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Publication numberWO2003103542 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberPCT/US2003/017662
Publication date18 Dec 2003
Filing date6 Jun 2003
Priority date7 Jun 2002
Also published asEP1511446A1, EP1511446A4, EP1511446B1, US7025778, US20030229388, US20060149347
Publication numberPCT/2003/17662, PCT/US/2003/017662, PCT/US/2003/17662, PCT/US/3/017662, PCT/US/3/17662, PCT/US2003/017662, PCT/US2003/17662, PCT/US2003017662, PCT/US200317662, PCT/US3/017662, PCT/US3/17662, PCT/US3017662, PCT/US317662, WO 03103542 A1, WO 03103542A1, WO 2003/103542 A1, WO 2003103542 A1, WO 2003103542A1, WO-A1-03103542, WO-A1-2003103542, WO03103542 A1, WO03103542A1, WO2003/103542A1, WO2003103542 A1, WO2003103542A1
InventorsReid Hayashi, Alfred Concemi
ApplicantEndovascular Technologies, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: Patentscope, Espacenet
Endoprosthesis having pressure, temperature, and flow sensors
WO 2003103542 A1
Abstract
An endovascular graft (10) having one or more sensors (16, 17, 18, 19, 20) attached to its internal and external surface, one or more power sources (24) attached to its external surface and one or more transmitters (22) attached to its external surface, the sensors (16, 17, 18, 19, 20) capable of measuring pertinent parameters and each transmitter (22) capable of transmitting signals containing pertinent parameters to one or more receiving devices located outside the patient's body. The sensors (16, 17, 18, 19, 20) may measure pressure, temperature, blood flow, electrical potential, or any combination thereof. The sensors (16, 17, 18, 19, 20) may be attached at specific locations on the graft material, thereby providing pertinent parameters from critical points inside the vasculature, or may be attached to form an array of sensors over the internal and external surface of the graft material, thereby providing a complete profile of pertinent parameters throughout the vasculature covered by the endovascular graft.
Claims  (OCR text may contain errors)
CLAIMSWhat is claimed is:
1. A modular endoluminal prosthesis for repairing vasculature,
comprising:
a first endovascular graft component; and
a second endovascular graft component for attachment to the first
endovascular graft component, the second endovascular graft component having one
or more sensors attached thereto, wherein the sensors of the second endovascular
graft component detect parameters relating to an endoleak.
2. The prosthesis of claim 1, further comprising:
one or more power sources attached to external surfaces of the first
and second endovascular graft components; and
one or more transmitting devices attached to the first and second
endovascular graft components, each transmitting device capable of transmitting
signals containing the parameters measured by one or more sensors to a location
outside a patient's body.
3. The prosthesis of claim 1, the first endovascular graft component
further comprising one or more sensors attached thereto.
4. The prosthesis of claim 2, further comprising one or more receiving
devices located outside a patient's body, each receiving device capable of
receiving signals transmitted by one or more transmitters.
5. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one of the first and second
endovascular graft components is generally tubular and each have a superior end,
an inferior end and a midsection.
6. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein at least one sensor is located on
an internal surface of one of the first and second endovascular graft components.
7. The prosthesis of claim 1, wherein sensors cover substantially a
circumferential area of an internal surface of one of the first and second
endovascular graft components.
8. The prosthesis of claim 1, wherein at least one sensor is located on
an external surface of one of the first and second endovascular graft components.
9. The prosthesis of claim 1, wherein sensors cover substantially a
circumferential area of an external surface of one of the first and second
endovascular graft components.
10. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one or more sensors are located
on an external surface of one or more of the endovascular graft components at a
midsection thereof.
11. The prosthesis of claim 2, wherein each power source is attached to
a midsection of one of the first and second endovascular graft components.
12. The prosthesis of claim 2, wherein each transmitter is attached to a
midsection of one of the first and second endovascular graft components.
13. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein the first endovascular graft
component has a trunk portion and two or more limb portions.
14. The prosthesis of claim 13, wherein at least one sensor is located on
an internal surface of the first endovascular graft component.
15. The prosthesis of claim 13 , wherein sensors cover substantially a
circumferential area of an internal surface of the first endovascular graft
component.
16. The prosthesis of claim 13, wherein at least one sensor is located on
an external surface of each limb portion.
17. The prosthesis of claim 13, wherein sensors cover substantially a
circumferential area of an external surface of the first endovascular graft
component at superior and inferior ends of each limb portion.
18. The prosthesis of claim 13, wherein one or more sensors are located
external the first endovascular graft component at a midsection of each limb
portion.
19. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one or more of the sensors
measure pressure.
20. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one or more of the sensors
measure temperature.
21. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one or more of the sensors
measure a constituent altered by the presence of minute amounts of blood flow.
22. The prosthesis of claim 21 , wherein the constituent measured is
oxygen.
23. The prosthesis of claim 21 , wherein the constituent measured is an
enzyme.
24. The prosthesis of claim 21 , wherein the constituent measured is a
protein.
25. The prosthesis of claim 21 , wherein the constituent measured is a
nutrient.
26. The prosthesis of claim 1 , wherein one or more of the sensors
measure electrical potential.
27. The prosthesis of claim 1, wherein one or more of the sensors
measure a parameter related to the attachment between the first and second
endovascular graft components.
28. An endoluminal prosthesis for repairing vasculature, comprising: an endovascular graft having sensors attached to external surfaces
of the endovascular graft such that a substantial entirety of the external surfaces of
the endovascular graft is covered by an array of sensors, each sensor capable of
measuring a pertinent parameter;
at least one power source attached to the endovascular graft; and
at least one transmitting device attached to the endovascular graft,
each transmitting device capable of transmitting signals containing the parameters
measured by one or more sensors to a location outside a patient's body.
29. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein sensors are attached to internal
surfaces of the endovascular graft such that a substantial entirety of the internal
surfaces of the endovascular graft is covered by an array of sensors, each sensor
capable of measuring a pertinent parameter.
30. The prosthesis of claim 28, further comprising at least one receiving
device located outside a patient's body, each receiving device capable of receiving
signals transmitted by one or more transmitters.
31. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein the array of sensors include a
strip of sensors.
32. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein the array of sensors include a
continuous strip of wire.
33. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein the array of sensors include
miniature sensors that spiral around the graft material in between the weaves of
fabric.
34. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein one or more of the sensors
measure pressure.
35. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein one or more of the sensors
measure temperature.
36. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein one or more of the sensors
measure a constituent altered by the presence of minute amounts of blood flow.
37. The prosthesis of claim 36, wherein the constituent measured is
oxygen.
38. The prosthesis of claim 36, wherein the constituent measured is an
enzyme.
39. The prosthesis of claim 36, wherein the constituent measured is a
protein.
40. The prosthesis of claim 36, wherein the constituent measured is a
nutrient.
41. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein one or more of the sensors
measure electrical potential.
42. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein the endovascular graft is
generally tubular.
43. The prosthesis of claim 28, wherein the endovascular graft is
bifurcated.
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

ENDOPROSTHESIS HAVING PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND FLOW SENSORS

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to the treatment of body lumens and, more

particularly, to the endovascular placement of a prosthetic graft within vasculature

for the purpose of repairing the same.

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a leading cause of death

in the United States. Treatment options to repair AAA include conventional open

surgery and implantation of an endovascular graft. Conventional open surgical

repair of AAA involves major abdominal surgery with associated high rates of

morbidity. Endovascular grafts have been developed to endoluminally bypass

abdominal aortic aneurysms through minimally invasive surgery. Many patients

that are unacceptable surgical risks for open repairs are eligible for endovascular

graft implantation. Deployment of transfemoral, endovascular grafts to treat AAA

is appealing for many reasons: avoidance of an abdominal incision, lack of aortic

cross clamping, the potential for regional anesthesia, and a shortened hospital stay.

Untreated AAA has been shown to continue to expand until rupture, with

an associated high mortality rate. Implantation of endovascular grafts have also

been associated with high complication rates, including perioperative death, conversion to open repair, the need for further intervention, the need for

hemodialysis, a failure to cure the AAA, and wound complications.

The inability to obtain or maintain a secure seal between the vessel wall

and the endovascular graft is a complication unique to endovascular aneurysm

exclusion. Because the term "leak" has been associated with aneurysm rupture

following conventional surgery, the term "endoleak" has been proposed as a more

definitive description of this complication. It is believed that persistent endoleaks

result in continued aneurysm expansion, which may eventually lead to aneurysm

rupture. Aneurysms that have been successfully excluded have shown a tendency

towards a reduction in aneurysm diameter. Failure to properly exclude the

aneurysm from systemic arterial blood pressure keeps the patient at risk of

impending rupture. Endoleaks have been classified according to the source of the

leaks. Current classifications of endoleaks include four categories. Type I

endoleaks are "perigraft" or "graft-related" leaks that involve a persistent channel

of blood flow due to inadequate or ineffective sealing at the ends of the

endovascular graft, or between overlapping components of a modular system. Type

II endoleaks are retrograde flow into the aneurysm sac from patent lumbar arteries,

the inferior mesenteric artery, or other collateral vessels. Type III endoleaks result

from fabric tears, graft disconnection, or graft disintegration. Finally, Type IN

endoleaks are flow through the graft fabric associated with graft wall porosity or permeability. Preoperative patent side branches are not a good predictor of

postoperative endoleaks.

A number of reported cases of aneurysm rupture following implantation of

an endovascular graft have been reported. Some of the ruptures occurred in

patients without a documented endoleak.

A number of studies have focused on measurement of pressure within the

aneurysm sac following implantation of an endovascular graft, both in the human

patient, an animal model, or an in vitro model. Properly implanted endovascular

grafts have been shown to reduce the pressure within the aneurysm sac while an

endoleak, with or without detectable blood flow, continues to pressurize the sac at

pressures equivalent to the systemic arterial pressure. Animal studies utilizing a

predictable rupturing aneurysm model have shown that non-excluded aneurysms

will rapture. Thrombosed aneurysm sacs may still receive pressurization from a

sealed endoleak and this continued pressurization keeps the aneurysm at risk for

rupture.

Current methods of patient follow-up include arteriography, contrast-

enhanced spiral computed tomography (CT), duplex ultrasonography, abdominal

X-ray, and intravascular ultrasound. All of these methods are costly and involve

invasive procedures that have associated morbidity. None of the imaging methods

are completely successful in detecting endoleaks. Therefore, the potential exists for

an endoleak to go undetected until eventual rupture. An increase in aneurysm diameter is detectable, and should be considered an indication of endoleak. To

avoid aneurysm rupture an increase in aneurysm diameter must be detected in a

timely fashion to identify patients in need of corrective surgical procedures.

An endovascular graft with the ability to measure pressure within the

aneurysm sac and provide feedback to the physician could identify those patients

with persistent pressurization of their aneurysm, and subsequent risk of rupture.

Some physicians are advocating that the follow-up examinations of AAA patients

focus on pressure measurements, but that this is not currently clinically feasible.

Accordingly, there exists a need for an endovascular graft that facilitates

non-invasive measurement of pressure, as well as other pertinent parameters, within

the aneurysm sac and along the endovascular graft itself as a means for identifying

patients at risk for aneurysm rupture after the endovascular graft is implanted. The

present invention addresses these and other needs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Briefly and in general terms, the present invention is embodied in an

endovascular graft with sensors attached thereto. The device will have the ability to

be delivered endovascularly and measure pertinent parameters within the excluded

AAA. The endovascular graft would have the ability to transmit data about intra-

sac parameters to an external monitoring device. Patient follow-up would be less

costly (conducted in the physician office), non-invasive, and more accurate,

allowing prompt intervention in those patients most at risk for acute rupture. The

invention would also allow for more frequent patient follow-up, increasing the

potential to diagnose and treat aneurysms at risk before acute rupture. The

invention is applicable to all applications of endovascular grafts to treat aneurysmal

segments of blood vessels. It is contemplated that the invention may be used with

all shapes of endovascular grafts known within the art.

In one embodiment, sensors are attached to the endovascular graft at the

superior end, inferior end and midsection. Measurements of pertinent parameters

and comparison of those measurements may allow early identification of areas of

the patient's vasculature at risk for aneurysm rupture, thrombus formation,

infection, inflamation or other anomalies without the need for invasive procedures.

In another embodiment, a pattern of sensors are attached to the

endovascular graft such that they cover the interior and exterior of the graft. The

pattern of sensors allow a complete profile of pertinent parameters along the endovascular graft to be obtained. Such a profile may provide more accurate

identification of anomalies.

Sensors with pressure measurement capability may be used to detect

pressure changes external the endovascular graft, in the aneurysm sac or in blood

flow through the interior of the endovascular graft indicative of graft failure, graft

kinking, or endoleak due to an inadequate seal between the endovascular graft and

the vasculature. Sensors with temperature measurement capability may be used to

detect temperature differentials associated with "hot spots" related to inflamation,

infection or thrombus formation in the vessel. Sensors with the capability to

measure oxygen and other blood constituents such as enzymes, proteins, and

nutrients, may be used to detect minute blood flow indicative of endoleak. Sensors

with the capability to measure electrical potential may be used to detect differences

in potential associated with areas of the vessel at risk for thrombus formation.

An antenna or other data transmitter and a power source may be attached

external the endovascular graft, allowing a physician or technician to monitor graft

and vessel health without the need for an invasive procedure. The transmitter

transmits measurements made by the sensors to a receiver located outside the

patient's body.

Other features and advantages of the present invention will become

apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the

invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a partial cross-sectional view of one embodiment of the invention

showing a generally tubular endovascular graft implanted across an aneurysm sac;

FIG. 2 is a partial cross-sectional view of an alternate embodiment of the

invention shown in FIG. 1 showing a partially assembled bifurcated endovascular

graft; and

FIGS. 3 is a perspective view of another embodiment of the invention

showing a bifurcated endovascular graft having an array of sensors on the external

and internal surfaces of the graft material.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As shown in the exemplary drawings and for purposes of illustration, the

invention is embodied in a prosthetic endovascular graft implant having the ability

to measure pertinent parameters inside and outside the graft material and transmit

the measurements to a receiver located external the patient within whom the

endovascular graft is implanted. In one aspect, the invention includes a graft with

sensors mounted on the external and internal surface that measure parameters such

as pressure, temperature or voltage. In another aspect the invention includes a

transmitter and energy source which facilitate transmission of parameters measured

by the sensors to a receiver located outside the patient' s body.

Referring to FIG. 1, an embodiment of the invention is shown in which a

generally tubular, including flared or tapered, endovascular graft 10 having a

superior end 12 and inferior end 14 is implanted in a body vessel 30 across an

aneurysm sac 32 with the superior end 12 secured above the aneurysm and the

inferior end 14 secured below the aneurysm. The endovascular graft 10 has sensors

16 attached external the superior 12 and inferior 14 ends. Additionally, the

endovascular graft 10 has sensors 18 attached internal the superior 12 and inferior

14 ends. Furthermore, the endovascular graft 10 has sensors 20 attached external

the midsection. Moreover, the endovascular graft 10 has a transmitter 22 and

power source 24 attached external the graft material in the area where the graft

traverses the aneurysm sac 32. The sensors 16, 18, 20 measure pertinent parameters inside and outside the endovascular graft and the power source 24 provides power

for the transmitter 22 which transmits the measurements to a receiver (not shown)

located outside the patient's body.

The transmitter 22, power source 24 and receiver (not shown) may be of

any type known in the art of surgical implants or other systems utilizing

miniaturized power sources and transmitters. The power source 24 and transmitter

22 , for example, may be of the type used in pacemaker technology or passive

power sources such as ultrasonically chargeable capacitors.

The sensors 16, 18, 20 of the invention shown in FIG. 1 may measure

pressure. These measurements may be used as an aid in endovascular graft 10

placement or to identify anomalies that occur after endovascular graft 10

implantation before aneurysm rupture occurs.

The sensors 16 external the superior 12 and inferior 14 ends of the

endovascular graft 10 may be used to detect changes in pressure resulting from

blood leakage between the endovascular graft 10 and the vessel wall 30, an

endoleak resulting from an inadequate seal between them. It is contemplated that

sensors 17 maybe located around the entire circumference of the superior 12 and

inferior 14 ends of the endovascular graft 10, thereby allowing the exact location of

an endoleak to be determined.

The sensors 18 internal the superior 12 and inferior 14 ends of the

endovascular graft 10 may be used to measure inlet and outlet pressure of blood flow therethrough. A pressure drop indicates an anomaly such as kinking of the

endovascular graft 10 or endoleak due to fabric tears or graft material

disintegration. It is also contemplated that sensors 19 may be located around the

entire circumference of the superior 12 and inferior 14 ends of the endovascular

graft 10.

The sensors 20 external the midsection of the endovascular graft 10 may

be used to measure pressure resulting from blood flow into the aneurysm sac 32, an

indication that endoleak has occurred and there is a risk of aneurysm rupture.

Because the sensors 20 are located in the area of the aneurysm sac 32, there are

multiple sensors 20 disbursed over the graft material outer wall since local

thrombus or calcification may shield one or more of the sensors 20 from blood

pressure and render their measurements erroneous.

Referring to FIG. 2, the embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 1 is

applied to a bifurcated endovascular graft 110 of the type known within the art.

The bifurcated endovascular graft 110 is assembled in- vivo from a tubular trunk

portion 40 and two limb portions 50 (only one is shown). The bifurcated

endovascular graft 110 is implanted in a body vessel 30 across an aneurysm sac 32

and into the contra-lateral 34 and ipsi-lateral 36 arteries using methods known

within the art.

The trunk portion 40 has a superior end 42 adapted to be secured above the

aneurysm and an inferior end 44 adapted to accept the limb portions 50. The trunk portion 40 has a transmitter 22, power source 24, and sensors 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

similar to those described with reference to FIG. 1.

Each limb portion 50 has a superior end 52 adapted to mate with the trunk

portion 40 inferior end 44 and an inferior end 54 adapted to be secured to the ipsi-

lateral 34 or contra-lateral 36 iliac artery. Each limb portion 50 also has a

transmitter 122, power source 124, and sensors 116, 117, 118, 119, 120 similar to

those described with reference to FIG. 1. The transmitter 122 and power source

124 facilitate transmission of parameters measured by the sensors 116, 117, 118,

119, 120 to a receiver (not shown) outside the patient's body.

The functions of some of the sensors are slightly different than those

previously described with reference to a tubular endovascular graft. The sensors

116 external the superior 52 end of a limb portion 50 may be used to detect pressure

changes resulting from blood leakage between the limb portion 50 and the trunk

portion 40, an endoleak resulting from an inadequate seal between the limb portion

50 superior end 52 and trunk portion 40 inferior end 14. The sensors 116 external

the inferior 54 end of a limb portion 50 may be used to detect pressure changes

resulting from blood leakage between the limb portion 50 and the ipsi-lateral 34 or

contra-lateral 36 iliac artery wall, an endoleak resulting from an inadequate seal

between the limb portion 50 inferior end 54 and vessel 30. The sensors 118

internal the superior 52 and inferior 54 ends of a limb portion 50 may be used to

measure inlet and outlet pressure of blood flow therethrough, with a pressure drop indicating an anomaly such as kinking of the limb portion 50 or endoleak due to

fabric tears or graft material disintegration. The sensors 120 external the

midsection of the limb portion 50 may be used to measure pressure resulting from

blood flow between the limb portion 50 and the wall of the ipsi-lateral 34 or contra-

lateral 36 iliac artery, an indication that endoleak has occurred due to inadequate

mating of the limb portion 50 superior end 52 and the trunk portion 40 inferior end

44.

Alternatively, the sensors of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may

measure temperature. Differences in temperature may identify "hot spots"

associated with infection, inflammation, thrombus formation or other anomalies

that indicate an increased risk for aneurysm rupture. Methods known in the art of

pathology and physiology may be used to relate temperature to changes in the

vessel walls within which the endovascular graft is implanted.

Alternatively, the sensors of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may

detect blood flow by measuring oxygen or other constituents, such as enzymes,

proteins and nutrients, which are altered by the presence of blood flow. Such

sensors may allow detection of minute blood flow, often missed by conventional

imaging modalities, and, therefore, allow endoleaks to be detected earlier. One

method is to obtain a baseline of the constituents upon implantation of the

endovascular graft. Thereafter, changes in the amount of the measured constituents

may be used to identify anomalies. Alternatively, the sensors of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may

measure electrical potential. Changes in electrical potential may identify areas of

the patient's vasculature that are at risk for thrombus formation.

It is contemplated that the number of transmitters, power sources and

sensors shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may be varied to meet the requirements of the

individual patient. It is further contemplated that sensors which measure different

pertinent parameters may be used together. Moreover, it is contemplated that the

invention shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 may be utilized in any type of endovascular graft

implant known in the art.

Referring to FIG. 3, another embodiment of the invention is shown in

which miniature sensors 216, 218 are arranged as an array covering the interior and

exterior of the surface of the endovascular graft 210. The array of sensors 216, 218

provides a complete profile of pertinent parameters over the entire surface of the

endovascular graft and, therefore, facilitates better identification of anomalies. The

transmitter 222, power source 224 and external receiver (not shown) allow the

measured parameters to be received and monitored outside the patient's body. The

array of sensors 216, 218 may spiral around the graft material in between the

weaves of fabric and consist of a strip of sensors, continuous strip of wire or other

apparatus known in the art.

It is contemplated that the location and number of transmitters, power

sources and sensors shown in FIG. 3 may be varied to meet the requirements of the individual patient. It is further contemplated that the array of sensors 216, 218 may

contain sensors capable of measuring pressure, temperature, blood flow, electrical

potential, or any combination thereof. Moreover, it is contemplated that the

invention shown in FIG. 3 may be utilized in any type of endovascular graft implant

known in the art.

While several particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and

described, it will be apparent that various modifications can be made without

departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended

that the invention be limited, except as by the appended claims.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5967986 *25 Nov 199719 Oct 1999Vascusense, Inc.Endoluminal implant with fluid flow sensing capability
US6416474 *10 Mar 20009 Jul 2002Ramon Medical Technologies Ltd.Systems and methods for deploying a biosensor in conjunction with a prosthesis
US6442413 *15 May 200027 Aug 2002James H. SilverImplantable sensor
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *See also references of EP1511446A4
Classifications
International ClassificationA61F2/06, A61B5/0215, A61F2/02, A61B5/00, A61B5/07, A61B5/026
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2002/065, Y10S623/912, A61B5/02014, A61B5/026, A61B5/1459, A61B5/0215, A61B5/076, A61F2250/0002, A61B5/01, A61F2/07, A61F2002/075, A61F2/89
European ClassificationA61F2/07, A61B5/02D2, A61B5/07D
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