|Publication number||USRE42781 E1|
|Application number||US 12/887,731|
|Publication date||4 Oct 2011|
|Filing date||22 Sep 2010|
|Priority date||29 Nov 2005|
|Also published as||CA2628006A1, CA2628006C, CN101317121A, CN101317121B, DE602006020225D1, EP1791014A1, EP1791014B1, EP2251733A1, EP2251733B1, US7427134, US20070121063, WO2007063365A1|
|Publication number||12887731, 887731, US RE42781 E1, US RE42781E1, US-E1-RE42781, USRE42781 E1, USRE42781E1|
|Inventors||Bernard Bourdoncle, Bruno Decreton|
|Original Assignee||Essilor Internationale (Compagnie Generale D'optique)|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (34), Non-Patent Citations (3), Classifications (12), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Pursuant to U.S.C. § 119, this application claims the benefit of French Patent Application 05 12 063, filed Nov. 29, 2005. The contents of the prior application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
This invention relates to an ophthalmic lens.
Any ophthalmic lens intended to be held in a frame involves a prescription. The ophthalmic prescription can include a positive or negative power prescription as well as an astigmatism prescription. These prescriptions correspond to corrections enabling the wearer of the lenses to correct defects of his vision. A lens is fitted in the frame in accordance with the prescription and with the position of the wearer's eyes relative to the frame.
In the simplest cases, the prescription is nothing more than a power prescription. The lens is said to be unifocal and has a rotational symmetry. It is fitted in a simple manner in the frame so that the principal viewing direction of the wearer coincides with the axis of symmetry of the lens.
For presbyopic wearers, the value of the power correction is different for far vision and near vision, due to the difficulties of accommodation in near vision. The prescription thus comprises a far-vision power value and an addition (or power progression) representing the power increment between far vision and near vision; this comes down to a far-vision power prescription and a near-vision power prescription. Lenses suitable for presbyopic wearers are progressive multifocal lenses; these lenses are described for example in FR-A-2 699 294, U.S. Pat. No. 5,270,745 or U.S. Pat. No. 5,272,495, FR-A-2 683 642, FR-A-2 699 294 or also FR-A-2 704 327. Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lenses include a far-vision zone, a near-vision zone and an intermediate-vision zone, a principal progression meridian crossing these three zones. They are generally determined by optimization, based on a certain number of constraints imposed on the different characteristics of the lens. These lenses are all-purpose lenses in that they are adapted to the different needs of the wearer at the time.
Families of progressive multifocal lenses are defined, each lens of a family being characterized by an addition which corresponds to the power variation between the far-vision zone and the near-vision zone. More precisely, the addition, referenced A, corresponds to the power variation between a point FV of the far-vision zone and a point NV of the near-vision zone, which are respectively called far-vision control point and near-vision control point, and which represent the points of intersection of viewing with the surface of the lens for far distance vision and for reading vision.
In one family of lenses the addition varies from one lens to the other in the family between a minimum addition value and a maximum addition value of 0.25 diopter and by 0.25 diopter from one lens to the other in the family.
Lenses with the same addition differ in the value of the mean sphere at a reference point, also called a base. It is possible to choose for example to measure the base at the point FV for measuring far vision. Thus the choice of a pair (addition, base) defines a group or set of aspherical front faces for progressive multifocal lenses. Generally, it is thus possible to define 5 base values and 12 addition values, i.e. sixty front faces. In each of the bases an optimization is carried out for a given power. Starting from semi-finished lenses, of which only the front face is formed, this known method makes it possible to prepare lenses suited to each wearer, by simple machining of a spherical or toric rear face.
Progressive multifocal lenses thus usually comprise an aspherical front face, which is the face away from the person wearing the glasses and a rear spherical or toric face directed towards the person wearing the glasses. This spherical or toric face allows the lens to be adapted to the user's ametropia, so that a progressive multifocal lens is generally defined only by its aspherical surface. As is well known, an aspherical surface is generally defined by the altitude of all of its points. The parameters constituted by the minimum and maximum curvatures at each point are also used, or more commonly their half-sum and their difference. This half-sum and this difference multiplied by a factor n−1, n being the refractive index of the lens material, are called mean sphere and cylinder.
A progressive multifocal lens can thus be defined, at every point on its complex surface, by geometric characteristics including a mean sphere value and a cylinder value, given by the following formulae.
In a manner known per se, at any point of a complex surface, a mean sphere D given by the formula:
is defined, where R1 and R2 are the maximum and minimum local radii of curvature expressed in meters, and n is the index of the material constituting the lens.
A cylinder C, given by the formula:
is thus defined.
The characteristics of the complex face of the lens can be expressed using the mean sphere and the cylinder.
Moreover, a progressive multifocal lens can also be defined by optical characteristics taking into account the situation of the wearer of the lenses. In fact, the laws of the optics of ray tracings mean that optical defects appear when the rays deviate from the central axis of any lens. Conventionally, the aberrations known as power defects and astigmatism defects are considered. These optical aberrations can be generically called obliquity defects of rays.
Obliquity defects of rays have already been clearly identified in the prior art and improvements have been proposed. For example, the document WO-A-98 12590 describes a method for determination by optimization of a set of progressive multifocal ophthalmic lenses. This document proposes defining the set of lenses in consideration of the optical characteristics of the lenses and in particular the wearer power and oblique astigmatism under wearing conditions. The lens is optimized by ray tracing, using an ergorama linking a target object point with each direction of viewing under wearing conditions.
EP-A-0 990 939 also proposes to determine a lens by optimization taking into account the optical characteristics instead of the surface characteristics of the lens. For this purpose the characteristics of an average wearer are considered, in particular as regards the position of the lens in front of the eye of the wearer in terms of curving contour, pantoscopic angle and lens-eye distance.
It is thus possible to consider, in addition to the obliquity defects of rays described previously, the so-called higher order optical aberration such as spherical aberrations or coma by studying the deformations which are undergone by a non-aberrant spherical wave front passing through the lens.
It is considered that the eye rotates behind the lens in order to sweep over all of its surface. Thus, at each point, an optical system composed of the eye and the lens is considered, as will be explained in detail below with reference to
In each of these successive positions, the aberrations undergone by the wave front which passes through the lens and is limited by the pupil of the eye are calculated.
The spherical aberration results for example from the fact that the rays which pass at the edge of the pupil do not converge in the same plane as the rays which pass close to its centre. Moreover, the coma represents the fact that the image of a point situated outside the axis has a tail, due to the power variation of the optical system. Reference can be made to the article by R. G. Dorsch and P. Baumbach, “Coma and Design Characteristics of Progressive Addition Lenses” R. G. Dorsch, P. Baumbach, Vision Science and Its Applications, Santa Fe, February 1998 which describes the effects of coma on a progressive multifocal lens.
The deformations of the wave front passing through the multifocal lens can be described in a global manner by the root mean square or RMS. The RMS is generally expressed in microns (μm) and, for each point on the complex surface, indicates the difference in the resulting wave front relative to a non-aberrant wave front. The invention proposes controlling the RMS value in order to determine a progressive multifocal lens defined by its optical characteristics under wearing conditions in order to limit the optical aberrations perceived by the eye.
In particular when the progressive multifocal lens has a large power addition, for example greater than or equal to 1.5 diopters, the aberrations affecting the wave front become more significant due to the power progression between the far-vision zone and the near-vision zone. These optical aberrations perceived by the wearer adversely affect the comfort in peripheral vision and in dynamic vision. A need therefore exists for a progressive multifocal lens which better satisfies the needs of wearers.
The invention proposes a progressive multifocal lens which is easier to adapt to than the standard ophthalmic lenses; it has a very smooth power progression in order to provide the wearer with excellent perception in dynamic vision and in peripheral vision. It is proposed to limit the RMS over the whole of a central zone of the lens while guaranteeing good accessibility to the powers required in near vision. Such a lens is particularly suitable for the comfort of hypermetropic wearers who require a large power addition, greater than or equal to 1.5 diopters.
Consequently, the invention proposes a progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with a complex surface having:
a prism reference point;
a fitting cross situated 8° above the prism reference point;
a substantially umbilical progression meridian having a power addition greater than or equal to 1.5 diopters between a far-vision reference point and a near-vision reference point;
the lens having, under wearing conditions and with reference to a plane prescription in far vision by adjustment of the radii of curvature of at least one of its faces:
a reduced root mean square, normalized to the addition prescription, of less than 0.65 microns per diopter, in a zone delimited by a circle centred on the prism reference point and with a diameter corresponding to a sweep of vision of 80°, the reduced root mean square being calculated by cancelling the coefficients of the order of 1 and the coefficient of the order of 2 corresponding to the defocusing in the decomposition into Zernicke polynomials of a wave front passing through the lens;
According to one characteristic, the root mean square difference between two symmetrical points in said semi-circle is less than or equal to 0.12 microns per diopter below a substantially horizontal line situated 8° above the fitting cross.
According to one characteristic, the semi-circle has a base which is substantially horizontal passing through the fitting cross.
According to one characteristic, the axis of symmetry of the semi-circle substantially coincides with the progression meridian.
The invention also relates to a visual device including at least one lens according to the invention and a method for correcting the vision of a presbyopic subject, which comprises providing the subject with, or the wearing by the subject of, such a device.
Other advantages and characteristics of the invention will become apparent on reading the following description of the embodiments of the invention, given by way of example and with reference to the drawings which show:
In a conventional manner, for a given lens, characteristic optical variables are defined, namely a power and an astigmatism, under conditions when being worn.
A given viewing direction—represented by a solid line in FIG. 1—corresponds to a position of the eye in rotation about Q′ and to a point J on the sphere of the vertices; a viewing direction can also be marked, in spherical coordinates, by two angles α and β. The angle α is the angle formed between the axis Q′F′ and the projection of the straight line Q′J over the horizontal plane containing the axis Q′F′; this angle appears in the diagram of
In a given viewing direction, the image of a point M in the object space situated at a given object distance forms between two points S and T corresponding to minimum and maximum distances JS and JT (which are sagittal and tangential focal distances in the case of revolution surfaces, and of a point M at infinity) The angle γ marked as the axis of astigmatism is the angle formed by the image corresponding to the smallest distance with the axis (zm), in the plane (zm,ym) defined with reference to
Using these data, an optical power of the wearer and an astigmatism can be defined in each viewing direction. For a viewing direction (α,β), an object point M at an object distance given by the ergorama is considered. The points S and T between which the image of the object forms are determined. The image proximity IP is then given by
while the object proximity OP is given by
The power is defined as the sum of the object and image proximities, i.e.
The amplitude of the astigmatism is given by
The angle of the astigmatism is the angle γ defined above: it is the angle measured in a reference frame linked to the eye, relative to the direction zm, with which the image T forms, in the plane (zm,ym). These definitions of power and of astigmatism are optical definitions, under wearing conditions and in a reference frame linked to the eye. Qualitatively, the thus-defined power and astigmatism correspond to the characteristics of a thin lens, which, fitted instead of the lens in the viewing direction, provides the same images locally. It is noted that, in the primary viewing direction, the definition provides the standard value of the astigmatism prescription. Such a prescription is produced by the ophthalmologist, in far vision, in the form of a pair formed by an axis value (in degrees) and an amplitude value (in diopters).
The thus-defined power and astigmatism can be experimentally measured on the lens using a frontofocometer; they can also be calculated by ray tracing under wearing conditions.
The invention proposes to consider not only the standard aberrations of the wave front, namely the power and the astigmatism, but to take into account all of the higher order aberrations which affect the wave front.
The invention thus proposes a progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens having the advantages of an excellent perception in dynamic vision and in peripheral vision while limiting the optical aberrations in a central zone of the lens covering the far-vision zone, the near-vision zone and the intermediate-vision zone. The proposed solution also provides a good accessibility to the powers required in near vision, allowing the wearer to see satisfactorily at distances equal to approximately 40 cm without obliging him to lower his eyes very much, the near-vision zone being accessible from 25° below the fitting cross. The lens has a prescription such that the powers prescribed for the wearer in far vision and in near vision are achieved on the lens. The proposed lens is particularly suited to hypermetropic wearers, but it may also be intended for myopic or emmetropic wearers. In each of the figures below, the case of nil power in far vision is considered, which corresponds to emmetropic wearers.
The lens according to the invention is described below with reference to two embodiments and compared with a lens of the prior art which does not satisfy the criteria of the invention (
The lens of
The lens has a substantially umbilical line, called a meridian, on which the astigmatism is practically nil. The meridian coincides with the vertical axis in the upper part of the lens and has an inclination on the nasal side in the lower part of the lens, the convergence being more marked in near vision. In the lenses of the applicant, the meridian represents the line of intersection of the viewing and the lens when the wearer looks ahead from a point in the far distance to a target point in near vision.
The figures show the meridian as well as reference points on the lens. The fitting cross FC of the lens can be geometrically marked on the lens by a cross or any other mark such as a point surrounded by a circle produced on the lens, or by any other appropriate means; this is a centring point produced on the lens which is used by the optician to fit the lens in the frame. In spherical coordinates, the fitting cross FC has the coordinates (0,0) as it corresponds to the point of intersection of the front face of the lens and the primary viewing direction, as defined previously. The far-vision control point FV is situated on the meridian and corresponds to a raised viewing of 8° above the fitting cross; the far-vision control point FV has the coordinates)(0,−8°) in the predefined spherical reference. The near-vision control point NV is situated on the meridian and corresponds to a lowered viewing of 35° below the fitting cross; the near-vision control point NV has the coordinates (6°,35°) in the predefined spherical coordinate system.
A lens also has a prism reference point PRP corresponding to the geometrical centre of the lens. On the lens of the applicant, the fitting cross FC is situated 8° above the prism reference point; or, in the case of a surface characterization of the lens, 4 mm above the geometrical centre (0,0) of the lens.
It is then possible to note in
The intermediate-vision zone generally begins, for a progressive multifocal lens, at the fitting cross FC; it is here that the power progression begins. Thus the optical power increases, from the fitting cross to the near-vision control point NV, for values of the angle β of 0 to 35°. For angle values beyond 35°, the optical power becomes substantially constant again, with a value of 2.11 diopters. It is noted that the progression of optical power of the wearer (2.17 diopters) is greater than the prescribed power addition A (2 diopters). This difference in power value is due to the oblique effects.
It is possible to define on a lens a progression length PL which is the angular distance—or the difference in ordinates—between the fitting cross FC and a point on the meridian at which the power progression reaches 85% of the prescribed power addition A. In the example of
The lens according to the invention thus has a good accessibility to the powers required in near vision with a moderate lowered vision, less than or equal to 25°. This accessibility guarantees comfortable use of the near-vision zone.
A possible fitting in order to measure the aberrations of a wave front passing through the lens as perceived by the eye of the wearer is described in the article by Eloy A. Villegas and Pablo Artal, “Spatially Resolved Wavefront Aberrations of Ophthalmic Progressive-Power Lenses in Normal Viewing Conditions”, Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 80, No. 2, February 2003.
In a known manner, a wave front which has passed through an aspherical surface can be decomposed by Zernicke polynomials. More precisely, a wave surface can be approximated by a linear combination of polynomials of the type:
z(x, y, z)=Σiaipi 9x, y, z)
where the Pi are Zernicke polynomials and the ai are real coefficients.
The decomposition of the wave front into Zernicke polynomials and the calculation of the aberrations of the wave front were standardized by the Optical Society of America; the standard being available on the web site of Harvard University ftp://color.eri.harvard.edu/standardization/Standards TOPS4.pdf.
The RMS is calculated in this way, under wearing conditions. The RMS is then reduced, i.e. the coefficients of order 1—which correspond to the prismatic effects—and the coefficient of order 2 corresponding to the defocusing in the decomposition of the wave front into Zemicke Zernicke polynomials are cancelled. The optical aberrations caused by power defects are therefore not included in the calculation of reduced RMS; on the other hand the coefficients of order 2 corresponding to the residual astigmatism of the lens are retained. The RMS is then normalized, i.e. divided by the prescribed power addition.
A semi-circle centred on the fitting cross FC and including the far-vision control point is also marked out in
In the zone delimited by this semi-circle, the difference in normalized reduced RMS on either side of the axis of symmetry is less than 0.12 microns per diopter.
The lens according to the invention also has a small difference in normalized reduced RMS between the temporal and nasal parts of the far vision zone. This characteristic ensures optimal wearer comfort in far vision. In fact, when the wearer looks into the distance by shifting his eyes slightly horizontally, he looks through the nasal part of a lens with one eye and through the temporal part of the other lens with the other eye. For good binocular balance it is important that the perspective qualities are substantially the same for both eyes, i.e. that the optical aberrations perceived by each eye are substantially the same. By guaranteeing normalized reduced RMS values which are substantially symmetrical on either side of a vertical axis in far vision it is ensured that the wearer's left eye and right eye encounter substantially the same optical defects, which ensures a good balance of perception between the two eyes.
A substantially horizontal line situated 8° above the fitting cross—i.e. approximately 4 mm above the fitting cross in surface characterization of the lens, is also marked out in
In said semi-circle and beneath said horizontal line, the difference in normalized reduced RMS between the nasal and temporal zones is less than 0.12 microns per diopter. This very small difference in normalized reduced RMS value allows optimal comfort in binocular vision because it is this horizontal zone just above the fitting cross which is most used by a wearer when he looks at a point in far vision while moving his eyes laterally behind his lenses.
The lens of
The lens of
A smooth and regular variation in the power between the far-vision zone and the near-vision zone compared with
A regular and symmetrical distribution of the isoastigmatism lines on either side of the meridian as well as lower levels of astigmatism compared with
The lens according to the invention is prescribed by considering the prescriptions of the wearer in far vision and in near vision which determines the necessary addition. When the complex surface is on the front face of the lens, the necessary power can be obtained, as in the state of the art, by machining the rear face in order to ensure that the power is identical to the prescribed power.
The fitting of the lens in a visual device can take place in the following manner. The horizontal position of the wearer's pupil in far vision is measured, i.e. the interpupillary half-distance only, and the overall height of the dimensions of the frame of the visual device is determined. The lens is then fitted in the visual device with the fitting cross positioned in the measured position.
In this regard reference can be made to the patent application FR-A-2 807 169 describing a simplified method for fitting ophthalmic lenses in a frame. This document in particular describes the different measurements made by opticians and proposes to measure only the interpupillary half-distance in order to carry out the fitting of the lenses in the frame using the overall height of the dimensions of the frame.
The fitting of the lens therefore only requires a standard measurement of the interpupillary half-distance for far vision as well as a measurement of the height of the dimensions of the frame in order to determine the height at which the fitting cross must be placed in the frame. The lens is then cut out and fitted in the frame in such a way that the fitting cross is situated in a determined position. The determination of the vertical position of the fitting cross can of course be carried out in a standard manner through measurement of the fitting height by measuring the position in the frame of the subject's vision in far vision; this measurement takes place in a standard manner, the subject wearing the frame and looking into the far distance.
The lens according to the invention allows improved tolerance for the fitting described above. This tolerance is provided by limiting the optical aberrations around the fitting cross. In particular the normalized reduced RMS value and the differences in normalized reduced RMS symmetry are limited around the fitting cross.
The lens described above can be obtained by optimization of a surface according to the optimization methods known per se and described in the above-mentioned documents of the state of the art relating to progressive multifocal lenses. In particular optimization software is used in order to calculate the optical characteristics of the lens-eye system with a predetermined merit function. For the optimization, one or more of the criteria set out in the above description can be used, and in particular:
a reduced RMS normalized to the addition prescription of less than 0.65 microns per diopter, in a zone delimited by a circle centred on the prism reference point PRP and with a diameter corresponding to a sweep of vision of 80°.
a progression length less than or equal to 25°,
a difference in normalized reduced RMS of less than 0.12 microns per diopter, calculated in absolute values as the difference in normalized reduced RMS values between pairs of symmetrical points relative to a vertical axis passing through the fitting cross, in a zone including the far-vision control point FV and delimited by a semi-circle centred on the fitting cross FC and with a radius corresponding to raising viewing by 25°.
These criteria can be combined with others and in particular with a difference in normalized reduced RMS of less than or equal to 0.12 microns per diopter below a substantially horizontal line situated 8° above the fitting cross.
The choice of these criteria makes it possible to obtain a lens by optimization. A person skilled in the art readily understands that the lens in question does not necessarily have values corresponding exactly to the set criteria; for example, it is not essential for the upper value of the normalized reduced RMS to be obtained.
In the above examples of optimization it is proposed to optimize only one of the faces of the lenses. It is clear that in all of these examples, the roles of the front and rear surfaces can easily be switched once optical targets similar to those of the lens described are obtained.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4854689 *||8 Oct 1986||8 Aug 1989||Essilor International Compagnie Generale D'optique||Progressive ophthalmic lens|
|US5270745 *||28 Oct 1992||14 Dec 1993||Essilor International (Compagnie Generale D'optique)||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US5272495 *||28 Oct 1992||21 Dec 1993||Essilor International (Compagnie Generale D'optique)||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US5488442 *||18 Nov 1993||30 Jan 1996||Essilor International||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US5812238 *||8 Apr 1997||22 Sep 1998||Essilor International||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens pair|
|US5949519 *||17 Jul 1998||7 Sep 1999||Essilor International||Multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US6102544 *||29 Jun 1999||15 Aug 2000||Essilor International||Multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US6116734 *||5 Aug 1998||12 Sep 2000||Essilor International||Ophthalmic lens|
|US6260967 *||9 Sep 1998||17 Jul 2001||Sola International Holdings Ltd.||Progressive lens|
|US6318859 *||9 Sep 1997||20 Nov 2001||Essilor International||Set of progressive multifocal ophthalmic lenses|
|US6382789 *||23 Sep 1999||7 May 2002||Essilor International||Toric ophthalmic lenses|
|US6540354 *||2 Sep 1999||1 Apr 2003||Essilor International||Multifocal ophthalmic lens|
|US6595637 *||16 May 2001||22 Jul 2003||Essilor International||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with fast power variation|
|US6595638 *||31 Jan 2002||22 Jul 2003||Essilor International||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with rapid power variation|
|US6652096 *||31 May 2000||25 Nov 2003||Sola International Holdings, Ltd.||Progressive lens|
|US6682194 *||31 Jan 2002||27 Jan 2004||Essilor International||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with rapid power variation|
|US6793340 *||29 Sep 2000||21 Sep 2004||Sola International Holdings, Ltd.||Progressive lens|
|US7052133 *||19 May 2004||30 May 2006||Novartis Ag||Contact lenses|
|US7066597 *||4 Dec 2002||27 Jun 2006||Sola International Holdings Limited||Balanced progressive lens|
|US7207675 *||14 Jun 2006||24 Apr 2007||Essilor International||Ophthalmic lens|
|US7413303 *||8 Jun 2006||19 Aug 2008||Essilor International (Compagnie Generale D'optique)||Ophthalmic lens|
|US20020171803 *||16 May 2001||21 Nov 2002||Francoise Ahsbahs||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with fast power variation|
|US20020176048 *||31 Jan 2002||28 Nov 2002||Francoise Ahsbahs||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with rapid power variation|
|US20020180928 *||31 Jan 2002||5 Dec 2002||Francoise Ahsbahs||Progressive multifocal ophthalmic lens with rapid power variation|
|US20030156251 *||25 Oct 2002||21 Aug 2003||Optische Werke G. Rodenstock||Progressive spectacle lens with low swaying effects|
|US20040263778 *||26 Jun 2003||30 Dec 2004||Wooley C. Benjamin||Method for designing progressive addition lenses|
|EP0990939A1 *||17 Sep 1999||5 Apr 2000||Essilor International (Compagnie Generale D'optique)||Toric ophthalmic lenses|
|FR2683642A1 *||Title not available|
|FR2699294A1 *||Title not available|
|FR2704327A1 *||Title not available|
|FR2770000A1 *||Title not available|
|GB2277997A *||Title not available|
|WO1998012590A1 *||9 Sep 1997||26 Mar 1998||Thierry Baudart||Set of progressive multifocal ophthalmic lenses|
|WO2003048841A1 *||4 Dec 2002||12 Jun 2003||Sola Int Holdings||Balanced progressive lens|
|1||*||Eloy, A. Villegas et al., "Spatially Resolved Wavefront Aberrations of Ophthalmic Progressive-Power Lenses in Normal Viewing Conditions", Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 80, No. 2, pp. 106-114 (Feb. 2003).|
|2||*||Rainer G Dorsch et al., "Coma and Design Characteristics of Progressive Addition Lenses", Vision Science and Its Applications, Tehnical Digest Series vol. 1, Santa Fe, New Mexico pp. SaA3-1/68-SaA3-4/71 (Feb. 6-9, 1998).|
|3||*||W.N. Charman et al., "Astigmatism, Accomodation, and Visual Instrumentation", Applied Optics, vol. 17, No. 24, pp. 3903-3910 (Dec. 15, 1978).|
|U.S. Classification||351/159.17, 351/159.78|
|Cooperative Classification||G02C7/025, G02C2202/22, G02C7/028, G02C7/065, G02C7/061|
|European Classification||G02C7/02D2, G02C7/02D6, G02C7/06P, G02C7/06P2L|