|Publication number||US8989903 B2|
|Application number||US 13/350,502|
|Publication date||24 Mar 2015|
|Filing date||13 Jan 2012|
|Priority date||15 Feb 2011|
|Also published as||CN103370015A, CN103370015B, CN106473789A, EP2675367A1, US9662177, US20120209314, US20150238268, US20150238269, US20170071679, WO2012112251A1|
|Publication number||13350502, 350502, US 8989903 B2, US 8989903B2, US-B2-8989903, US8989903 B2, US8989903B2|
|Inventors||David Weir, Grant Duque, Kevin Durant, Patrick Flanagan, Maggie Nixon, David Robinson, John Zabinski|
|Original Assignee||Intuitive Surgical Operations, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (22), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (35), Classifications (31), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a non-provisional of, and claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/443,159, filed Feb. 15, 2011, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.
The present application is related to U.S. application Ser. No. 12/705,418 entitled “Cut and Seal Instrument,” filed on Feb. 12, 2010; U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/260,907, entitled “END EFFECTOR WITH REDUNDANT CLOSING MECHANISMS,” filed on Nov. 13, 2009; U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/260,903, entitled “WRIST ARTICULATION BY LINKED TENSION MEMBERS,” filed on Nov. 13, 2009; U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/260,903, entitled “WRIST ARTICULATION BY LINKED TENSION MEMBERS,” filed on Nov. 13, 2009; U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/260,915, entitled “SURGICAL TOOL WITH A TWO DEGREE OF FREEDOM WRIST,” filed on Nov. 13, 2009; and U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/260,919, entitled “MOTOR INTERFACE FOR PARALLEL DRIVE SHAFTS WITHIN AN INDEPENDENTLY ROTATING MEMBER,” filed on Nov. 13, 2009; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
Minimally invasive surgical techniques are aimed at reducing the amount of extraneous tissue that is damaged during diagnostic or surgical procedures, thereby reducing patient recovery time, discomfort, and deleterious side effects. As a consequence, the average length of a hospital stay for standard surgery may be shortened significantly using minimally invasive surgical techniques. Also, patient recovery times, patient discomfort, surgical side effects, and time away from work may also be reduced with minimally invasive surgery.
A common form of minimally invasive surgery is endoscopy, and a common form of endoscopy is laparoscopy, which includes minimally invasive inspection and surgery inside the abdominal cavity. In standard laparoscopic surgery, a patient's abdomen is insufflated with gas, and cannula sleeves are passed through small (approximately one-half inch or less) incisions to provide entry ports for laparoscopic instruments.
Laparoscopic surgical instruments generally include an endoscope (e.g., laparoscope) for viewing the surgical field and tools for working at the surgical site. The working tools are typically similar to those used in conventional (open) surgery, except that the working end or end effector of each tool is separated from its handle by an extension tube (also known as, e.g., an instrument shaft or a main shaft). The end effector can include, for example, a clamp, grasper, scissor, stapler, cautery tool, linear cutter, or needle holder.
To perform surgical procedures, the surgeon passes working tools through cannula sleeves to an internal surgical site and manipulates them from outside the abdomen. The surgeon views the procedure by means of a monitor that displays an image of the surgical site taken from the endoscope. Similar endoscopic techniques are employed in, for example, arthroscopy, retroperitoneoscopy, pelviscopy, nephroscopy, cystoscopy, cisternoscopy, sinoscopy, hysteroscopy, urethroscopy, and the like.
Minimally invasive telesurgical robotic systems have been recently been developed to increase a surgeon's dexterity when working on an internal surgical site, as well as to allow a surgeon to operate on a patient from a remote location (outside the sterile field). In a telesurgery system, the surgeon is often provided with an image of the surgical site at a control console. While viewing an image of the surgical site on a suitable viewer or display, the surgeon performs the surgical procedures on the patient by manipulating master input or control devices of the control console. Each of the master input devices controls the motion of a servo-mechanically actuated/articulated surgical instrument. During the surgical procedure, the telesurgical system can provide mechanical actuation and control of a variety of surgical instruments or tools having end effectors that perform various functions for the surgeon, for example, holding or driving a needle, grasping a blood vessel, dissecting tissue, or the like, in response to manipulation of the master input devices.
A huge variety of tools have been developed for open surgery, many (though not necessarily all) of which have been successfully modified for minimally invasive surgical procedures. For example, manual clamps, linear cutters, and stapling devices can apply significant therapeutic clamping forces on tissues, which can enhance a variety of surgical procedures. Unfortunately, work in connection with the present invention indicates that adapting open surgical clamping devices (and developing methods for safely and effectively using them) within minimally invasive settings may be more challenging than expected. In particular, developing and using surgical clamping jaws capable of generating desired clamping force while also providing the desired maneuverability for use within size-restricted minimally invasive surgical access and treatment sites has proven to be quite difficult. Transferring the advantages available from surgical staplers, linear cutters, and surgical clamping tools to robotic surgical settings may involve even more challenges, particularly given the different paradigms in surgeon-directed tool movement, tool activation, and physician feedback presented by the new telesurgical treatment systems.
Thus, there is believed to be a need for improved methods and systems for surgical staplers, linear cutters, and/or other clamping surgical tools. Such tools may be beneficial in a wide range of surgical applications, particularly in minimally invasive and/or robotic surgical applications.
Improved systems and methods to facilitate clamping are provided. The claimed methods and system can be used to help predict whether clamping a body tissue grasped between jaws at a desired clamping force is likely to be successful before attempting to clamp. The claimed systems and methods are particularly useful in surgical applications involving clamping of a body tissue between two jaws of an end effector. Many surgical applications involve clamping of a body tissue at a clamping force sufficient for cutting, sealing and/or stapling of the clamped tissue. Since high force clamping may potentially damage tissues if clamping fails, the present methods and systems are particularly advantageous as they indicate a prediction as to the likelihood of clamping success before clamping is attempted. While the various embodiments disclosed herein are primarily described with regard to surgical applications, these surgical applications are merely example applications, and the disclosed end effectors, tools, and methods can be used in other suitable applications, both inside and outside a human body, as well as in non-surgical applications.
In a first aspect, the invention provides a method of indicating whether clamping of a tissue grasped between a first and second jaw is likely to be successful. The method includes determining and/or measuring a separation between two jaws grasping a tissue at a grasping force and, in response to the determination of the separation, outputting on a user interface an indication of a prediction of whether clamping of the grasped tissue at a desired clamping force is likely to be successful. In such methods, the clamping force is greater than the grasping force and, in some embodiments, the clamping force may comprise a first predetermined range of forces, each larger than the grasping force. The indicator of whether clamping success is likely may also comprise an indicator whether clamping success at a desired clamping force and at a desired clamping separation is likely. The desired clamping separation may comprise a predetermined range of separations. Furthermore, the separation may be expressed in terms of a separation angle between the first and second jaw or a separation distance between jaw members. In many embodiments, the desired clamping separation is suitable for firing a staple of a given size through the tissue clamped between the jaws, cutting the grasped tissues, and/or sealing the grasped tissue. The first and second jaws will typically be part of an end effector. The first and second jaw may comprise a first jaw articulable against a portion of the end effector, in which case the portion of the end effector comprises the second jaw. In certain embodiments, the prediction may be based also on the stiffness of the tissue. The stiffness of the tissue may be input, if known, or may be estimated based on the grasping force and separation or on the rate of change of separation as the grasping force is applied. For example, the estimation of stiffness may be based on an empirically derived relationship between these factors and tissue stiffness.
The claimed methods provide an indication of clamping success and/or clamping failure in response to a separation parameter between a first and second jaw, the first and second jaw having a body tissue grasped therebetween. In some embodiments, the indication is provided in response to the separation parameter and the grasping force. One embodiment of the method includes grasping the tissue with the first and second jaw, typically in response to a command from a user. The method further includes clamping the tissue between the first and second jaw at the clamping force, after the system provides an indicator that clamping success is likely. The system clamps the tissue typically in response to a command from a user to clamp the tissue, after the system has provided an indication of whether clamping success or failure is likely. One embodiment of the claimed method includes releasing the grasped tissue after the system has provided an indication of a prediction of clamping failure. The system releases the grasped tissue typically in response to a command from a user to release the tissue from between the jaws.
In another aspect, the system and methods include a soft grip mode, in which the first and second jaw grasp a body tissue at a grasping force, and a clamping mode, wherein the first and second jaw clamp the grasped body tissue at a clamping force, the clamping force being greater than the grasping force. A mechanism coupled with the jaws causes the jaws to close so as to grasp and/or clamp the body tissue between the first and second jaw. The mechanism may be one mechanism coupled with an actuator, such as a motor, or, alternatively, the mechanism may comprise multiple mechanisms for exerting forces of differing magnitudes. The actuator may comprise an actuator system including one or more actuators. An actuator maybe any or all of an electric motor, a hydraulic actuator, a pneumatic actuator, and a variable torque output actuator. In embodiments having a soft grip mode and a clamping mode, the system typically switches between modes in response to a user command after the system has provided an indication that clamping of the grasped tissue would likely be successful.
In most embodiments, the separation parameter is measured and/or determined by the system during application of a grasping force or torque. The system may determine/measure the separation between jaw members from positional data obtained by the robotic system controlling the jaw members, such as a robotic patient-side manipulator (PSM) system, for example, described in U.S. Patent Application Publication No 2007/0005045, the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference. Typically, the clamping force is at least twice that of the grasping force, preferably about 5 to 10 times greater than the grasping force.
In another aspect of the invention, the indication of the clamping prediction is provided on a user interface. Preferably, the indication is a visual indicator superimposed over a display providing images of the surgical tools during a surgical procedure. In other embodiments, the indication of the clamping prediction may be any of an audio, visual or sensory indicator so as to communicate to the user a prediction of whether clamping is likely to be successful. In another aspect of the invention, the indication of clamping prediction may further include an indication of whether it is safe to initiate a stapling action. For example, after a prediction that clamping is likely and clamping has been completed, a timer may be initiated such that once a pre-determined amount of time has elapsed after successful clamping, an indicator is displayed over the display that it is safe to proceed stapling into the clamped tissue. A clamping timing indicator may be advantageous as it may reduce the amount of clamped tissue over time or reduce the amount of fluid within the tissue so as to reduce bleeding during stapling and help achieve hemostasis. The timing indicator may also track elapsed time of clamping after stapling of the clamped tissue so as to reduce bleeding or to aid in achieving hemostasis of the stapled tissue.
In another aspect, the prediction of clamping is provided in response to the separation parameter between grasped jaws as determined and/or measured by the system. In many embodiments, if the measured separation is greater than a threshold or a desired grasping separation parameter, then the prediction is indicative of likely clamping failure, while if the grasping separation is equal to or less than the desired grasping separation parameter, the prediction is indicative of likely clamping success. In some embodiments, the threshold or desired grasping separation parameter may be based in part on an apparent or estimated tissue stiffness. The desired separation may comprise either an angle between jaws or a distance between jaws, and the separation parameter may be a discrete parameter or a predetermined range of values. For many applications, the threshold or desired grasping separation is an angle of about 8 degrees or a distance of about 6 mm between tips of the jaw members. In one embodiment, a 4 degree angle results in a gap of approximately 3 mm between the tips of the jaws. In general, when the tissue is successfully clamped, the gap between jaws is between 1.3 mm to 2 mm, although one of skill in the art would appreciate that this value may vary depending on the application. In embodiments where the desired separation parameter is a predetermined range, clamping success may be indicated when the measured separation is within the predetermined range. For example, a predetermined range of desired grasping separation parameters may be from 1 to 10 degrees, preferably 1 to 8 degrees, or, in terms of distance, the range of desired grasping separation parameters from 0.7 mm to 8 mm, preferably 2 to 5 mm. Ideally, the desired target separation is approximately 4 mm. The desired separation values or ranges may vary according to any number of variables, including but not limited to: a dimension of the first or second jaw, a staple length, a staple size, a stapler angle of articulation, a thickness of the body tissue, a type of body tissue, a characteristic of the body tissue the desired clamping force or the desired clamping separation. In many embodiments, the grasping force between the tips of the jaws will be within a range from about 3 lb-f to 10 lb-f, preferably about 5 lb-f, and the clamping force between the tips of the jaws will be within a range from about 30 to 70 lb-f, preferably about 50 lb-f. The grasping force and desired clamping force may vary according to any of the above variables or by the type of surgical application (e.g. tissue cutting, sealing of tissue, and/or stapling of tissue).
In another aspect, the present invention includes a system for performing the claimed methods. Ideally, the system comprises a first and second jaw, a drive system coupled to the jaws, a user interface, and an electronic data processor coupled to the drive system. In many embodiments, the drive system closes the jaws on tissue at a predetermined grasping force, the electronic data processor measures a distance between the jaws, and based on the measured distance between the jaws, the electronic data processor outputs to the user interface a prediction of success of clamping the tissue between the two jaws at a desired clamping force, wherein the clamping force is within a first predetermined range that is larger than the grasping force, and wherein the clamped jaw separation distance is within a second predetermined range. Ideally, the second predetermined range comprises a distance between the jaws that is suitable for applying a staple to the tissue between the jaws.
The system may also comprise one or more modes of operation. In some embodiments, the system comprises a soft grip mode and a clamping mode. In the soft grip mode, the jaws close or close so as to grasp the body tissue at the predetermined grasping force. In the clamping mode, the jaws close so as to clamp the body tissue at the clamping force. Typically, the system only provides a prediction of clamping success when in the grasping mode, such that a surgeon may grasp tissue in the grasping mode in preparation for clamping the grasped tissue. In embodiments having multiple modes, the system may further include a controller for switching between modes.
The system may include an actuator system coupled with the jaws through a mechanism for effecting movement of the jaws so as to grasp and/or clamp the body tissue. In some embodiments, the mechanism may include cables and a linkage. In many embodiments, the mechanism comprises a lead screw and cam. In some embodiments, particularly in embodiments having multiple modes, a first mechanism effects grasping of the jaw and a second mechanism effects clamping with the jaws. For example, the first mechanism may comprise cables and the second mechanism may comprise a lead screw. Effecting grasping with cables would be ideal for providing a fast response with a relatively low force, while a lead screw would be more suited for provided a higher force despite having a longer response time. The first actuation mechanism can provide a low force for grasping the body tissue between jaw members, and the second actuation mechanism can provide a high clamping force mode. For example, in many embodiments, the maximum clamping force of the movable jaw provided by the second actuation mechanism is larger than a maximum grasping force provided by the first actuation mechanism.
The first and second actuation mechanisms can employ different force transmission mechanisms corresponding with the force requirements for the low force grasping mode and the high force clamping mode. For example, a force used by the first jaw actuation mechanism to move the jaw from the open to the close position can include a linear force, and a force used by the second jaw actuation mechanism to move the jaw from the open to the closed position can include a torque. In many embodiments, the first jaw actuation mechanism for use in the low force grasping mode includes a cable-driven mechanism, with the second jaw actuation mechanism for use in the high force clamping mode includes a leadscrew-driven mechanism.
Any of the above described methods may be used in the clamping of any material and may be used in application that are non-surgical in nature. For example, the above described methods may be used to indicate to a user a clamping prediction regarding the clamping of a flexible compliant material in an industrial process.
For a fuller understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention, reference should be made to the ensuing detailed description and accompanying drawings. Other aspects, objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the drawings and detailed description that follows.
Improved systems and methods related to clamping of body tissues are provided. The present invention relates to providing an indicator of whether clamping of grasped tissue is likely before attempting to clamp the tissue. The invention may be used in systems having jaw members for clamping a body tissue, particularly in surgical systems used in minimally invasive surgical applications. Typically, systems utilizing the claimed methods have jaws that grasp a body tissue at a low force and subsequently clamp the body tissue at a higher force. Grasping the body tissue at a low force allows a physician to manipulate and position the body tissue between the jaw members without causing damage to the tissue, while clamping at a higher clamping force allows the physician to perform various procedures, such as tissue cutting and sealing or stapling. While the various embodiments disclosed herein are primarily described with regard to surgical applications, these surgical applications are merely example applications, and the disclosed systems and methods can be used in other suitable applications, both inside and outside a human body, as well as in non-surgical applications.
In many embodiments, the two jaws comprise an articulated jaw that moves toward a stationary portion of the end effector. In such embodiments, the stationary portion of the end effector comprises the second jaw. In many embodiments, the system uses two independent mechanisms to articulate the jaws of the end effector. A first actuation mechanism provides a fast response/low force mode that varies the position of the articulated jaw between a closed (grasped) configuration and an open configuration. In many embodiments, the first actuation mechanism is back-drivable. For example, in the low force mode grasping mode the first actuation mechanism can be designed to provide 5 lbs of clamping force between the tips of the first and second jaw. A second actuation mechanism provides a high clamping force mode for clamping the body tissue between the jaws at the higher clamping force. Often, the second actuation mechanism is non-back-drivable. The second actuation mechanism converts a relatively weak force or torque (but with large displacement available) to a relatively high torque rotating the jaw of the end effector. The second actuation mechanism can be designed to provide, for example, 50 pounds of clamping force between the tips of the clamped jaws.
Typically, in applications using the claimed methods, a surgeon grasps a body tissue at the grasping force between the jaws of the surgical tool, then clamps the body tissue at the higher clamping force. Periodically, the jaws may fail to successfully clamp the tissue at the higher clamping force, which may potentially result in damage to the tissue due to the high clamping forces. For example, the jaws may clamp on the tissue but the jaw tips may be separated further than desired due to excess deflection, resulting in potential tissue damage. The jaws may fail to successfully clamp the tissue for a variety of reasons, including insufficient or excess tissue grasped between the jaws, including interference from an adjacent tissue, such as a bone, or slippage of the tissue from between the jaws. Therefore, it would be advantageous for a physician to be able to predict when clamping failure may occur before clamping, thereby avoiding any potential damage to the tissue. The described systems and methods provide an indication to the physician of a prediction of whether clamping of the body tissue will be successful. Clamping may be considered successful when the jaws are in the clamped position and the distance between the jaws is sufficient for performing a desired therapy, such as firing a staple through the clamped tissue.
The indication of whether clamping success is more likely than not may be based, in whole or in part, on the separation between the jaw members while grasping the tissue therebetween. Ideally, the methods include grasping a tissue at the grasping force, measuring and/or determining a separation between the jaw members, and providing an indication to the physician as to whether clamping of the grasped tissue is more likely than not. The methods may further include measuring or determining the relative stiffness of the grasped tissue. These systems and methods of the present invention are particularly beneficial when used in minimally invasive surgery applications. Additionally, the indication of clamping success or failure may further include predictions at multiple grip forces (e.g. sequentially higher forces), such that a user may grip with a force that is indicated as likely resulting in successful clamping. In some embodiments, this feature may be extended to consider the likelihood of clamping success or failure based on jaw positions during a continuously increasing grip force. The clamping force may also include a variable clamping force that is dependent on a relationship between jaw position and gripping force. For example, if the distance between jaws is greater than desired, such as may occur when an indication of likely clamping failure is indicated, a higher clamping force may be applied (e.g. by the user or automatically) and a second data point measured to determine an indication of a clamping prediction at the higher clamping force.
Referring now to the drawings, in which like reference numerals represent like parts throughout the several views,
The Surgeon's Console 16 is usually located in the same room as the patient so that the Surgeon may directly monitor the procedure, be physically present if necessary, and speak to an Assistant directly rather than over the telephone or other communication medium. However, the Surgeon can be located in a different room, a completely different building, or other remote location from the Patient allowing for remote surgical procedures (i.e., operating from outside the sterile field).
In many embodiments, two independent actuation mechanisms are used to control the articulation of an articulated jaw of an end effector. A first actuation mechanism can be used to provide a fast response/low force grasping mode, and a second actuation mechanism can be used to provide a high clamping force mode, the clamping force being greater than the grasping force. In many embodiments, the first actuation mechanism used to provide the fast response/low force articulation mode is back-drivable. In many embodiments, the second actuation mechanism used to provide the high clamping force articulation mode is non-back-drivable. Using independent actuation mechanisms may be beneficial in some surgical applications, for example, electrocautery sealing, stapling, etc., that may require multiple low force jaw placement clampings before a high force jaw clamping is used to carry out the surgical tool's task.
In many embodiments, actuation of the jaws in the fast response/low force grasping mode is provided by a cable actuation mechanism that includes a pair of pull cables. In many embodiments, a pulling motion of a first cable of the pair articulates the articulated jaw towards a closed (grasped) configuration and a pulling motion of a second cable of the pair articulates the articulated jaw towards an open (ungrasped) configuration. In many embodiments, the cable actuation mechanism is back-drivable.
In many embodiments, actuation of the jaws in the high clamping force mode is provided by a leadscrew actuation mechanism that includes a leadscrew driven cam. The driven cam interfaces with a mating cam surface on the articulated jaw so as to hold the articulated jaw in a closed (clamped) configuration when the leadscrew driven cam is at a first end of its range of motion. In addition, the driven cam does not constrain motion of the articulated jaw when the leadscrew driven cam is at a second end (opposite end) of its range of motion. In other words, the mating cam surfaces are arranged such that motion of the leadscrew driven cam in one direction will cause the articulated jaw to close, and motion of the leadscrew driven cam in the reverse direction will allow (but not force) the articulated jaw to open to a limit provided by the cam surfaces. Often, the leadscrew actuation mechanism is non-back-drivable. In many embodiments, the position of the jaw members of the end effector can be determined by the position of the cable actuation mechanism, or if driven by a leadscrew, the position of the leadscrew.
In many embodiments, the first drive shaft 78 and/or the second drive shaft 80 are driven by drive features located in a proximal tool chassis to which the end effector 70 is coupled with via an instrument shaft. In many embodiments, the proximal tool chassis is configured to be releasably mountable to a robotic tool manipulator. In many embodiments, the first drive shaft 78 and the second drive shaft 80 are actuated via respective drive features located in the proximal tool chassis. In many embodiments, such drive features are driven by an actuator or motor system that is located in the proximal tool chassis.
The articulated jaw 72 includes mating cam surfaces 94 that are configured so that the position of the leadscrew driven cam 84 along the cam slot 86 determines the extent to which the rotational motion of the articulated jaw 72 around the pivot pin 88 is constrained by the leadscrew driven cam 84. The articulated jaw 72 includes a first proximal side 100 and a second proximal side 102 that are separated by a central slot. The first and second proximal sides are disposed on opposing sides of the end effector base 74 when the articulated jaw 72 is coupled with the end effector base 74 via the pivot pin 88. Each of the first and second proximal sides 100, 102 includes a recessed area defining a mating cam surface 94 and providing clearance between the leadscrew driven cam 84 and the proximal sides 100, 102. When the leadscrew driven cam 84 is positioned at or near the proximal end of the cam slot 86 (near its position illustrated in
The use of a recess in each of the proximal sides 100, 102 to define the mating cam surfaces 94 of the articulated jaw 72 provides a number of benefits. For example, the use of recesses as opposed to traverse slots that extend through the proximal sides provides a continuous outside surface to the proximal sides 100, 102 of the articulated jaw, which is less likely to snag on patient tissue than would a traverse slot opening. The absence of traverse slots also helps to stiffen the proximal sides 100, 102 as compared to proximal sides with traverse slots, and therefore provides increased clamping stiffness. Such proximal sides 100, 102 may have increased stiffness in two planes, which may help maintain alignment of the articulated jaw 72 in the presences of external forces. Such increased stiffness in two planes may be beneficial in some surgical applications, for example, in tissue stapling where it is beneficial to maintain alignment between the staples and anvil pockets that form the staples. Further, the use of recesses instead of traverse slots also provides an actuation mechanism that is less likely to be jammed by extraneous material as compared to one having proximal sides with open traverse slots.
The leadscrew actuation mechanism can be configured to provide a desired clamping force between the articulated jaw and an opposing jaw of the end effector. For example, in many embodiments, the leadscrew actuation mechanism is configured to provide at least 20 lbs of clamping force at the tip of the articulated jaw 72 (approximately 2 inches from the pivot pin 88). In many embodiments, the leadscrew actuation mechanism is configured to provide at least 50 lbs of clamping force at the tip of the articulated jaw 72. In many embodiments, to produce 50 lbs of clamping force at the tip of the articulated jaw 72, the input torque to the leadscrew 82 is approximately 0.1 Newton meter and the leadscrew 82 has approximately 30 turns.
The leadscrew actuation mechanism can be fabricated using available materials and components. For example, many components of the leadscrew actuation mechanism can be fabricated from an available stainless steel(s). The leadscrew driven cam 84 can be coated (e.g., TiN) to reduce friction against the surfaces it rubs against (e.g., leadscrew 82; end effector base 74; proximal sides 100, 102 of the articulated jaw 72). Stranded cables can be used to drive the first actuation mechanism.
The second linkage 118 (shown in
In many embodiments, the cable (i.e., low force) actuation mechanism comprises a pair of pull cables that are actuated via an actuation feature disposed in a proximal tool chassis. The proximal tool chassis can be configured to be releasably mountable to a robotic tool manipulator having a drive mechanism that operatively couples with the actuation feature. For example, the pair of pull cables can be wrapped around a capstan located in the proximal tool chassis. The capstan can be operatively coupled with a capstan drive servo motor of the robotic tool manipulator when the proximal tool chassis is mounted to the robotic tool manipulator. Selective rotation of the capstan drive motor can be used to produce a corresponding rotation of the capstan. Rotation of the capstan can be used to produce a coordinated extension and retraction of the pull cables. As discussed above, coordinated actuation of the pull cables can be used to produce a corresponding articulation of the articulated jaw of the end effector.
In many embodiments, the fast response/low force mode is provided by a cable actuation mechanism that is back-drivable. For example, an external force applied to the articulated jaw can be used to rotate the articulated jaw towards the clamped configuration and back-drive the cable actuation mechanism. With a cable actuation mechanism that comprises a pair of pull cables wrapped around a capstan, an external force that rotates the articulated jaw towards the closed configuration produces an increase in tension in one of the pull cables and a decrease in tension in the other pull cable, thereby causing the capstan to rotate in response. As is known, such a cable driven system can be configured to have sufficient efficiency for back-drivability. Likewise, an external force applied to the articulated jaw can be used to rotate the articulated jaw towards the open configuration and back-drive the cable actuation mechanism. As discussed above, a back-drivable fast response/low force actuation mechanism provides a number of benefits.
Alternate mechanisms can be used to provide a fast response/low force articulation mode. For example, an actuation mechanism comprising push/pull rods can be used.
The tool assembly 170 can be configured for use in a variety of applications. For example, the tool assembly 170 can be configured as a hand held device with manual and/or automated actuation used in the proximal actuation mechanism. The tool assembly 170 can also be configured for use in surgical applications, for example, electrocautery sealing, stapling, etc. The tool assembly 170 can have applications beyond minimally invasive robotic surgery, for example, non-robotic minimally invasive surgery, non-minimally invasive robotic surgery, non-robotic non-minimally invasive surgery, as well as other applications where the use of the disclosed redundant jaw actuation would be beneficial.
Redundant jaw actuation can be used to articulate a jaw of a robotic tool end effector. For example,
It is understood that the examples and embodiments described herein are for illustrative purposes and that various modifications or changes in light thereof will be suggested to persons skilled in the art and are to be included within the spirit and purview of this application and the scope of the appended claims. Numerous different combinations are possible, and such combinations are considered to be part of the present invention.
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|U.S. Classification||700/264, 318/568.11, 606/130, 700/245, 606/1|
|International Classification||A61B17/072, A61B19/00, G06F19/00, A61B17/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B2017/2808, A61B2017/00132, A61B90/08, A61B34/37, G06F3/016, A61B2034/301, A61B34/25, A61B17/29, G06F3/14, G06F3/16, A61B2034/254, A61B90/06, A61B34/30, A61B2090/0811, A61B2090/064, A61B17/28, B25J9/1694, A61B17/00, A61B17/07207, A61B2017/00115, A61B2019/4857, A61B2019/464|
|21 Mar 2012||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTUITIVE SURGICAL OPERATIONS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WEIR, DAVID;DUQUE, GRANT;DURANT, KEVIN;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20120224 TO 20120229;REEL/FRAME:027901/0129