|Publication number||US9248034 B2|
|Application number||US 11/210,344|
|Publication date||2 Feb 2016|
|Filing date||23 Aug 2005|
|Priority date||23 Aug 2005|
|Also published as||US20070055364, WO2007024552A1|
|Publication number||11210344, 210344, US 9248034 B2, US 9248034B2, US-B2-9248034, US9248034 B2, US9248034B2|
|Inventors||Syed F. A. Hossainy, David C. Gale, Florian N. Ludwig|
|Original Assignee||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (371), Non-Patent Citations (42), Classifications (12), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
This invention relates to implantable medical devices for treating bodily disorders local and distal to a region of implantation.
2. Description of the State of the Art
This invention relates generally to implantable medical devices for treating bodily disorders. A typical treatment regimen with an implantable medical device involves implantation of a device at a selected treatment location. During treatment it may be necessary for the device to support body tissue. Therefore, the structure of a device may include load bearing structural elements or substrate to hold the device in place and to resist forces imposed by surrounding tissue.
The treatment of a bodily disorder may also involve local delivery of a bioactive agent or drug to treat a bodily disorder. The agent may be incorporated into the device in a variety of ways and delivered directly to an afflicted region at or adjacent to a region of implantation.
Additionally, in many treatment situations, the presence of the device is required only for a limited period of time. Therefore, a device may be composed in whole or in part of materials that degrade, erode, or disintegrate through exposure to conditions within the body until the treatment regimen is completed.
An example of such devices includes radially expandable endoprostheses, which are adapted to be implanted in a bodily lumen. An “endoprosthesis” corresponds to an artificial device that is placed inside the body. A “lumen” refers to a cavity of a tubular organ such as a blood vessel.
A stent is an example of such an endoprosthesis. Stents are generally cylindrically shaped devices, which function to hold open and sometimes expand a segment of a blood vessel or other anatomical lumen such as urinary tracts and bile ducts. Stents are often used in the treatment of atherosclerotic stenosis in blood vessels. “Stenosis” refers to a narrowing or constriction of the diameter of a bodily passage or orifice. In such treatments, stents reinforce body vessels and prevent restenosis following angioplasty in the vascular system. “Restenosis” refers to the reoccurrence of stenosis in a blood vessel or heart valve after it has been treated (as by balloon angioplasty, stenting, or valvuloplasty) with apparent success.
The treatment of a diseased site or lesion with a stent involves both delivery and deployment of the stent. “Delivery” refers to introducing and transporting the stent through a bodily lumen to a region, such as a lesion, in a vessel that requires treatment. “Deployment” corresponds to the expanding of the stent within the lumen at the treatment region. Delivery and deployment of a stent are accomplished by positioning the stent about one end of a catheter, inserting the end of the catheter through the skin into a bodily lumen, advancing the catheter in the bodily lumen to a desired treatment location, expanding the stent at the treatment location, and removing the catheter from the lumen.
In the case of a balloon expandable stent, the stent is mounted about a balloon disposed on the catheter. Mounting the stent typically involves compressing or crimping the stent onto the balloon. The stent is then expanded by inflating the balloon. The balloon may then be deflated and the catheter withdrawn. In the case of a self-expanding stent, the stent may be secured to the catheter via a retractable sheath or a sock. When the stent is in a desired bodily location, the sheath may be withdrawn which allows the stent to self-expand.
The stent must be capable of withstanding the structural loads, namely radial compressive forces, imposed on the stent as it supports the walls of a vessel. Therefore, a stent must possess adequate radial strength, which is the ability of a stent to resist radial compressive forces. Once expanded, the stent must adequately maintain its size and shape throughout its service life despite the various forces that may come to bear on it, including the cyclic loading induced by the beating heart. In addition, the stent must possess sufficient flexibility to allow for crimping, expansion, and cyclic loading.
The structure of a stent is typically composed of scaffolding or substrate that includes a pattern or network of interconnecting structural elements often referred to in the art as struts or bar arms. The scaffolding can be formed from wires, tubes, or sheets of material rolled into a cylindrical shape. The scaffolding is designed so that the stent can be radially compressed (to allow crimping) and radially expanded (to allow deployment).
Additionally, a medicated stent may be fabricated by coating the surface of either a metallic or polymeric scaffolding with a polymeric carrier that includes an active or bioactive agent or drug. Polymeric scaffolding may also serve as a carrier of an active agent or drug.
In many treatment applications, the presence of a stent in a body may be necessary for a limited period of time until its intended function of, for example, maintaining vascular patency and/or drug delivery is accomplished. Therefore, stents fabricated from biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and/or bioerodable materials such as bioabsorbable polymers can be configured to completely erode after the clinical need for them has ended.
In some treatment situations, local treatment of bodily tissue disorders with an implantable medical device may be difficult or impossible. This inability may be due to the fact that tissue disorders may be diffuse and in multiple locations. Local treatment in such situations may require a multiplicity of devices. For example, vascular disorders can include lesions in multiple locations, such as diffuse lesions along vessels, multi-vessel lesions, and bifurcated vessel lesions. In addition, local treatment may be impossible because an afflicted region of tissue may be inaccessible to implantation of a device. For example, a diseased vessel may be too small for implantation of a stent.
Thus, it would be desirable to have an implantable medical device that can be used to treat tissue disorders both local and distal to the location of implantation. Additionally, it may also be desirable for such devices to be capable of disintegrating once a treatment regimen is completed.
Certain embodiments of the present invention include an implantable medical device that may include a body structure with at least a portion of the body structure including a plurality of particles releasably bound together by an erodible binder. The particles may be configured to be released from the body structure of the device due to erosion of the body structure during use of the device. The released particles may be adapted to treat a bodily disorder.
Certain embodiments of the present invention include a method of treating a bodily disorder using an implantable medical device that may include disposing an implantable medical device at an implantation bodily region. At least a portion of a body structure of the device may include a plurality of particles releasably bound together by an erodible binder. The particles being may be adapted to be released from the body structure of the device due to erosion of the body structure. The particles may be adapted to treat a bodily disorder. The method may further include allowing at least some of the particles to be released from the body structure of the device.
Certain embodiments of the present invention include a method of treating a bodily disorder using an implantable medical device that may include disposing an implantable medical device at an implantation bodily region. At least a portion of a body structure of the device may include a plurality of particles releasably bound together by an erodible binder. The particles may be adapted to be released from the body structure of the device due to erosion of the body structure. The method may further include allowing an active agent within the particles to treat a bodily disorder at or near the implantation region.
Certain embodiments of the present invention include a method of fabricating an implantable medical device that may include applying a fluid on a predefined portion of a plurality of particles. The method may further include allowing the fluid to releasably bind together the predefined portion of particles with a binder to form a layer including the particles bound together with the binder. The particles may be configured to be released from the device due to erosion of the device during use. The released particles may be adapted to treat a bodily disorder with an active agent in the particles.
In general, treatment of a bodily disorder with an implantable medical device, such as a stent, may require the device to perform several functions. In some cases, a device must be able to provide structural support to the body tissue in which it is implanted. Therefore, a device can have virtually any structural pattern that is compatible with body tissue in which it is implanted. In addition, a device may also deliver a bioactive agent to an implanted region for treatment of a bodily disorder. Furthermore, it may be desirable for the device to disintegrate and disappear from the implanted region once treatment is completed.
Various embodiments of the present invention relate to implantable medical devices for treating bodily tissue disorders local and distal to a region of implantation of the device. In some embodiments, the device may be configured to disintegrate and disappear from the region of implantation once treatment is completed. The device may disintegrate by one or more mechanisms, including dissolution, chemical breakdown, and rheological forces.
The term “implantable medical devices” includes, but is not limited to, self-expandable stents, balloon-expandable stents, stent-grafts, grafts (e.g., vascular grafts such as aortic grafts), artificial heart valves, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, pacemaker electrodes, and endocardial leads (e.g., FINELINE and ENDOTAK, available from Guidant Corporation, Santa Clara, Calif.). The underlying structure of the device can be of virtually any design. Implantable medical devices may also include urethral stents, pulmonary stents, implants for the gastro-intestinal tract, anastomotic couplers, and implantable catheter ports (e.g., for dialysis treatment).
For the purposes of the present invention, the following terms and definitions apply:
“Bodily disorder” refers to any condition that adversely affects the function of the body.
“Solvent” is defined as a substance capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances or capable of at least partially dissolving or dispersing the substance(s) to form a uniformly dispersed mixture at the molecular- or ionic-size level. The solvent of a polymer should be capable of dissolving at least 0.1 mg of the polymer in 1 ml of the solvent, and more narrowly 0.5 mg in 1 ml at ambient temperature and ambient pressure. The “strength” of a solvent refers to the degree to which a solvent may dissolve a polymer. The stronger a solvent is, the more polymer the solvent can dissolve.
“Dissolve” refers to a substance passing into solution on a molecular scale with or without chemical breakdown of the solid.
The term “treatment” includes prevention, reduction, delay, stabilization, or elimination of a bodily tissue disorder, such as a vascular disorder. In some embodiments, treatment also includes repairing damage caused by the disorder and/or mechanical intervention.
“Use” includes delivery of a device to a treatment site and deployment or implantation of the device at a treatment site.
A “bioactive” or “active” agent can be any substance capable of exerting an effect including, but not limited to, therapeutic, prophylactic, or diagnostic. Bioactive agents may include anti-inflammatories and antiproliferatives and other bioactive agents.
“Sintering” is a process of fabrication where particles are bonded together without entirely melting the particles. Particles may be pressed together or molded into a desired shape. A considerable amount of pressure is first applied to press the particles together. Then, the particles are heated to temperatures slightly below the melting point of the particle material. Without entirely melting, the particles bond to each other at their respective surfaces. A porous structure may be formed since spaces may remain between the bonded particles.
In general, the structure of an implantable device includes structural elements, scaffolding, or a substrate that may be the primary source of structural support. For example, a stent typically is composed of a pattern or network of circumferential rings and longitudinally extending interconnecting structural elements of struts or bar arms. In general, the struts are arranged in patterns, which are designed to contact the lumen walls of a vessel and to maintain vascular patency. A myriad of strut patterns are known in the art for achieving particular design goals.
Conventionally, a stent such as stent 1 may be fabricated from a tube by forming a pattern with a technique such as laser cutting. Representative examples of lasers that may be used include an excimer, carbon dioxide, and YAG. In other embodiments, chemical etching may be used to form a pattern on the elongated tube.
In some embodiments, the diameter of the stent may be between about 0.2 mm and about 5.0 mm, or more narrowly between about 1 mm and about 3 mm. Unless otherwise specified, the “diameter” of the tube refers to the outside diameter of tube.
Furthermore, bodily tissue disorders may be treated with active agent systemically or locally. Systemic treatment refers to administering an active agent to the body in a manner that tends to expose the body as a whole or a substantial portion of the body to the active agent. For example, systemic treatment may involve administration of an active agent by injection, intraveneously, orally, etc. Local treatment refers to administration of an active agent at or adjacent to the bodily tissue disorder. For example, implantable medical devices may provide for the local administration or delivery of an active agent at a diseased site at or adjacent to the region of implantation. Stents, for example, are used not only for mechanical intervention, but also as vehicles for providing biological therapy.
A medicated device, such as a stent, may be fabricated by coating the surface of either a metallic and/or polymeric scaffolding to produce a drug reservoir layer on the surface. The drug reservoir layer typically includes a polymeric carrier that includes an active agent or drug. To fabricate a conventional coating, a polymer, or a blend of polymers, can be applied on the device using commonly used techniques known to those having ordinary skill in the art. A composition for application to a device may include a solvent, a polymer dissolved in the solvent, and an active agent dispersed in the blend. The composition may be applied to the device, for example, by immersing the device in the composition or by spraying the composition onto the device. The solvent is allowed to evaporate, leaving on the device substrate surfaces a coating of the polymer and the active agent impregnated in the polymer.
In some embodiments, scaffolding or substrate may also serve as a carrier of an active agent or drug. For example, an active agent may be mixed or dispersed within at least a portion of polymeric scaffolding.
In order to provide an efficacious concentration to a diseased site, systemic administration of an active agent often produces adverse or even toxic side effects for the patient. Local delivery may be a preferred method of treatment in that smaller total levels of medication are administered in comparison to systemic dosages since the doses are concentrated at a specific site. Local delivery can produce fewer side effects and achieve more favorable results.
For example, a bodily lumen may include a coronary artery, peripheral artery, or other vessel or lumen within the body. The catheter assembly is configured to advance through the patient's vascular system by advancing over a guide wire by any of the well-known methods known in the art. The stent is mounted on expandable member 22 (e.g., a balloon) and is crimped tightly thereon, so that the stent and expandable member present a low profile diameter for delivery through the arteries.
As shown in
In a typical procedure to implant stent 10, catheter assembly 16 is advanced through the patient's vascular system by well-known methods to the diseased area 26. The expandable member or balloon 22 is inflated by well-known means so that it expands radially outwardly and in turn expands the stent radially outwardly until the stent is apposed to the vessel wall. The expandable member is then deflated and the catheter withdrawn from the patient's vascular system. In
Stent 10 holds open the artery after the catheter is withdrawn, as illustrated by
As discussed above, some treatments with implantable medical devices require the presence of the device only for a limited period of time. Once treatment is complete, which may include structural tissue support and/or drug delivery, it may be desirable for the stent to be removed or disappear from the treatment location. One way of having a device disappear may be by fabricating the device in whole or in part from materials that erode or disintegrate through exposure to conditions within the body. Thus, erodible portions of the device can disappear or substantially disappear from the implant region after the treatment regimen is completed. After the process of disintegration has been completed, no portion of the device, or an erodible portion of the device will remain. In some embodiments, very negligible traces or residue may be left behind.
The terms degrade, absorb, and erode, as well as degraded, eroded, and absorbed, are used interchangeably and refer to materials that are capable of being completely eroded, or absorbed when exposed to bodily conditions. Such materials may be capable of being gradually resorbed, absorbed, and/or eliminated by the body. A device made of such materials may disintegrate from a region of implantation.
The duration of a treatment period depends on the bodily disorder that is being treated. In treatments of coronary heart disease involving use of stents in diseased vessels, the duration can be in a range from about a month to a few years. However, the duration is typically in a range from about six to twelve months.
Several mechanisms may be relied upon for erosion and disintegration of implantable devices which include, but are not limited to, mechanical, chemical breakdown, dissolution, and breakdown due to rheological forces. Therefore, bodily conditions can include, but are not limited to, all conditions associated with bodily fluids (contact with fluids, flow of fluids) and mechanical forces arising from body tissue in direct and indirect contact with a device. The current technology of vascular and other types of devices tend to rely principally on chemical breakdown involving enzymatic and/or hydrolytic cleavage of device material due to exposure to bodily fluids such as blood.
In general, polymers can be biostable, bioabsorbable, biodegradable, or bioerodable. Biostable refers to polymers that are not biodegradable. The terms biodegradable, bioabsorbable, and bioerodable, as well as degraded, eroded, and absorbed, are used interchangeably and refer to polymers that are capable of being completely eroded or absorbed after implantation, e.g., when exposed to bodily fluids such as blood and can be gradually resorbed, absorbed, and/or eliminated by the body.
Chemical breakdown of biodegradable polymers results in changes of physical and chemical properties of the polymer, for example, following exposure to bodily fluids in a vascular environment. The changes in properties may include a decrease in molecular weight, deterioration of mechanical properties, and decrease in mass due to erosion or absorption. Mechanical properties may correspond to strength and modulus of the polymer. Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the polymer decreases the ability of a device, for example, to provide mechanical support in a vessel. The decrease in molecular weight may be caused by, for example, hydrolysis and/or metabolic processes. Hydrolysis is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. Consequently, the degree of degradation in the bulk of a polymer is strongly dependent on the diffusivity, and hence the diffusion rate of water in the polymer.
Several characteristics or parameters of the degradation process are important in designing biodegradable devices. These include an average erosion rate of a device, the erosion profile, the half-life of the degrading polymer, and mechanical stability of a device during the degradation process. The “average erosion rate” may be an average erosion rate over any selected time interval:
Average erosion rate=(m 2 −m 1)/(t 2 −t 1)
where “m” refers to mass of the device, “t” refers to a time during erosion, and m1 and m2 are the masses of the device at t1 and t2 during erosion. For instance, the selected time interval may be between the onset of degradation and another selected time. Other selected times, for example, may be the time for about 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% (complete erosion) of the device to erode. Complete erosion may correspond approximately to the time required for treatment by the device. As an example of the time frame of erosion, a biodegradable polymeric stent may be completely eroded in about six to eighteen months.
The “half-life” of a degrading polymer refers to the length of time for the molecular weight of the polymer to fall to one half of its original value. See e.g., J. C. Middleton and A. J. Tipton, Biomaterials, Vol. 21 (23) (2000) pp. 2335-2346.
In addition, metals may be considered to be biostable or bioerodible. Some metals are considered bioerodible since they tend to erode or corrode relatively rapidly when implanted or when exposed to bodily fluids. Biostable metals refer to metals that are not bioerodible. Biostable metals have negligible erosion or corrosion rates when implanted or when exposed to bodily fluids.
In general, metal erosion or corrosion involves a chemical reaction between a metal surface and its environment. Erosion or corrosion in a wet environment, such as a vascular environment, results in removal of metal atoms from the metal surface. The metal atoms at the surface lose electrons and become actively charged ions that leave the metal to form salts in solution.
Representative examples of biodegradable metals that may be used to fabricate an implantable medical device may include, but are not limited to, magnesium, zinc, and iron. As an example, of the time frame of erosion, an erodible metallic stent may be completely eroded between about a week and about three months, or more narrowly, between about one month and about two months.
Local treatment of some regions having bodily tissue disorders may be difficult or impossible for several reasons. Body tissue may include multiple afflicted locations requiring multiple implanted devices. An afflicted region may also be inaccessible to implantation. Such regions may be treated systemically. However, as pointed out above, systemic delivery has disadvantages.
As an illustration,
As indicated above, embodiments of the present invention relate to implantable medical devices for treating bodily tissue disorders local and distal to a region of implantation of the device. The devices described herein allow treatment of afflicted regions distal to the site of implantation of a device without the problems associated with systemic treatment, but with the advantages of local treatment.
In certain embodiments, an implantable medical device may include a body structure with at least a portion of the body structure including a plurality of particles releasably bound together by an erodible binder. The particles may be configured to be released from the body structure of the device due to erosion of the body structure during use of the device. In some embodiments, the particles may be adapted to treat a bodily disorder. For example, at least some of the particles may include an active agent for treatment of the disorder.
In one embodiment, at least some of the released particles may be adapted to be transported to a selected bodily region distal from a local region of implantation. The particles may deliver an active agent included in the particle to the distal region for treatment of a disorder at or adjacent to the region. The active agent may elute from the particles to treat the disorder.
Thus, certain embodiments of a method of treating a diseased region within a body may include disposing the implantable medical device at or within an implantation bodily region. The method may further include allowing at least some of the particles to be released from the body structure of the device. In some embodiments, the released particles may be transported to a bodily region distal from the implantation bodily region to treat a bodily disorder at the distal region. For example, the device may be a stent implanted at or near the site of a vascular region with a lesion. After being released from the device, the particles may be transported to a distal or per-adventitial vasculature region having a lesion. An active agent eluting from the particles may treat the afflicted distal vascular region.
In some embodiments, an active agent within the particles may treat a bodily disorder at or near the implantation region. The active agent may diffuse from bound and/or released particles into bodily tissue at or near the implantation region to treat the bodily disorder. The bodily tissue may include outer vessel wall layers such as per adventitia.
As an example,
In one embodiment, one or more of the plurality of particles may include more than one type of active agent. Alternatively, more than one type of particle may be released, where different types may include different agents. Each type of active agent may be adapted to treat a selected bodily disorder. For example, a particle for release from a stent may include an antiproliferative drug and an anti-inflammatory drug. The anti-inflammatory drug may be treat inflammation locally prior to release and the antiproliferative drug may be used to treat distal regions after release of the particle. In addition, a particle may include different types of active agents to treat different disorders in distal regions.
In addition, particles may be biostable or bioerodible. It is generally desirable for erodible particles to have a slower degradation rate than binder material. Additionally, a particle material should be selected so that the particles do not undergo substantial erosion prior to release and prior to treatment of a distal region.
In certain embodiments, the particles may include nanoparticles and/or microparticles. A nanoparticle refers to a particle with a characteristic length (e.g., diameter) in the range of about 1 nm to about 1,000 nm. A microparticle refers to a particle with a characteristic length in the range of greater than 1,000 nm and less than about 10 micrometers.
Embodiments of the device can include numerous types and configurations of particles. Representative examples of materials that may be used for particles include, but are not limited to, a biostable polymer; a bioabsorbable polymer; a biosoluble material; a biopolymer; a biostable metal; a bioerodible metal; a block copolymer of a bioabsorbable polymer or a biopolymer; a ceramic material such as a bioabsorbable glass; salts; fullerenes; lipids; carbon nanotubes; or a combination thereof. Particles may also include micelles or vesicles.
Particles may have bioactive agents mixed, dispersed, or dissolved in the particle material. Particles may also be coated with an active agent. In other embodiments, particles can also have an outer shell of polymer, metal, or ceramic with inner compartment containing an active agent. In an embodiment, particles may include bioresorbable glass with bioactive agent encapsulating or embedded within the particle. In some embodiments, particles may be designed to use a combination of the above, e.g., a particle may include a polymeric drug, or a drug impregnated core coated with a bioerodible metal. In addition, particles may include fullerenes coated with a bioactive agent.
As indicated, in some embodiments, particles may include micelles. The micelles may be loaded with active agent formed from block copolymers and/or lipids. A “micelle” refers to an aggregate (or cluster) of surfactant molecules. Micelles tend to form when the concentration of surfactant is greater than the critical micelle concentration. “Surfactants” refer to chemicals that are amphipathic, which means that they contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Micelles can exist in different shapes, including spherical, cylindrical, and discoidal. Micelles may be stabilized by crosslinking of the surfactant molecules that form the micelle.
Additionally, particles may be vesicles loaded with bioactive formed from block copolymers and or lipids. A vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment or shell formed by at least one lipid bilayer. The vesicle may also be stabilized by crosslinking the lipid bilayer shell.
In some embodiments, the binder that holds the particles to the body structure of the device may be composed in whole or in part of a bioerodible material. The binder may begin to erode upon exposure to bodily conditions. In addition, the particles may also be composed in whole or in part of an erodible material. The release of the particles may due to erosion of the binder and/or particles.
Representative examples of materials that may be used for a binder include, but are not limited to, a bioabsorbable polymer; a biostable, but biosoluble polymer; a biosoluble material; a biopolymer; a biostable metal; a bioerodible metal; a block copolymer of a bioabsorbable polymer or a biopolymer; salts; bioerodible glass; or a combination thereof.
As described above, the mechanism of erosion and release of the particles may be due to one or more mechanisms. In one embodiment, erosion may be due to chemical breakdown of the binder material. In some embodiments, at least some of the particles can include erodible material. Erosion may also be due to dissolution of the binder material and/or particles. It may be advantageous for the particles to have a slower erosion rate than the binder material.
In other embodiments, rheological forces may facilitate erosion of the body structure and release of the particles. For example, the force of fluids flowing through a bodily lumen may cause detachment of particles. The attachment of such particles may have been weakened by erosion of binder material that binds the particles to the body structure of the device. Rheological forces may arise from the flow of blood and other fluids in bodily lumen.
In one embodiment, the binder may include an active agent. The binder may deliver the active agent for local treatment of a bodily disorder at the location of implantation of the device. In one embodiment, the binder may have active agent(s) for treating disorder(s) locally and the particles may have active agent(s) for treating the same and/or different disorders distally.
In other embodiments, the plurality of particles may include particles having the same or substantially the same treatment properties. Treatment properties may include, but are not limited to, type(s) of active agent included in each particle, release rate of active agents from the particle, degradation rate, and size. In other embodiments, the plurality of particles may have particles with different treatment properties. Some particles may have different types of active agents, different release rates than other particles, different degradation rates, and different sizes.
In some embodiments, the plurality of particles may be arranged such that selected particles of the plurality of particles are released during a selected time or are released according to a sequence as compared to other particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be selected based on treatment properties of the particles. For example, it may be desirable to treat particular disorders before others in regions distal to the implant location of the device. Therefore, particles having active agents for treating such disorders may be configured to be released prior to other particles that have other types of active agents. Such particles may be located closer to a surface of the device where they may be released sooner.
In additional embodiments, at least some of the particles and binder may be arranged in at least one layer. For instance, the device may include multiple layers of particle and binder. In one embodiment, all or a majority of particles in a particular layer may have selected treatment properties, such as type(s) of active agent(s) and/or drug release rate. The particles in layers closer to a surface of the device may be released prior to particles in layers further from the surface. For example, a stent may have struts having layers that run parallel or substantially parallel to a longitudinal axis of the strut.
In other embodiments, properties of the binder may vary spatially in the body structure of the device so as to obtain a selected rate and/or sequence of release of selected particles from the body structure. One embodiment may include varying the erosion rate of the binder by using binder materials with different erosion rates in different portions of the device. For example, the erosion rate of binder may vary by layer.
In another embodiment, the amount of binder may vary spatially in the body structure so as to obtain a selected rate of release of selected particles from the body structure. For example, decreasing/increasing the amount of binder between particles may tend to result in an increase/decrease in the rate of release of particles from the region.
In some embodiments, the device may be configured to disintegrate in a controlled or predictable manner. Selected regions of a body structure may be configured to lose mechanical integrity prior to other regions of the device. The selected regions may have an amount of binder or binder properties that allow the regions to lose mechanical integrity faster.
Additionally, it may be desirable to delay or inhibit erosion of the body structure and release of the particles during a particular period. For example, such a time period may be during the time that a device is being delivered to an implantation site. It may also be desirable to delay erosion and release after implantation to lengthen a time that the device maintains mechanical integrity.
In some embodiments, the device may include an erodible coating above at least some of the particles and binder. “Above” a surface is defined as higher than or over a surface measured along an axis normal to a surface, but not necessarily in contact with the surface. The coating may, for example, be composed of a bioabsorbable polymer. The coating may delay or inhibit exposure to bodily conditions that cause erosion of the particles and binder. Thus, the coating may be configured to delay or inhibit erosion of the body structure of the device and to delay and inhibit release of particles from the body structure.
Various properties of the coating may be used to control the delay of the erosion and release of particles. Erosion rate depends on a number of factors including, but not limited to chemical composition, thickness, porosity, molecular weight, and degree of crystallinity. A thicker coating may tend to take longer to erode, and thus, result in a longer delay of particle release. A more porous coating may increase the erosion rate. In addition, for polymers, molecular weight tends to be inversely proportional to degradation rate. Also, a higher degree of crystallinity tends to result in a lower degradation rate. Thus, amorphous regions of a polymer may tend to have a higher degradation rate than crystalline regions.
In terms of the chemical composition, biodegradable polymers span a continuum from polymers having a relatively constant instantaneous erosion rate with time during a degradation process to polymers with an instantaneous erosion rate that is strongly dependent on time. The former case corresponds to surface eroding polymers, while the latter case refers to bulk eroding polymers. The concepts of surface eroding and bulk eroding are limiting extremes. Real systems typically behave somewhere in between surface erosion and bulk erosion.
As a bulk eroding polymer erodes, a decrease in molecular weight of the polymer can result in deterioration of mechanical properties and contributes to erosion or absorption of the polymer into the bodily fluids. Therefore, the time frame of degradation of a polymer part is dependent on water diffusion, hydrolysis, decrease in molecular weight, and erosion. During a course of treatment with a biodegradable polymeric stent, the polymer degrades resulting in a decrease in the molecular weight of the polymer and deterioration of mechanical properties. Representative examples of bulk eroding polymers include, but are not limited to, poly(L-lactide), poly(glycolide), poly(D,L-lactide), poly(trimethylene carbonate), polycaprolactone, and copolymers thereof.
Alternatively, a surface eroding polymer typically has relatively low water diffusivity. As a result, surface erosion is a heterogeneous process in which degradation and erosion tend to occur at or near a surface of the polymer exposed to the bodily fluids. Representative examples of surface eroding polymers include, but are not limited to, polyorthoesters, polyanhydrides and copolymers thereof.
Additionally, erosion of materials such as biodegradable polymers may also be caused by metabolic or biological activity. Metabolic action is caused particularly by enzyme action leading to significant changes in the chemical structure of a material. Enzymatic degradation of polymers involves cleavage of chemical bonds in the polymer resulting in a scission of the polymer backbone.
Enzymes are proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalysts. Thus, enzymatic degradation occurs by a catalytic process. Some enzymes require other enzymes (co-enzymes) to be present in order to be effective, in some cases forming association complexes in which the coenzyme acts as a donor or acceptor for a specific group. Enzymes accelerate the rates of reactions while experiencing no permanent chemical modification as a result of their participation. In some embodiments, a biopolymer sensitive to enzymatic degradation of specific enzymes may be used as a binder, thereby making disintegration an enzyme triggered event. Alternatively, a synthetic binder polymer susceptible to enzymatic cleavage may be used such as a polymer with disulfide bonds.
Furthermore, it may be necessary or desirable to enhance the mechanical stability or integrity of the device. In some embodiments, the device may include a bioabsorbable composite layer above at least some of the particles and binder. The composite layer may also act to delay or inhibit erosion of the binder and release of particles in a manner similar to the coating described above.
As in the coating described above, various properties of the composite layer may be used to control the delay of the erosion and release of particles. The erosion rate of the composite layer depends on the properties of the matrix and the particles.
An embodiment of the composite layer may include a plurality of particles or fibers mixed, dispersed, or embedded with a bioabsorbable matrix. The particles of the layer may include the same or different types of particles held together by the binder in the body structure of the device. The bioabsorbable matrix may include a bioerodible material, such as, a bioabsorbable polymer or bioerodible metal. The bioabsorbable matrix may include the same or different materials as the binder.
In one embodiment, the composite layer may be formed separately from the device. The layer may be formed into a desire shaped and then attached to the device. For example, a layer for a stent may be in the shape of a tube. The layer may be formed by various methods, such as, extrusion or injection molding. A mixture of the matrix material and the particles may be extruded or molded into the desired shape.
In addition, the layer may be attached to the device in a number of ways. For example, at least a portion of the bioabsorbable matrix may be dissolved by a solvent at a surface of the layer. Alternatively or additionally, at least a portion of the binder may be dissolved by a solvent. The dissolved surfaces may then be joined and the solvent removed by evaporation or by heating.
In another embodiment, a composite layer may be formed by applying a fluid including a solvent, a bioabsorbable polymer, and particles or fibers to the device. The solvent may then be removed by evaporation or heating, leaving a composite layer of bioabsorbable polymer and particles over the device.
There are various embodiments of forming the implantable medical device, described herein. In some embodiments, the particles may be preformed and then incorporated into the binder material. In certain embodiments, a method may include applying a fluid on a predefined portion of a plurality of particles. In one embodiment, the particles may be disposed in the shape of the device. In the case of a stent, the particles may be disposed on a mandrel, for example. In some embodiments, the particles may be formed into the shape of a tube, sheet, or a stent by sintering, for example. In other embodiments, the particles may be disposed on a polymeric or metallic substrate or scaffolding in the shape of the device.
Additionally, the method may further include allowing the fluid to releasably bind together the predefined portion of particles with a binder to form a layer which includes the particles bound together with the binder. The particles not bound by the binder may be removed.
In one embodiment, the applied fluid may include a binder dissolved in a solvent in which the binder has a relatively high solubility. Thus, after removal of all or substantially all of the solvent, binder may be left behind which binds together the predefined portion of particles. In an embodiment, it is desirable for the particles to have a relatively low or no solubility in the solvent. Representative examples of solvents that may be used include chloroform, acetone, chlorobenzene, ethyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane, ethylene dichloride, 2-ethyhexanol, ethanol, methanol, and combinations thereof. The solvent and materials for the binder and the particles may be selected so that the binder and particles have a desired solubility in the solvent.
In another embodiment, the applied fluid may include a solvent that dissolves a portion of the predefined portion of particles. Removal of all or substantially all of the fluid allows the dissolved portion of the particles to bind the predefined portion of particles together. In addition, additional layers of particles and binder may be applied in a similar manner. As discussed above, the particles and binder may be different in different layers.
In one embodiment, stereolithography may be used in fabricating the device. “Stereolithography” or “3-D printing” refers to a technique for manufacturing solid objects by the sequential delivery of energy and/or material to specified points in space to produce that solid. The manufacturing process may be controlled by a computer using a mathematical model created with the aid of a computer. In the case of fabricating an implantable medical device, the fluid may be applied by an applicator, such as a nozzle, programmed to apply the fluid in a pattern corresponding to the predefined portion of particles. The pattern may be based on computer-generated construct of the device.
In certain embodiments, a fluid applicator may be configured to apply an amount and types of binder to obtain a desired rate of erosion and selected rate and/or sequence of release of selected particles from the body structure. For example, a greater amount of fluid may be applied to selected particles to increase the degree of binding between the particles which may tend to decrease rate of release of particles and disintegration of the device.
In further embodiments, the implantable medical device may be fabricated by forming a coating including the plurality of particles bound together with the binder on a polymeric or metallic substrate or scaffolding. In one embodiment, a coating may be formed by applying fluid that includes a solvent, a bioabsorbable polymer, and particles. The solvent may then be removed by evaporation or heating, leaving a coating including the bioabsorbable polymer and particles over the device.
In further embodiments, the implantable medical device may be fabricated by applying a suspension of particles on a polymeric or metallic substrate or scaffolding. The suspension may include particles, a solvent, and a bioabsorbable polymer. After applying the suspension, the solvent may then be removed by evaporation or heating, leaving the bioabsorbable polymer and particles. The particles may be bound together by the bioabsorbable polymer which acts as a binder. The particles and/or binder may include active agents. In some embodiments, additional layers may be formed by repeated application of suspension and removal of solvent.
In other embodiments, the particles may be formed by self-assembly within the binder material. For example, an amphiphilic block copolymer may be mixed with a hydrophilic binder in an aqueous solution. Amphiphilic molecules may then self-assemble to form particles. Representative examples of amphiphilic block copolymers include, but are not limited to poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid); poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone); poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly(lactic acid). Representative examples of hydrophilic binders include, but are not limited to, poly(ethylene glycol), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(vinyl acetate). Syed, David, please comment. In some embodiments, crosslinkers may be conjugated onto the particle-forming block-copolymers. The particles may be further stabilized by crosslinker activation after the formation of the particle and binder matrix.
Representative examples of polymers that may be used for binder and/or particles to fabricate embodiments of implantable medical devices disclosed herein include, but are not limited to, poly(N-acetylglucosamine) (Chitin), Chitosan, poly(3-hydroxyvalerate), poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(4-hydroxybutyrate), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), polyorthoester, polyanhydride, poly(glycolic acid), poly(glycolide), poly(L-lactic acid), poly(L-lactide), poly(D,L-lactic acid), poly(D,L-lactide), poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide), poly(caprolactone), poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), poly(D,L-lactide-co-caprolactone), poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone), poly(trimethylene carbonate), polyester amide, poly(glycolic acid-co-trimethylene carbonate), co-poly(ether-esters) (e.g. PEO/PLA), polyphosphazenes, biomolecules (such as fibrin, fibrin glue, fibrinogen, cellulose, starch, collagen and hyaluronic acid, elastin and hyaluronic acid), polyurethanes, silicones, polyesters, polyolefins, polyisobutylene and ethylene-alphaolefin copolymers, acrylic polymers and copolymers other than polyacrylates, vinyl halide polymers and copolymers (such as polyvinyl chloride), polyvinyl ethers (such as polyvinyl methyl ether), polyvinylidene halides (such as polyvinylidene chloride), polyacrylonitrile, polyvinyl ketones, polyvinyl aromatics (such as polystyrene), polyvinyl esters (such as polyvinyl acetate), acrylonitrile-styrene copolymers, ABS resins, polyamides (such as Nylon 66 and polycaprolactam), polycarbonates, polyoxymethylenes, polyimides, polyethers, polyurethanes, rayon, rayon-triacetate, cellulose, cellulose acetate, cellulose butyrate, cellulose acetate butyrate, cellophane, cellulose nitrate, cellulose propionate, cellulose ethers, and carboxymethyl cellulose. Additional representative examples of polymers that may be especially well suited for use in fabricating embodiments of implantable medical devices disclosed herein include ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (commonly known by the generic name EVOH or by the trade name EVAL), poly(butyl methacrylate), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (e.g., SOLEF 21508, available from Solvay Solexis PVDF, Thorofare, N.J.), polyvinylidene fluoride (otherwise known as KYNAR, available from ATOFINA Chemicals, Philadelphia, Pa.), ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers, poly(vinyl acetate), styrene-isobutylene-styrene triblock copolymers, and polyethylene glycol.
Representative examples of biosoluble materials that may be used for a binder and/or particles to fabricate embodiments of implantable medical devices disclosed herein include, but are not limited to, poly(ethylene oxide); poly(acrylamide); poly(vinyl alcohol); cellulose acetate; blends of biosoluble polymer with bioabsorbable and/or biostable polymers; N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide; ceramic matrix composites; and tyrosine based polycarbonates.
A non-polymer substrate of the device may be made of a metallic material or an alloy such as, but not limited to, cobalt chromium alloy (ELGILOY), stainless steel (316L), high nitrogen stainless steel, e.g., BIODUR 108, cobalt chrome alloy L-605, “MP35N,” “MP20N,” ELASTINITE (Nitinol), tantalum, nickel-titanium alloy, platinum-iridium alloy, gold, magnesium, or combinations thereof. “MP35N” and “MP20N” are trade names for alloys of cobalt, nickel, chromium and molybdenum available from Standard Press Steel Co., Jenkintown, Pa. “MP35N” consists of 35% cobalt, 35% nickel, 20% chromium, and 10% molybdenum. “MP20N” consists of 50% cobalt, 20% nickel, 20% chromium, and 10% molybdenum. The substrate or coating for a device may also be made partially or completely from a purified biodegradable, bioabsorbable, or biostable polymer.
As indicated above, the particles and the binder may include active agent(s) such as anti-inflammatories, antiproliferatives, and other bioactive agents.
An antiproliferative agent can be a natural proteineous agent such as a cytotoxin or a synthetic molecule. Preferably, the active agents include antiproliferative substances such as actinomycin D, or derivatives and analogs thereof (manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich 1001 West Saint Paul Avenue, Milwaukee, Wis. 53233; or COSMEGEN available from Merck) (synonyms of actinomycin D include dactinomycin, actinomycin IV, actinomycin I1, actinomycin X1, and actinomycin C1), all taxoids such as taxols, docetaxel, and paclitaxel, paclitaxel derivatives, all olimus drugs such as macrolide antibiotics, rapamycin, everolimus, structural derivatives and functional analogues of rapamycin, structural derivatives and functional analogues of everolimus, FKBP-12 mediated mTOR inhibitors, biolimus, perfenidone, prodrugs thereof, co-drugs thereof, and combinations thereof. Representative rapamycin derivatives include 40-O-(3-hydroxy)propyl-rapamycin, 40-O-[2-(2-hydroxy)ethoxy]ethyl-rapamycin, or 40-O-tetrazole-rapamycin, 40-epi-(N1-tetrazolyl)-rapamycin (ABT-578 manufactured by Abbot Laboratories, Abbot Park, Ill.), prodrugs thereof, co-drugs thereof, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the anti-proliferative agent is everolimus.
An anti-inflammatory drug can be a steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, anti-inflammatory drugs include, but are not limited to, alclofenac, alclometasone dipropionate, algestone acetonide, alpha amylase, amcinafal, amcinafide, amfenac sodium, amiprilose hydrochloride, anakinra, anirolac, anitrazafen, apazone, balsalazide disodium, bendazac, benoxaprofen, benzydamine hydrochloride, bromelains, broperamole, budesonide, carprofen, cicloprofen, cintazone, cliprofen, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, clopirac, cloticasone propionate, cormethasone acetate, cortodoxone, deflazacort, desonide, desoximetasone, dexamethasone dipropionate, diclofenac potassium, diclofenac sodium, diflorasone diacetate, diflumidone sodium, diflunisal, difluprednate, diftalone, dimethyl sulfoxide, drocinonide, endrysone, enlimomab, enolicam sodium, epirizole, etodolac, etofenamate, felbinac, fenamole, fenbufen, fenclofenac, fenclorac, fendosal, fenpipalone, fentiazac, flazalone, fluazacort, flufenamic acid, flumizole, flunisolide acetate, flunixin, flunixin meglumine, fluocortin butyl, fluorometholone acetate, fluquazone, flurbiprofen, fluretofen, fluticasone propionate, furaprofen, furobufen, halcinonide, halobetasol propionate, halopredone acetate, ibufenac, ibuprofen, ibuprofen aluminum, ibuprofen piconol, ilonidap, indomethacin, indomethacin sodium, indoprofen, indoxole, intrazole, isoflupredone acetate, isoxepac, isoxicam, ketoprofen, lofemizole hydrochloride, lomoxicam, loteprednol etabonate, meclofenamate sodium, meclofenamic acid, meclorisone dibutyrate, mefenamic acid, mesalamine, meseclazone, methylprednisolone suleptanate, momiflumate, nabumetone, naproxen, naproxen sodium, naproxol, nimazone, olsalazine sodium, orgotein, orpanoxin, oxaprozin, oxyphenbutazone, paranyline hydrochloride, pentosan polysulfate sodium, phenbutazone sodium glycerate, pirfenidone, piroxicam, piroxicam cinnamate, piroxicam olamine, pirprofen, prednazate, prifelone, prodolic acid, proquazone, proxazole, proxazole citrate, rimexolone, romazarit, salcolex, salnacedin, salsalate, sanguinarium chloride, seclazone, sermetacin, sudoxicam, sulindac, suprofen, talmetacin, talniflumate, talosalate, tebufelone, tenidap, tenidap sodium, tenoxicam, tesicam, tesimide, tetrydamine, tiopinac, tixocortol pivalate, tolmetin, tolmetin sodium, triclonide, triflumidate, zidometacin, zomepirac sodium, aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), salicylic acid, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, tacrolimus, pimecorlimus, prodrugs thereof, co-drugs thereof, and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the anti-inflammatory agent is clobetasol.
Alternatively, the anti-inflammatory may be a biological inhibitor of proinflammatory signaling molecules. Anti-inflammatory biological agents include antibodies to such biological inflammatory signaling molecules.
In addition, the particles and binder may include agents other than antiproliferative agent or anti-inflammatory agents. These active agents can be any agent which is a therapeutic, prophylactic, or a diagnostic agent. In some embodiments, such agents may be used in combination with antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory agents. These agents can also have anti-proliferative and/or anti-inflamnmatory properties or can have other properties such as antineoplastic, antiplatelet, anti-coagulant, anti-fibrin, antithrombonic, antimitotic, antibiotic, antiallergic, antioxidant, and cystostatic agents. Examples of suitable therapeutic and prophylactic agents include synthetic inorganic and organic compounds, proteins and peptides, polysaccharides and other sugars, lipids, and DNA and RNA nucleic acid sequences having therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic activities. Nucleic acid sequences include genes, antisense molecules which bind to complementary DNA to inhibit transcription, and ribozymes. Some other examples of other bioactive agents include antibodies, receptor ligands, enzymes, adhesion peptides, blood clotting factors, inhibitors or clot dissolving agents such as streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, antigens for immunization, hormones and growth factors, oligonucleotides such as antisense oligonucleotides and ribozymes and retroviral vectors for use in gene therapy. Examples of antineoplastics and/or antimitotics include methotrexate, azathioprine, vincristine, vinblastine, fluorouracil, doxorubicin hydrochloride (e.g. Adriamycin® from Pharmacia & Upjohn, Peapack N.J.), and mitomycin (e.g. Mutamycin® from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Stamford, Conn.). Examples of such antiplatelets, anticoagulants, antifibrin, and antithrombins include sodium heparin, low molecular weight heparins, heparinoids, hirudin, argatroban, forskolin, vapiprost, prostacyclin and prostacyclin analogues, dextran, D-phe-pro-arg-chloromethylketone (synthetic antithrombin), dipyridamole, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet membrane receptor antagonist antibody, recombinant hirudin, thrombin inhibitors such as Angiomax a (Biogen, Inc., Cambridge, Mass.), calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine), colchicine, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) antagonists, fish oil (omega 3-fatty acid), histamine antagonists, lovastatin (an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, a cholesterol lowering drug, brand name Mevacor® from Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, N.J.), monoclonal antibodies (such as those specific for Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) receptors), nitroprusside, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitors, suramin, serotonin blockers, steroids, thioprotease inhibitors, triazolopyrimidine (a PDGF antagonist), nitric oxide or nitric oxide donors, super oxide dismutases, super oxide dismutase mimetic, 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl(4-amino-TEMPO), estradiol, anticancer agents, dietary supplements such as various vitamins, and a combination thereof. Examples of such cytostatic substance include angiopeptin, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as captopril (e.g. Capoten® and Capozide® from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Stamford, Conn.), cilazapril or lisinopril (e.g. Prinivil® and Prinzide® from Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, N.J.). An example of an antiallergic agent is permirolast potassium. Other therapeutic substances or agents which may be appropriate include alpha-interferon, and genetically engineered epithelial cells. The foregoing substances are listed by way of example and are not meant to be limiting.
Other bioactive agents may include antiinfectives such as antiviral agents; analgesics and analgesic combinations; anorexics; antihelmintics; antiarthritics, antiasthmatic agents; anticonvulsants; antidepressants; antidiuretic agents; antidiarrheals; antihistamines; antimigrain preparations; antinauseants; antiparkinsonism drugs; antipruritics; antipsychotics; antipyretics; antispasmodics; anticholinergics; sympathomimetics; xanthine derivatives; cardiovascular preparations including calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers such as pindolol and antiarrhythmics; antihypertensives; diuretics; vasodilators including general coronary; peripheral and cerebral; central nervous system stimulants; cough and cold preparations, including decongestants; hypnotics; immunosuppressives; muscle relaxants; parasympatholytics; psychostimulants; sedatives; tranquilizers; naturally derived or genetically engineered lipoproteins; and restenoic reducing agents. Other active agents which are currently available or that may be developed in the future are equally applicable.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications can be made without departing from this invention in its broader aspects. Therefore, the appended claims are to encompass within their scope all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3687135||15 Sep 1969||29 Aug 1972||Evgeny Mikhailovich Savitsky||Magnesium-base alloy for use in bone surgery|
|US3839743||15 Oct 1973||8 Oct 1974||A Schwarcz||Method for maintaining the normal integrity of blood|
|US3900632||3 Apr 1972||19 Aug 1975||Kimberly Clark Co||Laminate of tissue and random laid continuous filament web|
|US4104410||9 Sep 1976||1 Aug 1978||Malecki George J||Processing of green vegetables for color retention in canning|
|US4110497||2 Jul 1976||29 Aug 1978||Snyder Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Striped laminate and method and apparatus for making same|
|US4321711||12 Oct 1979||30 Mar 1982||Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.||Vascular prosthesis|
|US4346028||24 Nov 1980||24 Aug 1982||Monsanto Company||Asbestiform crystalline calcium sodium or lithium phosphate, preparation and compositions|
|US4596574||14 May 1984||24 Jun 1986||The Regents Of The University Of California||Biodegradable porous ceramic delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein|
|US4599085||1 Feb 1984||8 Jul 1986||Neodontics, Inc.||Bone implant member for prostheses and bone connecting elements and process for the production thereof|
|US4612009||11 Jun 1985||16 Sep 1986||Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved||Biodegradable implant and a method for preparation thereof|
|US4633873||26 Apr 1984||6 Jan 1987||American Cyanamid Company||Surgical repair mesh|
|US4656083||11 Mar 1985||7 Apr 1987||Washington Research Foundation||Plasma gas discharge treatment for improving the biocompatibility of biomaterials|
|US4718907||20 Jun 1985||12 Jan 1988||Atrium Medical Corporation||Vascular prosthesis having fluorinated coating with varying F/C ratio|
|US4722335||20 Oct 1986||2 Feb 1988||Vilasi Joseph A||Expandable endotracheal tube|
|US4723549||18 Sep 1986||9 Feb 1988||Wholey Mark H||Method and apparatus for dilating blood vessels|
|US4732152||5 Dec 1985||22 Mar 1988||Medinvent S.A.||Device for implantation and a method of implantation in a vessel using such device|
|US4733665||7 Nov 1985||29 Mar 1988||Expandable Grafts Partnership||Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft|
|US4739762||3 Nov 1986||26 Apr 1988||Expandable Grafts Partnership||Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft|
|US4740207||10 Sep 1986||26 Apr 1988||Kreamer Jeffry W||Intralumenal graft|
|US4743252||13 Jan 1986||10 May 1988||Corvita Corporation||Composite grafts|
|US4768507||31 Aug 1987||6 Sep 1988||Medinnovations, Inc.||Intravascular stent and percutaneous insertion catheter system for the dilation of an arterial stenosis and the prevention of arterial restenosis|
|US4776337||26 Jun 1986||11 Oct 1988||Expandable Grafts Partnership||Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft|
|US4800882||13 Mar 1987||31 Jan 1989||Cook Incorporated||Endovascular stent and delivery system|
|US4816339||28 Apr 1987||28 Mar 1989||Baxter International Inc.||Multi-layered poly(tetrafluoroethylene)/elastomer materials useful for in vivo implantation|
|US4818559||29 Jul 1986||4 Apr 1989||Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited||Method for producing endosseous implants|
|US4850999||26 May 1981||25 Jul 1989||Institute Fur Textil-Und Faserforschung Of Stuttgart||Flexible hollow organ|
|US4877030||31 May 1988||31 Oct 1989||Andreas Beck||Device for the widening of blood vessels|
|US4878906||6 Jun 1988||7 Nov 1989||Servetus Partnership||Endoprosthesis for repairing a damaged vessel|
|US4879135||18 Jul 1988||7 Nov 1989||University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New Jersey||Drug bonded prosthesis and process for producing same|
|US4886062||19 Oct 1987||12 Dec 1989||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular radially expandable stent and method of implant|
|US4902289||9 Aug 1988||20 Feb 1990||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Multilayer bioreplaceable blood vessel prosthesis|
|US4977901||6 Apr 1990||18 Dec 1990||Minnesota Mining And Manufacturing Company||Article having non-crosslinked crystallized polymer coatings|
|US4994298||18 Apr 1990||19 Feb 1991||Biogold Inc.||Method of making a biocompatible prosthesis|
|US5019090||1 Sep 1988||28 May 1991||Corvita Corporation||Radially expandable endoprosthesis and the like|
|US5028597||13 Apr 1990||2 Jul 1991||Agency Of Industrial Science And Technology||Antithrombogenic materials|
|US5059211||25 Jun 1987||22 Oct 1991||Duke University||Absorbable vascular stent|
|US5062829||16 Mar 1990||5 Nov 1991||Carter Holt Harvey Plastic Products Group Limited||Relates to devices for administering a substance such as a drug or chemical or the like|
|US5084065||10 Jul 1989||28 Jan 1992||Corvita Corporation||Reinforced graft assembly|
|US5085629||27 Sep 1989||4 Feb 1992||Medical Engineering Corporation||Biodegradable stent|
|US5100429||20 Oct 1989||31 Mar 1992||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Endovascular stent and delivery system|
|US5104410||22 Oct 1990||14 Apr 1992||Intermedics Orthopedics, Inc||Surgical implant having multiple layers of sintered porous coating and method|
|US5108417||14 Sep 1990||28 Apr 1992||Interface Biomedical Laboratories Corp.||Anti-turbulent, anti-thrombogenic intravascular stent|
|US5108755||27 Apr 1989||28 Apr 1992||Sri International||Biodegradable composites for internal medical use|
|US5112457||23 Jul 1990||12 May 1992||Case Western Reserve University||Process for producing hydroxylated plasma-polymerized films and the use of the films for enhancing the compatiblity of biomedical implants|
|US5123917||27 Apr 1990||23 Jun 1992||Lee Peter Y||Expandable intraluminal vascular graft|
|US5156623||5 Apr 1991||20 Oct 1992||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Sustained release material and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5163951||27 Mar 1992||17 Nov 1992||Corvita Corporation||Mesh composite graft|
|US5163952||14 Sep 1990||17 Nov 1992||Michael Froix||Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method|
|US5163958||13 Aug 1991||17 Nov 1992||Cordis Corporation||Carbon coated tubular endoprosthesis|
|US5167614||29 Oct 1991||1 Dec 1992||Medical Engineering Corporation||Prostatic stent|
|US5192311||13 Aug 1990||9 Mar 1993||Angeion Corporation||Medical implant and method of making|
|US5197977||30 Apr 1992||30 Mar 1993||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Drug delivery collagen-impregnated synthetic vascular graft|
|US5234456||7 May 1992||10 Aug 1993||Pfizer Hospital Products Group, Inc.||Hydrophilic stent|
|US5234457||9 Oct 1991||10 Aug 1993||Boston Scientific Corporation||Impregnated stent|
|US5236447||28 Jun 1991||17 Aug 1993||Nissho Corporation||Artificial tubular organ|
|US5279594||23 May 1990||18 Jan 1994||Jackson Richard R||Intubation devices with local anesthetic effect for medical use|
|US5282860||8 Oct 1992||1 Feb 1994||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Stent tube for medical use|
|US5289831||21 Apr 1992||1 Mar 1994||Vance Products Incorporated||Surface-treated stent, catheter, cannula, and the like|
|US5290271||29 Jul 1993||1 Mar 1994||Jernberg Gary R||Surgical implant and method for controlled release of chemotherapeutic agents|
|US5306286||1 Feb 1991||26 Apr 1994||Duke University||Absorbable stent|
|US5306294||5 Aug 1992||26 Apr 1994||Ultrasonic Sensing And Monitoring Systems, Inc.||Stent construction of rolled configuration|
|US5328471||4 Aug 1993||12 Jul 1994||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Method and apparatus for treatment of focal disease in hollow tubular organs and other tissue lumens|
|US5330500||17 Oct 1991||19 Jul 1994||Song Ho Y||Self-expanding endovascular stent with silicone coating|
|US5342348||4 Dec 1992||30 Aug 1994||Kaplan Aaron V||Method and device for treating and enlarging body lumens|
|US5342395||13 Jan 1992||30 Aug 1994||American Cyanamid Co.||Absorbable surgical repair devices|
|US5342621||15 Sep 1992||30 Aug 1994||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Antithrombogenic surface|
|US5356433||3 Nov 1993||18 Oct 1994||Cordis Corporation||Biocompatible metal surfaces|
|US5383925||14 Sep 1992||24 Jan 1995||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Three-dimensional braided soft tissue prosthesis|
|US5385580||21 Sep 1992||31 Jan 1995||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Self-supporting woven vascular graft|
|US5389106||29 Oct 1993||14 Feb 1995||Numed, Inc.||Impermeable expandable intravascular stent|
|US5399666||21 Apr 1994||21 Mar 1995||E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company||Easily degradable star-block copolymers|
|US5423885||14 Jul 1993||13 Jun 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent capable of attachment within a body lumen|
|US5441515||23 Apr 1993||15 Aug 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Ratcheting stent|
|US5443458||3 Dec 1993||22 Aug 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Multilayered biodegradable stent and method of manufacture|
|US5443500||8 Apr 1994||22 Aug 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US5455040||19 Nov 1992||3 Oct 1995||Case Western Reserve University||Anticoagulant plasma polymer-modified substrate|
|US5464650||26 Apr 1993||7 Nov 1995||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular stent and method|
|US5502158||22 Sep 1992||26 Mar 1996||Ecopol, Llc||Degradable polymer composition|
|US5514379||7 Aug 1992||7 May 1996||The General Hospital Corporation||Hydrogel compositions and methods of use|
|US5527337||22 Feb 1994||18 Jun 1996||Duke University||Bioabsorbable stent and method of making the same|
|US5545408||19 Oct 1992||13 Aug 1996||Peptide Technology Limited||Biocompatible implant for the timing of ovulation in mares|
|US5554120||25 Jul 1994||10 Sep 1996||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Polymer blends for use in making medical devices including catheters and balloons for dilatation catheters|
|US5556413||11 Mar 1994||17 Sep 1996||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Coiled stent with locking ends|
|US5578046||12 May 1995||26 Nov 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Composite bioabsorbable materials and surgical articles made thereform|
|US5578073||16 Sep 1994||26 Nov 1996||Ramot Of Tel Aviv University||Thromboresistant surface treatment for biomaterials|
|US5591199||7 Jun 1995||7 Jan 1997||Porter; Christopher H.||Curable fiber composite stent and delivery system|
|US5591607||6 Jun 1995||7 Jan 1997||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3→P5' phosphoramidates: triplex DNA formation|
|US5593403||14 Sep 1994||14 Jan 1997||Scimed Life Systems Inc.||Method for modifying a stent in an implanted site|
|US5593434||7 Jun 1995||14 Jan 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent capable of attachment within a body lumen|
|US5599301||22 Nov 1993||4 Feb 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Motor control system for an automatic catheter inflation system|
|US5599922||18 Mar 1994||4 Feb 1997||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3'-P5' phosphoramidates: hybridization and nuclease resistance properties|
|US5605696||30 Mar 1995||25 Feb 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Drug loaded polymeric material and method of manufacture|
|US5607442||13 Nov 1995||4 Mar 1997||Isostent, Inc.||Stent with improved radiopacity and appearance characteristics|
|US5607467||23 Jun 1993||4 Mar 1997||Froix; Michael||Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method|
|US5618299||8 Aug 1995||8 Apr 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Ratcheting stent|
|US5629077||27 Jun 1994||13 May 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable mesh and film stent|
|US5631135||6 Jun 1995||20 May 1997||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3'→P5' phosphoramidates: hybridization and nuclease resistance properties|
|US5632771||25 Jan 1995||27 May 1997||Cook Incorporated||Flexible stent having a pattern formed from a sheet of material|
|US5632840||6 Jun 1995||27 May 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular System, Inc.||Method of making metal reinforced polymer stent|
|US5637113||13 Dec 1994||10 Jun 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Polymer film for wrapping a stent structure|
|US5649977||22 Sep 1994||22 Jul 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Metal reinforced polymer stent|
|US5651976 *||31 Jul 1995||29 Jul 1997||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Controlled release of active agents using inorganic tubules|
|US5667767||27 Jul 1995||16 Sep 1997||Micro Therapeutics, Inc.||Compositions for use in embolizing blood vessels|
|US5667796||5 Jun 1996||16 Sep 1997||Otten; Klaus||Method for producing ceramic implant materials, preferably ceramic implant materials including hydroxyl apatite|
|US5670558||6 Jul 1995||23 Sep 1997||Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha||Medical instruments that exhibit surface lubricity when wetted|
|US5693085||26 Apr 1995||2 Dec 1997||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stent with collagen|
|US5700286||22 Aug 1996||23 Dec 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Polymer film for wrapping a stent structure|
|US5707385||16 Nov 1994||13 Jan 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Drug loaded elastic membrane and method for delivery|
|US5711763||30 Jun 1995||27 Jan 1998||Tdk Corporation||Composite biological implant of a ceramic material in a metal substrate|
|US5716981||7 Jun 1995||10 Feb 1998||Angiogenesis Technologies, Inc.||Anti-angiogenic compositions and methods of use|
|US5725549||12 Sep 1996||10 Mar 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Coiled stent with locking ends|
|US5726297||5 Jun 1995||10 Mar 1998||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligodeoxyribonucleotide N3' P5' phosphoramidates|
|US5728751||25 Nov 1996||17 Mar 1998||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Bonding bio-active materials to substrate surfaces|
|US5733326||28 May 1996||31 Mar 1998||Cordis Corporation||Composite material endoprosthesis|
|US5733330||13 Jan 1997||31 Mar 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Balloon-expandable, crush-resistant locking stent|
|US5733564||12 Apr 1994||31 Mar 1998||Leiras Oy||Method of treating endo-osteal materials with a bisphosphonate solution|
|US5733925||28 Oct 1996||31 Mar 1998||Neorx Corporation||Therapeutic inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cells|
|US5741881||25 Nov 1996||21 Apr 1998||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Process for preparing covalently bound-heparin containing polyurethane-peo-heparin coating compositions|
|US5756457||5 May 1995||26 May 1998||Genetics Institute, Inc.||Neural regeneration using human bone morphogenetic proteins|
|US5756476||26 Jan 1994||26 May 1998||The United States Of America As Represented By The Department Of Health And Human Services||Inhibition of cell proliferation using antisense oligonucleotides|
|US5765682||24 Jun 1996||16 Jun 1998||Menlo Care, Inc.||Restrictive package for expandable or shape memory medical devices and method of preventing premature change of same|
|US5766204||12 Sep 1997||16 Jun 1998||Metastent Incorporated||Curable fiber composite stent and delivery system|
|US5766239||3 Oct 1997||16 Jun 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Balloon-expandable, crush resistant locking stent and method of loading the same|
|US5766710||19 Jun 1996||16 Jun 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable mesh and film stent|
|US5769883||21 Nov 1995||23 Jun 1998||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable drug delivery vascular stent|
|US5780807||15 Jan 1997||14 Jul 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for direct laser cutting of metal stents|
|US5800516||8 Aug 1996||1 Sep 1998||Cordis Corporation||Deployable and retrievable shape memory stent/tube and method|
|US5811447||25 May 1995||22 Sep 1998||Neorx Corporation||Therapeutic inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cells|
|US5824049||31 Oct 1996||20 Oct 1998||Med Institute, Inc.||Coated implantable medical device|
|US5830178||11 Oct 1996||3 Nov 1998||Micro Therapeutics, Inc.||Methods for embolizing vascular sites with an emboilizing composition comprising dimethylsulfoxide|
|US5830461||8 Nov 1996||3 Nov 1998||University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education||Methods for promoting wound healing and treating transplant-associated vasculopathy|
|US5830879||2 Oct 1995||3 Nov 1998||St. Elizabeth's Medical Center Of Boston, Inc.||Treatment of vascular injury using vascular endothelial growth factor|
|US5833651||8 Nov 1996||10 Nov 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Therapeutic intraluminal stents|
|US5834582||20 Feb 1996||10 Nov 1998||Chronopol, Inc.||Degradable polymer composition|
|US5836962||22 Jan 1997||17 Nov 1998||Schneider (Europe) Ag||Endoprosthesis|
|US5837313||13 Jun 1996||17 Nov 1998||Schneider (Usa) Inc||Drug release stent coating process|
|US5837835||6 Jun 1995||17 Nov 1998||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3'-P5' phosphoramidates: hybridization and nuclease resistance properties|
|US5840083||15 Nov 1996||24 Nov 1998||F.B. Rice & Co.||Implant device having biocompatiable membrane coating|
|US5851508||14 Feb 1997||22 Dec 1998||Microtherapeutics, Inc.||Compositions for use in embolizing blood vessels|
|US5853408||1 Jun 1995||29 Dec 1998||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||In-vivo modification of the mechanical properties of surgical devices|
|US5854207||23 Feb 1998||29 Dec 1998||Stryker Corporation||Compositions and therapeutic methods using morphogenic proteins and stimulatory factors|
|US5855612||10 May 1996||5 Jan 1999||Ohta Inc.||Biocompatible titanium implant|
|US5855618||13 Sep 1996||5 Jan 1999||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Polyurethanes grafted with polyethylene oxide chains containing covalently bonded heparin|
|US5858746||25 Jan 1995||12 Jan 1999||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Gels for encapsulation of biological materials|
|US5865814||6 Aug 1997||2 Feb 1999||Medtronic, Inc.||Blood contacting medical device and method|
|US5868781||22 Oct 1996||9 Feb 1999||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Locking stent|
|US5873904||24 Feb 1997||23 Feb 1999||Cook Incorporated||Silver implantable medical device|
|US5874101||14 Apr 1997||23 Feb 1999||Usbiomaterials Corp.||Bioactive-gel compositions and methods|
|US5874109||4 Sep 1997||23 Feb 1999||The Trustees Of The University Of Pennsylvania||Incorporation of biological molecules into bioactive glasses|
|US5874165||27 May 1997||23 Feb 1999||Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc.||Materials and method for the immobilization of bioactive species onto polymeric subtrates|
|US5876743||22 Sep 1997||2 Mar 1999||Den-Mat Corporation||Biocompatible adhesion in tissue repair|
|US5877263||25 Nov 1996||2 Mar 1999||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Process for preparing polymer coatings grafted with polyethylene oxide chains containing covalently bonded bio-active agents|
|US5879713||23 Jan 1997||9 Mar 1999||Focal, Inc.||Targeted delivery via biodegradable polymers|
|US5888533||21 Nov 1997||30 Mar 1999||Atrix Laboratories, Inc.||Non-polymeric sustained release delivery system|
|US5891192||22 May 1997||6 Apr 1999||The Regents Of The University Of California||Ion-implanted protein-coated intralumenal implants|
|US5897955||21 Aug 1998||27 Apr 1999||Gore Hybrid Technologies, Inc.||Materials and methods for the immobilization of bioactive species onto polymeric substrates|
|US5906759||26 Dec 1996||25 May 1999||Medinol Ltd.||Stent forming apparatus with stent deforming blades|
|US5914182||3 Jun 1996||22 Jun 1999||Gore Hybrid Technologies, Inc.||Materials and methods for the immobilization of bioactive species onto polymeric substrates|
|US5916870||22 Sep 1998||29 Jun 1999||Stryker Corporation||Compositions and therapeutic methods using morphogenic proteins and stimulatory factors|
|US5922005||21 Aug 1998||13 Jul 1999||Medinol Ltd.||Stent fabrication method|
|US5942209||3 Nov 1997||24 Aug 1999||Focal, Inc.||Method of local radiotherapy by polymerizing a material in vivo to form a hydrogel|
|US5948428||6 Dec 1996||7 Sep 1999||Stryker Corporation||Compositions and therapeutic methods using morphogenic proteins and stimulatory factors|
|US5954744||26 Jun 1997||21 Sep 1999||Quanam Medical Corporation||Intravascular stent|
|US5957975||15 Dec 1997||28 Sep 1999||The Cleveland Clinic Foundation||Stent having a programmed pattern of in vivo degradation|
|US5965720||20 Mar 1995||12 Oct 1999||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3'→P5' phosphoramidates|
|US5971954||29 Jan 1997||26 Oct 1999||Rochester Medical Corporation||Method of making catheter|
|US5976182||15 Jun 1998||2 Nov 1999||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Balloon-expandable, crush-resistant locking stent and method of loading the same|
|US5980564||1 Aug 1997||9 Nov 1999||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Bioabsorbable implantable endoprosthesis with reservoir|
|US5980928||29 Jul 1997||9 Nov 1999||Terry; Paul B.||Implant for preventing conjunctivitis in cattle|
|US5980972||22 Sep 1997||9 Nov 1999||Schneider (Usa) Inc||Method of applying drug-release coatings|
|US5981568||31 Mar 1997||9 Nov 1999||Neorx Corporation||Therapeutic inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cells|
|US5986169||31 Dec 1997||16 Nov 1999||Biorthex Inc.||Porous nickel-titanium alloy article|
|US5997468||4 Aug 1997||7 Dec 1999||Medtronic, Inc.||Intraluminal drug eluting prosthesis method|
|US6010445||12 Nov 1997||4 Jan 2000||Implant Sciences Corporation||Radioactive medical device and process|
|US6015541||3 Nov 1997||18 Jan 2000||Micro Therapeutics, Inc.||Radioactive embolizing compositions|
|US6042875||2 Mar 1999||28 Mar 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Drug-releasing coatings for medical devices|
|US6048964||12 Dec 1995||11 Apr 2000||Stryker Corporation||Compositions and therapeutic methods using morphogenic proteins and stimulatory factors|
|US6051648||13 Jan 1999||18 Apr 2000||Cohesion Technologies, Inc.||Crosslinked polymer compositions and methods for their use|
|US6056993||17 Apr 1998||2 May 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Porous protheses and methods for making the same wherein the protheses are formed by spraying water soluble and water insoluble fibers onto a rotating mandrel|
|US6060451||20 Mar 1995||9 May 2000||The National Research Council Of Canada||Thrombin inhibitors based on the amino acid sequence of hirudin|
|US6066156||11 Mar 1999||23 May 2000||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Temperature activated adhesive for releasably attaching stents to balloons|
|US6071266||23 Oct 1998||6 Jun 2000||Kelley; Donald W.||Lubricious medical devices|
|US6074659||10 Jul 1998||13 Jun 2000||Noerx Corporation||Therapeutic inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cells|
|US6080177||28 Apr 1998||27 Jun 2000||Igaki; Keiji||Luminal stent, holding structure therefor and device for attaching luminal stent|
|US6080488||24 Mar 1998||27 Jun 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Process for preparation of slippery, tenaciously adhering, hydrophilic polyurethane hydrogel coating, coated polymer and metal substrate materials, and coated medical devices|
|US6083258||28 May 1998||4 Jul 2000||Yadav; Jay S.||Locking stent|
|US6093463||20 Mar 1998||25 Jul 2000||Intella Interventional Systems, Inc.||Medical devices made from improved polymer blends|
|US6096070||16 May 1996||1 Aug 2000||Med Institute Inc.||Coated implantable medical device|
|US6096525||26 Nov 1997||1 Aug 2000||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Bonding bio-active materials to expanded polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene terephthalate via an isocyanate-terminated spacer|
|US6099562||22 Dec 1997||8 Aug 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Drug coating with topcoat|
|US6103230||2 Oct 1998||15 Aug 2000||University Of Pittsburgh Of The Commonwealth System Of Higher Education||Methods for promoting wound healing and treating transplant-associated vasculopathy|
|US6107416||1 Feb 1999||22 Aug 2000||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Polymer coatings grafted with polyethylene oxide chains containing covalently bonded bio-active agents|
|US6110188||9 Mar 1998||29 Aug 2000||Corvascular, Inc.||Anastomosis method|
|US6113629||1 May 1998||5 Sep 2000||Micrus Corporation||Hydrogel for the therapeutic treatment of aneurysms|
|US6117979||18 Aug 1997||12 Sep 2000||Medtronic, Inc.||Process for making a bioprosthetic device and implants produced therefrom|
|US6120536||13 Jun 1996||19 Sep 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Medical devices with long term non-thrombogenic coatings|
|US6120904||24 May 1999||19 Sep 2000||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Medical device coated with interpenetrating network of hydrogel polymers|
|US6121027||15 Aug 1997||19 Sep 2000||Surmodics, Inc.||Polybifunctional reagent having a polymeric backbone and photoreactive moieties and bioactive groups|
|US6125523||20 Nov 1998||3 Oct 2000||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent crimping tool and method of use|
|US6127173||22 Sep 1998||3 Oct 2000||Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Nucleic acid catalysts with endonuclease activity|
|US6129761||7 Jun 1995||10 Oct 2000||Reprogenesis, Inc.||Injectable hydrogel compositions|
|US6129928||4 Sep 1998||10 Oct 2000||Icet, Inc.||Biomimetic calcium phosphate implant coatings and methods for making the same|
|US6150630||17 Apr 1998||21 Nov 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Laser machining of explosives|
|US6153252||19 Apr 1999||28 Nov 2000||Ethicon, Inc.||Process for coating stents|
|US6159951||2 Dec 1997||12 Dec 2000||Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals Inc.||2'-O-amino-containing nucleoside analogs and polynucleotides|
|US6160084||23 Feb 1999||12 Dec 2000||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Biodegradable shape memory polymers|
|US6165212||28 Jun 1999||26 Dec 2000||Corvita Corporation||Expandable supportive endoluminal grafts|
|US6166130||30 Apr 1999||26 Dec 2000||Cohesion Technologies, Inc.||Method of using crosslinked polymer compositions in tissue treatment applications|
|US6169170||3 Sep 1997||2 Jan 2001||Lynx Therapeutics, Inc.||Oligonucleotide N3′→N5′Phosphoramidate Duplexes|
|US6171609||23 Oct 1995||9 Jan 2001||Neorx Corporation||Therapeutic inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle cells|
|US6174330||1 Aug 1997||16 Jan 2001||Schneider (Usa) Inc||Bioabsorbable marker having radiopaque constituents|
|US6177523||14 Jul 1999||23 Jan 2001||Cardiotech International, Inc.||Functionalized polyurethanes|
|US6183505||11 Mar 1999||6 Feb 2001||Medtronic Ave, Inc.||Method of stent retention to a delivery catheter balloon-braided retainers|
|US6187045||10 Feb 1999||13 Feb 2001||Thomas K. Fehring||Enhanced biocompatible implants and alloys|
|US6210715||31 Mar 1998||3 Apr 2001||Cap Biotechnology, Inc.||Calcium phosphate microcarriers and microspheres|
|US6224626||1 Apr 1999||1 May 2001||Md3, Inc.||Ultra-thin expandable stent|
|US6228845||21 Oct 1998||8 May 2001||Medtronic, Inc.||Therapeutic intraluminal stents|
|US6240616||15 Apr 1997||5 Jun 2001||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Method of manufacturing a medicated porous metal prosthesis|
|US6245076||22 May 2000||12 Jun 2001||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Temperature activated adhesive for releasably attaching stents to balloons|
|US6245103||1 Aug 1997||12 Jun 2001||Schneider (Usa) Inc||Bioabsorbable self-expanding stent|
|US6248344||15 Apr 1998||19 Jun 2001||Heimo Ylänen||Composite and its use|
|US6251135||8 Mar 1999||26 Jun 2001||Schneider (Usa) Inc||Radiopaque marker system and method of use|
|US6251142||9 Dec 1997||26 Jun 2001||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Implantation device and a kit including the device|
|US6273913||16 Apr 1998||14 Aug 2001||Cordis Corporation||Modified stent useful for delivery of drugs along stent strut|
|US6281262||12 Nov 1998||28 Aug 2001||Takiron Co., Ltd.||Shape-memory, biodegradable and absorbable material|
|US6284333||25 Feb 1999||4 Sep 2001||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Medical devices made from polymer blends containing low melting temperature liquid crystal polymers|
|US6287332||25 Jun 1999||11 Sep 2001||Biotronik Mess- Und Therapiegeraete Gmbh & Co. Ingenieurbuero Berlin||Implantable, bioresorbable vessel wall support, in particular coronary stent|
|US6290721||21 Oct 1997||18 Sep 2001||Boston Scientific Corporation||Tubular medical endoprostheses|
|US6293966||20 Apr 1998||25 Sep 2001||Cook Incorporated||Surgical stent featuring radiopaque markers|
|US6303901||21 Apr 2000||16 Oct 2001||The Regents Of The University Of California||Method to reduce damage to backing plate|
|US6312459||30 Jun 1999||6 Nov 2001||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent design for use in small vessels|
|US6327772||13 Apr 1999||11 Dec 2001||Medtronic, Inc.||Method for fabricating a planar eversible lattice which forms a stent when everted|
|US6375826||14 Feb 2000||23 Apr 2002||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Electro-polishing fixture and electrolyte solution for polishing stents and method|
|US6379381||3 Sep 1999||30 Apr 2002||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Porous prosthesis and a method of depositing substances into the pores|
|US6379648 *||1 Feb 1999||30 Apr 2002||The Curators Of The University Of Missouri||Biodegradable glass compositions and methods for radiation therapy|
|US6387121||8 Aug 2000||14 May 2002||Inflow Dynamics Inc.||Vascular and endoluminal stents with improved coatings|
|US6387124||18 Oct 1999||14 May 2002||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable drug delivery vascular stent|
|US6388043||23 Feb 1999||14 May 2002||Mnemoscience Gmbh||Shape memory polymers|
|US6395326||31 May 2000||28 May 2002||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for depositing a coating onto a surface of a prosthesis|
|US6409761||20 Apr 2001||25 Jun 2002||G. David Jang||Intravascular stent|
|US6423092||20 Aug 2001||23 Jul 2002||Ethicon, Inc.||Biodegradable stent|
|US6461632||18 Apr 2001||8 Oct 2002||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Hardenable ceramic hydraulic cement|
|US6464720||30 Mar 2001||15 Oct 2002||Cook Incorporated||Radially expandable stent|
|US6479565||16 Aug 1999||12 Nov 2002||Harold R. Stanley||Bioactive ceramic cement|
|US6485512||27 Sep 2000||26 Nov 2002||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Two-stage light curable stent and delivery system|
|US6492615||12 Oct 2000||10 Dec 2002||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Laser polishing of medical devices|
|US6494908||22 Dec 1999||17 Dec 2002||Ethicon, Inc.||Removable stent for body lumens|
|US6495156||11 May 2001||17 Dec 2002||Merck Patent Gmbh||Biocements having improved compressive strength|
|US6511748||6 Jan 1999||28 Jan 2003||Aderans Research Institute, Inc.||Bioabsorbable fibers and reinforced composites produced therefrom|
|US6517888||28 Nov 2000||11 Feb 2003||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Method for manufacturing a medical device having a coated portion by laser ablation|
|US6527801||13 Apr 2000||4 Mar 2003||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable drug delivery material for stent|
|US6537589||25 Jul 2000||25 Mar 2003||Kyung Won Medical Co., Ltd.||Calcium phosphate artificial bone as osteoconductive and biodegradable bone substitute material|
|US6539607||13 Sep 2000||1 Apr 2003||University Of North Carolina At Charlotte||Enhanced biocompatible implants and alloys|
|US6540777||15 Feb 2001||1 Apr 2003||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Locking stent|
|US6554854||10 Dec 1999||29 Apr 2003||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Process for laser joining dissimilar metals and endoluminal stent with radiopaque marker produced thereby|
|US6565599||28 Dec 2000||20 May 2003||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Hybrid stent|
|US6569191||27 Jul 2000||27 May 2003||Bionx Implants, Inc.||Self-expanding stent with enhanced radial expansion and shape memory|
|US6569193||22 Jul 1999||27 May 2003||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Tapered self-expanding stent|
|US6572672||17 May 2002||3 Jun 2003||Nanoproducts Corporation||Nanotechnology for biomedical products|
|US6574851||31 Jul 2000||10 Jun 2003||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent made by rotational molding or centrifugal casting and method for making the same|
|US6585755||29 Jun 2001||1 Jul 2003||Advanced Cardiovascular||Polymeric stent suitable for imaging by MRI and fluoroscopy|
|US6592614||1 Dec 2000||15 Jul 2003||Medtronic Ave, Inc.||Cuffed endoluminal prosthesis|
|US6592617||16 Jan 2001||15 Jul 2003||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Three-dimensional braided covered stent|
|US6596296||4 Aug 2000||22 Jul 2003||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Drug releasing biodegradable fiber implant|
|US6613072||18 Jul 1997||2 Sep 2003||Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc.||Procedures for introducing stents and stent-grafts|
|US6626939||18 Dec 1997||30 Sep 2003||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Stent-graft with bioabsorbable structural support|
|US6635269||24 Nov 1998||21 Oct 2003||Morphoplant Gmbh||Immobilizing mediator molecules via anchor molecules on metallic implant materials containing oxide layer|
|US6645243||8 Jan 1998||11 Nov 2003||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Stent for angioplasty and a production process therefor|
|US6656162||9 Dec 2002||2 Dec 2003||Microchips, Inc.||Implantable drug delivery stents|
|US6664335||30 Nov 2000||16 Dec 2003||Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.||Polyurethane elastomer article with “shape memory” and medical devices therefrom|
|US6666214||28 Sep 2001||23 Dec 2003||Psimedica Limited||Biomaterial|
|US6667049||28 Mar 2001||23 Dec 2003||Ethicon, Inc.||Relic process for producing bioresorbable ceramic tissue scaffolds|
|US6669723||22 Nov 2002||30 Dec 2003||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stent having variable properties and method of its use|
|US6676697||17 Mar 1998||13 Jan 2004||Medinol Ltd.||Stent with variable features to optimize support and method of making such stent|
|US6679980||13 Jun 2001||20 Jan 2004||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Apparatus for electropolishing a stent|
|US6689375||14 Oct 2002||10 Feb 2004||Coripharm Medizinprodukte Gmbh & Co. Kg||Resorbable bone implant material and method for producing the same|
|US6695920||27 Jun 2001||24 Feb 2004||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Mandrel for supporting a stent and a method of using the mandrel to coat a stent|
|US6706273||14 Aug 2000||16 Mar 2004||Ivoclar Vivadent Ag||Composition for implantation into the human and animal body|
|US6709379||2 Nov 1999||23 Mar 2004||Alcove Surfaces Gmbh||Implant with cavities containing therapeutic agents|
|US6719934||25 Apr 2001||13 Apr 2004||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Process for making bioabsorbable self-expanding stent|
|US6719989||8 Sep 2000||13 Apr 2004||Pentax Corporation||Sustained release drug carrier, and method of manufacturing sustained release drug carrier|
|US6720402||8 May 2002||13 Apr 2004||Mnemoscience Gmbh||Shape memory polymers|
|US6746773||25 Sep 2001||8 Jun 2004||Ethicon, Inc.||Coatings for medical devices|
|US6752826 *||14 Dec 2001||22 Jun 2004||Thoratec Corporation||Layered stent-graft and methods of making the same|
|US6753007||1 Nov 2001||22 Jun 2004||Wright Medical Technology, Inc.||Controlled release composite|
|US6764505||12 Apr 2001||20 Jul 2004||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Variable surface area stent|
|US6808535||28 Apr 2000||26 Oct 2004||Magforce Applications Gmbh||Stent for keeping open tubular structures|
|US6818063||24 Sep 2002||16 Nov 2004||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent mandrel fixture and method for minimizing coating defects|
|US6846323||15 May 2003||25 Jan 2005||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US7008642||12 Feb 2001||7 Mar 2006||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Compositions for achieving a therapeutic effect in an anatomical structure and methods of using the same|
|US20010044652||14 Jun 2001||22 Nov 2001||Moore Brian Edward||Stents with multi-layered struts|
|US20020002399||8 May 2001||3 Jan 2002||Huxel Shawn Thayer||Removable stent for body lumens|
|US20020004060||17 Jul 1998||10 Jan 2002||Bernd Heublein||Metallic implant which is degradable in vivo|
|US20020004101||30 Aug 2001||10 Jan 2002||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Drug coating with topcoat|
|US20020062148||26 Feb 1997||23 May 2002||Charles C. Hart||Kinetic stent|
|US20020065553||3 Dec 2001||30 May 2002||Scimed Life System, Inc.||Method for manufacturing a medical device having a coated portion by laser ablation|
|US20020111590||25 Sep 2001||15 Aug 2002||Davila Luis A.||Medical devices, drug coatings and methods for maintaining the drug coatings thereon|
|US20020116050||26 Feb 2002||22 Aug 2002||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stents with temporary retaining bands|
|US20020138133||20 May 2002||26 Sep 2002||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stent with variable properties|
|US20020161114||22 Jan 2002||31 Oct 2002||Gunatillake Pathiraja A.||Shape memory polyurethane or polyurethane-urea polymers|
|US20030033001||27 Apr 2001||13 Feb 2003||Keiji Igaki||Stent holding member and stent feeding system|
|US20030093107||27 Sep 2002||15 May 2003||Edward Parsonage||Medical devices comprising nanocomposites|
|US20030099682 *||31 Jan 2002||29 May 2003||Francis Moussy||Apparatus and method for control of tissue/implant interactions|
|US20030100865||9 Dec 2002||29 May 2003||Santini John T.||Implantable drug delivery stents|
|US20030105518||10 Jan 2003||5 Jun 2003||Debashis Dutta||Biodegradable drug delivery material for stent|
|US20030105530||4 Dec 2001||5 Jun 2003||Inion Ltd.||Biodegradable implant and method for manufacturing one|
|US20030147966 *||10 Jul 2002||7 Aug 2003||Stefan Franzen||Nanoparticle delivery vehicle|
|US20030171053||10 Dec 2002||11 Sep 2003||University Of Washington||Medical devices comprising small fiber biomaterials, and methods of use|
|US20030187495||1 Apr 2002||2 Oct 2003||Cully Edward H.||Endoluminal devices, embolic filters, methods of manufacture and use|
|US20030208259||26 Jun 2001||6 Nov 2003||Pentech Medical Devices Ltd.||Polymeric stents and other surgical articles|
|US20030209835||28 Mar 2003||13 Nov 2003||Iksoo Chun||Method of forming a tubular membrane on a structural frame|
|US20030226833||12 May 2003||11 Dec 2003||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Laser cutting of stents and other medical devices|
|US20030236563||20 Jun 2002||25 Dec 2003||Dan Fifer||Stent delivery catheter with retention bands|
|US20040024419 *||31 Jul 2003||5 Feb 2004||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process, apparatus and polymeric products for use therein|
|US20040052858||15 Sep 2003||18 Mar 2004||Wu Steven Z.||Microparticle coated medical device|
|US20040093077||6 Aug 2003||13 May 2004||Jason White||Stent with micro-latching hinge joints|
|US20040098095||30 Sep 2003||20 May 2004||Burnside Diane K.||Stent-graft with bioabsorbable structural support|
|US20040111149||6 Aug 2003||10 Jun 2004||Stinson Jonathan S.||Bioabsorbable marker having radiopaque constituents|
|US20040127970||30 Dec 2002||1 Jul 2004||Saunders Richard J.||Polymer link hybrid stent|
|US20040143317||17 Jan 2003||22 Jul 2004||Stinson Jonathan S.||Medical devices|
|US20040167610||26 Feb 2003||26 Aug 2004||Fleming James A.||Locking stent|
|US20040193255||28 Mar 2003||30 Sep 2004||Shanley John F.||Therapeutic agent delivery device with controlled therapeutic agent release rates|
|US20050119723||28 Nov 2003||2 Jun 2005||Medlogics Device Corporation||Medical device with porous surface containing bioerodable bioactive composites and related methods|
|US20050142202||17 Dec 2004||30 Jun 2005||Roorda Wouter E.||Compositions for achieving a therapeutic effect in an anatomical structure|
|US20050181015||12 Feb 2004||18 Aug 2005||Sheng-Ping (Samuel) Zhong||Layered silicate nanoparticles for controlled delivery of therapeutic agents from medical articles|
|US20050209680||28 Jun 2004||22 Sep 2005||Gale David C||Polymer and metal composite implantable medical devices|
|US20050267565 *||28 May 2004||1 Dec 2005||Dave Vipul B||Biodegradable medical implant with encapsulated buffering agent|
|US20060002978 *||9 Jun 2005||5 Jan 2006||Shea Lonnie D||Biodegradable scaffolds and uses thereof|
|US20060018948||24 Jun 2005||26 Jan 2006||Guire Patrick E||Biodegradable implantable medical devices, methods and systems|
|US20070020320 *||13 Jul 2006||25 Jan 2007||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Wound dressing and methods of making and using the same|
|US20070141100 *||5 Nov 2004||21 Jun 2007||Hsing-Wen Sung||Drug-eluting biodegradable stent|
|US20070141163 *||30 Dec 2004||21 Jun 2007||Franco Vitaliano||Smart bio-nanoparticle elements|
|DE4407079B4||3 Mar 1994||18 Jan 2007||Boston Scientific Ltd., St. Michael||Intraluminal-Aufspannvorrichtung und Transplantat|
|DE19731021A1||18 Jul 1997||21 Jan 1999||Meyer Joerg||In vivo abbaubares metallisches Implantat|
|DE19856983A1||10 Dec 1998||30 Dec 1999||Biotronik Mess & Therapieg||Implantierbare, bioresorbierbare Gefäßwandstütze, insbesondere Koronarstent|
|EP0108171B1||22 Oct 1982||4 May 1988||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Synthetic woven double-velour graft|
|EP0144534A3||16 Aug 1984||17 Dec 1986||Allied Corporation||Prosthetic devices|
|EP0364787B1||29 Sep 1989||4 Mar 1992||EXPANDABLE GRAFTS PARTNERSHIP a Texas General Partnership||Expandable intraluminal graft|
|EP0397500B1||10 May 1990||2 Aug 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Synthetic semiabsorbable yarn, fabric and tubular prosthesis|
|EP0464755B1||1 Jul 1991||3 May 1995||Nissho Corporation||Artificial tubular organ|
|EP0493788B1||23 Dec 1991||25 Sep 1996||MUDR. MILAN KRAJICEK CSc.||Three-layer vascular prosthesis|
|EP0554082B1||28 Jan 1993||29 Dec 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Expandable stent|
|EP0578998B1||22 Jun 1993||8 Oct 1997||Strecker, Ernst Peter, Dr.-med.Prof.||Implantable percutaneous endoprosthesis|
|EP0604022A1||24 Nov 1993||29 Jun 1994||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Multilayered biodegradable stent and method for its manufacture|
|EP0621017A1||25 Apr 1994||26 Oct 1994||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Ratcheting stent|
|EP0623354B1||20 Apr 1994||2 Oct 2002||Medtronic, Inc.||Intravascular stents|
|EP0665023B1||13 Jul 1994||21 Apr 2004||Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.||Medical material and process for producing the same|
|EP0709068A3||27 Oct 1995||4 Jun 1997||Medinol Ltd||X-ray visible stent|
|EP0970711B1||29 Jun 1999||13 Oct 2004||Ethicon, Inc.||Process for coating stents|
|GB2247696B||Title not available|
|WO1989003232A1||7 Oct 1988||20 Apr 1989||Bukh Meditec A/S||A medical device for introduction into a body cavity|
|WO1990001969A1||23 Aug 1989||8 Mar 1990||Slepian Marvin J||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing|
|WO1990004982A1||7 Nov 1989||17 May 1990||Biocon Oy||Biodegradable surgical implants and devices|
|WO1990006094A1||8 Dec 1989||14 Jun 1990||Brigham And Women's Hospital||Prosthesis of foam and collagen|
|WO1991017744A1||23 Apr 1991||28 Nov 1991||Jernberg Gary R||Surgical implant and method incorporating chemotherapeutic agents|
|WO1991017789A1||17 May 1991||28 Nov 1991||Stack Richard S||Bioabsorbable stent|
|WO1992010218A1||2 Dec 1991||25 Jun 1992||W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc.||Implantable bioabsorbable article|
|WO1993006792A1||2 Oct 1992||15 Apr 1993||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable drug delivery vascular stent|
|WO1994021196A3||18 Mar 1994||16 Feb 1995||Bard Inc C R||Endovascular stents|
|WO1995029647B1||2 May 1996||Stent with collagen|
|WO1998004415A1||21 Jul 1997||5 Feb 1998||Imperial Chemical Industries Plc||Cassette casing for thermal transfer printing dye ribbon|
|WO1999003515A3||17 Jul 1998||5 Aug 1999||Meyer Joerg||Metallic implant which is degradable in vivo|
|WO1999016386A1||4 Sep 1998||8 Apr 1999||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stent drug delivery system|
|WO1999042147A1||23 Feb 1999||26 Aug 1999||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Biodegradable shape memory polymers|
|WO2000012147A1||31 Aug 1999||9 Mar 2000||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Drug delivery device for stent|
|WO2000064506A9||21 Apr 2000||6 Jun 2002||Agion Technologies L L C||Stent having antimicrobial agent|
|WO2001001890A1||6 Jun 2000||11 Jan 2001||Boston Scientific Limited||Stent coating|
|WO2001095834A1||13 Jun 2001||20 Dec 2001||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Disintegrating stent and method of making same|
|WO2004023985A3||15 Sep 2003||6 May 2004||Linvatec Corp||Drawn expanded stent|
|WO2004110302A3||21 May 2004||18 Aug 2005||Conor Medsystems Inc||Methods of delivering anti-restenotic agents from a stent|
|WO2005115496A1||12 May 2005||8 Dec 2005||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Medical devices having multiple layers|
|1||Anonymous, Bioabsorbable stent mounted on a catheter having optical coherence tomography capabilities, Research Disclosure, Sep. 2004, pp. 1159-1162.|
|2||Ansari, End-to-end tubal anastomosis using an absorbable stent, Fertility and Sterility, vol. 32(2), pp. 197-201 (Aug. 1979).|
|3||Ansari, Tubal Reanastomosis Using Absorbable Stent, International Journal of Fertility, vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 242-243 (1978).|
|4||Bull, Parylene Coating for Medical Applications, Medical Product Manufacturing News 18,1 pg. (Mar. 1993).|
|5||Casper et al., Fiber-Reinforced Absorbable Composite for Orthopedic Surgery, Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering, 53: pp. 497-501 (1985).|
|6||Detweiler et al., Gastrointestinal Sutureless Anastomosis Using Fibrin Glue: Reinforcement of the Sliding Absorbable Intraluminal Nontoxic Stent and Development of a Stent Placement Device, Journal of Investigative Surgery, vol. 9(2), pp. 111-130 (Mar. /Apr. 1996).|
|7||Detweiler et al., Sliding, Absorbable, Reinforced Ring and an Axially Driven Stent Placement Device for Sutureless Fibrin Glue Gastrointestinal Anastomisis, Journal of Investigative Surgery, vol. 9(6), pp. 495-504 (Nov./Dec. 1996).|
|8||Detweiler et al., Sutureless Anastomosis of the Small Intestine and the Colon in Pigs Using an Absorbable Intraluminal Stent and Fibrin Glue, Journal of Investigative Surgery, vol. 8(2), pp. 129-140 (Mar. 1995).|
|9||Detweiler et al., Sutureless Cholecystojejunostomy in Pigs Using an Absorbable Intraluminal Stent and Fibrin Glue, Journal of Investigative Surgery, vol. 9(1), pp. 13-26 (Jan./Feb. 1996).|
|10||Devanathan et al., Polymeric Conformal Coatings for Implantable Electronic Devices, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. BME-27(11), pp. 671-675 (1980).|
|11||Elbert et al., Conjugate Addition Reactions Combined with Free-Radical Cross-Linking for the Design of Materials for Tissue Engineering, Biomacromolecules 2, pp. 430-441 (2001).|
|12||*||Freiberg et al. Polymer microspheres for controlled drug release. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 282 (2004) 1-18.|
|13||Hahn et al., Biocompatibility of Glow-Discharge-Polymerized Films and Vacuum-Deposited Parylene, J Applied Polymer Sci, 38, pp. 55-64 (1984).|
|14||Hahn et al., Glow Discharge Polymers as Coatings for Implanted Devices, ISA, pp. 109-111 (1981).|
|15||He et al., Assessment of Tissue Blood Flow Following Small Artery Welding with an Intraluminal Dissolvable Stent, Microsurgery, vol. 19(3), pp. 148-152 (1999).|
|16||International Search Report for PCT/US2006/031737 filed Aug. 14, 2006, mailed Jan. 3, 2007, 14 pgs.|
|17||International Search Report for PCT/US2006/048051, mailed Oct. 7, 2008, 14 pgs.|
|18||Kay et al., Cardiac Catheterization and Percutaneous Interventions, 2004, Taylor&Francis, p. 243.|
|19||Kelley et al., Totally Resorbable High-Strength Composite Material, Advances in Biomedical Polymers, 35, pp. 75-85 (1987).|
|20||Kubies et al., Microdomain Structure in polylactide-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymer films, Biomaterials 21, pp. 529-536 (2000).|
|21||Kutryk et al., Coronary Stenting: Current Perspectives, a companion to the Handbook of Coronary Stents pp. 1-16 (1999).|
|22||Laser Focus World (online), Rapid prototyping evolves into custom manufacturing, Retrieved (Dec. 18, 2000), from www.laserfocusworld.com/display-article/227426/12/none/none/Feat/Rapid-prototyping-evolves-into-custom-manufacturing.|
|23||*||Lavasanifar et al. Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(L-amino acid) micelles for drug delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 54 (2002) 169-190.|
|24||Martin et al., Enhancing the biological activity of immobilized osteopontin using a type-1 collagen affinity coating, J. Biomed. Mater Res 70A, pp. 10-19 (2004).|
|25||Mauduit et al., Hydrolytic degradation of films prepared from blends of high and low molecular weight poly(DL-lactic acid)s, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. v. 30, pp. 201-207 (1996).|
|26||Middleton et al., Synthetic biodegradable polymers as orthopedic devices, Biomaterials, vol. 21, pp. 2335-2346 (2000).|
|27||Muller et al., Advances in Coronary Angioplasty: Endovascular Stents, Coron. Arter. Dis., 1(4), pp. 438-448 (Jul./Aug. 1990).|
|28||Nichols et al., Electrical Insulation of Implantable Devices by Composite Polymer Coatings, ISA Transactions, 26(4), pp. 15-18 (1987).|
|29||Peuster et al., A novel approach to temporary stenting: degradable cardiovascular stents produced from corrodible metal-results 6-18 months after implantation into New Zealand white rabbits, Heart 86, pp. 563-569 (2001).|
|30||Pietrzak et al., Bioabsorbable Fixation Devices: Status for the Craniomaxillofacial Surgeon, J. Craniofaxial Surg. 2, pp. 92-96 (1997).|
|31||Pietrzak et al., Bioresorbable implants-practical considerations, Bone v. 19, No. 1, Supplement Jul. 1996: 109S-119S.|
|32||Redman, Clinical Experience with Vasovasostomy Utilizing Absorbable Intravasal Stent, Urology, vol. 20(1), pp. 59-61 (Jul. 1982).|
|33||Rust et al., The Effect of Absorbable Stenting on Postoperative Stenosis of the Surgically Enlarged Maxillary Sinus Ostia in a Rabbit Animal Model, Archives of Otolaryngology, vol. 122(12) pp. 1395-1397 (Dec. 1996).|
|34||Schatz, A View of Vascular Stents, Circulation, 79(2), pp. 445-457 (Feb. 1989).|
|35||Schmidt et al., Long-Term Implants of Parylene-C Coated Microelectrodes, Med & Biol Eng & Comp, 26(1), pp. 96-101 (Jan. 1988).|
|36||Spagnuolo et al., Gas 1 is induced by VE-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis, Blood 103, pp. 3005-3012 (2004).|
|37||Tamai et al., Initial and 6-Month Results of Biodegradable Poly-I-Lactic Acid Coronary Stents in Humans, Circulation, pp. 399-404 (Jul. 25, 2000).|
|38||Tsuji et al., Biodegradable Polymeric Stents, Current Interventional Cardiology Reports 3, pp. 10-17 (2001).|
|39||U.S. Appl. No. 10/317,435, Hossainy et al., filed Dec. 11, 2002.|
|40||Völkel et al., Targeting of immunoliposomes to endothelial cells using a single-chain Fv fragment directed against human endoglin (CD105), Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1663, pp. 158-166 (2004).|
|41||von Recum et al., Degradation of polydispersed poly(L-lactic acid) to modulate lactic acid release, Biomaterials 16, pp. 441-445 (1995).|
|42||Yau et al., Modern Size-Exclusion Liquid Chromatography, Wiley-Interscience Publication, IX-XV (1979).|
|International Classification||A61F2/91, A61L31/14, A61F2/82, A61L31/16|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2/82, A61L2300/622, A61F2/91, A61L31/16, A61F2250/0067, A61L2300/604, A61L31/148, A61F2210/0004|
|3 Oct 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HOSSAINY, SYED F.A.;GALE, DAVID C.;LUDWIG, FLORIAN N.;REEL/FRAME:016849/0857;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050927 TO 20050928
Owner name: ADVANCED CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HOSSAINY, SYED F.A.;GALE, DAVID C.;LUDWIG, FLORIAN N.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050927 TO 20050928;REEL/FRAME:016849/0857