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POLYMERS INCLUDING CARBONATE OR
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 5 08/710,689 entitled "Compliant Tissue Sealants" filed Sep. 23, 1996, by Amarpreet S. Sawhney, Michelle D. Lyman, Peter K. Jarrett, and Ronald S. Rudowsky, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,900,245.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to improved photopolymerizable biodegradable hydrogels for use as tissue adhesives, coatings, sealants and in controlled drug delivery devices. The improved materials incorporate carbonate and/or diox- 15 anone linkages. These biodegradable linkages allow improved control of various properties of the macromers, particularly increasing viscosity while preserving biodegradability.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
U.S. Pat. No. 5,410,016 to Hubbell et al. discloses biocompatible, biodegradable macromers which can be polymerized to form hydrogels. The macromers are block copolymers that include a biodegradable block, a watersoluble block with sufficient hydrophilic character to make the macromer water-soluble, and one or more polymerizable groups. The polymerizable groups are separated from each other by at least one degradable group, Hubbell specifically discloses using polyhydroxy acids, such as polylactide, polyglycolide and polycaprolactone as the biodegradable polymeric blocks. One of the disclosed uses for the macromers is to plug or seal leaks in tissue.
Other hydrogels have been described, for example, in , U.S. Pat. No. 4,938,763 to Dunn et al., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,100,992 and 4,826,945 to Cohn et al, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,741,872 and 5,160,745 to De Luca et al, U.S. Pat. No. 5,527,864 to Suggs et al, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,511,478 to Nowinski et al. Methods of using such polymers are 4Q described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,573,934 to Hubbell et al. and PCT WO 96/29370 by Focal.
While numerous references disclose using homopolymers and copolymers including carbonate linkages to form solid medical devices, such as sutures, suture coatings and drug 45 delivery devices (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,301,824 to Hostettler et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,243,775 to Rosensaft et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,429,080 to Casey et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,716,20 to Casey et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,857,602 to Casey et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,882,168 to Casey, EP 0 390 860 Bl by 50 Boyle et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,066,772 to Tang et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,366,756 to Chesterfield et al, U.S. Pat. No. 5,403,347 to Roby et al. and U.S. Pat. No. 5,522,841 to Roby et al), none of these publications discloses incorporating polymerizable groups on the polymers so that the polymers can be 55 further polymerized. Accordingly, none of these polymers can be used in the same manner as the macromers in U.S. Pat. No. 5,410,016 to Hubbell et al.
Sealing or plugging holes in lung tissue is inherently more difficult than sealing other types of tissue because the tissue 60 is constantly expanded and contracted during normal respiration. It would be advantageous to provide macromers which can be rapidly polymerized in vivo to form hydrogels which are more elastic than conventional hydrogels, for example, for use in sealing lung tissue. 65
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide biodegradable, biocompatible macromers that can be rapidly
polymerized in vivo to form hydrogels which are more elastic than conventional hydrogels.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a macromer solution which can be administered during surgery or outpatient procedures and polymerized as a tissue adhesive, cell encapsulating medium, tissue sealant, wound dressing or drug delivery device.
It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a macromer solution which can be polymerized in vivo on a surface to be coated in a very short time frame to form conformal coating layers.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Biocompatible, biodegradable, polymerizable and at least substantially water-soluble macromers and methods of preparation and use thereof are disclosed. The macromers are block copolymers that include at least one water-soluble block, at least one biodegradable block, and at least one polymerizable group. At least one of the biodegradable blocks comprises a linkage based on a carbonate or dioxanone group, and the macromers can contain other degradable linkages or groups in addition to carbonate or dioxanone.
The carbonate and dioxanone linkages impart more elasticity to the polymer and degrade at a different rate than hydroxy acid linkages. Carbonate linkages can also increase macromer viscosity, at a given concentration, without requiring increased molecular weight of the nondegradable components of the macromer. The macromers can also include poly(hydroxy acid) linkages which degrade by hydrolysis into relatively non-toxic hydroxy acid residues, or other biodegradable blocks such as polycaprolactones, polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides, and polypeptides. The degradation time of the polymers can be controlled, for example, by selecting the types and proportion of the biodegradable blocks.
The polymerizable groups can be polymerized by either free radical (homolytic) processes or by heterolytic processes (such as cationic polymerization). Preferably, the groups are polymerized photochemically. The macromer can be polymerized in the presence of prophylactic, therapeutic or diagnostic agents, for delivery of the incorporated agents in a controlled manner as the resulting polymer degrades. The macromers are useful for delivering hydrophobic, hydrophilic and/or labile materials. They can be particularly useful for delivery of hydrophobic materials.
The macromers can be polymerized in an interfacial manner to form ultrathin coatings which are intimately adhered to the coated surface, or in a bulk manner to form relatively thick coatings which may or may not be intimately adhered to the coated surface. Alternatively, the two methods can be combined to provide a relatively thick coating which is intimately adhered to the surface. Each of these methods is advantageous for certain applications.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a graph of the elastic strength (seal pressure, mm Hg) over time (hr) of five different sealant materials: 10% 35K T, 20% 35K T, 10% 20K TL, 10% 20 K TL, and 20% 35K TL K is defined as 100 Daltons (weight average molecular weight, T is trimethylene carbonate (TMC), L is lactide, and TL is a copolymer of TMC and lactide.
FIGS. 2A and 2B are graphs of the degradation (% mass loss) over time (days) for 20K T (FIG. 2A) and 35K T (FIG. 2B) for subcutaneous polymeric implants in rats.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
Water-soluble, biocompatible, biodegradable macromers and methods of preparation and use thereof, are disclosed. The macromers include at least one water-soluble block, at least one biodegradable block, and at least one polymerizable group. At least one biodegradable block contains a carbonate or dioxanone group. To obtain a biodegradable material after polymerization, each polymerizable group must be separated from any other polymerizable group on the macromer by at least one biodegradable linkage or group.
At least a portion of the macromers will contain more than one reactive group and thereby be effective as crosslinkers, so that the macromers can be crosslinked to form a gel. The minimal proportion required will vary with the nature of the macromer and its concentration in solution, and the proportion of crosslinker in the macromer solution can be as high as 100% of the macromer solution.
For example, the macromers include at least 1.02 polymerizable groups on average, and, more preferably, the macromers each include two or more polymerizable groups on average.
Since in the preferred homolytic (free radical) polymerization reactions each polymerizable group will polymerize into a chain, crosslinked hydrogels can be produced using only slightly more than one reactive group per macromer (i.e., about 1.02 polymerizable groups on average). However, higher percentages are preferable, and excellent gels can be obtained in polymer mixtures in which most or all of the molecules have two or more reactive double bonds. Poloxanines, an example of a water-soluble block, have four arms and thus may readily be modified to include four polymerizable groups.
As used herein, a "biocompatible" material is one which stimulates only a mild, often transient, implantation response, as opposed to a severe or escalating response.
As used herein, a "biodegradable" material is one which decomposes under normal in vivo physiological conditions into components which can be metabolized or excreted.
As used herein, a "block" is a region of a copolymer differing in subunit composition from neighboring regions. Blocks will generally contain multiple subunits, up to about one thousand subunits or less for non-degradable materials, and without an upper limit for degradable materials. In the lower limit, the size of a block depends on its function; the minimum size is that which is sufficient to allow the function to be performed. In the case of a block conferring watersolubility on the macromer, this will be typically 400 daltons or more, preferably 600 daltons or more, more preferably at least 1000 daltons, and most preferably in the range of 2000 to 40,000 daltons. For degradable linkages, the minimum block size is a single linkage of the appropriate degradability for the function. More preferably, the block size is two to forty groups; most preferably, three to twenty. The reactive groups may be considered as a block for some purposes; the typical number of units in such a block is one, but may be two to five.
As used herein, a carbonate is a functional group with the structure —O—C(O)—O—. The carbonate starting material can be cyclic, such as trimethylene carbonate (TMC), or can be linear, such as dimethylcarbonate (CH30—C(O)— OCH3). After incorporation into the polymerizable macromer, the carbonate will be present at least in part as
R—O—C(=0)—O—R', where R and R' are other components of the macromer.
As used herein, a dioxanone is a repeating unit with the structure —O—C(O)—R—O—, where R is a straight, 5 branched or cyclic alkyl group. An example of a cyclic dioxanone is l,4-dioxan-2-one. l,4-dioxan-2-one is a preferred dioxanone.
As used herein, a hydrogel is a substance formed when an organic polymer (natural or synthetic) is cross-linked via 10 covalent, ionic, or hydrogen bonds to create a threedimensional open-lattice structure which entraps water molecules to form a gel.
As used herein, "water-soluble" is defined as a solubility of at least one gram/liter in an aqueous solution at a temperature in the range of about 0° C. and 50° C. Aqueous solutions can include small amounts of water-soluble organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, alcohols, acetone, and/or glymes.
20 Types of Block Copolymers
In general terms, the macromers are block co-polymers that comprise a biodegradable block, a water-soluble block, and at least one polymerizable group. Preferably, the mac
25 romers comprise at least 1.02 polymerizable groups on average, and, more preferably, include at least two polymerizable groups per macromer, on average. Average numbers of polymerizable groups can be obtained, for example, by blending macromers with different amounts of polymeriz
30 able groups.
The individual polymeric blocks can be arranged to form different types of block copolymers, including di-block, tri-block, and multi-block copolymers. The polymerizable blocks can be attached directly to biodegradable blocks or
35 indirectly via water-soluble nondegradable blocks, and are preferably attached so that the polymerizable groups are separated from each other by a biodegradable block. For example, if the macromer contains a water-soluble block coupled to a biodegradable block, one polymerizable group
40 may be attached to the water-soluble block and another attached to the biodegradable block. Preferably, both polymerizable groups would be linked to the water-soluble block by at least one degradable linkage.
The di-block copolymers include a water-soluble block
45 linked to a biodegradable block, with one or both ends capped with a polymerizable group. The tri-block copolymers can include a central water-soluble block and outside biodegradable blocks, with one or both ends capped with a polymerizable group. Alternatively, the central block can be
50 a biodegradable block, and the outer blocks can be watersoluble. The multiblock copolymers can include one or more of the water-soluble blocks and biocompatible blocks coupled together in a linear fashion. Alternatively, the multiblock copolymers can be brush, comb, dendritic or star
55 copolymers. If the backbone is formed of a water-soluble block, at least one of the branches or grafts attached to the backbone is a biodegradable block. Alternatively, if the backbone is formed of a biodegradable block, at least one of the branches or grafts attached to the backbone is a water
60 soluble block, unless the biodegradable block is also watersoluble. In another embodiment, a multifunctional compound, such as a polyol, can be coupled to multiple polymeric blocks, at least one of which is water-soluble and at least one of which is biodegradable.
65 In general, any formulation of the macromer which is intended to be biodegradable must be constructed so that each polymerizable group is separated from each other
polymerizable group by one or more linkages which are biodegradable. Non-biodegradable materials are not subject to this constraint.
Those skilled in the art will recognize that the individual polymeric blocks may have uniform compositions, or may have a range of molecular weights, and may be combinations of relatively short chains or individual species which confer specifically desired properties on the final hydrogel, while retaining the required characteristics of the macromer. The lengths of oligomers referred to herein may vary from single units (in the biodegradable portions) to many, subject to the constraint of preserving the overall water-solubility of the macromer.
In the discussion below and the examples, macromers are often designated by a code of the form xxKZn. xxK represents the molecular weight of the backbone polymer, which is polyethylene glycol ("PEG") unless otherwise stated, in thousands of Daltons. Z designates the biodegradable linkage, using a code wherein where L is for lactic acid, G is for glycolic acid, D is for dioxanone, C is for caprolactone, T is for trimethylene carbonate, and n is the average number of degradable groups in the block. The molecules are terminated with acrylic ester groups, unless otherwise stated. This is sometimes also indicated by the suffix A2.
While the preferred biodegradable groups (in addition to carbonate or dioxanone) are hydroxy acids, orthoesters, anhydrides, or other synthetic or semisynthetic degradable linkages, natural materials may be used in the biodegradable sections when their degree of degradability is sufficient for the intended use of the macromer. Such biodegradable groups may comprise natural or unnatural amino acids, carbohydrate residues, and other natural linkages. Biodegradation time will be controlled by the local availability of enzymes hydrolyzing such linkages. The availability of such enzymes may be ascertained from the art or by routine experimentation.
Water Soluble Regions
Suitable water-soluble polymeric blocks include those prepared from poly(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene oxide), partially or fully hydrolyzed poly(vinyl alcohol), poly (vinylpyrrolidone), poly(ethyloxazoline), poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers and meroxapols), poloxamines, carboxymethyl cellulose, hydroxyalkylated celluloses such as hydroxyethyl cellulose and methylhydroxypropyl cellulose, polypeptides, polynucleotides, polysaccharides or carbohydrates such as Ficoll® polysucrose, hyaluronic acid, dextran, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, heparin, or alginate, and proteins such as gelatin, collagen, albumin, or ovalbumin. Preferably, the water-soluble polymeric blocks are made from poly (ethylene glycol) or poly(ethylene oxide).
The soluble polymer blocks may be intrinsically biodegradable or may be poorly biodegradable or effectively non-biodegradable in the body. In the latter two cases, the soluble blocks should be of sufficiently low molecular weight to allow excretion. The maximum molecular weight to allow excretion in human beings (or other species in which use is intended) will vary with polymer type, but will often be about 40,000 daltons or below. Water-soluble natural polymers and synthetic equivalents or derivatives, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and degradable polysaccharides, can be used.
The water-soluble blocks can be a single block with a molecular weight of at least 600, preferably 2000 or more, and more preferably at least 3000 Daltons. Alternatively, the
water-soluble blocks can be two or more water-soluble blocks which are joined by other groups. Such joining groups can include biodegradable linkages, polymerizable linkages, or both. For example, an unsaturated dicarboxylic
5 acid, such as maleic, fumaric, or aconitic acid, can be esterified with degradable groups as described below, and such linking groups can be conjugated at one or both ends with hydrophilic groups such as polyethylene glycols. In another embodiment, two or more PEG molecules can be
10 joined by biodegradable linkages including carbonate linkages, and subsequently be end-capped with polymerizable groups.
15 The biodegradable blocks are preferably hydrolyzable under in vivo conditions. At least one biodegradable region is a carbonate or dioxanone linkage. Additional biodegradable polymeric blocks can include polymers and oligomers of hydroxy acids or other biologically degradable polymers 20 that yield materials that are non-toxic or present as normal metabolites in the body. Preferred poly(hydroxy acid)s are poly(glycolic acid), poly(DL-lactic acid) and poly(L-lactic acid). Other useful materials include poly(amino acids), poly(anhydrides), poly(orthoesters), and poly 25 (phosphoesters). Polylactones such as poly(epsiloncaprolactone), poly(delta-valerolactone), poly(gammabutyrolactone)and poly (beta-hydroxybutyrate), for example, are also useful.
Biodegradable regions can be constructed from monomers, oligomers or polymers using linkages susceptible to biodegradation, such as ester, peptide, anhydride, orthoester, and phosphoester bonds.
By varying the total amount of biodegradable groups, and 35 selecting the ratio between the number of carbonate or dioxanone linkages (which are relatively slow to hydrolyze) and of lower hydroxy acid linkages (especially glycolide or lactide, which hydrolyze relatively rapidly), the degradation time of hydrogels formed from the macromers can be controlled.
Carbonates and Dioxanones
Any carbonate can be used to make the macromers. Preferred carbonates are aliphatic carbonates, for maximum
45 biocompatibility. For example, trimethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are examples of aliphatic carbonates. Lower dialkyl carbonates are joined to backbone polymers by removal by distillation of alcohols formed by equilibration of dialkyl carbonates with hydroxyl groups of the
More preferred carbonates are the cyclic carbonates, which can react with hydroxy-terminated polymers without release of water. Suitable cyclic carbonates include ethylene carbonate (l,3-dioxolan-2-one), propylene carbonate
55 (4-methyl -l,3-dioxolan-2-one), trimethylene carbonate (l,3-dioxan-2-one) and tetramethylene carbonate (1,3dioxepan-2-one). Under some reaction conditions, it is possible that orthocarbonates may react to give carbonates, or that carbonates may react with polyols via orthocarbonate
60 intermediates, as described in Timberlake et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,330,481. Thus, certain orthocarbonates, particularly dicyclic orthocarbonates, can be suitable starting materials for forming the carbonate-linked macromers.
Alternatively, suitable diols or polyols, including back
65 bone polymers, can be activated with phosgene to form chloroformates, as is described in the art, and these active compounds can be mixed with backbone polymers contain