|Publication number||USRE35849 E|
|Application number||US 08/367,801|
|Publication date||14 Jul 1998|
|Filing date||30 Dec 1994|
|Priority date||15 Jan 1992|
|Also published as||US5176626|
|Publication number||08367801, 367801, US RE35849 E, US RE35849E, US-E-RE35849, USRE35849 E, USRE35849E|
|Original Assignee||Wilson-Cook Medical, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (63), Classifications (13), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The field of the invention is indwelling stents which aid in the drainage of fluids within the body.
2. Description of the Prior Art
A number of various stents have been devised which are designed to aid in the drainage of fluids within the body. It is generally desirable that a stent being implanted for this purpose be easily implantable, that it maintain patency of the duct and its position within the duct after implantation, that reflux or backflow through the duct be avoided, and that the stent be easily removable.
Stents have been designed in a wide variety of shapes and sizes to effectuate these general requirements. One such example is shown by U.S. Pat. No. 5,052,998 to Zimmon which discloses an indwelling stent having flaps at its inflow end and a pigtail configuration at its outflow end to facilitate anchoring of the stent within the duct to be drained, and also has a series of drainage holes along its length to facilitate drainage. Other stents mentioned in the Zimmon patent, have commonly employed double flaps, or wings, or have incorporated pigtails on both ends, to hold the stent in place. Prior art stents have been provided both with and without the drainage holes shown in the Zimmon patent.
Reflux is the condition where fluids and/or debris are drawn backwardly up into the duct to be drained. This is undesirable in that it is counterproductive to the purpose of the stent being implanted to drain the duct. Reflux of debris into the stent can also potentially occlude the implanted stent within the duct, which can potentially cause severe aggravation to the condition being treated. Reflux is normally prevented by the functioning of a sphincter located where the duct exits into its receiving organ, however this sphincter operation is inhibited by the placement of an indwelling stent which acts to maintain the patency of the sphincter as well as the duct being drained.
To prevent reflux, U.S. Pat. No. 5,019,102 to Hoene discloses a stent with a dynamic hood-valve at the vesical end of the stent, located within the receiving organ at the downflow end of the obstructed duct. The hood-valve is comprised of a hood-shaped plastic foil that is attached to and partially surrounds the vesical end opening. A reflux pressure causes the hood-valve to fold over to close the vesical opening, thereby preventing retrograde flow from occurring.
Some stents have been devised which terminate within the duct to be drained to allow for normal sphincter operation. U.S. Pat. No. 4,955,859 to Zilber is one such example which suggests the use of a ureteral stent which terminates within the urethra to allow for the normal operation of the external sphincter in order to prevent incontinence.
It is known in the prior art to incorporate means for facilitating the removal of an indwelling stent from the body. U.S. Pat. No. 4,671,795 to Mulchin discloses one such example of an indwelling stent which has a suture attached to its end which extends out of the body and is tied to a button outside the body. The button prevents upward migration and may be pulled to remove the stent from the body. U.S. Pat. No. 4,913,683 to Gregory is another reference disclosing a stent system which utilizes sutures that extend outwardly of the patient and are pulled to remove the stent from the body. Zilber suggests the use of trailing sutures as an aid in the positioning of a stent being implanted. Zimmon suggests drawing the end of a large diameter stent (10 French or greater) to a reduced diameter to facilitate removal col. 3, lines 52-57! in an effort to compensate for the fact that larger diameter stents are more difficult to grasp and remove.
The present invention generally provides a new and unique indwelling stent which facilitates the drainage of fluids through a duct within the body. When implanted within an obstructed duct to be drained, a stent according to the present invention acts to enhance drainage while preventing reflux by allowing the sphincter at the exit of the duct to function normally. The stent is also easily removed when needed. According to the preferred embodiment disclosed herein, a double wing stent, having multiple flaps at each end and a continuous uninterrupted drainage tube therebetween, is implantable within an obstructed duct. Located at the outflow end of the drainage tube of the stent is a "wick" which is made of an extended arcical section of the drainage tube.
The stent, when implanted with the outflow end of its drainage tube within the duct, prevents reflux by allowing the sphincter at the exit of the duct to function normally. In this operative position, the wick extends through the remaining section of the duct and into the receiving organ. The wick serves to enhance drainage by providing a "wicking" effect for fluid as it exits the stent's outflow end and, with the outflow end of the drainage tube wholly within the duct, the sphincter at the exit of the duct is allowed to function normally, thereby preventing reflux. In this way, the implanted stent tends to remain unobstructed for longer periods of time and therefore is safer for the patient and may remain in place without the need for replacement for longer periods. The wick further serves to facilitate removal by providing an exposed portion which is easily graspable by an instrument inserted into the body to retain and remove the stent.
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved stent for the drainage of fluids within the body.
It a further object of the present invention to provide such a stent which facilitates drainage within an obstructed duct while allowing the sphincter at the exit of the duct to function normally to inhibit reflux.
It a further object of the present invention to provide such a stent which is easy to remove when needed.
It is yet another object to provide such a stent which has the advantage of simplicity of construction.
These and other objects and advantages will be apparent from a review of the following specification and claims.
FIGS. 1a-d are various illustrations of a stent according to the present invention. FIG. 1a is a side elevational view of a stent for facilitating the drainage of fluids within an obstructed duct. FIG. 1b is a top plan view of the stent 10 of FIG. 1a. FIG. 1c is a perspective view of the out flow end of stent 10, while FIGS. 1-d is an end view of the outflow end of this stent.
FIGS. 2a-b are illustrations of the stent of FIGS. 1a-d implanted within an obstructed duct to aid in the drainage of fluids therethrough. FIGS. 2a-b show the stent implanted within the duct, with the outflow end of its drainage tube wholly within the duct, and its wick extending through the exit of the duct and into the receiving organ. In FIG. 2a, the sphincter at the exit of the duct is open to allow the free flow of fluid out of the duct and into the receiving organ. In FIG. 2b, the sphincter is closed to prevent the reflux of fluid and/or debris back into the duct.
For the purposes of promoting an understanding of the principles of the invention, reference will now be made to the embodiment illustrated in the drawings and specific language will be used to describe the same. It will nevertheless be understood that no limitation of the scope of the invention is thereby intended, such alterations and further modifications in the illustrated device, and such further applications of the principles of the invention as illustrated therein being contemplated as would normally occur to one skilled in the art to which the invention relates.
FIGS. 1a-d are various illustrations of a stent of the present invention, which will now be described with reference to these figures. Stent 10 is made of radiopaque polyethylene and has an inflow, end portion 11 and an outflow end portion 12, and a drainage tube 13 therebetween. Inflow end portion 11 defines inlet I for allowing fluid to enter into drainage tube 13, while outflow, end portion 12 defines outlet O for allowing fluid to exit drainage tube 13. At inflow end 11 are two alternating rows of four radially extending flaps 11a which serve to aid in the anchoring of stent 10 within an obstructed duct. In the same manner and for the same purpose, radially extending flaps 12a are located at outflow end portion 12 of stent 10, except that only one row of four flaps 12a, as shown, are incorporated at outflow end portion 12 for the prevention upward migration. The number, size, and orientation of flaps 11a and 12a may be modified to accommodate the mitration-preventing requirements of the particular stent to be implanted.
Flaps 11a and 12a are simply constructed by slicing small longitudinal sections in stent 10 and orienting the sliced sections radially. It is preferred that the above described slices are made shallowly such that holes are not made within the drainage tube by the construction of flaps 11a and 12a.
Drainage tube 13 is comprised of a continuously uninterupted tube and provides a drainage passageway though an obstructed duct when stent 10 has been implanted therein. Drainage tube 13 has a 120° bend 13a at approximately one third of its overall length from outlet O. Bend 13a is incorporated in stent 10 to accommodate the anatomical structure of the duct into which stent 10 is to be implanted, which by this example is the biliary duct.
Wick 12b, located at outflow end 12 of stent 10, is comprised of an extended arcical section of drainage tube 13 and serves to enhance drainage by providing a "wicking" effect for fluid as it exits outlet O. Wick 12b further serves to allow stent 10 to be implanted with its outflow end 12 positioned within duct 20 rather than extending into the receiving organ 30, thereby allowing sphincter 21 at the exit of duct 20 to function normally to prevent reflux. Additionally, wick 12b serves to facilitate removal by providing an exposed portion, extending through sphincter 21 and into receiving organ 30, which is easily graspable by an instrument inserted into the body to retain and remove stent 10.
In the embodiment shown, wick 12b has an arcical cross-section of about 70° which is intended for illustrative purposes. Arcical cross-sections of wider or narrower dimension than specifically disclosed herein may serve to provide the intended and described novel functions of wick 12b and, as such, are considered to fall within the scope of this invention.
FIGS. 2a-b illustrate the stent of FIGS. 1a-d implanted within an obstructed duct 20 to aid in the drainage of fluids therethrough. When implanted, flaps 11a and 12a serve to anchor stent 10 in place within duct 20 and prevent undesirable migration. Drainage tube 13 maintains patency within duct 20, thereby allowing fluids to flow therethrough. Wick 12b provides a wicking effect which enhances the further flow of fluid upon exiting drainage tube 13 at outlet O, while also allowing sphincter 21 to function normally, thereby serving to reduce the possible occurrence of reflux.
The normal operation of sphincter 21 is illustrated by the comparison of FIGS. 2a and b. In FIG. 2a, sphincter 21 is opened to allow the free flow of fluid away from duct 20. In this state, wick 12b enhances drainage by providing a wicking effect for fluid as it exits the outflow end of drainage tube 13. In FIG. 2b, sphincter 21 is closed to prevent reflux from occurring. In this state, sphincter 21 closes about wick 12b to effectuate closure. When stent 10 is to be removed, wick 12b also serves the function of facilitating such removal by providing an exposed portion which is easily graspable by forceps or other instrument inserted for removal.
While the invention has been illustrated and described in detail in the drawings and foregoing description, the same is to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive in character, it being understood that only the preferred embodiment has been shown and described and that all changes and modifications that come within the spirit of the invention are desired to be protected.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3690323 *||1 Dec 1970||12 Sep 1972||Us Army||Device for draining ventricular fluid in cases of hydrocephalus|
|US3938529 *||22 Jul 1974||17 Feb 1976||Gibbons Robert P||Indwelling ureteral catheter|
|US4382445 *||4 Dec 1980||10 May 1983||Cosmos Research Associates||Physiological fluid shunt system and improvements therefor|
|US4474569 *||28 Jun 1982||2 Oct 1984||Denver Surgical Developments, Inc.||Antenatal shunt|
|US4671795 *||19 Nov 1984||9 Jun 1987||Mulchin William L||Permanent/retrievable ureteral catheter|
|US4767400 *||27 Oct 1987||30 Aug 1988||Cordis Corporation||Porous ventricular catheter|
|US4913683 *||5 Jul 1988||3 Apr 1990||Medical Engineering Corporation||Infusion stent system|
|US4955859 *||7 Jul 1989||11 Sep 1990||C. R. Bard, Inc.||High-friction prostatic stent|
|US4973301 *||11 Jul 1989||27 Nov 1990||Israel Nissenkorn||Catheter and method of using same|
|US5019102 *||7 Dec 1988||28 May 1991||Eberhard Hoene||Anti-refluxive internal ureteral stent with a dynamic hood-valve at the vesical end for prevention of urinary reflux into the upper urinary tract upon increase of vesical pressure|
|US5052998 *||4 Apr 1990||1 Oct 1991||Zimmon David S||Indwelling stent and method of use|
|US5059169 *||24 Jul 1990||22 Oct 1991||C. R. Bard, Inc.||High-friction prostatic stent|
|US5167614 *||29 Oct 1991||1 Dec 1992||Medical Engineering Corporation||Prostatic stent|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6666883||30 May 2000||23 Dec 2003||Jacques Seguin||Endoprosthesis for vascular bifurcation|
|US6767339 *||16 May 2002||27 Jul 2004||Wilson-Cook Medical, Inc.||Body canal intrusion instrumentation having bidirectional coefficient of surface friction with body tissue|
|US6991596||18 Oct 2002||31 Jan 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US7001327||4 Mar 2003||21 Feb 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Urinary flow control device and method|
|US7041139||11 Dec 2001||9 May 2006||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stents and related methods|
|US7048698||24 Jun 2002||23 May 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Urethral profiling device and methodology|
|US7108655||23 Jan 2002||19 Sep 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US7141038||7 Aug 2001||28 Nov 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US7211114||26 Aug 2002||1 May 2007||The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York||Endoscopic gastric bypass|
|US7357818||26 Mar 2003||15 Apr 2008||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Self-retaining stent|
|US7396366||11 May 2005||8 Jul 2008||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stent with conforming retention structure|
|US7637920||26 Mar 2004||29 Dec 2009||Ev3 Inc.||Double ended intravascular medical device|
|US7722677||24 Jun 2008||25 May 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stent with conforming retention structure|
|US7758542||28 Nov 2006||20 Jul 2010||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US7837645||5 Mar 2007||23 Nov 2010||The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York||Endoscopic gastric bypass|
|US7951064||19 Jan 2006||31 May 2011||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US8016742||28 Apr 2006||13 Sep 2011||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device and method|
|US8057461||2 Apr 2008||15 Nov 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Self-retaining stent|
|US8066715||3 Oct 2007||29 Nov 2011||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Magnetic stent removal|
|US8221505||22 Feb 2007||17 Jul 2012||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|US8252065||8 Apr 2010||28 Aug 2012||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stent with conforming retention structure|
|US8435256||17 Nov 2009||7 May 2013||Covidien Lp||Double ended intravascular medical device|
|US8574221||9 Sep 2011||5 Nov 2013||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Tubular medical device|
|US8603185||11 Mar 2010||10 Dec 2013||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Stent geometry|
|US8740876||10 May 2011||3 Jun 2014||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Device for external percutaneous connections|
|US8845663||19 Dec 2012||30 Sep 2014||Cook Medical Technologies Llc||Biliary decompression and anastomosis stent|
|US9101390 *||26 Sep 2014||11 Aug 2015||Jai Singh||General uterine manipulator and system|
|US9220873||22 Jan 2013||29 Dec 2015||Covidien Lp||Double ended intravascular medical device|
|US9451985||30 Mar 2012||27 Sep 2016||Jiwan Steven Singh||General uterine manipulator and system|
|US20020107540 *||23 Jan 2002||8 Aug 2002||Whalen Mark J.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20030018307 *||16 May 2002||23 Jan 2003||Boris Reydel||Body canal intrusion instrumentation having bidirectional coefficient of surface friction with body tissue|
|US20030060894 *||29 Jul 2002||27 Mar 2003||Dua Kulwinders S.||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|US20030078467 *||18 Oct 2002||24 Apr 2003||Whalen Mark J.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20030208183 *||7 Aug 2001||6 Nov 2003||Whalen Mark J.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20040015155 *||15 Apr 2003||22 Jan 2004||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Magnetic retrieval device and method of use|
|US20040024362 *||11 Apr 2003||5 Feb 2004||Hugh Trout||Stabilizing surgical delivery apparatus and method of use|
|US20040193092 *||26 Mar 2003||30 Sep 2004||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Self-retaining stent|
|US20040199262 *||20 Apr 2004||7 Oct 2004||Wilson-Cook Medical Incorporated||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|US20040254602 *||26 Mar 2004||16 Dec 2004||Lehe Cathleen Von||Double ended intravascular medical device|
|US20050107721 *||12 Apr 2004||19 May 2005||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Diagnostic urethral assembly & method|
|US20060116547 *||19 Jan 2006||1 Jun 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20060195008 *||28 Apr 2006||31 Aug 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20060287570 *||1 Feb 2006||21 Dec 2006||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device & method|
|US20070016306 *||27 Jan 2006||18 Jan 2007||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|US20070078389 *||28 Nov 2006||5 Apr 2007||Whalen Mark J||Endourethral device & method|
|US20080051911 *||14 Aug 2007||28 Feb 2008||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Stent with antimicrobial drainage lumen surface|
|US20080086214 *||5 Jun 2007||10 Apr 2008||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Medical device having a sleeve valve with bioactive agent|
|US20080208314 *||22 Feb 2007||28 Aug 2008||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|US20080228126 *||20 Jul 2006||18 Sep 2008||The Trustees Of Columbia University In The City Of New York||Method of inhibiting disruption of the healing process in a physically modified stomach|
|US20090048654 *||13 Aug 2008||19 Feb 2009||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Deployment System for Soft Stents|
|US20090093822 *||3 Oct 2007||9 Apr 2009||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Magnetic stent removal|
|US20100063536 *||17 Nov 2009||11 Mar 2010||Ev3 Inc.||Double ended intravascular medical device|
|US20100198359 *||8 Apr 2010||5 Aug 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stent with conforming retention structure|
|US20110087252 *||8 Oct 2009||14 Apr 2011||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Biliary decompression and anastomosis stent|
|US20110224775 *||11 Mar 2010||15 Sep 2011||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Stent Geometry|
|US20130066328 *||24 Sep 2012||14 Mar 2013||Jai Singh||General uterine manipulator and system|
|US20130197536 *||19 Dec 2012||1 Aug 2013||Jai Singh||General uterine manipulator and system|
|US20150012009 *||26 Sep 2014||8 Jan 2015||Jai Singh||General uterine manipulator and system|
|EP1392388A2 *||23 Jan 2002||3 Mar 2004||Abbeymoor Medical, Inc.||Endourethral device & method|
|EP1411867A2 *||30 Jul 2002||28 Apr 2004||Wilson-Cook Medical Inc.||Prosthesis having a sleeve valve|
|WO2004087248A1 *||25 Mar 2004||14 Oct 2004||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Self-retaining stent|
|WO2006124108A1 *||15 Mar 2006||23 Nov 2006||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Ureteral stent with conforming retention structure|
|WO2011023929A3 *||11 Aug 2010||18 Aug 2011||Alternative Urological Catheter Systems Limited||Suprapubic urethral catheters|
|U.S. Classification||604/8, 604/286, 604/9|
|International Classification||A61F2/94, A61M25/04|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2230/0058, A61M25/04, A61F2230/0054, A61F2/94, A61F2230/005, A61M27/008|
|European Classification||A61M27/00C3, A61F2/94|
|23 Jun 2000||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|11 Jun 2004||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 12
|17 May 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: COOK MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES LLC, INDIANA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:COOK INCORPORATED;WILSON-COOK MEDICAL INCORPORATED;VANCEPRODUCTS INCORPORATED;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20110315 TO 20110322;REEL/FRAME:026287/0923