|Publication number||US7148714 B2|
|Application number||US 11/053,119|
|Publication date||12 Dec 2006|
|Filing date||7 Feb 2005|
|Priority date||10 Jun 1997|
|Also published as||DE29810205U1, US6034533, US6559668, US6822467, US6856153, US7042241, US7068057, US7323895, US20030117157, US20040017214, US20040027145, US20050035779, US20050146345, US20050151557, US20060164112, US20070024302|
|Publication number||053119, 11053119, US 7148714 B2, US 7148714B2, US-B2-7148714, US7148714 B2, US7148714B2|
|Inventors||Paul A. Tervo, Clarence E. Cowan|
|Original Assignee||Cascade Microtech, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Non-Patent Citations (23), Referenced by (7), Classifications (14), Legal Events (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of and claims priority to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/029,745 filed Jan. 5, 2005 now U.S. Pat. No.7,068,057; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/948,717 filed Sep. 22, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,042,241; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/616,164 filed Jul. 7, 2003, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,856,153; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/313,746 filed Dec. 6, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,822,467; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/490,264 filed Jan. 24, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,559,668; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/871,609 filed Jun. 10, 1997, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,034,533.
The present invention relates to pogo probe cards used for probing test subject workpieces, such as wafers of integrated circuit dies (“IC wafer dies”), and in particular relates to pogo probe cards suitable for use in measuring current as low as the femtoamp order of magnitude (ultra-low current).
Typically, a pogo probe card includes a dielectric board having top and bottom major surfaces and forming a base for other elements. A plurality of probing devices are mounted in radial arrangement about the top rim of a round central opening in the board. A probing needle for each of these devices terminates below the opening in a pattern suitable for probing contact sites, otherwise referred to as test sites, of an IC wafer die. For ease of description in this application the portion of the pogo probe card which in operation is closest to the IC wafer is denoted as the bottom of the card, although other geometries of test are possible.
Around the exterior periphery of the pogo probe card there are typically 48, 64 or 96 pogo pin receptive pads or pad sets, each of which is electrically connected to a respective one of the probing devices by a signal trace or set of traces. During testing, a mating pogo test head with a matching set of 48, 64 or 96 pogo pins or pin sets, touches the pogo probe card so that the pogo pins make electrical contact with the receptive pads. In this manner the probing devices are individually connected to respective channels of a test instrument by the pogo pin sets and further cabling.
In one conventional type of setup for testing IC wafer dies, the pogo probe card is mounted by a supporting rig above the IC wafer, and a chuck supports and moves the IC wafer so that each die, or region to be tested, is consecutively brought into contact with the probing needles.
As integrated circuitry has been made smaller, a need has developed for test devices which can measure ultra-low current. The typical use for this type of device is to measure IC leakage currents. These are currents that flow away from the intended current path within the IC, typically due to design flaws or fabrication artifacts.
Low-current measurements are typically performed with two conductive paths (“force” and “sense”) either reaching the test site independently (“true Kelvin” connection) or joining together in the proximity of the test site (“quasi Kelvin” connection) to form a “signal path.” The force path, whose test equipment terminus has a relatively low impedance, is provided with a particular current. The sense path, whose test equipment terminus has a very high impedance, measures the voltage at the test site. As such, the current versus voltage characteristics of the test device can be obtained using the force and sense paths.
This test configuration is desirable because although small variations in current are being measured, the amount of current directed to the test site might be large enough so that there is a significant voltage drop through the signal line leading to the test site. Because this signal line typically includes solder connections and pogo pin contacts, its resistance is impossible or impractical to predict using current technology. Therefore, the distance from the test site to the point at which the signal path splits into force and sense path is a determinant of test quality, referred to in the low-current test industry as the degree to which the test configuration approaches the ideal “true kelvin” configuration in which the force and sense paths are connected by the conductive test site itself.
Collectively, the force and sense paths are referred to as the signal path(s). On pogo probe cards the force and sense paths are typically in the form of conductive traces, both of which are on the top surface of the card.
Designers of ultra-low current probe cards have been concerned with reducing probe card leakage currents. These are unwanted currents that can flow into a first force or sense path from nearby conductive path sets, thereby distorting the current measured in the first force or sense path. The amount of leakage current between two conductive path sets is dependant on the resistivity of the insulating material that separates the paths. When measuring in the femtoamp order of magnitude, even materials which are generally thought of as being completely insulative, such as rubber or glass-epoxy, may permit a detrimental flow of leakage current.
To protect a test station from electromagnetic interference, elaborate shielding has been developed. U.S. Pat. No. 5,345,170, which is assigned to the same assignee as the present application, describes one such design.
One technique that has been used for suppressing interchannel leakage currents on pogo probe cards is providing “guard” traces on both sides of a force or sense trace on the top surface of the card which is maintained at the same potential as the signal trace on the top surface of the card by a feedback circuit in the output channel of the test instrument. Because the voltage potentials of the outer guard traces on both sides of a force or sense trace on the top surface of the card and the inner signal trace are made to substantially track each other, negligible leakage current will flow across the dielectric material of the card that separates these traces.
Although leakage current can still flow between neighboring guard traces, this is typically not a problem because these guard conductors, unlike the inner signal trace, are at low impedance. By using this guarding technique, significant improvement may be realized in the low-level current measuring capability of pogo probe cards.
Low current pogo probe cards that have force, sense, and guard traces have a “pad set” for each signal channel consisting of a force, sense, and guard pad and a corresponding “trace set” consisting of a guard trace and a combined force and sense trace.
To further improve low-current measurement capability, pogo probe cards have been constructed so as to minimize leakage currents between the individual probing devices that mount the probing needles or other needles. In these devices, higher-resistance ceramic insulating materials have been substituted for lower-resistance materials and additional guard channel conductive surfaces have been added.
In one type of assembly, for example, each probing device is constructed using a thin “blade” of ceramic material, which is a material known to have a relatively high volume resistivity. An elongate conductive trace is provided on one side of the “blade” to form the signal line and a backplane conductive surface is provided on the other side of the “blade” for guarding purposes.
The probing element of this device is formed by a slender conductive needle, such as of tungsten, which extends in a cantilevered manner away from the signal trace. Such devices are commercially available, for example, from Cerprobe Corporation based in Tempe, Ariz. During assembly of the probe card, the ceramic blades are edge-mounted in radial arrangement about the opening in the card so that the needles terminate below the opening in a pattern suitable for probing the test device.
The conductive backplane on each blade is connected to the guard trace of the corresponding pogo pin set and also to a corresponding conductive pad or “land” adjacent the central opening in the probe card. In this manner each conductive signal line is guarded by the conductive backplane on the opposite side of the blade and by the conductive land beneath it.
It has been found, however, that even with the use of guard traces and ceramic probing devices, the level of undesired leakage current is still not reduced sufficiently to match the femtoamp range measurement capabilities of the latest generation of commercially available test instruments. Thus, it has become evident that other changes in pogo probe card design are needed in order to keep pace with the technology of test instrument design.
In an additional design for a pogo probe card, each guard trace is connected by a series of plated vias through the probe card to an auxiliary guard trace that is formed on the bottom exterior surface of the card. The auxiliary guard traces parallel respective signal traces toward the center of the card.
This design leaves a number of problems still unresolved. First, leakage current may flow between the plated vias through the dielectric material that separates each guard trace from the corresponding auxiliary guard trace.
Second, the capacitance between traces of neighboring trace sets permits cross-talk. This means that a change in electric potential in a first trace set will cause a temporary change in potential in the trace of neighboring trace sets, potentially corrupting a test result.
Third, the dielectric absorption of the probe card material adjacent or interposed between neighboring trace sets results in a delay in charging and discharging the trace sets to a predetermined potential. In essence, the dielectric absorption forms a capacitor that must be charged or discharged to reach a different voltage. A test sequence for a particular IC wafer may include hundreds of brief tests. A delay of 1 second or a fraction thereof in the performance of each test, may substantially increase the total test time. By reducing the settling time of the trace sets, it may be possible to run the same number of test sequences in less time and with fewer test stations.
An additional problem encountered in prior art probe cards is the problem of probing needle damage. Probing needles occasionally break, or are otherwise damaged during testing, requiring replacement or repair. In currently available probe cards, when a probing needle breaks, the entire probing device must be replaced which is time consuming and expensive.
What is desired, therefore, is a pogo probe card with increased isolation between traces resulting in reduced leakage currents, reduced cross-talk between trace sets, and reduced settling time for each trace set.
The present invention overcomes the aforementioned drawbacks of the prior art by providing in a first aspect a pogo probe card that has auxiliary guard traces interposed between top and bottom dielectric layer of the card. Preferably, a set of conductors formed through the top dielectric layer electrically interconnects each guard trace on the top surface of the card to the auxiliary guard trace. By interposing the auxiliary guard traces between the top and bottom dielectric layers it is possible to place the auxiliary guard traces in close proximity to the guard trace on the top surface of the card, thereby reducing leakage current by reducing the cross-section for the leakage current path, but nevertheless providing a card with sufficient structural integrity.
In another aspect of the present invention, the pogo pin receptive pad sets of the pogo probe card are connected to the probe devices by coaxial or triconductor (“triax”) cables, rather than by traces on the card. This permits far greater isolation and complete guarding of each signal channel.
In a further aspect of the present invention, the probe card includes probing device holders that permit probing devices to be easily replaced when broken or damaged.
The foregoing and other objectives, features, and advantages of the invention will be more readily understood upon consideration of the following detailed description of the invention, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Each probing device 154 includes a probing needle 164. Probing needles 164 are typically composed of tungsten and extend generally radially inwardly in a cantilevered manner into a circular opening 166, which is defined by inner rim 156. Each probing needle 164 and probing device 154 are carefully adjusted by a technician so that the point of the probing needle 164 will contact one out of a set of test contact sites on a predetermined test subject workpiece (not shown), which is to be placed beneath card 152 for testing.
Near the outer rim of annular laminate board 158 are a plurality of pogo pin receptive pad sets 170, each of which includes a conductive force line pad 172, a conductive sense line pad 174 and a conductive guard line pad/trace 176 that surrounds both sense line pad 174 and force line pad 172.
A set of coaxial cables 180 (only one shown in
A trench 210 separates pad sets 170 from one another. Trench 210 reduces the capacitance between pad sets 170, thereby reducing cross-talk between pad sets 170 and further reducing the settling time for each individual pad set 170. The reduction in capacitance is primarily due to the much smaller dielectric constant of air compared with any of the available solid dielectric materials, such as polyimide, which has a dielectric constant approximately eight times that of air. Trench 210, which is not plated preferably extends through and therefore separates auxiliary guard traces 204 from one another. Typically in manufacture a solid conductive plate is interposed between dielectric layers 200 and 202. This layer is then divided into auxiliary traces 204 when trenches 210 are machined therein. Alternatively, even without the trench 210, the reduced cross section between the pad sets 170 and the auxiliary guard traces 204 reduces leakage currents. In this variant, the auxiliary guard traces 204 would be formed as separated metalized areas under each pad set 170.
Each blade 236 has a first and a second major surface, which are parallel to each other. On the first surface of each blade is an elongate conductive path 238 that connects probing needle 164 to an electrical connection point 239. The second major surface bears a conductive plate 240. Blade 236 is generally L-shaped in profile and is edge-mounted on the top of inner rim 156 of annular laminate board 158 so that its short arm extends through opening 166 thereby permitting needles 164 to terminate below opening 166. Blades 236 having a construction of the type just described are commercially available from Cerprobe Corporation of Tempe, Ariz.
A plurality of conductive lands 244 are formed on the laminate board 158 about the opening 166 in circumferentially spaced relationship to each other. A solder connection 248 electrically connects conductive plate 240 to a conductive land 244.
Moreover, buffer layer 254 should have sufficient conductive properties to dissipate any charge imbalances that may arise due to free electrons rubbing off the outer conductor. A suitable material for this purpose is a fluoropolymer such as TEFLON™ or other insulative material such as polyvinylchloride or polyethylene in combination with graphite or other sufficiently conductive additive.
In the field of radio frequency (rf) cable technology, cables that include a layer of the type just described are generally referred to as “low-noise” cables. Commercial sources for this type of cable include Belden Wire and Cable Company based in Richmond, Ind. and Suhner HF-Kabel based in Herisau, Switzerland. With regard to the preferred embodiment depicted, the cable which was used was purchased from Times Microwave Systems based in Wallingford, Conn.
It should be noted that some care must be exercised while connecting cable 180 to probing device 154 in order to prevent defects that would substantially degrade the low-current measuring capability probe card Referring to
Before making this connection, it is desirable to position cable 180 so that the conductive and dielectric layers in cable 180 that surround inner core 250 are set back a certain distance 262 away from the proximal edge of the probing device 154. This reduces the possibility that a fine strand of hair or other contaminant will form a low-resistance or conductive bridge so as to cause a low-resistance shunt or short across the signal line. Also, in making this connection, it is important not to overheat the cable so as not to impair the structural properties of inner dielectric 252, which material may comprise, for example, air-expanded TEFLON™ for maximum temperature stability.
Finally, after the connection has been made, all solder flux residue that remains should be removed from the board in order to prevent undesired electro-chemical effects and to maintain the surface resistivity of the laminate board 158 at a reasonable level.
In order to further reduce the possibility of undesirable shunting connections, outer conductor 256 (typically a metallic braid) of cable 180 is connected indirectly to conductive surface 240 through conductive land 244.
Moreover, with respect to probing devices 154, each elongate conductive path 238 is guarded by conductive path plate 240 on the opposite side of the blade 236 and by the corresponding conductive land 244 which is arranged below the path. Solder connection 264 electrically connects the outer conductor 256 to conductive land 244 and a second solder connection 248 electrically connects conductive land 244 to the backplane conductive surface 240. Again, care must be taken not to overheat cable 180 or to leave solder flux residue on laminate board 158.
During use of probe card 152, the signal variation or voltage is transmitted to the test site by means of inner conductor 250, elongate conductive path 238 and probing needle 164. Preferably, the test equipment is connected so that a feedback circuit in the output channel of the test equipment supplies a “guard” voltage that matches the instantaneous signal voltage, which guard voltage is applied to outer conductor 256 and to conductive land 244. By use of the cable 180, additional shielding is achieved by nearly eliminating the capacitance associated with the prior art use or long traces on the probe card to route the signal from the pad sets 170 to the probing devices 154. Accordingly, the cable 180 reduces the leakage currents and settling time.
Moreover, with respect to probing devices 154, each elongate conductive path 238 is guarded by conductive plate 240 on the opposite side of the blade 236 and by the corresponding conductive land 184 which is arranged below the path. By minimizing leakage currents into and out of each elongate path 238, this guarding system reduces the levels of undesired background current and so enhances the effect achieved by the use of cables in suppressing leakage currents and reducing settling times.
In one variant, feature 386 is the “chuck” or “return” guard. This chuck or return guard is described in greater detail in U.S. Pat. No. 5,345,170, which is assigned to the assignee of the present application and is incorporated by reference into the present application as if fully set forth herein. In the case where the return signal path is through the wafer and into the chuck, this allows for a return guard path from the chuck guard that is the same as the guard of the probe card.
In a second variant, feature 386 is the same as shield 182, so that layer 376 forms a bottom shield for card 152.
In a third variant feature 386 is an instrument channel set to drive layer 380 to parallel the potential of whichever signal channel was actively engaged in forming a measurement. In this application layer 376 or 384 would be connected to a test instrument channel that would drive layer 376 or 384 to the voltage of whatever trace set was actively engaged in a measurement. This would reduce noise and settling time. The second and third variants perform the important additional function of shielding or guarding, respectively, the test subject workpiece. This task is rendered comparatively more difficult in the pogo probe environment because of the 21 cm (8.5 in) aperture required to accommodate the introduction of the pogo probe head into the shielded box that is used in ultra-low current testing. By placing a guard or shield or both in the bottom portion of the probe card 152, the test subject workpiece may be shielded or guarded or both despite the presence of this aperture.
In another set of three variants, feature 388 would represent either the guard chuck, shield 182, or the test instrument channel set to mimic the active measurement channel. Typically, conductive layer 376 and 384 (either one of which may be omitted) would be continuous over the area of board 158, except they would be cut away to avoid contact with vias 206. In the third variant the additional layer 376 or 384 may be divided into additional auxiliary guard traces.
Dielectric layers 200, 378, and 380 are all about 1 mm (39 mils) thick. Dielectric layer 202 (
Yet another embodiment is shown in
Each pair of auxiliary guard traces 434 is separated by a set of trenches 436. Similar to trenches 210 trenches 436 separate auxiliary traces 434 and reduces cross capacitance between pad sets 420 and traces 428 and 432 thereby reducing cross-talk and settling time. This embodiment may be somewhat less expensive to produce in large numbers than the previously described embodiments.
Skilled persons will further readily recognize that the connection structure of connectors 506 and 508 could be cut away and that the center connectors of 250 a and 250 b of cables 180 a and 180 b (
With respect to the detailed structure of holder 502, an elongate probe connector 552 is conductive and preferably has a rectangular cross section. An insert 554 is sized to fit within the probe connector 552. Insert 554 includes a ceramic insulator 556 and a conductive bent connector 558 attached to one side of the insulator 556. Insulator 556 is in face-to-face abutment with the interior upright surface 559 of probe connector 552. Probing device 504 is matingly and detachably engageable within the probe connector 552.
Referring also to
In the particular embodiment shown, the blade 504 is generally L-shaped in profile and is edge-mounted within the probe connector 552 so that the short arm of the L-shaped blade 504 extends downwardly making contact with the test subject device.
Referring also to
The terms and expressions which have been employed in the foregoing specification are used therein as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of excluding equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the claims which follow.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2721908||13 Aug 1949||25 Oct 1955||Time Inc||High impedance probe|
|US2884597||18 Jul 1955||28 Apr 1959||Bell Telephone Labor Inc||High impedance multiplier probe|
|US3333274||21 Apr 1965||25 Jul 1967||Micro Tech Mfg Inc||Testing device|
|US3445770||27 Dec 1965||20 May 1969||Philco Ford Corp||Microelectronic test probe with defect marker access|
|US3700998||20 Aug 1970||24 Oct 1972||Computer Test Corp||Sample and hold circuit with switching isolation|
|US3710251||7 Apr 1971||9 Jan 1973||Collins Radio Co||Microelectric heat exchanger pedestal|
|US3810016||17 Dec 1971||7 May 1974||Western Electric Co||Test probe for semiconductor devices|
|US3810017||15 May 1972||7 May 1974||Teledyne Inc||Precision probe for testing micro-electronic units|
|US3849728||21 Aug 1973||19 Nov 1974||Wentworth Labor Inc||Fixed point probe card and an assembly and repair fixture therefor|
|US4115736||9 Mar 1977||19 Sep 1978||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Probe station|
|US4161692||18 Jul 1977||17 Jul 1979||Cerprobe Corporation||Probe device for integrated circuit wafers|
|US4195259||4 Apr 1978||25 Mar 1980||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Multiprobe test system and method of using same|
|US4267507||23 Feb 1979||12 May 1981||Societe Anonyme De Telecommunications||Circuit probing apparatus|
|US4382228||21 Jul 1975||3 May 1983||Wentworth Laboratories Inc.||Probes for fixed point probe cards|
|US4593243||29 Aug 1984||3 Jun 1986||Magnavox Government And Industrial Electronics Company||Coplanar and stripline probe card apparatus|
|US4626775||4 May 1984||2 Dec 1986||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Radio frequency probing apparatus for surface acoustic wave devices|
|US4663840||2 Dec 1985||12 May 1987||U.S. Philips Corporation||Method of interconnecting conductors of different layers of a multilayer printed circuit board|
|US4678865||25 Apr 1985||7 Jul 1987||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Low noise electroencephalographic probe wiring system|
|US4697143||30 Apr 1984||29 Sep 1987||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Wafer probe|
|US4727319||24 Dec 1985||23 Feb 1988||Hughes Aircraft Company||Apparatus for on-wafer testing of electrical circuits|
|US4731577||5 Mar 1987||15 Mar 1988||Logan John K||Coaxial probe card|
|US4749942||2 Jun 1987||7 Jun 1988||Tektronix, Inc.||Wafer probe head|
|US4755746||24 Apr 1985||5 Jul 1988||Prometrix Corporation||Apparatus and methods for semiconductor wafer testing|
|US4755747||12 Jun 1985||5 Jul 1988||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Wafer prober and a probe card to be used therewith|
|US4757255||3 Mar 1986||12 Jul 1988||National Semiconductor Corporation||Environmental box for automated wafer probing|
|US4758785||3 Sep 1986||19 Jul 1988||Tektronix, Inc.||Pressure control apparatus for use in an integrated circuit testing station|
|US4791363||28 Sep 1987||13 Dec 1988||Logan John K||Ceramic microstrip probe blade|
|US4795962||4 Sep 1987||3 Jan 1989||Hewlett-Packard Company||Floating driver circuit and a device for measuring impedances of electrical components|
|US4845426||20 May 1987||4 Jul 1989||Signatone Corporation||Temperature conditioner for tests of unpackaged semiconductors|
|US4849689||4 Nov 1988||18 Jul 1989||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Microwave wafer probe having replaceable probe tip|
|US4856904||10 Feb 1988||15 Aug 1989||Nikon Corporation||Wafer inspecting apparatus|
|US4871964||12 Apr 1988||3 Oct 1989||G. G. B. Industries, Inc.||Integrated circuit probing apparatus|
|US4884026||20 Jun 1988||28 Nov 1989||Tokyo Electron Limited||Electrical characteristic measuring apparatus|
|US4894612||23 Sep 1988||16 Jan 1990||Hypres, Incorporated||Soft probe for providing high speed on-wafer connections to a circuit|
|US4899106||28 Jul 1988||6 Feb 1990||Hewlett Packard Company||Personality board|
|US4973903||8 Nov 1989||27 Nov 1990||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Adjustable probe for probe assembly|
|US4983907||9 Mar 1989||8 Jan 1991||Intel Corporation||Driven guard probe card|
|US4983910||20 May 1988||8 Jan 1991||Stanford University||Millimeter-wave active probe|
|US4998062||13 Jul 1989||5 Mar 1991||Tokyo Electron Limited||Probe device having micro-strip line structure|
|US5021186||21 Mar 1989||4 Jun 1991||Nissan Chemical Industries, Ltd.||Chloroisocyanuric acid composition having storage stability|
|US5045781||4 Mar 1991||3 Sep 1991||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||High-frequency active probe having replaceable contact needles|
|US5077523||8 Jun 1990||31 Dec 1991||John H. Blanz Company, Inc.||Cryogenic probe station having movable chuck accomodating variable thickness probe cards|
|US5084671||20 Apr 1990||28 Jan 1992||Tokyo Electron Limited||Electric probing-test machine having a cooling system|
|US5126286||5 Oct 1990||30 Jun 1992||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method of manufacturing edge connected semiconductor die|
|US5136237||29 Jan 1991||4 Aug 1992||Tektronix, Inc.||Double insulated floating high voltage test probe|
|US5214243||11 Oct 1991||25 May 1993||Endevco Corporation||High-temperature, low-noise coaxial cable assembly with high strength reinforcement braid|
|US5220277||25 Mar 1992||15 Jun 1993||Erich Reitinger||Arrangement for testing semiconductor wafers or the like|
|US5274336||14 Jan 1992||28 Dec 1993||Hewlett-Packard Company||Capacitively-coupled test probe|
|US5279150||13 Mar 1992||18 Jan 1994||Katzer Albert E||Automated miniature centrifuge|
|US5293175||15 Mar 1993||8 Mar 1994||Conifer Corporation||Stacked dual dipole MMDS feed|
|US5345170||11 Jun 1992||6 Sep 1994||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Wafer probe station having integrated guarding, Kelvin connection and shielding systems|
|US5371654||19 Oct 1992||6 Dec 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Three dimensional high performance interconnection package|
|US5382898||21 Sep 1992||17 Jan 1995||Cerprobe Corporation||High density probe card for testing electrical circuits|
|US5441690||6 Jul 1993||15 Aug 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Process of making pinless connector|
|US5453404||24 Mar 1994||26 Sep 1995||Leedy; Glenn||Method for making an interconnection structure for integrated circuits|
|US5476211||16 Nov 1993||19 Dec 1995||Form Factor, Inc.||Method of manufacturing electrical contacts, using a sacrificial member|
|US5477011||3 Mar 1994||19 Dec 1995||W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.||Low noise signal transmission cable|
|US5502397||12 Nov 1992||26 Mar 1996||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Integrated circuit testing apparatus and method|
|US5506498||9 Mar 1995||9 Apr 1996||Xandex, Inc.||Probe card system and method|
|US5506515||20 Jul 1994||9 Apr 1996||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||High-frequency probe tip assembly|
|US5528158||11 Apr 1994||18 Jun 1996||Xandex, Inc.||Probe card changer system and method|
|US5531022||2 Sep 1994||2 Jul 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of forming a three dimensional high performance interconnection package|
|US5532608||6 Apr 1995||2 Jul 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||Ceramic probe card and method for reducing leakage current|
|US5537372||24 Nov 1993||16 Jul 1996||International Business Machines Corporation||High density data storage system with topographic contact sensor|
|US5565788||12 May 1995||15 Oct 1996||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Coaxial wafer probe with tip shielding|
|US5601740||18 Dec 1995||11 Feb 1997||Formfactor, Inc.||Method and apparatus for wirebonding, for severing bond wires, and for forming balls on the ends of bond wires|
|US5602409||13 Jul 1995||11 Feb 1997||Analog Devices, Inc.||Bidirectional electrical overstress protection circuit for bipolar and bipolar-CMOS integrated circuits|
|US5602491||16 Mar 1995||11 Feb 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Integrated circuit testing board having constrained thermal expansion characteristics|
|US5610529||28 Apr 1995||11 Mar 1997||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Probe station having conductive coating added to thermal chuck insulator|
|US5635846||30 Apr 1993||3 Jun 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||Test probe having elongated conductor embedded in an elostomeric material which is mounted on a space transformer|
|US5663653||27 Jul 1995||2 Sep 1997||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Wafer probe station for low-current measurements|
|US5700844||9 Apr 1996||23 Dec 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for making a foamed polymer|
|US5726211||21 Mar 1996||10 Mar 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for making a foamed elastometric polymer|
|US5729150||1 Dec 1995||17 Mar 1998||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Low-current probe card with reduced triboelectric current generating cables|
|US5742174||3 Nov 1995||21 Apr 1998||Probe Technology||Membrane for holding a probe tip in proper location|
|US5756021||29 Mar 1996||26 May 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Electronic devices comprising dielectric foamed polymers|
|US5772451||18 Oct 1995||30 Jun 1998||Form Factor, Inc.||Sockets for electronic components and methods of connecting to electronic components|
|US5773780||7 Feb 1996||30 Jun 1998||Formfactor, Inc.||Method of severing bond wires and forming balls at their ends|
|US5785538||1 May 1996||28 Jul 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||High density test probe with rigid surface structure|
|US5804607||16 Oct 1997||8 Sep 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for making a foamed elastomeric polymer|
|US5806181||24 Jan 1997||15 Sep 1998||Formfactor, Inc.||Contact carriers (tiles) for populating larger substrates with spring contacts|
|US5808475||7 Jun 1996||15 Sep 1998||Keithley Instruments, Inc.||Semiconductor probe card for low current measurements|
|US5808533||2 May 1995||15 Sep 1998||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Modular relay|
|US5810607||13 Sep 1995||22 Sep 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Interconnector with contact pads having enhanced durability|
|US5811982||12 Mar 1996||22 Sep 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||High density cantilevered probe for electronic devices|
|US5813847||2 Aug 1996||29 Sep 1998||Abb Research Ltd.||Device and method for injecting fuels into compressed gaseous media|
|US5814847||2 Feb 1996||29 Sep 1998||National Semiconductor Corp.||General purpose assembly programmable multi-chip package substrate|
|US5820014||11 Jan 1996||13 Oct 1998||Form Factor, Inc.||Solder preforms|
|US5821763||22 Nov 1996||13 Oct 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Test probe for high density integrated circuits, methods of fabrication thereof and methods of use thereof|
|US5829128||15 Nov 1995||3 Nov 1998||Formfactor, Inc.||Method of mounting resilient contact structures to semiconductor devices|
|US5832601||15 Apr 1997||10 Nov 1998||Form Factor, Inc.||Method of making temporary connections between electronic components|
|US5838160||8 Nov 1996||17 Nov 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Integral rigid chip test probe|
|US5864946||15 Apr 1997||2 Feb 1999||Form Factor, Inc.||Method of making contact tip structures|
|US5878486||15 Apr 1997||9 Mar 1999||Formfactor, Inc.||Method of burning-in semiconductor devices|
|US5884398||15 Apr 1997||23 Mar 1999||Form Factor, Inc.||Mounting spring elements on semiconductor devices|
|US5900738||21 Oct 1996||4 May 1999||Formfactor, Inc.||Contact structure device for interconnections, interposer, semiconductor assembly and package using the same and method|
|US5912046||9 May 1997||15 Jun 1999||Form Factor, Inc.||Method and apparatus for applying a layer of flowable coating material to a surface of an electronic component|
|US5914613||8 Aug 1996||22 Jun 1999||Cascade Microtech, Inc.||Membrane probing system with local contact scrub|
|US5914614||7 Oct 1997||22 Jun 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||High density cantilevered probe for electronic devices|
|1||"Application Note l Controlled Environment Enclosure," two-page application note, Temptronic Corporation, Newton, MA (May 1992 or earlier).|
|2||"Cross Section Signature S-1240," one-page sketch prepared by Signatone counsel, Signatone, San Jose, CA (Feb. 1988 or earlier per Signatone Counsel).|
|3||"HP 4062ux Semiconductor Process Control System," Hewlett-Packard, 16 pages, (1990).|
|4||"HP-4070 Series of Semiconductor Parametric Testers, HP SPECS Semiconductor Process Evaluation Cor Software", Hewlett-Packard, 16 pages, (1996).|
|5||"Model TPO Series Thermochuck(R) Systems," four-page product note, Temptronic Corporation, Newton, MA (May 1992 or earlier).|
|6||"S-1240", two-page product note, Signatone, San Jose, CA (Feb. 1988 or earlier per Signatone Counsel).|
|7||"Temptronic's 'Guarded" Chuck, one-page note describing guarding system of Temptronic Corporation of Newton, MA, Nov. 15, 1989.|
|8||Basu, Saswata & Gleason, Reed, "A Membrane Quadrant Probe for R & D Applications," Technical Document, Jun. 1997.|
|9||Beck & Tomann, "ChipTester," IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin, p. 4819 (Jan. 1985).|
|10||Ceramicard Connection Information Sheet, vol. 2, Issue 1, 2 pages, (1995).|
|11||Cerprobe-Information on cermic blades, 1 page, (undated).|
|12||Hewlett Packard Ultra Low Current DC Characterization at the Wafer Level, Application Note 4070-1, 8 pages, (1997).|
|13||Hewlett-Packard, "Application Note 356-HP 4142B Modular DC Source/Monitor Practical Application," pp. 1-4, (Nov. 1987).|
|14||Hewlett-Packard, "H-P Model 4284A Precision LCR Meter. Operation Manual", pp. 2-1, 6-9 and 6-15, (Dec. 1991).|
|15||IBM Brochure-Ceramicard 4800 Series, 2 pages, (May 1995).|
|16||IBM Brochure-Ceramicard 600x Series, 2 pages, (May 1995).|
|17||IBM Brochure-Ceramicard 6401 Series, 2 pages, (May 1995).|
|18||IBM Brochure-Ceramicard 700x and 880x Series, 2 pages, (May 1995).|
|19||IBM Brochure-Ceramicard 9601 Series, 2 pages, (May 1995).|
|20||Keathley, "Low Level Measurements for Effective Low Current, Low Voltage, and High Impedance Measurements", 23 pages (1984).|
|21||Sandwich Karte ist die Losung; 46 EPP, Feb. 1997; EPP 214; together with translation.|
|22||William Knauer, "Fixturing for Low-Current/Low-Voltage Parametric Testing," appearing in Evaluation Engineering, pp. 150-153, (1990).|
|23||Y. Yamamoto, "A Compact Self-Shielding Prober . . . ", IEEE Trans., Inst. and Meas., vol. 38, pp. 1088-1093, 1989.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7504822 *||28 Oct 2005||17 Mar 2009||Teradyne, Inc.||Automatic testing equipment instrument card and probe cabling system and apparatus|
|US7541819||28 Oct 2005||2 Jun 2009||Teradyne, Inc.||Modularized device interface with grounding insert between two strips|
|US8130005||14 Dec 2006||6 Mar 2012||Formfactor, Inc.||Electrical guard structures for protecting a signal trace from electrical interference|
|US20070096755 *||28 Oct 2005||3 May 2007||Teradyne, Inc.||Method and apparatus for automatic test equipment|
|US20070096756 *||28 Oct 2005||3 May 2007||Teradyne, Inc.||Automatic testing equipment instrument card and probe cabling system and apparatus|
|US20080143358 *||14 Dec 2006||19 Jun 2008||Formfactor, Inc.||Electrical guard structures for protecting a signal trace from electrical interference|
|WO2008076590A2 *||25 Nov 2007||26 Jun 2008||Formfactor, Inc.||Electrical guard structures for protecting a signal trace from electrical interference|
|International Classification||H01L21/66, D01G15/00, G01R31/02, G01R1/073, G01R1/067|
|Cooperative Classification||G01R1/06733, G01R1/06772, G01R1/07342, G01R1/06711, G01R1/067|
|European Classification||G01R1/067, G01R1/067C, G01R1/073B4|
|7 Feb 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CASCADE MICROTECH, INC., OREGON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TERVO, PAUL A.;COWAN, CLARENCE E.;REEL/FRAME:016265/0005
Effective date: 19970609
|24 Jun 2008||CC||Certificate of correction|
|19 Jul 2010||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|13 Dec 2010||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|13 Dec 2010||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|25 Jul 2014||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|12 Dec 2014||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|3 Feb 2015||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20141212