Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUSRE34029 E
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 07/668,708
Publication date11 Aug 1992
Filing date12 Mar 1991
Priority date10 May 1984
Publication number07668708, 668708, US RE34029 E, US RE34029E, US-E-RE34029, USRE34029 E, USRE34029E
InventorsJeffrey M. Ball
Original AssigneeWillett International Limited
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for applying a hot melt ink to a substrate
US RE34029 E
Abstract
The present invention provides a process for applying a thermoplastic image forming composition as a series of discrete droplets from a non-contact ink jet printing apparatus to form separate drops on a substrate moving relative to the apparatus, characterized in that the molten composition is thermally stable at the temperature of application and is applied at a temperature in excess of 100
The invention can be used to apply the molten composition to a variety of substrates using on-demand or continuous non-contact ink jet application techniques. However, the invention is of especial use in the application of thermoplastic inks to non-porous substrates using an on-demand ink jet printer.
Images(5)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(14)
I claim:
1. A process for applying a thermoplastic composition to a substrate, comprising the steps of:
moving the substrate past an application station at which is located a non-contact jet printing apparatus;
operating the non-contact ink jet printing apparatus to apply the composition .Iadd.in the molten state .Iaddend.to the moving substrate as a series of discrete droplets, the composition being applied at a temperature in the range from 100 .Iadd.molten .Iaddend.composition being characterized as .Iadd.having a softening point in excess of 60 stable at the temperature of application and having a viscosity of from 2 to 20 Centipoise at the temperature of application.
2. A process as claimed in claim 1 characterized in that the composition has a surface tension of less than 50 dynes per cm at 25
3. A process as claimed in claim 1, further comprising the steps of:
providing a reservoir as a part of the non-contact ink jet printing apparatus at the application station;
holding the composition in the reservoir at the application temperature so that the composition is maintained in a molten state;
feeding the composition from the reservoir under a pressure of from 0.5 to 20 psi gauge to a series of nozzles for discharging the composition onto the substrate as a series of droplets; and
controlling the discharge of the composition from the nozzles by providing valve means between the reservoir and nozzles.
4. A process as claimed in claim 3 characterised in that the valve has an operating cycle time of from 1 to 5 milliseconds, the nozzle has an orifice bore diameter of from 0.01 to 0.45 mms and an internal bore length to diameter ratio of from 3:1 to 1:2.
5. A process according to claim 1 characterised in that the thermoplastic composition comprises one or more oil miscible or soluble image forming components in a fusible carrier medium.
6. A process as claimed in claim 5 characterised in that the fusible carrier medium is thermally stable at temperatures of up to 160 C., has a viscosity .[.of less than 120 Cps.]. .Iadd.of from 2 to 20 Cps .Iaddend.at the temperature of application and has a surface tension of less than 40 dynes per cm at 25
7. A process as claimed in claim 6 characterised in that the fusible carrier medium comprises at leat one component selected from a synthetic microcrystalline wax, an hydrocarbon resin and mixtures thereof.
8. A process as claimed in claim 7 characterised in that the microcrystalline wax is selected from polyolefin or paraffin waxes with molecular weights of from 300 to 1500 and softening points in the range 80
9. A process as claimed in claim 7 characterised in that the hydrocarbon resin is selected from crystalline C.sub.5 to C.sub.9 chain length aliphatic resins and polyolefin resins with softening points greater than 90
10. A process as claimed in claim .[.7.]. .Iadd.9 .Iaddend.characterized in that the polyolefin resin has a mean molecular weight of less than 1500 and an acid number of less than 1 (expressed as mg KOH/g).
11. A process as claimed in claim 6 characterized in that the molten composition has a viscosity of from 3 to 20 Cps at the .[.operating.]. .Iadd.application .Iaddend.temperature; and a surface tension of less than 40 dynes per cm at 25
12. A process as claimed in claim 6 characterized in that the .Iadd.composition comprises .Iaddend.microcrystalline wax .[.is.]. present in from 40 to 99.5%.[.the.]. .Iadd.by weight.Iaddend.; hydrocarbon resin in from 25 to 55% .Iadd.weight .Iaddend.and .[.the.]. image forming material in from 0.1 to 2% .Iadd.by weight.Iaddend.; all percentages being .[.of the active material and.]. by weight .Iadd.based .Iaddend.on the weight of the total molten composition.
13. A process as claimed in claim 1 characterised in that the composition comprises from 40 to 99 parts by weight of a microcrystalline polyethylene wax; from 0 to 60 parts by weight of an hydrocarbon resin selected from C.sub.5 -C.sub.9 aliphatic resins, a polyethylene resin and a styrene resin said latter two resins having a molecular weight of from 500 to 1200; and from 0.1 to 1.5 parts by weight of an oil soluble dyestuff.
14. A process as claimed in claim 1 characterised in that the ink jet printing apparatus is operated at a fluid temperature of from 125 to 150 molten adhesive composition to a substrate characterised in that the adhesive composition is dispensed at a temperature in excess of 100 which are applied to the substrate, the droplets being formed at a rate of more than 100 droplets per second..].
Description

.Iadd.This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 07/234,011, filed Aug. 18, 1988 now abandoned..Iaddend.

The present invention relates to a method for applying a composition to a substrate and to a composition for use therein, notably to a method for applying thermoplastic inks and to a novel thermoplastic ink composition.

It has been proposed to apply inks through an ink jet printing machine where the inks are in the form of wax based compositions which are applied molten through the nozzle of the printer. In order to reduce problems which would be expected in attempting to operate at elevated temperatures (for example degradation of the composition), the prior proposals have required the use of comparatively low melting point compositions and low temperatures of operation. Thus, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,653,932 the composition is required to have a melting point which does not exceed 51 material. In order to overcome the problems associated with that formulation, U.S. Pat. No. 4,390,369 proposes the use of a composition which comprises a natural wax and has a melting point below about 75 application No. 097823, where the composition comprises a mixture of paraffin wax and stearic acid. However, such compositions do not adhere satisfactorily to plastics substrates, suffer from smudging, and problems are encountered due to the high viscosity of the components where synthetic mamterials are used.

Contrary to the teaching of the prior proposals, we have found that it is advantageous to operate a hot melt ink jet printer at a temperature in excess of 100 earlier proposals would often decompose whereas in the present invention they result in an image of improved definition, which resists smuding and has improved adhesion to plastics substrates, and also reduces the problems associated with the use of high viscosity materials.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,369,253 discloses a number of compositions for use in a pen type chart recorder in which ink flows continuously from a nozzle onto a moving substrate to draw lines thereon. There is direct contact between the nozzle and the substrate via the ink composition and the composition must have a sufficiently high surface tension at the temperature of operation to be pulled from the nozzle as a continuous stream and not as a series of individual droplets. Such requirements are totally the reverse of what is required in an ink jet printer where there is no direct contact between the printer and the substrate and the ink issues as a series of discrete droplets. Furthermore, in the U.S. patent the substrate has to be of a specified type with a mandatory surface layer in order that the molten composition should be not cause appreciable dimensional changes in the substrate. The need for a special surface on the substrate severely limits the possible fields of use of this technique.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a process for applying a thermoplastic composition through a non-contact ink jet printing apparatus as a series of discrete droplets onto a substrate moving relative to the apparatus, characterised in that the molten composition is thermally stable at the temperature of application and is applied at a temperature in excess of 100

The invention can be used to apply the molten composition to a variety of substrates using on-demand or continuous non-contact ink jet application techniques. However, the invention is of especial use in the application of thermoplastic inks to a substrate using an on-demand ink jet printer.

In an on-demand ink jet printer, ink is fed under pressure, typically 0.5 to 20 psi gauge, though higher pressures may be used if desired, from a reservoir to a series of nozzles via valve means which control the flow of the ink through each nozzle. The valve means is typically an electro-magnetically actuated valve, notably a solenoid valve. The ink is discharged through the nozzle as discrete droplets in the desired sequence to form the required image on the substrate. Usually, the nozzles are arranged in one or more series transversely to the line of movement of the substrate. Typically, such printers have quick acting valves with an operating cycle time of from 1 to 5 milliseconds feeding nozzles with orifices having bore diameters of from 0.01 to 0.45 mms and an internal bore length to diameter ratio of from 3:1 to 1:2, notably from 2:1 to 1:1.

The thermoplastic compositions for present use comprise one or more image forming components, preferably oil miscible or soluble, in a fusible carrier medium. The image forming material can be one which forms a visual image on the substrate, e.g. it can be a dyestuff, or one which is detected by other means, e.g. it can be a magnetic material to be scanned by a suitable reader, or a fluorescent material, e.g. one which is detected by an ultra-violet or other radiation scanner. For convenience, the present invention will be described in terms of a composition containing a visually detectable dyestuff.

The composition for present use is preferably a solution or emulsion of the dyestuff in the carrier medium, i.e. it is substantially free from particles which might block the nozzles through which the composition is to be discharged. If necessary, the composition can contain a co-solvent or a bridging fluid to aid formation of a substantially homogeneous composition.

The compositions comprise a fusible carrier medium which is rendered molten at the temperatures encountered in the method of the invention. The fusible carrier media for present use are thermally stable at the temperature of application and satisfy the surface tension and viscosity requirements of the ink jet printer they are to be applied through. In general, the carrier should not be thermally degraded or decomposed at temperatures of up to 160 than 120 Cps at the temperature of application. They should have a surface tension which is sufficiently low at the operating temperature for the ink to form discrete droplets rather than a continuous jet which forms a bridge bewteen the nozzle and the substrate. In view of the difficulties in measuring surface tensions at elevated temperatures, the most convenient test of suitability for present use is to run the composition through the ink jet printer in which it is to be used to ascertain whether it forms a continuous jet or discrete droplets at the operating temperature. In many cases measurement of surface tension at 25 will give a prima facie indication as to the suitability or otherwise of a composition for present use. The surface tension is determined by establishing whether a sample of the composition is wet or not by a series of fluids of known surface tension. Where the solid composition is wet, it has a higher surface tension than the fluid, where the fluid forms a stable droplet on the surface of the composition the composition has a lower surface tension. In general, where the composition has a surface tension of 50 dynes per cm or less in the above test, it will be suitable for present use.

The carrier media for present use can be selected from amonst natural waxes having the desired porperties, but we prefer to use synthetic materials. We have found that microcrystalline waxes, notably the synthetic forms of such waxes, and/or hydrocarbon resins provide particularly advantageous carrier media, in that they can provide highly mobile molten compositions with reduced risk of degradation at high operating temperatures, which will typically be at from 110 125 softening point greater than 60 droplets of the composition as they strike the substrate and the partial fusing of the substrate below the hot droplet in the case of plastics substrates gives an image which resists smudging.

The invention therefrom also provides a fusible ink composition comprising one or more oil soluble or miscible indicator materials, notably a dyestuff, in a carrier medium comprising a synthetic microcrystalline wax and/or a hydrocarbon resin, the composition having a viscosity of less than 120 Cps, a surface tension has determined by the test method described above) of less than 50 dynes per cm at 25 softening point of from 60

The microcrystalline waxes for present use can be selected from a wide range of such waxes which are available commercially. Typically, the wax will be a synthetic hydrocarbon wax obtained from the processing of petroleum or naphthas, notably the naphthenic, polyethylene or polypropylene waxes which have softening points in the range 60 100 include those obtained by the Fischer Tropsch process, typically those comprising long chain linear paraffins with molecular weights of from 300 to 1500 and softening points in the range 80 Preferred synthetic microcrystalline waxes for present use include Slack Wax and the polyethylene waxes obtained from the lighter fractions of the cracking of naphtha and petroleum. If desired, the microcrystalline wax may be used in the form of a derivative thereof, e.g. as an oxidised or maleinised derivative.

The hydrocarbon resins for present use are preferably crystalline resins, notably C.sub.5 to C.sub.9 chain length aliphatic waxes or polyolefins with softening points greater than 90 110 in the range 140 resins will have a mean molecular weight of less than 1500, e.g. 500 to 1200 and an acid number of less than 1 (expressed as mg KOH/g). Suitable hydrocarbon resins for present use thus include polyolefins, notably polyethylene, polypropylene or polybutylene; C.sub.5 to C.sub.9 chain aliphatic resins, e.g. those obtained by the steam cracking of naphthas; polyterpenes, notably wood rosins, tall oil or balsam resins, which can be esterified or hydrogenated if desired; and aromatic compounds, e.g. styrenes such as methyl styrenes.

Whilst the hydrocarbon resin may often be a microcrystalline material, we have found that the use of a mixture of both an hydrocarbon resin and a synthetic microcrystalline wax as described above is of especial advantage, since the hydrocarbon resin enhances the adhesion of the wax based composition to non-porous substrates, notably to plastics sheet substrates. Furthermore, by varying the proportions of the resin and wax it is possible to tailor make the properties of the composition, e.g. the viscosity, to suit a wide range of operating conditions.

The compositions of the invention may contain other ingredients in addition to the microcrystalline wax, resin and image forming material. Thus, the compositions can contain thermal and/or UV stabilising materials to reduce the degradation of the ingredients of the compositions; and minor proportions of one or more solvents or co-solvents for the ingredients to aid formulation of the composition as a substantially homogeneous mixture.

The compositions for present use preferably have a viscosity of from 2 to 120, notably 3 to 20, Cps at the temperature of operation of the printer, typically 120 than 40 dynes per cm, notably less than 30 dynes per cm, at 25 using the test method described above.

It may be desired to include one or more viscosity and/or surface tension modifying agents in the composition to achieve the desired viscosity and/or surface tension at the actual operating temperature for optimum operation of a particular printer. However, as indicated above, we have found that the viscosity and the surface tension are affected by the relative proportions of the microcrystalline wax and the hydrocarbon resin in the composition and that the viscosity and surface tension can often be adjusted to the desired values merely by varying the relative proportions of these two ingredients.

Where the compositions are to be applied using a continuous jet ink printer, it is necessary tht the composition be one which can accept an electrical charge. This is conveniently achieved by including one or more ionic or polar materials in the composition, e.g. potassium isothiocyanate. In order to reduce the risk of segregation of these materials from the composition, it may be desired to incorporate a bridging compound, e.g. a wetting agent of the alkyl ether sulphate or sulphonate or of the alkyl benzene sulphonate type, into the composition. Typically, the composition for application through a continuous jet printer will have a conductivity of at least 1000, preferably 1500 to 2500, microSiemens.

The compositions of the invention comprise the microcrystalline wax, the hydrocarbon resin and the image forming material in any suitable proportion having regard to the nature of the ingredients, the nature of the substrate it is to be applied to and the operating conditions under which it is applied. Typically, the composition comprises at least one selected from a microcrystalline wax or an hydrocarbon resin, the microcrystalline wax being present in up to 99.9%, notably from 40 to 99.5%; the hydrocarbon resin being present in from 0 to 65%; notably 25 to 55%; and the image forming material being present in from 0.05 to 5%, preferably 0.1 to 2%; all percentages being of the active material and by weight on the weight of the total composition.

A particularly preferred composition for present use comprises from 40 to 99 parts by weight of a microcrystalline polyethylene wax, from 0 to 60 parts by weight of a polyethylene or styrene hydrocarbon resin of molecular weight from 500 to 1200 and 0.1 to 1.5 parts by weight of an oil soluble dyestuff.

The compositions of the invention can be made by any suitable technique, e.g. by melting the wax and/or resin components thereinto.

The compositions can be put up in the form of powders or granules by spraying the molten mixtures of the components into a void vessel. Alternatively, they can be extruded through a suitable die to form moulded plugs of the composition for insertion into a suitable shaped receptacle in the printer for melting and use.

As stated above, the compositions of the invention are applied to a substrate by passing them through the nozzle or array of nozzles of an ink jet printer apparatus at an elevated temperature. The apparatus can be of conventional design, except that those parts of the apparatus through which the molten composition is to flow are heated or insulated so as to reduce the risk of the composition solidifying within the apparatus. Such heating can be achieved by any suitable means, e.g. by electrical heating elements around the appropriate ducts or vessels or by infra red or other radiant heaters playing on the apparatus. Typically, the apparatus heaters operated with the composition flowing therethrough at temperatures of from 125

The composition is fed to the apparatus in solid form, e.g. as chips or granules or the shaped plugs described above, and is melted in a suitable vessel attached to or forming an integral part of the printer apparatus. If desired, the compositions can be held in a separate heated reservoir and fed to one or more individual printers through heated or insulated lines.

Surprisingly, the presence of the microcrystalline wax or hydrocarbon resin, notably the combination thereof, does not have the deleterious effect of radically increasing the viscosity of the composition as is the case with the sebecate waxes proposed hitherto. The printing apparatus can therefore be operated under similar pressures and flow rates as with a conventional ink formulation and using nozzle orifices in the range 10 to 450 microns diameter.

The compositions of this invention can be applied to a wide range of porous and non-porous substrates, e.g. paper, metal, wood, plastics or glass without the need to form any special surface layer on the substrate. However, the invention is of especial use in forming images on non-porous materials, e.g. plastics, plastics coated materials, glass and metals. The high temperature of the composition as it is desposited on a plastics substrate causes enhanced adhesion of the composition due to partial fusion with the substrate. In the case of porous substrates the compositions penetrate into the substrate as they cool. In both cases, the compositions of the invention solidify rapidly on the substrate to give a sharp image resistant to smudging.

The invention has been described above in terms of the application of an ink-type composition. However, it can also be applied to adhesive composition, for example those containing polyacrylamide or similar polymers. Whilst it is known to apply hot melt adhesives from a gun or other applicator which extrudes the molten adhesive onto a substrate, we believe that it is novel to apply hot melt adhesive as droplets emitted from an ink jet printer where the droplets are emmitted at a frequency of more than 100 drops per second from a nozzle.

The invention therefore also provides a method for applying a molten adhesive composition to a substrate characterised in that the adhesive composition is dispensed at a temperature in excess of 100 through a nozzle to form a series of droplets which are applied to the substrate, the droplets being formed at the nozzle at a rate of more than 100 per second.

The invention will now be illustrated by the following Examples in which all parts and percentages are given by weight:

EXAMPLE 1

An ink formulation was prepared by melting the microcrystalline polyethylene wax commercially available under the trade name Shell Microcrystalline wax MMP (54 parts) in a heated vessel fitted with a stirrer. To the molten wax were added the oil soluble dyestuff Ceres Blue (1 part) and 45 parts of the hydrocarbon resin sold under the trade name Escorez 5300. The resultant mixture had a softening point of 85 and a melting point of 90 thermoset viscometer, and surface tension of less than 40 dynes per cm as determined by the test method described earlier.

The composition was fed to a drop-on-demand ink jet printer having electrical heating coils to maintain the ink reservoir, ink lines and printing head at 140 pressurised to 2 psi gauge and the molten composition printed through the print head using a 0.225 mms bore orifice to produce a series of separate droplets which formed discrete dot images on a paper or polyethylene sheet target placed below the printing head. The dots were sharply defined, well anchored to the substrate and resistant to smudging.

By way of contrast, when natural carnuba wax was used in place of the microcrystalline wax and hydrocarbon resin, the composition had a melting point of 50 for 1 hour, as evidenced by charring. When this composition was applied to a paper substrate at 80 smudging. Where a polyethylene sheet was used as the substrate, the image did not adhere to the sheet and was readily wiped off.

EXAMPLE 2

The process of Example 1 was repeated with a range of different resins and waxes being applied onto different target substrates including glass, metal, polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, polystyrene, wax and plastics coated paper and card. The compositions are set out below as formulations A, B and C and in all cases the compositions were applied as in Example 1 and gave good dot images.

When the compositions were replaced by conventional sovent based formulations or low temperature wax formulations and applied to a non-porous substrate, the resultant dots either did not dry rapidly and gave a runny image (in the case of a solvent ink) or were soft and readily smudged (in the case of the low temperature waxes).

Formulation A

54.7% wood rosin hydrocarbon resin

45.0% low melting point microcrystalline polyethylene wax

0.3% oil soluble dyestuff

Formulation B

70.0% medium melting point microcrystalline polyethylene wax

29.5% commercially available C.sub.5 -C.sub.9 aliphatic hydrocarbon resin

0.5% oil soluble dyestuff

Formulation C

55% commercially available water white grade alpha methyl styrene hydrocarbon resin

44.9% of a commercially available mixture of microcrystalline and paraffin waxes

0.1% oil soluble dyestuff

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2890125 *1 Oct 19569 Jun 1959Petrolite CorpModification of oxidized hydrocarbons and products therefrom
US3199740 *7 Aug 196310 Aug 1965Bayer AgEjection device
US3230106 *1 Feb 196218 Jan 1966Royal Typewriter Co IncMethod for hot wax carbon printing
US3247519 *20 Aug 196219 Apr 1966Neff Instr CorpGraphical recording system employing heated ink compositions
US3369253 *27 May 196513 Feb 1968Neff Instr CorpGraphical recording
US3412707 *19 Aug 196526 Nov 1968Litton Business Systems IncApparatus for hot wax carbon printing
US3593661 *13 May 196620 Jul 1971Markem CorpDry ink-film printing
US3653932 *28 Aug 19694 Apr 1972Teletype CorpElectrostatic printing composition comprising didodecyl sebacate
US3715219 *23 Sep 19696 Feb 1973Teletype CorpElectrostatically improvement in electo static printing
US3853410 *18 Oct 197210 Dec 1974Busoni RDevice for distributing hot-melt adhesive
US3989569 *10 Feb 19752 Nov 1976Columbia Ribbon And Carbon Manufacturing Co., Inc.Continuous copying method
US4018728 *20 Aug 197419 Apr 1977Johnson Matthey & Co., LimitedPrinting ink
US4021252 *7 Feb 19753 May 1977American Can CompanyJet printing ink composition
US4066585 *3 Aug 19763 Jan 1978Schering AktiengesellschaftPrinting inks and printing methods employing the same
US4073122 *16 Apr 197614 Feb 1978Markem CorporationPrinting apparatus
US4152986 *12 May 19788 May 1979Dadowski Gilbert FMethod and apparatus for printing raised ink images
US4171981 *29 Apr 197723 Oct 1979The Mead CorporationProcess for the production of hot melt coating compositions containing microcapsules
US4218252 *27 Jun 197819 Aug 1980Nippon Oil Company, Ltd.Ink compositions for carbon paper
US4243994 *2 Mar 19796 Jan 1981Canon Kabushiki KaishaLiquid recording medium
US4251824 *13 Nov 197917 Feb 1981Canon Kabushiki KaishaLiquid jet recording method with variable thermal viscosity modulation
US4296421 *24 Oct 197920 Oct 1981Canon Kabushiki KaishaInk jet recording device using thermal propulsion and mechanical pressure changes
US4303445 *18 Jul 19801 Dec 1981Exxon Research & Engineering Co.Ink jet printing formulations
US4312009 *5 Feb 198019 Jan 1982Smh-AdrexDevice for projecting ink droplets onto a medium
US4361843 *27 Mar 198130 Nov 1982Exxon Research And Engineering Co.Ink jet compositions and method
US4390369 *17 Dec 198128 Jun 1983Exxon Research And Engineering Co.Natural wax-containing ink jet inks
US4443820 *6 Nov 198017 Apr 1984Minolta Camera Kabushiki KaishaProcess for preparing hectographic printing masters
US4444108 *4 Aug 198224 Apr 1984Markem CorporationPrinting apparatus and process
US4462035 *15 Mar 198224 Jul 1984Epson CorporationNon-impact recording device
US4472537 *22 Aug 198318 Sep 1984Corning Glass WorksThermoplastic inks for decorating purposes
US4484948 *27 Jun 198327 Nov 1984Exxon Research And Engineering Co.Natural wax-containing ink jet inks
US4488665 *24 May 198218 Dec 1984Spraymation, Inc.Multiple-outlet adhesive applicator apparatus and method
US4490731 *22 Nov 198225 Dec 1984Hewlett-Packard CompanyInk dispenser with "frozen" solid ink
US4539570 *9 Dec 19833 Sep 1985Willett International LimitedStackable fluid dispensing apparatus
US4541340 *28 Aug 198417 Sep 1985Markem CorporationProcess for forming permanent images using carrier supported inks containing sublimable dyes
US4559872 *30 Apr 198424 Dec 1985Markem CorporationPrinting apparatus using heated ink composition
US4597794 *3 Jul 19841 Jul 1986Canon Kabushiki KaishaRecording process and a recording liquid thereof
US4631557 *15 Oct 198423 Dec 1986Exxon Printing Systems, Inc.Ink jet employing phase change ink and method of operation
US4659383 *27 Aug 198421 Apr 1987Exxon Printing Systems, Inc.High molecular weight, hot melt impulse ink jet ink
EP0062444A1 *23 Mar 198213 Oct 1982Exxon Research And Engineering CompanyInk jet composition and printing method
EP0097823A2 *27 May 198311 Jan 1984International Business Machines CorporationInk jet recording system
EP0099682A2 *1 Jul 19831 Feb 1984Exxon Research And Engineering CompanyInk jet ink composition
EP0176228A1 *22 Aug 19852 Apr 1986Dataproducts CorporationHot melt impulse ink jet ink
EP0181198A2 *5 Nov 198514 May 1986Dataproducts CorporationHot melt impulse ink jet ink
GB648738A * Title not available
GB2111523A * Title not available
GB2125737A * Title not available
JPS5554368A * Title not available
JPS5749072A * Title not available
JPS56113462A * Title not available
JPS56113472A * Title not available
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1`Dijit Ink Jet Printing` by Peter L. Duffield, 1974.
2`New Stable, Hydrogenated, Hydrocarbon Resins for Hot Melt Adhesives` by J. J. Higgins, Oct. 1973.
3 *American Printer & Lithographer, Sep. 1980, pp. 56 58.
4American Printer & Lithographer, Sep. 1980, pp. 56-58.
5 *American Printer and Lithographer, Nov. 1979, p. 58.
6 *Chemical Abstract 15308Y/09.
7 *Complaint, the Defendant s Answer to Counterclaim and Plaintiff s reply to the Counterclaim filed in Civil Action No. 87 2685, United States District Court for District of Columbia.
8Complaint, the Defendant's Answer to Counterclaim and Plaintiff's reply to the Counterclaim filed in Civil Action No. 87-2685, United States District Court for District of Columbia.
9 *Dijit Ink Jet Printing by Peter L. Duffield, 1974.
10 *IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, vol. 26, No. 3A, Aug. 1983.
11 *Industrial Printing Inks by Lois M. Larsen, Oct. 1962.
12 *Industrial Waxes, Bennett H vol. 1.
13Industrial Waxes, Bennett H-vol. 1.
14 *Industrial Waxes, vol. 2.
15Industrial Waxes,-vol. 2.
16 *Inland Printer, Apr. 1975, pp. 41 43.
17Inland Printer, Apr. 1975, pp. 41-43.
18 *Markem Product Leaflets.
19 *Neville Cindu Chemie Brochure on Hydrocarbon Resins, note from Esso Chemicals Europe, and part of brochure on Escorez Resins.
20 *New Stable, Hydrogenated, Hydrocarbon Resins for Hot Melt Adhesives by J. J. Higgins, Oct. 1973.
21 *Pressmen s Ink Handbook by Herbert J. Wolfe, Dec. 1952.
22Pressmen's Ink Handbook by Herbert J. Wolfe, Dec. 1952.
23 *Printing and Litho Inks by H. J. Wolfe, Jul. 1970.
24 *Statutory Declaration of Thomas Ian Peter Dummett.
25 *Technical Report No. 1722 1 by R. G. Sweet, Mar. 1964.
26Technical Report No. 1722-1 by R. G. Sweet, Mar. 1964.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5354368 *4 May 199311 Oct 1994Markem CorporationHot melt jet ink composition
US5793398 *29 Nov 199511 Aug 1998Levi Strauss & Co.Hot melt ink jet shademarking system for use with automatic fabric spreading apparatus
US5882724 *22 Apr 199716 Mar 1999The Mead CorporationInk jet application of hot melt stilts to carbonless paper
US5902841 *31 Jan 199711 May 1999Tektronix, Inc.Use of hydroxy-functional fatty amides in hot melt ink jet inks
Classifications
U.S. Classification347/88, 347/99
International ClassificationB41J2/01
Cooperative ClassificationB41J2/01, B41J2/17593
European ClassificationB41J2/01
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
21 May 1992ASAssignment
Owner name: WILLETT HOLDINGS B.V., NETHERLANDS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:WILLETT INTERNATIONAL;REEL/FRAME:006127/0197
Effective date: 19920330