|Publication number||USRE39909 E1|
|Application number||US 10/899,425|
|Publication date||6 Nov 2007|
|Filing date||27 Jul 2004|
|Priority date||10 Sep 1997|
|Publication number||10899425, 899425, US RE39909 E1, US RE39909E1, US-E1-RE39909, USRE39909 E1, USRE39909E1|
|Inventors||John E. Taylor, Jr.|
|Original Assignee||Michelle Enterprises, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (60), Non-Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (46), Classifications (32), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/317,080, filed Dec. 12, 2002, now Reissue Patent 38,838, which application is a reissue of application Ser. No. 09/229,023, filed on Jan. 12, 1999, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,160,481, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/926,746, filed on Sep. 10, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,867,103.
1. Field of the Invention
Generally, the invention relates to monitoring of persons. More specifically, the invention relates to such monitoring wherein at least one monitored person has a portable monitoring device attached thereto.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Our society has been compelled to confine individuals as a result of their behavior which has been deemed unacceptable to the best interest of society. Historically, such confinement has occurred at centralized locations where numerous confinements occur simultaneously. It is expensive for society to maintain such centralized locations due primarily to construction cost, upkeep cost, supervisory personnel expense and medical care for the persons being confined. These persons being confined represent both those convicted of committing a crime as well as those accused of committing a crime, but awaiting trial.
Our society has begun to seek alternative means of confining those individuals convicted of committing a crime or accused of committing a crime while awaiting trail where those individuals are deemed to be non-violent. Parole, probation and house arrest programs have existed for some time and are being extensively utilized by the justice system for certain type of crimes.
Additionally, our society has recently made progress toward restricting the activities of certain habitual offenders of certain type of crimes even following completion of court appointed sentences. These restrictions are coming in the form of civil actions as compared to criminal actions. Some circumstances require continued conventional confinement while others require site confinement or other monitoring of activities. Examples of such crimes include child molestation and other sex crimes.
People produce certain bodily signals which may be detected and measured by equipment. Examples of these bodily signals include blood pressure, hear beat rate, respiration rate, body temperature, blood oxygen level and blood alcohol level. Such bodily signals may be measured to determine a specific base line measurement for a respective person. Such base line measurements may then be redefined, if desired, on a periodic basis. Certain bodily functions, and therefore measurements taken thereof, vary depending upon the activity engaged in at the time of measurement. Therefore, such measurements will involuntarily change when the individual is engaging in activities which are generally prohibited to the population or specifically prohibited to the individual. The mere fact that a specific individual is aware that monitoring is occurring will tend to dissuade the individual from engaging in prohibited behavior.
Referring now specifically to site confinement, a common type of monitoring system, it is conventionally known to provide for such site confinement of individuals wherein means are provided within the respective system to indicate that a respective individual has violated boundaries of their respective site. Several of these systems include means to detect tampering with various elements of the system.
The most common type of such a site confinement system comprises three devices being a central processing unit, at least one transportable device and at least one base unit. The transportable device, which securely attaches to the individual being confined, comprises communication means to communicate with the base unit. The base unit, which is positioned within the boundaries of the confinement site, comprises two types of communication means. The first of the communication means allows the base unit to communicate with the transportable device. The second of the communication means allows the base unit to communicate with the central processing unit. Generally, this communication is over a ground based telephone system. When communication is not present between the transportable device and the base unit, the base unit, utilizing the second communication means, communicates with the central processing unit to notify an oversight authority of a possible violation of the confinement by the individual. As can readily be seen such systems have a general deficiency in that they are bound to a single designated site location. Several systems have been proposed which allow for a wider tracking of individuals.
As can be seen various attempts have been made to provide for a method of restricting the activities of certain individuals. These attempts have been less efficient than desired. As such, it may be appreciated that there continues to be a need for a system which may monitor at least one individual without relying upon limitations associated with site boundaries. The present invention substantially fulfills these needs.
In view of the foregoing disadvantages inherent in the known types of monitoring systems, your applicant has devised a system which provides for monitoring of a plurality of monitored persons. A first embodiment of a system has a portable monitoring device for each of the monitored persons, means to acquire a transmission, means to create a bodily signal reference indicative of a physiological sign of the monitored person and means to store within a database a series of the bodily signal references. Each of the portable monitoring devices further has means to provide for attachment to the respective monitored person, means for detecting a bodily signal produced by the monitored person and means for transmitting a signal. A second embodiment of a system has a portable monitoring device for each of the monitored persons, means to acquire a transmission, means to determine a status of a respective portable monitoring device, a conditional database, means to compare a status of the respective portable monitoring device and means to activate an intervention. Each of the portable monitoring devices further has means to provide for secure attachment to the respective monitored person, means to detect tampering with the portable monitoring device, means to receive a distinct signal, means for transmitting a signal and means to intervene mechanically.
My invention resides not in any one of these features per se, but rather in the particular combinations of them herein disclosed and it is distinguished from the prior art in these particular combinations of these structures for the functions specified.
There has thus been outlined, rather broadly, the more important features of the invention in order that the detailed description thereof that follows may be better understood, and in order that the present contribution to the art may be better appreciated. There are, of course, additional features of the invention that will be described hereinafter and which will form the subject matter of the claims appended hereto. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the conception, upon which this disclosure is based, may readily be utilized as a basis for the designing of other structures, methods and systems for carrying out the several purposes of the present invention. It is important, therefore, that the claims be regarded as including such equivalent constructions insofar as they do not depart from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
It is therefore a primary object of the present invention to provide for a portable monitoring of individuals.
Other objects include;
These together with other objects of the invention, along with the various features of novelty which characterize the invention, are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this disclosure. For a better understanding of the invention, its operating advantages and the specific objects attained by its uses, reference should be had to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter in which there is illustrated the preferred embodiments of the invention.
The invention will be better understood and objects other than those set forth above will become apparent when consideration is given to the following detailed description thereof. Such description makes reference to the annexed drawings wherein;
FIG. 8a and
FIG. 13a through
FIG. 19a and
Many different systems having features of the present invention are possible. The following description describes the preferred embodiment of select features of those systems and various combinations thereof. These features may be deployed in various combinations to arrive at various desired working configurations of systems.
Referring is hereafter made to the drawings where like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the various views.
It is a requirement of the present invention that a central location, or locations, be provided which will receive communication from and/or send communication to at least select deployed components of any specific deployed system. This communication will be specific to the overall configuration of the specific deployed system. Generally, the central location will; receive communication from deployed components and/or send communication to deployed components and/or store information and/or perform computational calculations on information and/or allow access to information by supervisory personnel. While the central location may be dedicated to a monitoring of a system of the present invention it is possible that the central location may be non-dedicated, or have a primary purpose other than monitoring the system of the present invention. Examples of such non-dedicated central locations include public and private institutions such as police stations, fire department stations, existing burglar alarm monitoring locations, hospitals, retirement homes, nursing homes and schools.
Detached Sending Units
In certain deployments it is a requirement that a method exist to provide for making a determination of a location of at least select members of the portable monitoring devices attached to respective monitored persons. To this end, a signal, or signals, must be produced by at least one detached sending unit. This signal, or signals, is subsequently received by at least one other component of the system wherein an eventuation is made to provide for a determination of the location of a respective portable monitoring device attached to a respective monitored person. The detached sending units may be fixed ground based, moveable ground based, orbital or a combination thereof.
It is a requirement that the central location(s) be capable of communicating with respective portable monitoring devices. This communication may be either from the central location to respective portable monitoring devices, from respective portable monitoring devices to the central location or both. Preferably, such communication involves wireless communication utilizing either a ground based system or an orbital system or both. Many such systems are conventionally known in the art and many of these systems may be utilized for the present invention. Additionally, for the sake of economics, it is desirable to have such communication transfers utilize, at least partially, existing ground based communication systems as exampled by phone lines.
Portable Monitoring Device
It is a requirement of the present invention that a portable monitoring device by provided for each monitored person. It is a strong desire that the portable monitoring device comprise; means to attach the portable monitoring device to the monitored person and control means. In certain deployments the portable monitoring device will further comprises additional features in various combinations. Three of these features comprise; means to detect tampering with the portable monitoring device, means to receive a signal and means to send a signal.
Alternatively, it is possible to provide for a combination of a portable monitoring device as defined above and a secondary transportable device. In such a combination certain functions may be performed by the secondary transportable device thus eliminating the requirement of providing structures on or in the portable monitoring device to perform those functions. This provides for a reduction in the required weight of the portable monitoring device, which must be attached to the monitored person, without loss of the otherwise desired function. One example of such a combination povides for structures to provide for short range communication between the portable monitoring device and the secondary transportable device while providing bulkier structures on the secondary transportable device to provide for transmission of a signal for eventual transfer to the central location.
The art is rich with similar devices, and combinations of devices, for usage within various systems, as exampled by those systems designed to provide for site confinement of individuals. Many of these devices conventionally known in the art may be modified to be employed for the present invention.
The means to secure may involve surrounding engagement of a portion of the body of the monitored person or may involve implantation. The preferred method of securement is the surrounding engagement method. The most obvious attachment locations for such attachment being around a wrist, around an arm, around an ankle, around a leg, around the chest, around the waist or around the neck. Implantation is possible, though less desirable due to power supply requirements.
FIG. 1 and
The means to detect tampering, where the securing means involve surrounding engagement of a portion of the body of the monitored person, will require that the surrounding band retain its prior integrity. This will involve means to ensure that the surrounding band is intact and, if connected to a housing, that such connections are intact. Without regard for the specific securing means employed, it is a strong desire that means be provided to detect any tampering with the housing containing the equipment.
In certain deployments it is desirable to provide for a stationary device which would cooperate with the portable monitoring device attached to the monitored person. This is particularly desirable where the monitored person is restricted to remain in a stationary location during the period of time of monitoring. Alternatively, in certain deployments it is desirable to provide for a secondary transportable device which would cooperate with the portable monitoring device attached to the monitored person. This is particularly desirable where the monitored person will predominately be in stationary locations for extended periods of time.
Monitoring system 50 has many of the required features as well as many optional features.
Secondary transportable device 48 has a long range reception antenna 70, a long range transmission antenna 72, a short range transmission antenna 74 and a short range reception antenna 76. Portable monitoring device 46 has the previously disclosed securing means and tamper detection means. Additionally, portable monitoring device 46 further comprises a short range reception antenna 78 and a short range transmission antenna 80. Short range transmission antenna 74 of secondary transportable device 48 is capable of broadcasting a signal 82 which is received by short range reception antenna 78 of portable monitoring device 46. Short range transmission antenna 80 of portable monitoring device 46 is capable of broadcasting a signal 84 which is received by short range reception antenna 76 of secondary transportable device 48. This provides for communication between secondary transportable device 48 and portable monitoring device 46 while within the free range zone. Movement beyond this range would result in a lack of communication and result in an indication that the monitored person was in violation of monitoring rules. A warning buzzer 86 would warn the monitored person that this range was being approached when communication still existed, but was determined to be weak. As more fully disclosed below, means may be provided to determine a distance and an orientation of portable monitoring device 46 relative to secondary transportable device 48.
Transmission Acquisition Means
In certain deployments it is a strong desire that the portable monitoring device further comprise transmission acquisition means to provide for receiving a signal sent by other components of the system. The signal received may be data containing instructions transferred from the central location, or data as exampled by information necessary to permit subsequent calculations to provide for a making of a positional determination.
Numerous methods are conventionally known in the art to acquire signals transmitted by other electronic equipment via ground based communication, via wireless communication or via a combination of ground based and wireless communications. Many of these methods may be employed with the present invention. The signal transmitted by the portable monitoring device may be sent via direct contact with a base unit, indirect contact with a base unit or general wireless broadcast, as more fully described elsewhere herein. Following transmission of the signal by the portable monitoring device it is a desire to acquire that signal at a central location. This acquisition may be directly by the central location or, more likely, will involve intermediate reception by other equipment which then transfers the signal on to the central location. (The term central location is not intended to be limited to one physical location for the tracking system, but rather a location, or locations, where data is gathered from distinct portable monitoring devices.) The means to receive a signal may be performed by various types of equipment conventionally known in the art depending upon the type of signal being received. Many of these methods may be employed with the present invention.
In certain deployments it is a strong desire that the portable monitoring device further comprise transmitting means to provide for sending a signal to other components of the system. The signal sent may be data containing information about the monitored person or may be data seeking further instruction from other components of the system.
The means to transmit a signal may involve sending the signal following a direct contact with a base unit, utilizing an indirect wireless contact with a base unit or may utilize a wireless broadcast. The direct contact with a base unit is exampled by having a lead from the base unit which periodically is plugged into the portable monitoring device or having the portable monitoring device periodically placed in physical contact with the base unit wherein matching contacts make contact. The indirect wireless contact with a base unit is exampled by an infrared link as conventionally known for communication between detached electronic equipment, as exampled by such communication between a desktop computer and a laptop computer. The wireless broadcast is exampled by cellular or radio broadcast.
The portable monitoring device may immediately transfer a signal containing data following receipt of the data or immediately following creation of the data. Alternatively, the portable monitoring device may have means to allow for onboard storage of data for batch transfer at a later time. When batch transfer is employed, such transfer may be on a routine schedule via wireless transmission, or may be established on a less rigid schedule over ground based system, as exampled by phone lines.
The means to send a signal may be performed by various types of equipment conventionally known in the art depending upon the type of signal being sent. Many of these methods may be employed with the present invention.
Temporal Marking Means
In certain situations it is desired to provide for an indication of when certain select references, more fully described below, were generated. This desire is a requirement when the reference is going to be stored for historic reference, also more fully described below. The term temporal, as used herein, carries the common of conventional definition meaning ‘of or pertaining to time’. Therefore, the term temporal marking refers to marking, or providing a distinct reference, of when in time an event occurred, within at least a range of time references. It is possible to provide for a temporal marking, or time measurement marking, of each reference utilizing equipment on the portable monitoring device contemporaneously with receipt of the signal(s) upon which the reference is based. Alternatively, it is possible to provide for creation of the temporal marking at the time of receipt at the central location. Generally, it is preferred to have such temporal marking contemporaneously created with each reference. It is possible, and in certain situations preferred, to assign a range to each reference. This method is particularly expedient when performing batch transfers from the portable monitoring device. In certain uses a single time range will have several references associated therewith. The term occurrence reference as used herein refers to the end result data created indicative, within at least a range, of when an event occurred.
Reference Storage Means
It is often a requirement that bodily signal references be stored along with associated occurrence references indicative of what time span the respective references were associated with in a bodily signal database. It is often a requirement that position references be stored along with associated occurrence references indicative of what time span the respective references were associated with in a locational tracking database. This provides for historic use of the data stored for various useful purposes. These references may be stored in separate databases or they may be stored in a common database, if both types of references are being created within the deployed system.
Numerous methods are known in the art for electronic storage of data which permit subsequent retrieval based upon select models. Many of these methods may be employed with the present invention. It being understood that such storage of bodily signal references, position references and associated occurrence references are not required for all embodiments of the invention.
When required, each reference will be stored along with the associated occurrence reference. As mentioned, it is possible to assign a single range to a series of associated occurrence references. Alternatively, it is possible to provide for storage of select references taken from the totality of references available. One example uses a computer program which examines the series of references and identifies sequential strings of references within the series which do not vary beyond a predetermined tolerance range from all other references within the string. The computer program would then purge from the system all data between the first reference and the last reference within the string. This is particularly expedient where the monitored person is stationary for a long period of time, as example by sleeping for a number of hours in a generally stationary location.
A monitoring of a person under the present invention may include a determination of measurements of select bodily functions of the person. Examples of such bodily functions include blood pressure, (systolic and diastolic), heart beat rate, respiration rate, bodily temperature, blood oxygen level and blood alcohol level, amongst others. Devices are conventionally known in the art which may measure such functions in a non invasive manner (without requiring mechanical penetration of the body of the monitored person). These devices are exampled by passive contact of a portion of the device with the skin of the person or by manipulation of a portion of the device by the person, as exampled by a tubular member into which the person breathes. When passive contact is utilized the contact may be with a sensor positioned on the portable monitoring device or may be with a patch attached to the skin of the monitored person. Such patches are known in the art capable of monitoring bodily functions or which measure for the presence of select drugs in the system of the monitored person. When bodily functions are being monitored, it is possible to provide for an elimination of the normal strong desire that the portable monitoring device comprise tamper detection means. Many different medical test equipment exists in the art to preform various test to determine a respective specific status of a patient. Numerous of these medical test equipment may be utilized within a system under the present invention. These include select members of those medical test equipment which rely upon manipulation of a composition (such as a chemical or a drug) during the test process.
Measurements of bodily functions of a person may be evaluated to determine what type of activity the person is likely to be engaged in, or recently engaged in, at the time the measurements were taken. Most persons are unable to consciously regulate such bodily functions to a sufficient extend to allow for the measurements to indicate a general type of activity radically different from the actual general type of activity being performed.
While it is preferred to utilize sensors which may make their readings based on no more than passive contact with the monitored person, it is possible to provide for implantation of a sensor under the skin of the monitored person. Such an implanted sensor would transfer, preferably by wireless transfer, a signal to a receiving unit in possession of the monitored person and preferably contained within a portable monitoring device attached to the monitored person.
FIG. 8a and
Bodily Signal Reference Creation Means
It is conventionally known in the art to convert measurements of each applicable bodily function to a data reference. These data references, or bodily signals, generally match conventional measurement methods or at least allow ready conversion to conventional measurement methods. One example of such a conventional measurement method is conversion of the respective bodily function cycle to a number of repetitions in a defined period of time such as one (1) minute. Other examples include measurement of a pressure or a lower and upper pressure range. Any conventional method may be utilized to reduce the measurement taken to a data reference.
Any of the conversion methods conventionally known in the art may be utilized to convert applicable sensor data into respective data block 196, 204, 212, 220, 228 or 236.
Positional Determining Means
Various systems, and devices based upon those systems, exist to provide for a determination of a positional location. Several of these system are capable of making such a determination within a fairly narrow range of measurement. One group of such systems rely upon transmissions from satellites in orbit around our planet. Another group relies upon transmissions from ground based transmitters. Another group relies upon transmissions from a combination of satellites and ground based transmitters. Several of these systems, as exampled by differential global positioning systems, include the ability to identify an elevational height, or altitude, as well as a locational position. Such determination may be extremely desirable where the positional location is within a building having multiple floors such as skyscrapers.
Without regard for the transmission system employed to generate a signal, or signals, each portable monitoring device may routinely receive at least one signal. This signal, or signals, is then capable of, through a mathematical computation, being reduced to a position reference indicative of a specific location, within a predetermined range of measurement. It is possible that the mathematical computation will be performed by a device located within the portable monitoring device with the actual position reference being sent within the signal of the transmitting means of the portable monitoring device. Alternatively, raw data may be sent within the signal of the transmitting means of the portable monitoring device with the mathematical computation occurring subsequent to receipt of the signal by the transmission acquisition means, as exampled by at the central location.
It is possible, and preferred in certain deployments, to have a reliance upon a primary transmission system and at least one backup transmission system. The signal(s) from the primary transmission system may be indefinite or totally absent, in which case the mathematical computation based on the signal(s) received by the portable monitoring device from the primary transmission system would be incapable of determining a position reference. In that case the portable monitoring device would switch through any backup transmission systems until the received signal(s) was present and of a quality from which a position reference might be computated.
The example which follows makes use of Global Positioning Satellite (G.P.S), as conventionally known in the art, for determining a locational position of the respective portable monitoring device. Selection of this method of determining locational position is due to the wide coverage area and the accuracy afford by such usage. Numerous other methods, all conventionally known in the art, are adaptable for usage with the present invention.
Position Reference Creation Means
Numerous reference methods, as conventionally known in the art, may be employed to define each position reference, as exampled by a set of coordinates. One example of these coordinate references is those based upon a set of latitude, in degrees to a desired degree of precision, and longitude, in degrees to a desired degree of precision, references. Another example of these coordinate references include those based upon a set of distance, in any conventional measurement distance, and angular orientation, as exampled by degrees, references from a fixed position reference.
It is possible to provide for a mechanical intervention to dissuade a monitored person from a definable course of action. Many such mechanical interventions are conventionally known in the art and many of these may be adapted for use within the presnet invention. Such applicable mechanical interventions may involve administration of a medicine or introduction of a physical action which act as a deterrent to discourage continuation of the definable course of action. Examples of such medications include those which act to partially sedate or to completely incapacitate the monitored person. One example of such physical action involves introduction of an electrical shock to the monitored person.
When intervention means are provided it is a requirement that structures be positioned upon the monitored person. This will involve placement upon the portable monitoring device or upon a secondary device similarly attached to the monitored person. Typically this will require surrounding engagement of the monitored person. This may involve placement at a wrist, arm, leg, ankle, neck, chest, waist or other suitable portion of the body. Alternatively, implantation may be employed for at least a portion of the device under the skin of the person. When intervention means are included it is a requirement that structures be present to provide for activation of the intervention means. This activation may be provided without additional communication beyond that within the device attached to the monitored person. Alternatively, this activation may be provided based upon reception of a signal by the device attached to the monitored person from an outside location such as from the central location.
Various specific tamper detection methods may be employed to prevent tampering with applicable portable monitoring devices where such tampering is intended to prevent introduction of the medication or the electrical shock to the monitored person.
While applicable to several embodiments of the present invention, an active intervention by a device located on the restrictee portable monitoring device is particularly applicable to the dual tracking system. One example involves when the restrictee person enters a predefined perimeter around the restrictor person, and when there is a prior conclusion reached by proper authorities that the restrictee person poses a physical threat to the restrictor person, the portable monitoring device may be activated to disable the restrictee person using any of the method conventionally known in the art. One example of a method of disabling the restrictee person would be through injection of a tranquilizer. Another example would be to stun the restrictee person with a high voltage charge.
FIG. 13a through
Bodily Signal Conditional Database
It is a desire to store various bodily signal conditional references created for each applicable respective monitored person being monitored. These conditional references would include a set of references, either inclusive or exclusive, which would provide for a comparison to determine if the respective monitored person was outside of an acceptable range for the particular bodily signal, or signals, being monitored. Such a database could be used to identify unacceptable conduct or to identify potentially dangerous medical conditions.
Alternatively, as exampled by a bodily signal conditional database 324 as depicted in
The bodily signal conditional database could be identical for all monitored persons, could be specific to the monitored person or could be based on specific characteristics of the monitored person as exampled by age, weight, sex, other factors or any desired combination thereof.
Positional Conditional Database
It is a desire to store various positional conditional references created for each applicable respective monitored person being monitored. These conditional references would include a set of references, either inclusive or exclusive, which would provide for a comparison to determine if the respective monitored person was either inside of an allowable roaming area or outside of an excluded roaming area, or areas, for the respective monitored person.
FIG. 19a and
There exist two modes of operation for comparison of references, either bodily signal and positional, of each monitored person. The first mode is real time comparison and the second is historic comparison. The real time comparison involves comparison of the reference to the applicable bodily signal conditional database or positional conditional database or, in the case of positional determination, proximity to other variable position references. (The term real item comparison is not meant to convey simultaneous comparison, but rather may have the actual comparison occurring at a slightly later time.) The historic comparison involves comparison of the applicable reference, either bodily function or positional, to a later defined set of comparative data. It is possible to provide for such comparison of data to the respective references to be employed as evidence during a legal proceeding, either a criminal proceeding or a civil proceeding. The comparison may be made directly within the portable monitoring device by having the respective conditional database contained therein. Alternatively, the comparison may be made at the central location by having the respective conditional database stored thereat.
a. Immediate Comparison
Comparison of the bodily signal references against the bodily signal conditional database for a respective portable monitoring device may occur immediately subsequent to creation thereof, either within the portable monitoring device or when received by the central location. Comparison of the position references against the positional conditional database for a respective portable monitoring device may occur immediately subsequent to creation thereof, either within the portable monitoring device or when received by the central location. (In certain situations it is not a requirement that all deployed portable monitoring device have securing means or tamper detecting means, as more fully described herein.)
FIG. 19a and
b. Historic Comparison
It is possible to historically utilize recorded bodily signal references to determine what type of activity a specific monitored person was engaging in at a specific time. This type of comparison may be used for several reasons, including as a tool for law enforcement agencies.
When position references are stored they may be utilized to determine if any of the monitored persons were within a defined area, as exampled by within the boundaries of a crime scene, during a defined period of time, as example by a window of opportunity in which time span the crime could have been committed. Such comparison may be useful to eliminate a suspect for a given crime.
A computer program, not shown, has examined all records within database 256, see
Dual Tracking System
It is possible to provide for monitoring of a pair of persons to monitor the behavior of a first person, a restrictee person, relative to a second person, a restrictor person. There exist several possible combinations within the general concept of dual tracking. It is possible to have a clear pairing where there exists one restrictee person and one restrictor person. It is possible to have a single restrictee person monitored relative to a plurality of restrictor persons. It is possible to have multiple restrictee persons monitored relative to a single restrictor person.
The dual tracking system is applicable to several situations, but is particularly expedient in the enforcement of court issued restraining orders. The immediate comparison, the historic comparison or a combination of both types of comparison may be used. The historic comparison may be useful as evidence during a subsequent legal proceeding, as example as proof of violation of the court issued retaining order.
A computer program may be designed which defines a perimeter around the restrictor person of the pair of monitored persons which is updated depending upon the movement of the restrictor person. When the restrictee person enters within the perimeter a notification is given of such violation. This notification can be to an oversight authority, to the applicable restrictor person, or to both. When notification is given to the restrictor person communication therewith may be by any of the methods conventionally known in the art. Preferably, such notification would be received by the restrictor portable monitoring device which would then inform the restrictor person. It is also possible that human personnel at the central location would establish cellular communication with the restrictor person and advise the restrictor person of the position of the restrictee person relative to the restrictor person.
It is possible to provide for several unique perimeters around the restrictor person. Each unique perimeter would have a predefined distance measurement from the restrictor person. It is also possible to define various distinct notifications of violation of the different unique perimeters.
The computer program could be designed such that the position references of the restrictor person are not stored. This protects the privacy of the restrictor person which has not surrendered any of their rights. Alternatively, it is possible to store the applicable position references of the restrictor person only when the restrictee person is with a predetermined distance measurement of the restrictee person, as exampled by the perimeter previously described. This allows for the retention of such records for use during a subsequent legal proceeding. Such a program could be designed which retains the position references for a specific period of time, adding new position references and purging the oldest position references. Then, when a violation occurs all existing location references within the system could be stored. Storage would continue until a predetermined time following cessation of the violation. This arrangement allows for the preservation of the restrictor person's position references for a predetermined period of time prior to the violation, the entire period of time during the violation and for a predetermined period of time following the violation. The restrictee person's position references can similarly be stored, or all such data may be stored within the locational tracking database.
FIG. 13a through
With respect to the above description then, it is to be realized that the optimum dimensional relationships for the parts of the invention, to include variations in size, material, shape, form, function and manner of operation, assembly and use, are deemed readily apparent and obvious to one skilled in the art, and all equivalent relationships to those illustrated in the drawings and described in the specification are intended to be encompassed by the present invention.
Therefore, the foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to be exact construction and operation shown and described, and accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention.
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|U.S. Classification||340/573.4, 340/539.13, 379/38, 340/539.11, 340/539.31, 340/539.1|
|International Classification||G08B21/00, G08B25/00, G08B21/02|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B5/021, A61B5/1112, A61B5/01, A61B5/6826, A61B5/14551, G08B21/0288, A61B5/681, A61B5/0022, A61B5/6822, A61B5/0816, G08B21/0286, G08B21/0211, A61B5/02055, A61B5/7465, A61B5/14546, G08B21/22, A61B5/024, A61B5/6829, G08B21/0227, A61B2503/08|
|European Classification||G08B21/22, A61B5/00B, A61B5/11M|
|8 Jun 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICHELLE ENTERPRISES, LLC, FLORIDA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TAYLOR, JOHN E., JR.;REEL/FRAME:016662/0728
Effective date: 20050606
|13 Jun 2008||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|13 Jun 2008||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
Year of fee payment: 7
|17 Feb 2009||RR||Request for reexamination filed|
Effective date: 20081226
|15 Sep 2009||CC||Certificate of correction|
|10 May 2011||B1||Reexamination certificate first reexamination|
Free format text: CLAIMS 1-19 WERE PREVIOUSLY CANCELLED. CLAIMS 29 AND 43 ARE CANCELLED. CLAIMS 20, 25, 28, 30, 31, 34, 39, 42, 44, 45 AND 48 ARE DETERMINED TO BE PATENTABLE AS AMENDED. CLAIMS 21-24, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35-38, 40, 41, 46, 47, AND 49, DEPENDENT ON AN AMENDED CLAIM, ARE DETERMINED TO BE PATENTABLE.
|7 Aug 2012||CC||Certificate of correction|
|18 Sep 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICHELLE ENTERPRISES, LLC, FLORIDA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:TAYLOR, JOHN;REEL/FRAME:033769/0991
Effective date: 20140918