. The crank can be connected to link 75 or link 85 so as to be actuated by a twist cam in the same manner as described above for fork 77. 7
When the length of wire required to make a given part has passed the cutting block 118, means are provided to shear the wire immediately so that the part being made will be independent of the wire stock, and further means are provided to guide the succeeding portion of the wire stock in the proper path through the forming rollers.
As will be seen from FIGURE 5, when shear cam 50 is rotated counter-clockwise as indicated by the arrow it will urge link 124 to the right, rotating bell crank 119 and raising member 128. As member 128 moves upwardly, blade 143 will pivot downwardly against the bias of spring 145 and pass up on the near side of the wire, after which it will snap back to its substantially horizontal position. When the tip of the cam passes follower 146, spring 120 will pull member 128 down rapidly and blade 143 will snap down beside cutting block 118, shearing the wire. The cam size and the feed of the wire are proportioned so that each sharing action will cut a length of wire sufiicient to be formed into a single unit of the desired shape. The free end of the wire then enters guide funnel before member 128 again begins to rise.
In operation the cams are designed to manufacture a given part such as that depicted in FIGURES 7 and 8. When the wire has been properly fed into the machine and the prime mover energized, the machine will automatically continue to form duplicate parts without additional operator service requirements. As the wire initial- 1y advances through the machine it is driven by both sets of feed rollers. However, when a piece of sufiicient length to manufacture the required part has passed the cutting block and the shearing action previously described has taken place, the forward piece of the wire is advanced by the action of rollers 44, 45 and the continuous piece remaining on the spool is carried. forward by rollers 19, 20, so that he e nd c n omp l e te he i e funnel. The twist and bend cams, respectively, transmitn c t o r a t n h o a tu ing bend roller 93 vertically in the manner just previously described, cooperate to form a wire shape of the preselected desired configuration. It should be understood that themachine is not limited to the manufacturing of one particular shape for any number of different shaped cams, can, be kept as spare parts and utilized by simple installation on. the machine. Thus the machine is adapted to the. forming of selected configurations within a. wide range and when the cams are properly installed will, automatia l n nue to, m u r similar. tems nt l: h d sired number is completed.
It; should also be readily understood, from the; previous. description that if a given part is formed, utilizing certain, cam configurations that the mirrorimage of this part can, be readily. made by merely removing link 86 of the three. bar linkage and, fastening it in a similar manner to the opposite. ends of the tworemaining links. 75 and 85'. Spring 86 would of course be also removed to, a similar position attached to the opposite end of link 85.
While. various preferred forms of the invention have been illustrated and described hereinabove-,' it; will be; ap-
pa ent at n h e a d med t may v n de 1y spaced, substantially horizontally extending rollers driven by the; power source and; mounted to the upper near portionof the frame and; adapted to, receive the leading end of an advancing length; ofnonrrectilinear, wire therebetween; means forso juxtaposing the rollers in the vertical; plane as to apply/varying degrees of rectilinearizin compression to the advancing wire; means, drivenly-connected; to thePQWcr means, and located forwardly of said plurality of rollers for engaging and advancing said. wire; a substantially, horizontally disposed, first bending roller movably mounted, at the output end of the apparatus for movement in thevertical plane while in engagement withtheforward end-portionof said advancing wire; a lobular first cam disposed: in the. vertical planesub-adjacent said first bending roller; means drivingly-connecting said cam to thepowering-means; a.cam.-follower operatively. engaging. said cam and drivingly-connected to the mount of saidfirst bending roller so as toeffect vertical: movement thereofthereby tobendisaid wire in the vertical plane; asecond lobularcam mounted coaxially with the first cam; an elongate, rotatable, bifurcated member extending substantially vertically at a locus outwardly of the verticalbend effecting roller and'normally engaging the bentportion of said Wire; a second cam follower operatively engaging said second cam; linkageinterposed between the second cam follower and the lower end of the bifurcated member, said, linkage being constructed and arranged: with reference to the path of movement of the second cam follower and the path of movement of thebent portion of; the wire as to effect rotation of the bifurcatedmernber about its major, or longer axis, whereby to bend the. previously. vertically bent leading portion of said wire, the. 7
bending taking place in the lateral and horizontal planes so as to recurve the leading portion of wire upon itself; a third cam mounted coaxially with the two aforesaid cams; a cam follower extending rearwardly therefrom; verticallymovable shearing means mounted to the apparatus intermediate the two opposite ends thereof; and linkage means connecting the inner end of the cam.- follower to the shearing means to sever the so-bent portion of the wire from the trailing portion of the wire.
2. An automatic wire forming machine comprising: an elongate support havingmeansto feed a wire element to a forming zone; a substantially horizontally disposed first bending roller movably mounted, adjacent said forming zone, for movement in the vertical plane while in engagement with the forward portion of said advancing wire element; a first cam disposed in the vertical. plane subadjacent said first bending roller, means operatively connecting said. first cam to said first bending roller so as. to effect vertical movement thereof to bend said wire in the vertical plane; an elongate, rotatable, bifurcated member extending substantially vertically adjacent said forming zone and; normally engaging the bent portion of said advancing wire element; a second cam mounted. coaxially with said first cam; a cam follower operatively engaging said second cam; linkage interposed between said camv follower'and thelower end of'the bifurcatedmember, said.
linkage being constructed and arranged with. reference to the path of movement of the said cam follower and the path of movement of the advancing wire element as to effect rotation-ofthe bifurcated member about its vertical axis, whereby to bend the previously vertically bent leading portion of said wire in alateral direction; a third cam mounted coaxially with the two aforesaid cams; a cam follower extending rearwardly therefrom; shearing means attached to said support rearwardly of said forming'zone; and linkage means operatively connecting said cam follower to said shearing means to sever the advancing wire element.
3. An automatic wire forming machine comprising: an elongate support having a forming zone at one end thereof; means to feed a wire element from a supply source forwardly to. said forming zone and onwardly therefrom into an open, unobstructed space; first bending means at said forming zone to contact said element and bend it sequentially to various. predetermined angles in a first plane; second bending means onwardly adjacent said first bending means at said forming zone and-comprising a fork to slidingly receive said advancing element and a downwardly extending shank rotatably mounted on said support for rotation about the axis of said shank to displace said fork laterally to both sides of said first plane to thereby bend said advancing element sequentially to varying degrees. out of' said first plane and to both sides thereof; and control means including link means and cam means synchronized with said element feeding means to control the relative movements of said two bending means to produce compound curvatures of any desired magnitude and direction in said element.
4. An-automatic wire forming machine comprising: an elongate support having a forming zone at one end thereof; means to feed a wire element from a supply source forwardly to said forming zone and onwardly therefrom into an open, unobstructed space; first bending means at said forming zone to contact said element and bend it sequentially to various predetermined angles in a first plane; second bending means onwardly adjacent said first bending means at said forming'zone formed to receive said advancingv element and mounted forrotation about an axis in said first plane but displaced from said first bending means to provide lateral displacement of said second bending means to both sides of said first plane to sequentially bend said advancing element laterally to varying degrees out-of said first plane and to both sides thereof; and control means synchronized with said clement feedbending means to produce compound curvatures of any desired magnitude and direction in said element.
References Cited in the file of this patent 5 UNITED STATES PATENTS 642,339 Krummel June 30, 1900 10 Robertson et a1. Oct. 11, 1921 Poeppelmeir June 10, 1930 Sholtis et a1. Apr. 6, 1948 Halvorsen Dec. 7, 1948 Galitz Jan. 24, 1961 Pearson Nov. 28, 1961
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|U.S. Classification||72/132, 72/171, 72/168, 140/71.00R|