|Publication number||US7756524 B1|
|Application number||US 11/345,148|
|Publication date||13 Jul 2010|
|Filing date||31 Jan 2006|
|Priority date||31 Jan 2006|
|Publication number||11345148, 345148, US 7756524 B1, US 7756524B1, US-B1-7756524, US7756524 B1, US7756524B1|
|Inventors||Maqbool Aliani, Ismael Garcia, Ante Kovacevic|
|Original Assignee||Nextel Communications Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Classifications (13), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates generally to the field of telecommunications, and in particular, to improving the management and allocation of voice encoder/decoder (vocoder) resources.
In providing cellular telephone services, telecommunications providers are generally interested in providing the highest quality of service while still maximizing the capacity of the network. Sometimes these are competing objectives. With respect to network capacity, cellular network operators desire to maximize network system capacity. Higher network capacity results in less rejections of call requests and, in-turn, increased customer satisfaction. Therefore, it is desirable to increase network capacity.
In providing the highest quality of service, high rate voice coding or vocoding is the technology behind most modern voice compression techniques and has been utilized to improve voice quality for cellular calls. As is known, a vocoder converts the spoken words of the caller into a digital signal and then reconverts the signal into an audible sound so that the words can be heard by the intended recipient. These high rate vocoders provide good voice quality however, in general, these high coding/decoding rates utilize more network capacity than lower rate vocoders.
A vocoder is typically a computer algorithm or program which operates on a digitized voice signal generated by an Analog-to-Digital converter. The vocoder algorithm first encodes a voice signal by processing it in varying ways in order to represent it with some small number of bits. A vocoder also contains a decoding function which is able to reconstruct the voice waveform from these bits. Many different vocoder algorithms have been developed which employ different types of processing and depending on the method of processing, some algorithms perform considerable better or worse than others. Vocoder performance is generally measured in terms of compression rate (i.e. how few bits are required to represent the voice signal) plus the voice quality (i.e. how much distortion does the encoding/decoding process introduce into the reconstructed voice signal). Additional performance factors include the complexity of the algorithm, in terms of the amount of computing power required to run the algorithm, and its robustness to factors such as background noise and bit errors which are often present in the real world. Due to these differences, selection of the best vocoder is one of the larger challenges faced by the network designer.
One relatively new vocoding method is the AMBEŽ Vocoder developed by Digital Voice System, Inc. of Burlington, Mass. The AMBEŽ class of vocoders require roughly half the bandwidth of earlier vocoders, such as the Vector Sum Excited Linear Prediction (VSELP) method. Moreover, these modern vocoders have the ability to interleave several calls onto a single channel at a given frequency. Such vocoders can also be operated to interleave more or fewer calls onto a given channel, depending on the available bandwidth and desired call quality. For example, such vocoders have the ability to be assigned to a call as a so-called full 3:1 call or a split 3:1 call, where a full 3:1 call will be interleaved with two other calls onto a single channel and a split 3:1 call will be interleaved with five other calls for a total of six call on a single channel. There is, however, a trade off in that the more calls that are interleaved onto a channel, the lower the call quality will be. That is, increasing network capacity to handle additional calls by implementing split 3:1 encoding tends to result in a corresponding decrease in call quality. The problem lies in identifying the optimum conditions under which split 3:1 encoding should be used so as to maintain as high a call quality as possible, while providing increased network capacity as needed. Determining these conditions has proved to be a difficult task. Thus, despite the recent advancements in vocoding technology, there is still a need for optimizing vocoder resource allocation.
A system and method for allocation of vocoder resources is disclosed herein. In an embodiment, a method of the invention includes receiving a request to transport the interconnect call, determining if an available network capacity of the telecommunications network is greater than a threshold value, and determining whether a threshold percentage of calls assigned to a particular vocoder type has been reached. One embodiment of the method further includes assigning at least one of a first vocoder type and a second vocoder type to the interconnect call based on whether the available network capacity is greater than the threshold value and on whether the threshold percentage has been reached.
Other aspects, features, and techniques of the invention will be apparent to one skilled in the relevant art in view of the following detailed description of the invention.
Systems and method for allocating vocoder resources are disclosed. One aspect of the invention is to assign a vocoder type to an interconnect call transported over a telecommunications network. In certain embodiments, the vocoder type to be assigned is based on i) a comparison of the available capacity of the telecommunications network to one or more threshold values, and ii) whether the percentage of calls assigned to a particular vocoder type exceeds a predetermined threshold. In certain embodiments, the vocoder selection is adapted to choose one of at least two possible types, where the first type is characterized by a higher voice quality, but a lower network capacity, than the second type.
In one or more embodiments, the higher voice quality vocoder type may be assigned to an interconnect call when the available network capacity is greater than the threshold value(s). In certain circumstances, the higher voice quality type may be assigned to the interconnect call even if the available network capacity is not greater than the threshold value(s), such as for example when the percentage of interconnect calls assigned to a particular vocoder type exceeds the predetermined threshold. Alternatively, if the available network capacity is not greater than the threshold capacity, and the percentage of calls assigned to a particular vocoder type does not exceed the predetermined threshold, then the second vocoder type may be assigned to the interconnect call.
In certain embodiments, the second vocoder type may be associated with interleaving a higher number of voice calls onto a single radio frequency channel of the telecommunications network than with the first vocoder type. For example, the second vocoder type may be associated with interleaving six calls onto a single radio frequency channel, while the first vocoder type may involve interleaving only three call onto a single channel.
In certain additional embodiment, the available network capacity of a telecommunications network may be compared to a threshold value which is comprised of at least one of a congestion relief threshold and a split threshold. In certain embodiments, the congestion relief threshold may be indicative of how readily congestion relief measures are to be undertaken by the telecommunications network, while the split threshold may be indicative of how readily the second vocoder type is to be assigned to the interconnect call in question. In one embodiment, the threshold value may be based on the sum of the congestion relief threshold and the split threshold.
Referring now to the figures,
Base stations 108 1-108 n may be comprised of base station radios and control equipment contained in an Enhanced Base Transceiver System (EBTS), or cell site. Such cell sites may be used to provide the RF link between the carrier network 110 and the various subscriber units 102-106. Cell sites may further provide connectively between subscriber units 102-106 and an external network 112.
Wireless communication between base stations 108 1-108 n and subscriber units 102-106 occurs via encoded radio frequency (RF) channels which provide physical paths over which digital communication signals such as voice and data are transmitted. As is generally known in the art, communication channels between the base stations 108 1-108 n and subscriber units 102-106 may be encoded by a transcoder using a vocoder algorithm (e.g., AMBEŽ, VSELP, etc.). Vocoders generally operate by modeling a segment (or frame) of the speech waveform on the order of 15-20 ms. The speech model parameters are estimated, quantized, coded, and transmitted over the communication channel. At the receiver, the transmitted values are decoded, reconstructed, and used to synthesize speech. To increase network capacity, vocoders have the ability to encode data from several callers onto the same channel frequency. For example, a vocoders can interleave calls from either 3 or 6 users onto a single channel whereby each user transmits and receives only during an assigned time slot interval. To that end,
While operating in the split 3:1 type increases network capacity, there is a corresponding decrease in call quality. Thus, the decision whether to operate in full or split 3:1 type by a base station's vocoder allocation manager may be made by comparing available resources to one or more threshold parameters. Currently, each time there is a new interconnect call, the allocation of vocoder resources is determined by comparing a value representative of the available bandwidth (“available_ic_capacity”) to the sum of a congestion relief threshold (“crThreshold”) and a split threshold (“SplitThreshold”). If the available_ic_capacity is less than or equal to the sum of the SplitThreshold plus the crThreshold, then the vocoder type becomes the split 3:1 type in which an RF channel can be shared by up to six callers. Otherwise, full 3:1 type may be used.
The available_ic_capacity value typically represents the networks capacity on a market basis, local network basis, cell site, etc. The crThreshold value is used to determine how soon congestion relief call offloading will commence. That is, the higher the crThreshold value, the sooner congestion relief measures will begin. The crThreshold value is based on numerous market-level factors that are beyond the scope of this disclosure. Similarly, the SplitThreshold value involves consideration of a multitude of factors, including average call blocking, number of available carriers, customer satisfaction rates, etc. Ultimately, the SplitThreshold value is a representation of how quickly calls should be allocated to split 3:1 service. That is, the higher the SplitThreshold value, the more calls that will be split 3:1 calls. Similarly, the higher the crThreshold value, the greater the amount of calls that will be offloaded from a network resource, such as an EBTS, and the more calls that will be allocated as split 3:1 calls.
While the aforementioned approach improves vocoder resource management, solely comparing crThreshold values and SplitThreshold values to the available_ic_capacity value may lead to inconsistent management of calls across base station cells. This is due to the fact that localized conditions cannot be taken into account when these parameters are set at the global market level from the Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC), as they typically are. That is, the SplitThreshold and crThreshold parameters are typically determined by balancing a multitude of factors each of which may or may be applicable to a given cell site. Alternatively, setting the vocoder type parameters on the basis of specific cell sites would represent a daunting task requiring a large of amount of resources. The end result is that even optimized threshold values can lead to unnecessarily poor voice quality during high capacity/low usage times. Thus, one aspect of the invention is to improve the allocation of vocoder resources by also taking into account the percentage of calls handled by the network which have been allocated to a particular vocoder type. To that end,
Process 400 begins at block 410 where an interconnect request is received from a user (e.g., subscriber unit 102-106) by a cell tower (e.g., base station 108). A determination may then be made as to what the available network capacity is for that network resource (i.e., cell tower), where the capacity may be represented as a value (e.g., available_ic_capacity) indicative of the cell tower's available RF bandwidth. At block 430, the capacity then may be compared to one or more threshold parameters. In certain embodiments, such parameter(s) may include a congestion relief threshold (e.g., crThreshold) and/or a split threshold value (e.g., SplitThreshold), where the congestion relief threshold governs how quickly congestion control measures are taken, and the split threshold value governs how quickly calls are allocated as split 3:1 calls. In certain other embodiments, the one or more threshold parameters may simply be representative of how quickly a vocoder (e.g., vocoder 118) enters a higher capacity type characterized by moderate voice quality rather than operating in a lower capacity type characterized by higher voice quality.
Once the comparison of block 430 is done, a determination may then be made at block 440 as to whether the available capacity is greater than the threshold parameter(s). If the available capacity is greater than the threshold parameter(s), then the vocoder type for the incoming interconnect call may be assigned to the higher quality type at block 450 (e.g., full 3:1 type). If, on the other hand, the available capacity is less than or equal to the threshold parameter(s) then process 400 will continue to block 460 where a determination is made as to what percentage of the total interconnect calls have been assigned to the moderate quality vocoder type. In another embodiment, an available capacity that is equal to the threshold parameter(s) may still cause the process to move to block 450 and assign the incoming call to the higher voice quality.
At block 460, the percentage of the total interconnect calls that have been assigned to the moderate quality vocoder type is determined. In one embodiment, this percentage represents the percentage of total active calls on a given cell tower that have been assigned the moderate quality vocoder type. In one embodiment, this percentage may be updated each time an interconnect call begins, ends or is offloaded by a given cell tower. Alternatively, this percentage may be updated on a less frequent basis. Additionally, the percentage of moderate quality vocoder type may be based on a number of interconnect calls other than the total calls being handled by a given cell tower. It should equally be appreciated that numerous other approaches may be used to determine the percentage of moderate quality calls to the total call received, and the present invention is not limited to how the number of moderate quality calls are determined or designated.
Continuing to refer to
At block 480, process 400 may then determine if the threshold percentage has in fact been reached. If not, then process 400 may continue to block 490 where the incoming interconnect call is again assigned to the moderate voice quality vocoder type. If the threshold percentage has been reached, however, then process 400 may move to block 450 where the vocoder type for the incoming interconnect call is assigned to the higher quality type. In this fashion, better voice quality may be achieved for a greater percentage of incoming calls where resources otherwise permit.
However, it is possible that even when the threshold percentage has been met, there may not be an available channel for the incoming interconnect call. For such cases, the process 500 of
At block 580, process 500 may then determine if the threshold percentage has in fact been reached. If not, then process 500 may continue to block 590 where the incoming interconnect call is again assigned to the moderate voice quality vocoder type. If the threshold percentage has been reached, however, then process 500 may move to block 585 where a further determination can be made as to whether there are any available channels to handle the incoming request. If so, then process 500 will continue to block 550 where the vocoder type will be assigned to the higher quality type. If there are no available channels, the process 500 moves to block 590 where the vocoder type is assigned to the moderate quality type. It should further be appreciated that other measures may be undertaken to accommodate the new interconnect request when there are no available channels (e.g., congestion control offloading). While the present disclosure has been principally directed to describing two vocoder types, it should equally be appreciated that the invention may be implemented using more than two vocoder types.
The disclosed embodiments are illustrative of the various ways in which the present invention may be practiced. Other embodiments can be implemented by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. For example, while the processes of
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|U.S. Classification||455/453, 379/219, 379/221.07, 455/452.1, 370/321, 370/356, 455/452.2, 379/221.05|
|International Classification||H04M7/00, H04W72/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W28/24, G10L19/18|
|31 Jan 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NEXTEL COMMUNICATIONS, INC., VIRGINIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ALIANI, MAQBOOL;GARCIA, ISMAEL;KOVACEVIC, ANTE;REEL/FRAME:017539/0349
Effective date: 20060130
|9 Jan 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|3 Mar 2017||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: DEUTSCHE BANK TRUST COMPANY AMERICAS, NEW YORK
Free format text: GRANT OF FIRST PRIORITY AND JUNIOR PRIORITY SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENT RIGHTS;ASSIGNOR:NEXTEL COMMUNICATIONS, INC.;REEL/FRAME:041882/0911
Effective date: 20170203