|Publication number||US6673667 B2|
|Application number||US 09/929,021|
|Publication date||6 Jan 2004|
|Filing date||15 Aug 2001|
|Priority date||15 Aug 2001|
|Also published as||US20030036224|
|Publication number||09929021, 929021, US 6673667 B2, US 6673667B2, US-B2-6673667, US6673667 B2, US6673667B2|
|Inventors||Jonathan F. Gorrell, Kenneth D. Cornett|
|Original Assignee||Motorola, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (522), Non-Patent Citations (157), Referenced by (8), Classifications (21), Legal Events (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates generally to semiconductor structures and devices and to a method for their fabrication, and more specifically to semiconductor structures and devices and to the fabrication and use of semiconductor structures, devices, and integrated circuits that include a monocrystalline material layer comprised of semiconductor material, compound semiconductor material, and/or other types of material such as metals and non-metals.
In particular, the present invention provides a method for manufacturing a semiconductor that aids in carrying out photolithography operations during manufacturing semiconductor devices involving multiple semiconductor materials within a single integral monolithic apparatus. The present invention provides improved alacrity and efficiency in manufacturing such multi-material integral monolithic semiconductor devices.
Semiconductor devices often include multiple layers of conductive, insulating, and semiconductive layers. Often, the desirable properties of such layers improve with the crystallinity of the layer. For example, the electron mobility and band gap of semiconductive layers improves as the crystallinity of the layer increases. Similarly, the free electron concentration of conductive layers and the electron charge displacement and electron energy recoverability of insulative or dielectric films improves as the crystallinity of these layers increases.
For many years, attempts have been made to grow various monolithic thin films on a foreign substrate such as silicon (Si). To achieve optimal characteristics of the various monolithic layers, however, a monocrystalline film of high crystalline quality is desired. Attempts have been made, for example, to grow various monocrystalline layers on a substrate such as germanium, silicon, and various insulators. These attempts have generally been unsuccessful because lattice mismatches between the host crystal and the grown crystal have caused the resulting layer of monocrystalline material to be of low crystalline quality.
If a large area thin film of high quality monocrystalline material was available at low cost, a variety of semiconductor devices could advantageously be fabricated in or using that film at a low cost compared to the cost of fabricating such devices beginning with a bulk wafer of semiconductor material or in an epitaxial film of such material on a bulk wafer of semiconductor material. In addition, if a thin film of high quality monocrystalline material could be realized beginning with a bulk wafer such as a silicon wafer, an integrated device structure could be achieved that took advantage of the best properties of both the silicon and the high quality monocrystalline material.
Accordingly, a need exists for a semiconductor structure that provides a high quality monocrystalline film or layer over another monocrystalline material and for a process for making such a structure. In other words, there is a need for providing the formation of a monocrystalline substrate that is compliant with a high quality monocrystalline material layer so that true two-dimensional growth can be achieved for the formation of quality semiconductor structures, devices and integrated circuits having grown monocrystalline film having the same crystal orientation as an underlying substrate. This monocrystalline material layer may be comprised of a semiconductor material, a compound semiconductor material, and other types of material such as metals and non-metals.
A significant problem encountered during semiconductor manufacturing of integral monolithic devices involves limitations in employing lithographic manufacturing equipment in such operations. Lithographic manufacturing equipment is a common manufacturing tool for producing densely populated integrated circuitry that is desirable in today's market in which smaller, more compact products are constantly sought. Photolithographic equipment is optically-based equipment that has a depth of focus (depth of field) within which it must operate. Operation of photolithographic equipment outside its prescribed depth of focus is not practical, feasible or desirable.
As a consequence of the focal limitations of lithographic equipment, it is desirable that there be a coplanar relation among various lands, or areas, in which lithographic processes are to be practiced. Thus, using the processing technology taught by the present application one may, for example, require that top surfaces of gallium arsenide (GaAs) lands and top surfaces of silicon (Si) lands in an integral monolithic structure must be substantially coplanar. Such coplanarity assures that lithographic processes only need to deal with a single depth of focus for manufacturing the part involved. For example, it would be useful to be able to use coplanar alignment keys in manufacturing MOSFET devices (in silicon) and MESFET devices (in gallium arsenide) in a single semiconductor device using common alignment keys. Such common alignment keys would allow one to perform operations in either silicon or in gallium arsenide at any time during manufacturing operations without needing to reset lithographic equipment.
If the various lands are not coplanar to an extent that they are misaligned by a distance greater than the depth of focus of the lithographic equipment employed, then a product designer must decide where to establish alignment markings, or keys for registration of lithographic equipment for each set of coplanar lands implemented in a respective material. In such situations, there may likely be a need for more than one set of alignment keys. Such an arrangement is not desirable because the lithographic equipment must be reset to a different orientation for processing each material. That is, the lithographic equipment would have to be adjusted or reset to ensure that a particular land implemented in a respective material is within the depth of focus for the lithographic equipment. Such occasions for resetting equipment are disruptive to a manufacturing operation, provide unwanted opportunities for introduction of errors into the manufacturing process and generally contribute to inefficiency. Inefficiency is readily manifested as increased cost in manufacturing because of greater amounts of waste, lower yields and similar related factors.
The capability for multi-material semiconductor devices in an integral monolithic structure provided by the present invention has not been available to product designers or manufacturing process designers heretofore. Until now different semiconductor technologies were implemented separately on discrete chips or substrates and then mechanically combined in a single product. That is, no capability to produce multi-material integrated monolithic semiconductor devices has been available before. Now one can employ the present invention to efficiently and reliably produce multi-material integrated monolithic semiconductor devices.
The need for coplanarity among materials in different lands in an integral monolithic semiconductor apparatus is met using the method of the present invention. The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a monolithic apparatus including a plurality of materials presenting a plurality of coplanar lands includes the steps of: (a) providing a substrate constructed of a first material and presenting a first land; (b) trenching the substrate to effect a cavity appropriately dimensioned to receive a semiconductor structure in an orientation presenting a second land generally coplanar with the first land; (c) depositing an accommodating layer constructed of a second material on the substrate and within the cavity to establish a workpiece; (d) depositing a composition layer constructed of a third material on the substrate; (e) selectively removing portions of the composition layer and the accommodating layer to establish the semiconductor structure; (f) depositing a cap layer constructed of a fourth material on the workpiece; and (g) removing the cap layer to establish a substantially planar face displaced from the plurality of lands by a predetermined distance.
The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not limitation in the accompanying figures, in which like references indicate similar elements, and in which:
FIGS. 1, 2, and 3 illustrate schematically, in cross section, device structures in accordance with various embodiments of the invention;
FIG. 4 illustrates graphically the relationship between maximum attainable film thickness and lattice mismatch between a host crystal and a grown crystalline overlayer;
FIG. 5 illustrates a high resolution Transmission Electron Micrograph of a structure including a monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer;
FIG. 6 illustrates an x-ray diffraction spectrum of a structure including a monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer;
FIG. 7 illustrates a high resolution Transmission Electron Micrograph of a structure including an amorphous oxide layer;
FIG. 8 illustrates an x-ray diffraction spectrum of a structure including an amorphous oxide layer;
FIGS. 9-12 illustrate schematically, in cross-section, the formation of a device structure in accordance with another embodiment of the invention;
FIGS. 13-16 illustrate a probable molecular bonding structure of the device structures illustrated in FIGS. 9-12;
FIGS. 17-20 illustrate schematically, in cross-section, the formation of a device structure in accordance with still another embodiment of the invention; and
FIGS. 21-23 illustrate schematically, in cross-section, the formation of yet another embodiment of a device structure in accordance with the invention.
FIGS. 24, 25 illustrate schematically, in cross section, device structures that can be used in accordance with various embodiments of the invention.
FIGS. 26-30 include illustrations of cross-sectional views of a portion of an integrated circuit that includes a compound semiconductor portion, a bipolar portion, and an MOS portion in accordance with what is shown herein.
FIGS. 31-37 include illustrations of cross-sectional views of a portion of another integrated circuit that includes a semiconductor laser and a MOS transistor in accordance with what is shown herein.
FIG. 38-41 are schematic elevation views illustrating structural manifestations associated with the steps involved in practicing the preferred embodiment of the present invention.
FIGS. 42-46 are schematic elevation views illustrating structural manifestations associated with the steps involved in practicing an alternate embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 47 is a flow diagram illustrating embodiments of the present invention.
Skilled artisans will appreciate that elements in the figures are illustrated for simplicity and clarity and have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements in the figures may be exaggerated relative to other elements to help to improve understanding of embodiments of the present invention.
FIG. 1 illustrates schematically, in cross section, a portion of a semiconductor structure 20 in accordance with an embodiment of the invention. Semiconductor structure 20 includes a monocrystalline substrate 22, accommodating buffer layer 24 comprising a monocrystalline material, and a monocrystalline material layer 26. In this context, the term “monocrystalline” shall have the meaning commonly used within the semiconductor industry. The term shall refer to materials that are a single crystal or that are substantially a single crystal and shall include those materials having a relatively small number of defects such as dislocations and the like as are commonly found in substrates of silicon or germanium or mixtures of silicon and germanium and epitaxial layers of such materials commonly found in the semiconductor industry.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, structure 20 also includes an amorphous intermediate layer 28 positioned between substrate 22 and accommodating buffer layer 24. Structure 20 may also include a template layer 30 between the accommodating buffer layer and monocrystalline material layer 26. As will be explained more fully below, the template layer helps to initiate the growth of the monocrystalline material layer on the accommodating buffer layer. The amorphous intermediate layer helps to relieve the strain in the accommodating buffer layer and by doing so, aids in the growth of a high crystalline quality accommodating buffer layer.
Substrate 22, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, is a monocrystalline semiconductor or compound semiconductor wafer, preferably of large diameter. The wafer can be of, for example, a material from Group IV of the periodic table. Examples of Group IV semiconductor materials include silicon, germanium, mixed silicon and germanium, mixed silicon and carbon, mixed silicon, germanium and carbon, and the like. Preferably substrate 22 is a wafer containing silicon or germanium, and most preferably is a high quality monocrystalline silicon wafer as used in the semiconductor industry. Accommodating buffer layer 24 is preferably a monocrystalline oxide or nitride material epitaxially grown on the underlying substrate. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, amorphous intermediate layer 28 is grown on substrate 22 at the interface between substrate 22 and the growing accommodating buffer layer by the oxidation of substrate 22 during the growth of layer 24. The amorphous intermediate layer serves to relieve strain that might otherwise occur in the monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer as a result of differences in the lattice constants of the substrate and the buffer layer. As used herein, lattice constant refers to the distance between atoms of a cell measured in the plane of the surface. If such strain is not relieved by the amorphous intermediate layer, the strain may cause defects in the crystalline structure of the accommodating buffer layer. Defects in the crystalline structure of the accommodating buffer layer, in turn, would make it difficult to achieve a high quality crystalline structure in monocrystalline material layer 26 which may comprise a semiconductor material, a compound semiconductor material, or another type of material such as a metal or a non-metal.
Accommodating buffer layer 24 is preferably a monocrystalline oxide or nitride material selected for its crystalline compatibility with the underlying substrate and with the overlying material layer. For example, the material could be an oxide or nitride having a lattice structure closely matched to the substrate and to the subsequently applied monocrystalline material layer. Materials that are suitable for the accommodating buffer layer include metal oxides such as the alkaline earth metal titanates, alkaline earth metal zirconates, alkaline earth metal hafnates, alkaline earth metal tantalates, alkaline earth metal ruthenates, alkaline earth metal niobates, alkaline earth metal vanadates, perovskite oxides such as alkaline earth metal tin-based perovskites, lanthanum aluminate, lanthanum scandium oxide, and gadolinium oxide. Additionally, various nitrides such as gallium nitride, aluminum nitride, and boron nitride may also be used for the accommodating buffer layer. Most of these materials are insulators, although strontium ruthenate, for example, is a conductor. Generally, these materials are metal oxides or metal nitrides, and more particularly, these metal oxide or nitrides typically include at least two different metallic elements. In some specific applications, the metal oxides or nitrides may include three or more different metallic elements.
Amorphous interface layer 28 is preferably an oxide formed by the oxidation of the surface of substrate 22, and more preferably is composed of a silicon oxide. The thickness of layer 28 is sufficient to relieve strain attributed to mismatches between the lattice constants of substrate 22 and accommodating buffer layer 24. Typically, layer 28 has a thickness in the range of approximately 0.5-5 nm.
The material for monocrystalline material layer 26 can be selected, as desired, for a particular structure or application. For example, the monocrystalline material of layer 26 may comprise a compound semiconductor which can be selected, as needed for a particular semiconductor structure, from any of the Group IIIA and VA elements (III-V semiconductor compounds), mixed III-V compounds, Group II (A or B) and VIA elements (II-VI semiconductor compounds), and mixed II-VI compounds. Examples include gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium indium arsenide (GaInAs), gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs), indium phosphide (InP), cadmium sulfide (CdS), cadmium mercury telluride (CdHgTe), zinc selenide (ZnSe), zinc sulfur selenide (ZnSSe), and the like. However, monocrystalline material layer 26 may also comprise other semiconductor materials, metals, or non-metal materials which are used in the formation of semiconductor structures, devices and/or integrated circuits.
Appropriate materials for template 30 are discussed below. Suitable template materials chemically bond to the surface of the accommodating buffer layer 24 at selected sites and provide sites for the nucleation of the epitaxial growth of monocrystalline material layer 26. When used, template layer 30 has a thickness ranging from about 1 to about 10 monolayers.
FIG. 2 illustrates, in cross section, a portion of a semiconductor structure 40 in accordance with a further embodiment of the invention. Structure 40 is similar to the previously described semiconductor structure 20, except that an additional buffer layer 32 is positioned between accommodating buffer layer 24 and monocrystalline material layer 26. Specifically, the additional buffer layer is positioned between template layer 30 and the overlying layer of monocrystalline material. The additional buffer layer, formed of a semiconductor or compound semiconductor material when the monocrystalline material layer 26 comprises a semiconductor or compound semiconductor material, serves to provide a lattice compensation when the lattice constant of the accommodating buffer layer cannot be adequately matched to the overlying monocrystalline semiconductor or compound semiconductor material layer.
FIG. 3 schematically illustrates, in cross section, a portion of a semiconductor structure 34 in accordance with another exemplary embodiment of the invention. Structure 34 is similar to structure 20, except that structure 34 includes an amorphous layer 36, rather than accommodating buffer layer 24 and amorphous interface layer 28, and an additional monocrystalline layer 38.
As explained in greater detail below, amorphous layer 36 may be formed by first forming an accommodating buffer layer and an amorphous interface layer in a similar manner to that described above. Monocrystalline layer 38 is then formed (by epitaxial growth) overlying the monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer. The accommodating buffer layer is then exposed to an anneal process to convert the monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer to an amorphous layer. Amorphous layer 36 formed in this manner comprises materials from both the accommodating buffer and interface layers, which amorphous layers may or may not amalgamate. Thus, layer 36 may comprise one or two amorphous layers. Formation of amorphous layer 36 between substrate 22 and additional monocrystalline layer 26 (subsequent to layer 38 formation) relieves stresses between layers 22 and 38 and provides a true compliant substrate for subsequent processing—e.g., monocrystalline material layer 26 formation.
The processes previously described above in connection with FIGS. 1 and 2 are adequate for growing monocrystalline material layers over a monocrystalline substrate. However, the process described in connection with FIG. 3, which includes transforming a monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer to an amorphous oxide layer, may be better for growing monocrystalline material layers because it allows any strain in layer 26 to relax.
Additional monocrystalline layer 38 may include any of the materials described throughout this application in connection with either of monocrystalline material layer 26 or additional buffer layer 32. For example, when monocrystalline material layer 26 comprises a semiconductor or compound semiconductor material, layer 38 may include monocrystalline Group IV or monocrystalline compound semiconductor materials.
In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, additional monocrystalline layer 38 serves as an anneal cap during layer 36 formation and as a template for subsequent monocrystalline layer 26 formation. Accordingly, layer 38 is preferably thick enough to provide a suitable template for layer 26 growth (at least one monolayer) and thin enough to allow layer 38 to form as a substantially defect free monocrystalline material.
In accordance with another embodiment of the invention, additional monocrystalline layer 38 comprises monocrystalline material (e.g. a material discussed above in connection with monocrystalline layer 26) that is thick enough to form devices within layer 38. In this case, a semiconductor structure in accordance with the present invention does not include monocrystalline material layer 26. In other words, the semiconductor structure in accordance with this embodiment only includes one monocrystalline layer disposed above amorphous oxide layer 36.
The following non-limiting, illustrative examples illustrate various combinations of materials useful in structures 20, 40, and 34 in accordance with various alternative embodiments of the invention. These examples are merely illustrative, and it is not intended that the invention be limited to these illustrative examples.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, monocrystalline substrate 22 is a silicon substrate oriented in the (100) direction. The silicon substrate can be, for example, a silicon substrate as is commonly used in making complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits having a diameter of about 200-300 mm. In accordance with this embodiment of the invention, accommodating buffer layer 24 is a monocrystalline layer of SrzBa1−zTiO3 where z ranges from 0 to 1 and the amorphous intermediate layer is a layer of silicon oxide (SiOx) formed at the interface between the silicon substrate and the accommodating buffer layer. The value of z is selected to obtain one or more lattice constants closely matched to corresponding lattice constants of the subsequently formed layer 26. The accommodating buffer layer can have a thickness of about 2 to about 100 nanometers (nm) and preferably has a thickness of about 5 nm. general, it is desired to have an accommodating buffer layer thick enough to isolate the monocrystalline material layer 26 from the substrate to obtain the desired electrical and optical properties. Layers thicker than 100 nm usually provide little additional benefit while increasing cost unnecessarily; however, thicker layers may be fabricated if needed. The amorphous intermediate layer of silicon oxide can have a thickness of about 0.5-5 nm, and preferably a thickness of about 1 to 2 nm.
In accordance with this embodiment of the invention, monocrystalline material layer 26 is a compound semiconductor layer of gallium arsenide (GaAs) or aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) having a thickness of about 1 nm to about 100 micrometers (μm) and preferably a thickness of about 0.5 μm to 10 μm. The thickness generally depends on the application for which the layer is being prepared. To facilitate the epitaxial growth of the gallium arsenide or aluminum gallium arsenide on the monocrystalline oxide, a template layer is formed by capping the oxide layer. The template layer is preferably 1-10 monolayers of Ti—As, Sr—O—As, Sr—Ga—O, or Sr—Al—O. By way of a preferred example, 1-2 monolayers of Ti—As or Sr—Ga—O have been illustrated to successfully grow GaAs layers.
In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention, monocrystalline substrate 22 is a silicon substrate as described above. The accommodating buffer layer is a monocrystalline oxide of strontium or barium zirconate or hafnate in a cubic or orthorhombic phase with an amorphous intermediate layer of silicon oxide formed at the interface between the silicon substrate and the accommodating buffer layer. The accommodating buffer layer can have a thickness of about 2-100 nm and preferably has a thickness of at least 5 nm to ensure adequate crystalline and surface quality and is formed of a monocrystalline SrZrO3, BaZrO3, SrHfO3, BaSnO3 or BaHfO3. For example, a monocrystalline oxide layer of BaZrO3 can grow at a temperature of about 700 degrees C. The lattice structure of the resulting crystalline oxide exhibits a 45 degree rotation with respect to the substrate silicon lattice structure.
An accommodating buffer layer formed of these zirconate or hafnate materials is suitable for the growth of a monocrystalline material layer which comprises compound semiconductor materials in the indium phosphide (InP) system. In this system, the compound semiconductor material can be, for example, indium phosphide (InP), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs), aluminum indium arsenide, (AlInAs), or aluminum gallium indium arsenic phosphide (AlGaInAsP), having a thickness of about 1.0 nm to 10 μm. A suitable template for this structure is 1-10 monolayers of zirconium-arsenic (Zr—As), zirconium-phosphorus (Zr—P), hafnium-arsenic (Hf—As), hafnium-phosphorus (Hf—P), strontium-oxygen-arsenic (Sr—O—As), strontium-oxygen-phosphorus (Sr—O—P), barium-oxygen-arsenic (Ba—O—As), indium-strontium-oxygen (In—Sr—O), or barium-oxygen-phosphorus (Ba—O—P), and preferably 1-2 monolayers of one of these materials. By way of an example, for a barium zirconate accommodating buffer layer, the surface is terminated with 1-2 monolayers of zirconium followed by deposition of 1-2 monolayers of arsenic to form a Zr—As template. A monocrystalline layer of the compound semiconductor material from the indium phosphide system is then grown on the template layer. The resulting lattice structure of the compound semiconductor material exhibits a 45 degree rotation with respect to the accommodating buffer layer lattice structure and a lattice mismatch to (100) InP of less than 2.5%, and preferably less than about 1.0%.
In accordance with a further embodiment of the invention, a structure is provided that is suitable for the growth of an epitaxial film of a monocrystalline material comprising a II-VI material overlying a silicon substrate. The substrate is preferably a silicon wafer as described above. A suitable accommodating buffer layer material is SrxBa1−xTiO3, where x ranges from 0 to 1, having a thickness of about 2-100 nm and preferably a thickness of about 5-15 nm. Where the monocrystalline layer comprises a compound semiconductor material, the II-VI compound semiconductor material can be, for example, zinc selenide (ZnSe) or zinc sulfur selenide (ZnSSe). A suitable template for this material system includes 1-10 monolayers of zinc-oxygen (Zn—O) followed by 1-2 monolayers of an excess of zinc followed by the selenidation of zinc on the surface. Alternatively, a template can be, for example, 1-10 monolayers of strontium-sulfur (Sr—S) followed by the ZnSeS.
This embodiment of the invention is an example of structure 40 illustrated in FIG. 2. Substrate 22, accommodating buffer layer 24, and monocrystalline material layer 26 can be similar to those described in example 1. In addition, an additional buffer layer 32 serves to alleviate any strains that might result from a mismatch of the crystal lattice of the accommodating buffer layer and the lattice of the monocrystalline material. Buffer layer 32 can be a layer of germanium or a GaAs, an aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs), an indium gallium phosphide (InGaP), an aluminum gallium phosphide (AlGaP), an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs), an aluminum indium phosphide (AlInP), a gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP), or an indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) strain compensated superlattice. In accordance with one aspect of this embodiment, buffer layer 32 includes a GaAsxP1−x superlattice, wherein the value of x ranges from 0 to 1. In accordance with another aspect, buffer layer 32 includes an InyGa1−yP superlattice, wherein the value of y ranges from 0 to 1. By varying the value of x or y, as the case may be, the lattice constant is varied from bottom to top across the superlattice to create a match between lattice constants of the underlying oxide and the overlying monocrystalline material which in this example is a compound semiconductor material. The compositions of other compound semiconductor materials, such as those listed above, may also be similarly varied to manipulate the lattice constant of layer 32 in a like manner. The superlattice can have a thickness of about 50-500 nm and preferably has a thickness of about 100-200 nm. The template for this structure can be the same of that described in example 1. Alternatively, buffer layer 32 can be a layer of monocrystalline germanium having a thickness of 1-50 nm and preferably having a thickness of about 2-20 nm. In using a germanium buffer layer, a template layer of either germanium-strontium (Ge—Sr) or germanium-titanium (Ge—Ti) having a thickness of about one monolayer can be used as a nucleating site for the subsequent growth of the monocrystalline material layer which in this example is a compound semiconductor material. The formation of the oxide layer is capped with either a monolayer of strontium or a monolayer of titanium to act as a nucleating site for the subsequent deposition of the monocrystalline germanium. The monolayer of strontium or titanium provides a nucleating site to which the first monolayer of germanium can bond.
This example also illustrates materials useful in a structure 40 as illustrated in FIG. 2. Substrate material 22, accommodating buffer layer 24, monocrystalline material layer 26 and template layer 30 can be the same as those described above in example 2. In addition, additional buffer layer 32 is inserted between the accommodating buffer layer and the overlying monocrystalline material layer. The buffer layer, a further monocrystalline material which in this instance comprises a semiconductor material, can be, for example, a graded layer of indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) or indium aluminum arsenide (InAlAs). In accordance with one aspect of this embodiment, additional buffer layer 32 includes InGaAs, in which the indium composition varies from 0 to about 50%. The additional buffer layer 32 preferably has a thickness of about 10-30 nm. Varying the composition of the buffer layer from GaAs to InGaAs serves to provide a lattice match between the underlying monocrystalline oxide material and the overlying layer of monocrystalline material which in this example is a compound semiconductor material. Such a buffer layer is especially advantageous if there is a lattice mismatch between accommodating buffer layer 24 and monocrystalline material layer 26.
This example provides exemplary materials useful in structure 34, as illustrated in FIG. 3. Substrate material 22, template layer 30, and monocrystalline material layer 26 may be the same as those described above in connection with example 1.
Amorphous layer 36 is an amorphous oxide layer which is suitably formed of a combination of amorphous intermediate layer materials (e.g., layer 28 materials as described above) and accommodating buffer layer materials (e.g., layer 24 materials as described above). For example, amorphous layer 36 may include a combination of SiOx and SrzBa1−zTiO3 (where z ranges from 0 to 1), which combine or mix, at least partially, during an anneal process to form amorphous oxide layer 36.
The thickness of amorphous layer 36 may vary from application to application and may depend on such factors as desired insulating properties of layer 36, type of monocrystalline material comprising layer 26, and the like. In accordance with one exemplary aspect of the present embodiment, layer 36 thickness is about 2 nm to about 100 nm, preferably about 2-10 nm, and more preferably about 5-6 nm.
Layer 38 comprises a monocrystalline material that can be grown epitaxially over a monocrystalline oxide material such as material used to form accommodating buffer layer 24. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, layer 38 includes the same materials as those comprising layer 26. For example, if layer 26 includes GaAs, layer 38 also includes GaAs. However, in accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, layer 38 may include materials different from those used to form layer 26. In accordance with one exemplary embodiment of the invention, layer 38 is about 1 monolayer to about 100 nm thick.
Referring again to FIGS. 1-3, substrate 22 is a monocrystalline substrate such as a monocrystalline silicon or gallium arsenide substrate. The crystalline structure of the monocrystalline substrate is characterized by a lattice constant and by a lattice orientation. In similar manner, accommodating buffer layer 24 is also a monocrystalline material and the lattice of that monocrystalline material is characterized by a lattice constant and a crystal orientation. The lattice constants of the accommodating buffer layer and the monocrystalline substrate must be closely matched or, alternatively, must be such that upon rotation of one crystal orientation with respect to the other crystal orientation, a substantial match in lattice constants is achieved. In this context the terms “substantially equal” and “substantially matched” mean that there is sufficient similarity between the lattice constants to permit the growth of a high quality crystalline layer on the underlying layer.
FIG. 4 illustrates graphically the relationship of the achievable thickness of a grown crystal layer of high crystalline quality as a function of the mismatch between the lattice constants of the host crystal and the grown crystal. Curve 42 illustrates the boundary of high crystalline quality material. The area to the right of curve 42 represents layers that have a large number of defects. With no lattice mismatch, it is theoretically possible to grow an infinitely thick, high quality epitaxial layer on the host crystal. As the mismatch in lattice constants increases, the thickness of achievable, high quality crystalline layer decreases rapidly. As a reference point, for example, if the lattice constants between the host crystal and the grown layer are mismatched by more than about 2%, monocrystalline epitaxial layers in excess of about 20 nm cannot be achieved.
In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, substrate 22 is a (100) or (111) oriented monocrystalline silicon wafer and accommodating buffer layer 24 is a layer of strontium barium titanate. Substantial matching of lattice constants between these two materials is achieved by rotating the crystal orientation of the titanate material by 45° with respect to the crystal orientation of the silicon substrate wafer. The inclusion in the structure of amorphous interface layer 28, a silicon oxide layer in this example, if it is of sufficient thickness, serves to reduce strain in the titanate monocrystalline layer that might result from any mismatch in the lattice constants of the host silicon wafer and the grown titanate layer. As a result, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, a high quality, thick, monocrystalline titanate layer is achievable.
Still referring to FIGS. 1-3, layer 26 is a layer of epitaxially grown monocrystalline material and that crystalline material is also characterized by a crystal lattice constant and a crystal orientation. In accordance with one embodiment of the invention, the lattice constant of layer 26 differs from the lattice constant of substrate 22. To achieve high crystalline quality in this epitaxially grown monocrystalline layer, the accommodating buffer layer must be of high crystalline quality. In addition, in order to achieve high crystalline quality in layer 26, substantial matching between the crystal lattice constant of the host crystal, in this case, the monocrystalline accommodating buffer layer, and the grown crystal is desired. With properly selected materials this substantial matching of lattice constants is achieved as a result of rotation of the crystal orientation of the grown crystal with respect to the orientation of the host crystal. For example, if the grown crystal is gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide, zinc selenide, or zinc sulfur selenide and the accommodating buffer layer is monocrystalline SrxBa1−xTiO3, substantial matching of crystal lattice constants of the two materials is achieved, wherein the crystal orientation of the grown layer is rotated by 45° with respect to the orientation of the host monocrystalline oxide. Similarly, if the host material is a strontium or barium zirconate or a strontium or barium hafnate or barium tin oxide and the compound semiconductor layer is indium phosphide or gallium indium arsenide or aluminum indium arsenide, substantial matching of crystal lattice constants can be achieved by rotating the orientation of the grown crystal layer by 45° with respect to the host oxide crystal. In some instances, a crystalline semiconductor buffer layer between the host oxide and the grown monocrystalline material layer can be used to reduce strain in the grown monocrystalline material layer that might result from small differences in lattice constants. Better crystalline quality in the grown monocrystalline material layer can thereby be achieved.
The following example illustrates a process, in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, for fabricating a semiconductor structure such as the structures depicted in FIGS. 1-3. The process starts by providing a monocrystalline semiconductor substrate comprising silicon or germanium. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the semiconductor substrate is a silicon wafer having a (100) orientation. The substrate is preferably oriented on axis or, at most, about 4° off axis. At least a portion of the semiconductor substrate has a bare surface, although other portions of the substrate, as described below, may encompass other structures. The term “bare” in this context means that the surface in the portion of the substrate has been cleaned to remove any oxides, contaminants, or other foreign material. As is well known, bare silicon is highly reactive and readily forms a native oxide. The term “bare” is intended to encompass such a native oxide. A thin silicon oxide may also be intentionally grown on the semiconductor substrate, although such a grown oxide is not essential to the process in accordance with the invention. In order to epitaxially grow a monocrystalline oxide layer overlying the monocrystalline substrate, the native oxide layer must first be removed to expose the crystalline structure of the underlying substrate. The following process is preferably carried out by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), although other epitaxial processes may also be used in accordance with the present invention. The native oxide can be removed by first thermally depositing a thin layer of strontium, barium, a combination of strontium and barium, or other alkaline earth metals or combinations of alkaline earth metals in an MBE apparatus. In the case where strontium is used, the substrate is then heated to a temperature of about 750° C. to cause the strontium to react with the native silicon oxide layer. The strontium serves to reduce the silicon oxide to leave a silicon oxide-free surface. The resultant surface, which exhibits an ordered 2×1 structure, includes strontium, oxygen, and silicon. The ordered 2×1 structure forms a template for the ordered growth of an overlying layer of a monocrystalline oxide. The template provides the necessary chemical and physical properties to nucleate the crystalline growth of an overlying layer.
In accordance with an alternate embodiment of the invention, the native silicon oxide can be converted and the substrate surface can be prepared for the growth of a monocrystalline oxide layer by depositing an alkaline earth metal oxide, such as strontium oxide, strontium barium oxide, or barium oxide, onto the substrate surface by MBE at a low temperature and by subsequently heating the structure to a temperature of about 750° C. At this temperature a solid state reaction takes place between the strontium oxide and the native silicon oxide causing the reduction of the native silicon oxide and leaving an ordered 2×1 structure with strontium, oxygen, and silicon remaining on the substrate surface. Again, this forms a template for the subsequent growth of an ordered monocrystalline oxide layer.
Following the removal of the silicon oxide from the surface of the substrate, in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, the substrate is cooled to a temperature in the range of about 200-800° C. and a layer of strontium titanate is grown on the template layer by molecular beam epitaxy. The MBE process is initiated by opening shutters in the MBE apparatus to expose strontium, titanium and oxygen sources. The ratio of strontium and titanium is approximately 1:1. The partial pressure of oxygen is initially set at a minimum value to grow stoichiometric strontium titanate at a growth rate of about 0.3-0.5 nm per minute. After initiating growth of the strontium titanate, the partial pressure of oxygen is increased above the initial minimum value. The overpressure of oxygen causes the growth of an amorphous silicon oxide layer at the interface between the underlying substrate and the growing strontium titanate layer. The growth of the silicon oxide layer results from the diffusion of oxygen through the growing strontium titanate layer to the interface where the oxygen reacts with silicon at the surface of the underlying substrate. The strontium titanate grows as an ordered (100) monocrystal with the (100) crystalline orientation rotated by 45° with respect to the underlying substrate. Strain that otherwise might exist in the strontium titanate layer because of the small mismatch in lattice constant between the silicon substrate and the growing crystal is relieved in the amorphous silicon oxide intermediate layer.
After the strontium titanate layer has been grown to the desired thickness, the monocrystalline strontium titanate is capped by a template layer that is conducive to the subsequent growth of an epitaxial layer of a desired monocrystalline material. For example, for the subsequent growth of a monocrystalline compound semiconductor material layer of gallium arsenide, the MBE growth of the strontium titanate monocrystalline layer can be capped by terminating the growth with 1-2 monolayers of titanium, 1-2 monolayers of titanium-oxygen or with 1-2 monolayers of strontium-oxygen. Following the formation of this capping layer, arsenic is deposited to form a Ti—As bond, a Ti—O—As bond or a Sr—O—As. Any of these form an appropriate template for deposition and formation of a gallium arsenide monocrystalline layer. Following the formation of the template, gallium is subsequently introduced to the reaction with the arsenic and gallium arsenide forms. Alternatively, gallium can be deposited on the capping layer to form a Sr—O—Ga bond, and arsenic is subsequently introduced with the gallium to form the GaAs.
FIG. 5 is a high resolution Transmission Electron Micrograph (TEM) of semiconductor material manufactured in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Single crystal SrTiO3 accommodating buffer layer 24 was grown epitaxially on silicon substrate 22. During this growth process, amorphous interfacial layer 28 is formed which relieves strain due to lattice mismatch. GaAs compound semiconductor layer 26 was then grown epitaxially using template layer 30.
FIG. 6 illustrates an x-ray diffraction spectrum taken on a structure including GaAs monocrystalline layer 26 comprising GaAs grown on silicon substrate 22 using accommodating buffer layer 24. The peaks in the spectrum indicate that both the accommodating buffer layer 24 and GaAs compound semiconductor layer 26 are single crystal and (100) orientated.
The structure illustrated in FIG. 2 can be formed by the process discussed above with the addition of an additional buffer layer deposition step. The additional buffer layer 32 is formed overlying the template layer before the deposition of the monocrystalline material layer. If the buffer layer is a monocrystalline material comprising a compound semiconductor superlattice, such a superlattice can be deposited, by MBE for example, on the template described above. If instead the buffer layer is a monocrystalline material layer comprising a layer of germanium, the process above is modified to cap the strontium titanate monocrystalline layer with a final layer of either strontium or titanium and then by depositing germanium to react with the strontium or titanium. The germanium buffer layer can then be deposited directly on this template.
Structure 34, illustrated in FIG. 3, may be formed by growing an accommodating buffer layer, forming an amorphous oxide layer over substrate 22, and growing semiconductor layer 38 over the accommodating buffer layer, as described above. The accommodating buffer layer and the amorphous oxide layer are then exposed to an anneal process sufficient to change the crystalline structure of the accommodating buffer layer from monocrystalline to amorphous, thereby forming an amorphous layer such that the combination of the amorphous oxide layer and the now amorphous accommodating buffer layer form a single amorphous oxide layer 36. Layer 26 is then subsequently grown over layer 38. Alternatively, the anneal process may be carried out subsequent to growth of layer 26.
In accordance with one aspect of this embodiment, layer 36 is formed by exposing substrate 22, the accommodating buffer layer, the amorphous oxide layer, and monocrystalline layer 38 to a rapid thermal anneal process with a peak temperature of about 700° C. to about 1000° C. and a process time of about 5 seconds to about 10 minutes. However, other suitable anneal processes may be employed to convert the accommodating buffer layer to an amorphous layer in accordance with the present invention. For example, laser annealing, electron beam annealing, or “conventional” thermal annealing processes (in the proper environment) may be used to form layer 36. When conventional thermal annealing is employed to form layer 36, an overpressure of one or more constituents of layer 30 may be required to prevent degradation of layer 38 during the anneal process. For example, when layer 38 includes GaAs, the anneal environment preferably includes an overpressure of arsenic to mitigate degradation of layer 38.
As noted above, layer 38 of structure 34 may include any materials suitable for either of layers 32 or 26. Accordingly, any deposition or growth methods described in connection with either layer 32 or 26, may be employed to deposit layer 38.
FIG. 7 is a high resolution TEM of semiconductor material manufactured in accordance with the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIG. 3. In Accordance with this embodiment, a single crystal SrTiO3 accommodating buffer layer was grown epitaxially on silicon substrate 22. During this growth process, an amorphous interfacial layer forms as described above. Next, additional monocrystalline layer 38 comprising a compound semiconductor layer of GaAs is formed above the accommodating buffer layer and the accommodating buffer layer is exposed to an anneal process to form amorphous oxide layer 36.
FIG. 8 illustrates an x-ray diffraction spectrum taken on a structure including additional monocrystalline layer 38 comprising a GaAs compound semiconductor layer and amorphous oxide layer 36 formed on silicon substrate 22. The peaks in the spectrum indicate that GaAs compound semiconductor layer 38 is single crystal and (100) orientated and the lack of peaks around 40 to 50 degrees indicates that layer 36 is amorphous.
The process described above illustrates a process for forming a semiconductor structure including a silicon substrate, an overlying oxide layer, and a monocrystalline material layer comprising a gallium arsenide compound semiconductor layer by the process of molecular beam epitaxy. The process can also be carried out by the process of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE), atomic layer epitaxy (ALE), physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical solution deposition (CSD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or the like. Further, by a similar process, other monocrystalline accommodating buffer layers such as alkaline earth metal titanates, zirconates, hafnates, tantalates, vanadates, ruthenates, and niobates, alkaline earth metal tin-based perovskites, lanthanum aluminate, lanthanum scandium oxide, and gadolinium oxide can also be grown. Further, by a similar process such as MBE, other monocrystalline material layers comprising other III-V and II-VI monocrystalline compound semiconductors, semiconductors, metals and non-metals can be deposited overlying the monocrystalline oxide accommodating buffer layer.
Each of the variations of monocrystalline material layer and monocrystalline oxide accommodating buffer layer uses an appropriate template for initiating the growth of the monocrystalline material layer. For example, if the accommodating buffer layer is an alkaline earth metal zirconate, the oxide can be capped by a thin layer of zirconium. The deposition of zirconium can be followed by the deposition of arsenic or phosphorus to react with the zirconium as a precursor to depositing indium gallium arsenide, indium aluminum arsenide, or indium phosphide respectively. Similarly, if the monocrystalline oxide accommodating buffer layer is an alkaline earth metal hafnate, the oxide layer can be capped by a thin layer of hafnium. The deposition of hafnium is followed by the deposition of arsenic or phosphorous to react with the hafnium as a precursor to the growth of an indium gallium arsenide, indium aluminum arsenide, or indium phosphide layer, respectively. In a similar manner, strontium titanate can be capped with a layer of strontium or strontium and oxygen and barium titanate can be capped with a layer of barium or barium and oxygen. Each of these depositions can be followed by the deposition of arsenic or phosphorus to react with the capping material to form a template for the deposition of a monocrystalline material layer comprising compound semiconductors such as indium gallium arsenide, indium aluminum arsenide, or indium phosphide.
The formation of a device structure in accordance with another embodiment of the invention is illustrated schematically in cross-section in FIGS. 9A-9D. Like the previously described embodiments referred to in FIGS. 1-3, this embodiment of the invention involves the process of forming a compliant substrate utilizing the epitaxial growth of single crystal oxides, such as the formation of accommodating buffer layer 24 previously described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2 and amorphous layer 36 previously described with reference to FIG. 3, and the formation of a template layer 30. However, the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 9A-9D utilizes a template that includes a surfactant to facilitate layer-by-layer monocrystalline material growth.
Turning now to FIG. 9A, an amorphous intermediate layer 58 is grown on substrate 52 at the interface between substrate 52 and a growing accommodating buffer layer 54, which is preferably a monocrystalline crystal oxide layer, by the oxidation of substrate 52 during the growth of layer 54. Layer 54 is preferably a monocrystalline oxide material such as a monocrystalline layer of SrzBa1−zTiO3 where z ranges from 0 to 1. However, layer 54 may also comprise any of those compounds previously described with reference layer 24 in FIGS. 1-2 and any of those compounds previously described with reference to layer 36 in FIG. 3 which is formed from layers 24 and 28 referenced in FIGS. 1 and 2.
Layer 54 is grown with a strontium (Sr) terminated surface represented in FIG. 9A by hatched line 55 which is followed by the addition of a template layer 60 which includes a surfactant layer 61 and capping layer 63 as illustrated in FIGS. 9B and 9C. Surfactant layer 61 may comprise, but is not limited to, elements such as Al, In and Ga, but will be dependent upon the composition of layer 54 and the overlying layer of monocrystalline material for optimal results. In one exemplary embodiment, aluminum (Al) is used for surfactant layer 61 and functions to modify the surface and surface energy of layer 54. Preferably, surfactant layer 61 is epitaxially grown, to a thickness of one to two monolayers, over layer 54 as illustrated in FIG. 9B by way of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), although other epitaxial processes may also be performed including chemical vapor deposition (CVD), metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE), atomic layer epitaxy (ALE), physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical solution deposition (CSD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), or the like.
Surfactant layer 61 is then exposed to a Group V element such as arsenic, for example, to form capping layer 63 as illustrated in FIG. 9C. Surfactant layer 61 may be exposed to a number of materials to create capping layer 63 such as elements which include, but are not limited to, As, P, Sb and N. Surfactant layer 61 and capping layer 63 combine to form template layer 60.
Monocrystalline material layer 66, which in this example is a compound semiconductor such as GaAs, is then deposited via MBE, CVD, MOCVD, MEE, ALE, PVD, CSD, PLD, and the like to form the final structure illustrated in FIG. 9D.
FIGS. 10A-10D illustrate possible molecular bond structures for a specific example of a compound semiconductor structure formed in accordance with the embodiment of the invention illustrated in FIGS. 9A-9D. More specifically, FIGS. 10A-10D illustrate the growth of GaAs (layer 66) on the strontium terminated surface of a strontium titanate monocrystalline oxide (layer 54) using a surfactant containing template (layer 60).
The growth of a monocrystalline material layer 66 such as GaAs on an accommodating buffer layer 54 such as a strontium titanium oxide over amorphous interface layer 58 and substrate layer 52, both of which may comprise materials previously described with reference to layers 28 and 22, respectively in FIGS. 1 and 2, illustrates a critical thickness of about 1000 Angstroms where the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) growth shifts because of the surface energies involved. In order to maintain a true layer by layer growth (Frank Van der Mere growth), the following relationship must be satisfied:
where the surface energy of the monocrystalline oxide layer 54 must be greater than the surface energy of the amorphous interface layer 58 added to the surface energy of the GaAs layer 66. Since it is impracticable to satisfy this equation, a surfactant containing template was used, as described above with reference to FIGS. 9B-9D, to increase the surface energy of the monocrystalline oxide layer 54 and also to shift the crystalline structure of the template to a diamond-like structure that is in compliance with the original GaAs layer.
FIG. 10A illustrates the molecular bond structure of a strontium terminated surface of a strontium titanate monocrystalline oxide layer. An aluminum surfactant layer is deposited on top of the strontium terminated surface and bonds with that surface as illustrated in FIG. 10B, which reacts to form a capping layer comprising a monolayer of A1 2Sr having the molecular bond structure illustrated in FIG. 10B which forms a diamond-like structure with an sp3 hybrid terminated surface that is compliant with compound semiconductors such as GaAs. The structure is then exposed to As to form a layer of AlAs as shown in FIG. 10C. GaAs is then deposited to complete the molecular bond structure illustrated in FIG. 10D which has been obtained by 2D growth. The GaAs can be grown to any thickness for forming other semiconductor structures, devices, or integrated circuits. Alkaline earth metals such as those in Group IIA are those elements preferably used to form the capping surface of the monocrystalline oxide layer 54 because they are capable of forming a desired molecular structure with aluminum.
In this embodiment, a surfactant containing template layer aids in the formation of a compliant substrate for the monolithic integration of various material layers including those comprised of Group III-V compounds to form high quality semiconductor structures, devices and integrated circuits. For example, a surfactant containing template may be used for the monolithic integration of a monocrystalline material layer such as a layer comprising Germanium (Ge), for example, to form high efficiency photocells.
Turning now to FIGS. 11-14, the formation of a device structure in accordance with still another embodiment of the invention is illustrated in cross-section. This embodiment utilizes the formation of a compliant substrate which relies on the epitaxial growth of single crystal oxides on silicon followed by the epitaxial growth of single crystal silicon onto the oxide.
An accommodating buffer layer 74 such as a monocrystalline oxide layer is first grown on a substrate layer 72, such as silicon, with an amorphous interface layer 78 as illustrated in FIG. 11. Monocrystalline oxide layer 74 may be comprised of any of those materials previously discussed with reference to layer 24 in FIGS. 1 and 2, while amorphous interface layer 78 is preferably comprised of any of those materials previously described with reference to the layer 28 illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2. Substrate 72, although preferably silicon, may also comprise any of those materials previously described with reference to substrate 22 in FIGS. 1-3.
Next, a silicon layer 81 is deposited over monocrystalline oxide layer 74 via MBE, CVD, MOCVD, MEE, ALE, PVD, CSD, PLD, and the like as illustrated in FIG. 12 with a thickness of a few hundred Angstroms but preferably with a thickness of about 50 Angstroms. Monocrystalline oxide layer 74 preferably has a thickness of about 20 to 100 Angstroms.
Rapid thermal annealing is then conducted in the presence of a carbon source such as acetylene or methane, for example at a temperature within a range of about 800° C. to 1000° C. to form capping layer 82 and silicate amorphous layer 86. However, other suitable carbon sources may be used as long as the rapid thermal annealing step functions to amorphize the monocrystalline oxide layer 74 into a silicate amorphous layer 86 and carbonize the top silicon layer 81 to form capping layer 82 which in this example would be a silicon carbide (SiC) layer as illustrated in FIG. 13. The formation of amorphous layer 86 is similar to the formation of layer 36 illustrated in FIG. 3 and may comprise any of those materials described with reference to layer 36 in FIG. 3 but the preferable material will be dependent upon the capping layer 82 used for silicon layer 81.
Finally, a compound semiconductor layer 96, such as gallium nitride (GaN) is grown over the SiC surface by way of MBE, CVD, MOCVD, MEE, ALE, PVD, CSD, PLD, or the like to form a high quality compound semiconductor material for device formation. More specifically, the deposition of GaN and GaN based systems such as GaInN and AlGaN will result in the formation of dislocation nets confined at the silicon/amorphous region. The resulting nitride containing compound semiconductor material may comprise elements from groups III, IV and V of the periodic table and is defect free.
Although GaN has been grown on SiC substrate in the past, this embodiment of the invention possesses a one step formation of the compliant substrate containing a SiC top surface and an amorphous layer on a Si surface. More specifically, this embodiment of the invention uses an intermediate single crystal oxide layer that is amorphosized to form a silicate layer which adsorbs the strain between the layers. Moreover, unlike past use of a SiC substrate, this embodiment of the invention is not limited by wafer size which is usually less than 50 mm in diameter for prior art SiC substrates.
The monolithic integration of nitride containing semiconductor compounds containing group III-V nitrides and silicon devices can be used for high temperature RF applications and optoelectronies. GaN systems have particular use in the photonic industry for the blue/green and UV light sources and detection. High brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) and lasers may also be formed within the GaN system.
FIGS. 15-17 schematically illustrate, in cross-section, the formation of another embodiment of a device structure in accordance with the invention. This embodiment includes a compliant layer that functions as a transition layer that uses clathrate or Zintl type bonding. More specifically, this embodiment utilizes an intermetallic template layer to reduce the surface energy of the interface between material layers thereby allowing for two dimensional layer by layer growth.
The structure illustrated in FIG. 15 includes a monocrystalline substrate 102, an amorphous interface layer 108 and an accommodating buffer layer 104. Amorphous interface layer 108 is formed on substrate 102 at the interface between substrate 102 and accommodating buffer layer 104 as previously described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2. Amorphous interface layer 108 may comprise any of those materials previously described with reference to amorphous interface layer 28 in FIGS. 1 and 2 but preferably comprises a monocrystalline oxide material such as a monocrystalline layer of SrzBa1−zTiO3 where z ranges from 0 to 1. Substrate 102 is preferably silicon but may also comprise any of those materials previously described with reference to substrate 22 in FIGS. 1-3.
A template layer 130 is deposited over accommodating buffer layer 104 as illustrated in FIG. 16 and preferably comprises a thin layer of Zintl type phase material composed of metals and metalloids having a great deal of ionic character. As in previously described embodiments, template layer 130 is deposited by way of MBE, CVD, MOCVD, MEE, ALE, PVD, CSD, PLD, or the like to achieve a thickness of one monolayer. Template layer 130 functions as a “soft” layer with non-directional bonding but high crystallinity which absorbs stress build up between layers having lattice mismatch. Materials for template 130 may include, but are not limited to, materials containing Si, Ga, In, and Sb such as, for example, AlSr2, (MgCaYb)Ga2, (Ca,Sr,Eu,Yb)In2, BaGe2As, and SrSn2As2
A monocrystalline material layer 126 is epitaxially grown over template layer 130 to achieve the final structure illustrated in FIG. 17. As a specific example, an SrAl2 layer may be used as template layer 130 and an appropriate monocrystalline material layer 126 such as a compound semiconductor material GaAs is grown over the SrAl2. The Al—Ti (from the accommodating buffer layer of layer of SrzBa1−zTiO3 where z ranges from 0 to 1) bond is mostly metallic while the Al—As (from the GaAs layer) bond is weakly covalent. The Sr participates in two distinct types of bonding with part of its electric charge going to the oxygen atoms in the lower accommodating buffer layer 104 comprising SrzBa1−zTiO3 to participate in ionic bonding and the other part of its valence charge being donated to Al in a way that is typically carried out with Zintl phase materials. The amount of the charge transfer depends on the relative electronegativity of elements comprising the template layer 130 as well as on the interatomic distance. In this example, Al assumes an sp3 hybridization and can readily form bonds with monocrystalline material layer 126, which in this example, comprises compound semiconductor material GaAs.
The compliant substrate produced by use of the Zintl type template layer used in this embodiment can absorb a large strain without a significant energy cost. In the above example, the bond strength of the Al is adjusted by changing the volume of the SrAl2 layer thereby making the device tunable for specific applications which include the monolithic integration of III-V and Si devices and the monolithic integration of high-k dielectric materials for CMOS technology.
Clearly, those embodiments specifically describing structures having compound semiconductor portions and Group IV semiconductor portions, are meant to illustrate embodiments of the present invention and not limit the present invention. There are a multiplicity of other combinations and other embodiments of the present invention. For example, the present invention includes structures and methods for fabricating material layers which form semiconductor structures, devices and integrated circuits including other layers such as metal and non-metal layers. More specifically, the invention includes structures and methods for forming a compliant substrate which is used in the fabrication of semiconductor structures, devices and integrated circuits and the material layers suitable for fabricating those structures, devices, and integrated circuits. By using embodiments of the present invention, it is now simpler to integrate devices that include monocrystalline layers comprising semiconductor and compound semiconductor materials as well as other material layers that are used to form those devices with other components that work better or are easily and/or inexpensively formed within semiconductor or compound semiconductor materials. This allows a device to be shrunk, the manufacturing costs to decrease, and yield and reliability to increase.
In accordance with one embodiment of this invention, a monocrystalline semiconductor or compound semiconductor wafer can be used in forming monocrystalline material layers over the wafer. In this manner, the wafer is essentially a “handle” wafer used during the fabrication of semiconductor electrical components within a monocrystalline layer overlying the wafer. Therefore, electrical components can be formed within semiconductor materials over a wafer of at least approximately 200 millimeters in diameter and possibly at least approximately 300 millimeters.
By the use of this type of substrate, a relatively inexpensive “handle” wafer overcomes the fragile nature of compound semiconductor or other monocrystalline material wafers by placing them over a relatively more durable and easy to fabricate base material. Therefore, an integrated circuit can be formed such that all electrical components, and particularly all active electronic devices, can be formed within or using the monocrystalline material layer even though the substrate itself may include a monocrystalline semiconductor material. Fabrication costs for compound semiconductor devices and other devices employing non-silicon monocrystalline materials should decrease because larger substrates can be processed more economically and more readily compared to the relatively smaller and more fragile substrates (e.g. conventional compound semiconductor wafers).
FIG. 38-41 are schematic elevation views illustrating structural manifestations associated with the steps involved in practicing the preferred embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 38, a semiconductor substrate 3810 presents a first substantially planar land 3812. Substrate 3810 is preferably constructed of monocrystalline silicon (Si). Substrate 3810 is trenched to effect a cavity 3814 in substrate 3810. Cavity 3814 is dimensioned to receive a semiconductor structure that will be effected by later processing steps.
In FIG. 39, an accommodating layer 3816 is deposited or grown over substrate 3812, including within cavity 3814. Preferably accommodating layer 3816 is a monocrystalline perovskite oxide material. In the context of this application, the terms “deposit” and “grow” are intended to be interchangeable; no significant aspect of the present invention is substantially altered whether a deposition process or a growth process is employed in a respective method step.
An additional layer 3815 may be formed interfacing substrate 3810 and accommodating layer 3816. Such an additional layer 3815 preferably contains at least silicon and oxygen, and most preferably is a silicon oxide material that may be formed between substrate 3810 and accommodating layer 3816 by an oxidizing process.
A template layer 3819 may be deposited over accommodating layer 3816, including within cavity 3814, but its presence is not essential to the practice of the method of the present invention. It is for this reason that template layer 3819 is indicated using broken lines in FIG. 39, and is not included in other views of FIGS. 38-41. A composition layer 3818 is deposited over accommodating layer 3816 (over template layer 3819, when present), including within cavity 3814. Composition layer 3818 is preferably constructed of a material that is different from the materials used in constructing substrate 3810. For example, composition layer 3818 may be constructed of gallium arsenide (GaAs).
In FIG. 40, portions of accommodating layer 3816 and composition layer 3818 (and template layer 3819, when present, not shown in FIG. 40) are selectively removed to establish a semiconductor structure 3820 within cavity 3814. Semiconductor structure 3820 includes remaining portions of accommodating layer 3816 and composition layer 3818 (and template layer 3819, when present, not shown in FIG. 40). Semiconductor structure 3820 presents a second substantially planar land 3813 that is substantially coplanar with first land 3812.
In FIG. 41, a cap layer 3822 is deposited over lands 3812, 3813 and within cavity 3814. Preferably, cap layer 3822 is constructed of an oxide, nitride or oxynitride material. Most preferably, cap layer 3822 is constructed of SiO2, Si3N4 or SiOxNy material. Cap layer 3822 is selectively removed to establish a substantially planar face 3824 generally parallel with substantially coplanar lands 3812, 3813. Face 3824 is displaced from second land 3813 by a predetermined distance “d”. In such a manner there is produced a semiconductor piece 3825. Predetermined distance “d” is selected to be equal to or less than the depth of focus associated with photolithographic material that will later be used for fashioning semiconductor piece 3825 into a product.
Providing that lands 3812, 3813 are substantially coplanar, and requiring that predetermined distance “d” is less than the depth of focus of lithographic equipment to be used for subsequent manufacturing operations assures that a product designer may establish alignment keys on each of land 3812, 3813 for lithographic processing of either silicon material (land 3812) or gallium arsenide material (land 3813).
FIGS. 42-46 are schematic elevation views illustrating structural manifestations associated with the steps involved in practicing an alternate embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 42, a semiconductor substrate 4210 is preferably constructed of silicon (Si). An accommodating layer 4216 is deposited or grown over substrate 4212. A template layer 4219 may be deposited over accommodating layer 4216, but its presence is not essential to the practice of the method of the present invention. It is for this reason that template layer 4219 is indicated using broken lines in FIG. 42, and will not be included in other views of FIGS. 42-46. A composition layer 4218 is deposited over accommodating layer 4216 (over template layer 4219, when present). In the context of this application, the terms “deposit” and “grow” are intended to be interchangeable; no significant aspect of the present invention is substantially altered whether a deposition process or a growth process is employed in a respective method step. Composition layer 4218 is preferably constructed of a material that is different from the materials used in constructing substrate 4210. For example, composition layer 4218 may be constructed of gallium arsenide (GaAs).
In FIG. 43, portions of accommodating layer 4216 and composition layer 4218 (and template layer 4219, when present, not shown in FIG. 43) are selectively removed to establish a semiconductor structure 4220. Semiconductor structure 4220 includes remaining portions of accommodating layer 4216 and composition layer 4218 (and template layer 4219, when present, not shown in FIG. 43). Semiconductor structure 4220 presents a substantially planar land 4213.
In FIG. 44, a cap layer 4222 is deposited over semiconductor structure 4220 and substrate 4210. Preferably, cap layer 4222 is constructed of an oxide, nitride or oxynitride material. Most preferably, cap layer 4222 is constructed of SiO2, Si3N4 or SiOxNy material.
In FIG. 45, cap layer 4222 has been selectively removed to establish a capsule 4223. Capsule 4223 cooperates with substrate 4210 to substantially encapsulate semiconductor structure 4220. Capsule 4223 extends a distance d from land 4213. Distance d is selected to be a distance less than a predetermined distance; the predetermined distance is described in greater detail in connection with FIG. 46.
In FIG. 46, a supplemental cap layer 4224 is deposited over capsule 4223 and substrate 4210. Preferably, supplemental cap layer 4224 is constructed of the same material that comprises substrate 4210. Supplemental cap layer 4224 is selectively removed to establish a substantially planar face 4226 generally parallel with substantially planar land 4213. Face 4226 is displaced from land 4213 by a predetermined distance “D”. In such a manner there is produced a semiconductor piece 4227. Predetermined distance “D” is selected to be equal to or less than the depth of focus associated with photolithographic material that will later be used for fashioning semiconductor piece 4227 into a product.
In such a construction as is illustrated in FIGS. 42-46, face 4226 and land 4213 are substantially coplanar in so far as later-employed lithographic equipment is concerned. This is so because alignment marks established on face 4226 and land 4213 may be employed by the lithographic equipment for operating on face 4226 (fabricated in silicon, for example) and for operating on land 4213 (fabricated in gallium arsenide, for example) without resetting the lithographic equipment. That is, establishing face 4226 and land 4213 in such a substantially coplanar orientation by requiring that predetermined distance “D” be less than the depth of focus of lithographic equipment to be used for subsequent manufacturing operations assures that a product designer may establish alignment keys on face 4226 for lithographic processing of either silicon material (face 4226) or gallium arsenide material (land 4213).
FIG. 47 is a flow diagram illustrating embodiments of the present invention. In FIG. 47, two “tracks”—Track A and Track B—illustrate alternate embodiments of the method of the present invention. In FIG. 47, Track A, a method 4710 for manufacturing a substantially integral monolithic apparatus including a plurality of semiconductor materials presenting a plurality of substantially coplanar lands begins with the step of providing a substrate, as indicated by a block 4712. The substrate is constructed of a first semiconductor material of the plurality of semiconductor materials, and the substrate presents a first land of the plurality of lands. The first semiconductor material is preferably monocrystalline silicon.
Method 4710 continues by trenching the substrate from a first side of the substrate to effect a cavity in the substrate, as indicated by a block 4714. The cavity is appropriately dimensioned to receive a semiconductor structure in an orientation presenting a second land of the plurality of lands that is generally coplanar with the first land established according to block 4712.
Method 4710 continues by depositing an accommodating layer on the first side of the substrate and within the cavity to establish a workpiece, as indicated by a block 4716. The accommodating layer is constructed of a second semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The second semiconductor material is preferably a monocrystalline perovskite oxide material.
Method 4710 preferably continues by forming an amorphous oxide interface layer containing at least silicon and oxygen, and most preferably being a silicon oxide material, between the accommodating layer and the substrate, as indicated by a block 4717.
Method 4710 continues by depositing a composition layer on a first side of the workpiece adjacent the first side of the substrate, as indicated by a block 4718. The composition layer is constructed of a third semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The third semiconductor material preferably is gallium arsenide.
Method 4710 continues by selectively removing predetermined portions of the composition layer and the accommodating layer to establish the semiconductor structure, as indicated by a block 4720.
Method 4710 continues by depositing a cap layer at the first side of the workpiece, as indicated by a block 4722. The cap layer is constructed of a fourth semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The fourth semiconductor material is preferably an oxide, nitride or oxynitride material. Most preferably, the fourth semiconductor material is an SiO2, Si3N4 or SiOxNy material.
Method 4710 concludes by selectively removing the cap layer to establish a substantially planar face, as indicated by a block 4724. The planar face is displaced from the plurality of lands by a predetermined distance.
In FIG. 47, Track B, a method 4750 for manufacturing a substantially integral monolithic apparatus including a plurality of semiconductor materials presenting a plurality of substantially coplanar lands begins with the step of providing a substrate, as indicated by a block 4752. The substrate is constructed of a first semiconductor material of the plurality of semiconductor materials, and the substrate presents a first land of the plurality of lands. The first semiconductor material is preferably monocrystalline silicon.
Method 4750 continues by depositing an accommodating layer on the first side of the substrate to establish a workpiece, as indicated by a block 4754. The accommodating layer is constructed of a second semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The second semiconductor material is preferably a monocrystalline perovskite oxide.
Method 4750 preferably continues by forming an amorphous oxide interface layer containing at least silicon and oxygen, and most preferably being a silicon oxide material, between the accommodating layer and the substrate, as indicated by a block 4755.
Method 4750 continues by depositing a composition layer at a first side of the workpiece adjacent the first side of the substrate, as indicated by a block 4756. The composition layer is constructed of a third semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The third semiconductor material preferably is gallium arsenide.
Method 4750 continues by selectively removing predetermined portions of the composition layer and the accommodating layer to establish the semiconductor structure, as indicated by a block 4758.
Method 4750 continues by depositing a cap layer at the first side of the workpiece, as indicated by a block 4760. The cap layer is constructed of a fourth semiconductor material of said plurality of semiconductor materials. The fourth semiconductor material is preferably an oxide, nitride or oxynitride material. Most preferably, the fourth semiconductor material is an SiO2, Si3N4 or SiOxNy material.
Method 4750 continues by selectively removing the cap layer to establish a substantially planar face, as indicated by a block 4762. The planar face is displaced from the plurality of lands by less than a predetermined distance.
Method 4750 continues by depositing a second layer of the first semiconductor material over the face, as indicated by a block 4764.
Method 4750 concludes by selectively removing the second layer of the first semiconductor material to establish a second substantially planar face, as indicated by a block 4766. The second face is displaced from the plurality of lands by the predetermined distance.
Similarities between respective steps of method 4710 (FIG. 47, Track A) and method 4750 (FIG. 47, Track B) are indicated by arrows 4770, 4771, 4772, 4774, 4776, 4778. Thus, step 4716 is similar to step 4754, as indicated by arrow 4770. Step 4717 is similar to step 4755, as indicated by arrow 4771. Step 4718 is similar to step 4756, as indicated by arrow 4772. Step 4720 is similar to step 4758, as indicated by arrow 4774. Step 4722 is similar to step 4760, as indicated by arrow 4776. Step 4724 is similar to step 4762, as indicated by arrow 4778.
The similarities between step 4724 and step 4762 are less closely related than are the similarities between other steps recited above. Step 4724 requires removal of cap material to within a critical distance of the semiconductor structure, but step 4762 requires removal of cap material to less than a critical distance of the semiconductor structure. It is for this reason that arrow 4778 is indicated in a broken line.
In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments. However, one of ordinary skill in the art appreciates that various modifications and changes can be made without departing from the scope of the present invention as set forth in the claims below. Accordingly, the specification and figures are to be regarded in an illustrative rather than a restrictive sense, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of present invention.
Benefits, other advantages, and solutions to problems have been described above with regard to specific embodiments. However, the benefits, advantages, solutions to problems, and any element(s) that may cause any benefit, advantage, or solution to occur or become more pronounced are not to be construed as a critical, required, or essential features or elements of any or all the claims. As used herein, the terms “comprises,” “comprising,” or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3670213||21 May 1970||13 Jun 1972||Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co||Semiconductor photosensitive device with a rare earth oxide compound forming a rectifying junction|
|US3766370||14 May 1971||16 Oct 1973||Hewlett Packard Co||Elementary floating point cordic function processor and shifter|
|US3802967||27 Aug 1971||9 Apr 1974||Rca Corp||Iii-v compound on insulating substrate and its preparation and use|
|US3914137||2 Nov 1973||21 Oct 1975||Motorola Inc||Method of manufacturing a light coupled monolithic circuit by selective epitaxial deposition|
|US3935031||7 May 1973||27 Jan 1976||New England Institute, Inc.||Photovoltaic cell with enhanced power output|
|US4006989||11 Dec 1974||8 Feb 1977||Raytheon Company||Laser gyroscope|
|US4084130||11 Jun 1976||11 Apr 1978||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Laser for integrated optical circuits|
|US4120588||12 Jul 1976||17 Oct 1978||Erik Chaum||Multiple path configuration for a laser interferometer|
|US4146297||16 Jan 1978||27 Mar 1979||Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated||Tunable optical waveguide directional coupler filter|
|US4174422||30 Dec 1977||13 Nov 1979||International Business Machines Corporation||Growing epitaxial films when the misfit between film and substrate is large|
|US4242595||27 Jul 1978||30 Dec 1980||University Of Southern California||Tunnel diode load for ultra-fast low power switching circuits|
|US4284329||25 Jun 1979||18 Aug 1981||Raytheon Company||Laser gyroscope system|
|US4289920||23 Jun 1980||15 Sep 1981||International Business Machines Corporation||Multiple bandgap solar cell on transparent substrate|
|US4297656||23 Mar 1979||27 Oct 1981||Harris Corporation||Plural frequency oscillator employing multiple fiber-optic delay line|
|US4392297||21 Jun 1982||12 Jul 1983||Spire Corporation||Process of making thin film high efficiency solar cells|
|US4398342||22 Feb 1982||16 Aug 1983||International Standard Electric Corporation||Method of making a Hall effect device|
|US4404265||7 Apr 1978||13 Sep 1983||Rockwell International Corporation||Epitaxial composite and method of making|
|US4424589||11 Apr 1980||3 Jan 1984||Coulter Systems Corporation||Flat bed scanner system and method|
|US4439014||13 Nov 1981||27 Mar 1984||Mcdonnell Douglas Corporation||Low voltage electro-optic modulator|
|US4442590||22 Jun 1982||17 Apr 1984||Ball Corporation||Monolithic microwave integrated circuit with integral array antenna|
|US4452720||3 Jun 1981||5 Jun 1984||Teijin Limited||Fluorescent composition having the ability to change wavelengths of light, shaped article of said composition as a light wavelength converting element and device for converting optical energy to electrical energy using said element|
|US4459325||3 Nov 1981||10 Jul 1984||Tokyo Shibaura Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing the same|
|US4482422||26 Feb 1982||13 Nov 1984||Rca Corporation||Method for growing a low defect monocrystalline layer on a mask|
|US4482906||30 Jun 1982||13 Nov 1984||International Business Machines Corporation||Gallium aluminum arsenide integrated circuit structure using germanium|
|US4484332||2 Jun 1982||20 Nov 1984||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Multiple double heterojunction buried laser device|
|US4503540||14 Apr 1982||5 Mar 1985||Hitachi, Ltd.||Phase-locked semiconductor laser device|
|US4523211||8 Mar 1983||11 Jun 1985||Futaba Denshi Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Semiconductor device|
|US4594000||4 Apr 1983||10 Jun 1986||Ball Corporation||Method and apparatus for optically measuring distance and velocity|
|US4629821||13 Sep 1985||16 Dec 1986||Polaroid Corporation||Photovoltaic cell|
|US4661176||27 Feb 1985||28 Apr 1987||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Process for improving the quality of epitaxial silicon films grown on insulating substrates utilizing oxygen ion conductor substrates|
|US4667088||1 Nov 1982||19 May 1987||Kramer Kane N||Portable data processing and storage system|
|US4667212||9 Jul 1985||19 May 1987||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Integrated optical and electric circuit device|
|US4681982||8 May 1986||21 Jul 1987||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Light-electricity conversion semiconductor device|
|US4748485||9 Jun 1987||31 May 1988||Hughes Aircraft Company||Opposed dual-gate hybrid structure for three-dimensional integrated circuits|
|US4756007||8 Mar 1984||5 Jul 1988||Codex Corporation||Adaptive communication rate modem|
|US4772929||9 Jan 1987||20 Sep 1988||Sprague Electric Company||Hall sensor with integrated pole pieces|
|US4773063||13 Nov 1984||20 Sep 1988||University Of Delaware||Optical wavelength division multiplexing/demultiplexing system|
|US4774205||13 Jun 1986||27 Sep 1988||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Monolithic integration of silicon and gallium arsenide devices|
|US4777613||1 Apr 1986||11 Oct 1988||Motorola Inc.||Floating point numeric data processor|
|US4793872||4 Mar 1987||27 Dec 1988||Thomson-Csf||III-V Compound heteroepitaxial 3-D semiconductor structures utilizing superlattices|
|US4802182||5 Nov 1987||31 Jan 1989||Xerox Corporation||Monolithic two dimensional waveguide coupled cavity laser/modulator|
|US4841775||19 Jan 1988||27 Jun 1989||Yokogawa Electric Corporation||Vibratory transducer|
|US4845044||28 Jul 1988||4 Jul 1989||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Producing a compound semiconductor device on an oxygen implanted silicon substrate|
|US4846926||3 Sep 1987||11 Jul 1989||Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporation||HcCdTe epitaxially grown on crystalline support|
|US4855249||16 Mar 1988||8 Aug 1989||Nagoya University||Process for growing III-V compound semiconductors on sapphire using a buffer layer|
|US4868376||15 May 1987||19 Sep 1989||Smartcard International Inc.||Intelligent portable interactive personal data system|
|US4872046||1 Sep 1987||3 Oct 1989||University Of Illinois||Heterojunction semiconductor device with <001> tilt|
|US4876208||30 Jan 1987||24 Oct 1989||Yellowstone Diagnostics Corporation||Diffraction immunoassay apparatus and method|
|US4876219||3 Mar 1989||24 Oct 1989||Fujitsu Limited||Method of forming a heteroepitaxial semiconductor thin film using amorphous buffer layers|
|US4882300||6 Oct 1988||21 Nov 1989||Agency Of Industrial Science And Technology||Method of forming single crystalline magnesia spinel film|
|US4885376||13 Oct 1987||5 Dec 1989||Iowa State University Research Foundation, Inc.||New types of organometallic reagents and catalysts for asymmetric synthesis|
|US4888202||23 Jul 1987||19 Dec 1989||Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation||Method of manufacturing thin compound oxide film and apparatus for manufacturing thin oxide film|
|US4889402||21 Apr 1989||26 Dec 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Electro-optic polarization modulation in multi-electrode waveguides|
|US4891091||8 Jun 1987||2 Jan 1990||Gte Laboratories Incorporated||Method of epitaxially growing compound semiconductor materials|
|US4896194||8 Jul 1988||23 Jan 1990||Nec Corporation||Semiconductor device having an integrated circuit formed on a compound semiconductor layer|
|US4901133||2 Apr 1986||13 Feb 1990||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Multilayer semi-insulating film for hermetic wafer passivation and method for making same|
|US4910164||27 Jul 1988||20 Mar 1990||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of making planarized heterostructures using selective epitaxial growth|
|US4912087||15 Apr 1988||27 Mar 1990||Ford Motor Company||Rapid thermal annealing of superconducting oxide precursor films on Si and SiO2 substrates|
|US4928154||20 Mar 1989||22 May 1990||Daido Tokushuko Kabushiki Kaisha||Epitaxial gallium arsenide semiconductor on silicon substrate with gallium phosphide and superlattice intermediate layers|
|US4934777||21 Mar 1989||19 Jun 1990||Pco, Inc.||Cascaded recirculating transmission line without bending loss limitations|
|US4952420||12 Oct 1988||28 Aug 1990||Advanced Dielectric Technologies, Inc.||Vapor deposition patterning method|
|US4959702||5 Oct 1989||25 Sep 1990||Motorola, Inc.||Si-GaP-Si heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) on Si substrate|
|US4963508||22 Feb 1990||16 Oct 1990||Daido Tokushuko Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of making an epitaxial gallium arsenide semiconductor wafer using a strained layer superlattice|
|US4965649||5 Oct 1989||23 Oct 1990||Ford Aerospace Corporation||Manufacture of monolithic infrared focal plane arrays|
|US4981714||30 Apr 1990||1 Jan 1991||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of producing ferroelectric LiNb1-31 x Tax O3 0<x<1) thin film by activated evaporation|
|US4984043||22 Jun 1989||8 Jan 1991||Thunderbird Technologies, Inc.||Fermi threshold field effect transistor|
|US4999842||1 Mar 1989||12 Mar 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Quantum well vertical cavity laser|
|US5018816||11 Jun 1990||28 May 1991||Amp Incorporated||Optical delay switch and variable delay system|
|US5028976||29 May 1990||2 Jul 1991||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Complementary MOS integrated circuit device|
|US5051790||22 Dec 1989||24 Sep 1991||David Sarnoff Research Center, Inc.||Optoelectronic interconnections for integrated circuits|
|US5053835||31 Jul 1990||1 Oct 1991||Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.||Inp semiconductor thin film on si|
|US5055445||25 Sep 1989||8 Oct 1991||Litton Systems, Inc.||Method of forming oxidic high Tc superconducting materials on substantially lattice matched monocrystalline substrates utilizing liquid phase epitaxy|
|US5055835||27 Jul 1988||8 Oct 1991||British Railways Board||Track to train communication systems|
|US5060031||18 Sep 1990||22 Oct 1991||Motorola, Inc||Complementary heterojunction field effect transistor with an anisotype N+ ga-channel devices|
|US5063081||15 Aug 1990||5 Nov 1991||I-Stat Corporation||Method of manufacturing a plurality of uniform microfabricated sensing devices having an immobilized ligand receptor|
|US5063166||9 Apr 1990||5 Nov 1991||Sri International||Method of forming a low dislocation density semiconductor device|
|US5067809||4 Jun 1990||26 Nov 1991||Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.||Opto-semiconductor device and method of fabrication of the same|
|US5073981||28 Jun 1989||17 Dec 1991||At&T Bell Laboratories||Optical communication by injection-locking to a signal which modulates an optical carrier|
|US5075743||6 Jun 1989||24 Dec 1991||Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.||Quantum well optical device on silicon|
|US5081062||14 Jun 1989||14 Jan 1992||Prahalad Vasudev||Monolithic integration of silicon on insulator and gallium arsenide semiconductor technologies|
|US5081519||13 Sep 1990||14 Jan 1992||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Semiconductor device|
|US5103494||10 Jul 1990||7 Apr 1992||Alcatel N.V.||Optoelectronic arrangement|
|US5116461||22 Apr 1991||26 May 1992||Motorola, Inc.||Method for fabricating an angled diffraction grating|
|US5119448||21 Sep 1990||2 Jun 1992||Tacan Corporation||Modular micro-optical systems and method of making such systems|
|US5122852||23 Apr 1990||16 Jun 1992||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Grafted-crystal-film integrated optics and optoelectronic devices|
|US5127067||10 Sep 1990||30 Jun 1992||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Local area network with star topology and ring protocol|
|US5130762||20 Nov 1990||14 Jul 1992||Amp Incorporated||Integrated quantum well feedback structure|
|US5132648||8 Jun 1990||21 Jul 1992||Rockwell International Corporation||Large array MMIC feedthrough|
|US5140651||27 Jun 1991||18 Aug 1992||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Semiconductive guided-wave programmable optical delay lines using electrooptic fabry-perot elements|
|US5141894||20 Jul 1990||25 Aug 1992||Thomson-Csf||Method for the manufacture, by epitaxy, of monocrystalline layers of materials with different lattice parameters|
|US5143854||7 Mar 1990||1 Sep 1992||Affymax Technologies N.V.||Large scale photolithographic solid phase synthesis of polypeptides and receptor binding screening thereof|
|US5144409||16 Nov 1990||1 Sep 1992||Yale University||Isotopically enriched semiconductor devices|
|US5155658||5 Mar 1992||13 Oct 1992||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Crystallographically aligned ferroelectric films usable in memories and method of crystallographically aligning perovskite films|
|US5159413||11 Dec 1990||27 Oct 1992||Eaton Corporation||Monolithic integrated circuit having compound semiconductor layer epitaxially grown on ceramic substrate|
|US5163118||26 Aug 1988||10 Nov 1992||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Air Force||Lattice mismatched hetrostructure optical waveguide|
|US5173474||11 Mar 1991||22 Dec 1992||Xerox Corporation||Silicon substrate having an epitaxial superconducting layer thereon and method of making same|
|US5173835||15 Oct 1991||22 Dec 1992||Motorola, Inc.||Voltage variable capacitor|
|US5181085||22 Oct 1991||19 Jan 1993||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Compound semiconductor device with bipolar transistor and laser diode|
|US5185589||17 May 1991||9 Feb 1993||Westinghouse Electric Corp.||Microwave film bulk acoustic resonator and manifolded filter bank|
|US5191625||10 Apr 1992||2 Mar 1993||Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson||Terminal for a frequency divided, optical communication system|
|US5194397||5 Jun 1991||16 Mar 1993||International Business Machines Corporation||Method for controlling interfacial oxide at a polycrystalline/monocrystalline silicon interface|
|US5194917||22 Jul 1991||16 Mar 1993||Standard Elektrik Lorenz Aktiengesellschaft||Fiber-optic gyroscope integrated on a silicon substrate|
|US5198269||28 Aug 1989||30 Mar 1993||Battelle Memorial Institute||Process for making sol-gel deposited ferroelectric thin films insensitive to their substrates|
|US5208182||12 Nov 1991||4 May 1993||Kopin Corporation||Dislocation density reduction in gallium arsenide on silicon heterostructures|
|US5210763||5 Oct 1990||11 May 1993||The Secretary Of State For Defence In Her Britannic Majecty's Government Of The United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Northern Ireland||Oscillator|
|US5216729||18 Nov 1991||1 Jun 1993||Harmonic Lightwaves, Inc.||Active alignment system for laser to fiber coupling|
|US5221367||3 Aug 1988||22 Jun 1993||International Business Machines, Corp.||Strained defect-free epitaxial mismatched heterostructures and method of fabrication|
|US5227196||26 Sep 1991||13 Jul 1993||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Method of forming a carbon film on a substrate made of an oxide material|
|US5244818||8 Apr 1992||14 Sep 1993||Georgia Tech Research Corporation||Processes for lift-off of thin film materials and for the fabrication of three dimensional integrated circuits|
|US5248564||9 Dec 1992||28 Sep 1993||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||C-axis perovskite thin films grown on silicon dioxide|
|US5255031||20 Nov 1992||19 Oct 1993||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Data-retainable photographic film cartridge|
|US5260394||15 Mar 1990||9 Nov 1993||Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.||Styrene copolymer and process for production thereof|
|US5266355||3 Nov 1992||30 Nov 1993||Eastman Kodak Company||Chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films|
|US5270298||4 Aug 1992||14 Dec 1993||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Cubic metal oxide thin film epitaxially grown on silicon|
|US5280013||29 Oct 1992||18 Jan 1994||Conductus, Inc.||Method of preparing high temperature superconductor films on opposite sides of a substrate|
|US5281834||31 Aug 1990||25 Jan 1994||Motorola, Inc.||Non-silicon and silicon bonded structure and method of manufacture|
|US5283462||4 Nov 1991||1 Feb 1994||Motorola, Inc.||Integrated distributed inductive-capacitive network|
|US5286985||22 Dec 1992||15 Feb 1994||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Interface circuit operable to perform level shifting between a first type of device and a second type of device|
|US5293050||25 Mar 1993||8 Mar 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Semiconductor quantum dot light emitting/detecting devices|
|US5306649||25 Nov 1992||26 Apr 1994||Avantek, Inc.||Method for producing a fully walled emitter-base structure in a bipolar transistor|
|US5310707||28 Sep 1992||10 May 1994||Superconductivity Research Laboratory International||Substrate material for the preparation of oxide superconductors|
|US5312765||11 May 1993||17 May 1994||Hughes Aircraft Company||Method of fabricating three dimensional gallium arsenide microelectronic device|
|US5314547||28 Sep 1992||24 May 1994||General Motors Corporation||Rare earth slab doping of group III-V compounds|
|US5323023||2 Dec 1992||21 Jun 1994||Xerox Corporation||Epitaxial magnesium oxide as a buffer layer on (111) tetrahedral semiconductors|
|US5326721||1 May 1992||5 Jul 1994||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of fabricating high-dielectric constant oxides on semiconductors using a GE buffer layer|
|US5334556||23 Mar 1993||2 Aug 1994||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method for improving gate oxide integrity using low temperature oxidation during source/drain anneal|
|US5352926||4 Jan 1993||4 Oct 1994||Motorola, Inc.||Flip chip package and method of making|
|US5356509||16 Oct 1992||18 Oct 1994||Astropower, Inc.||Hetero-epitaxial growth of non-lattice matched semiconductors|
|US5356831||28 Oct 1992||18 Oct 1994||Eaton Corporation||Method of making a monolithic integrated circuit having compound semiconductor layer epitaxially grown on ceramic substrate|
|US5357122||2 Sep 1992||18 Oct 1994||Sony Corporation||Three-dimensional optical-electronic integrated circuit device with raised sections|
|US5358925||10 Aug 1992||25 Oct 1994||Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford Junior University||Silicon substrate having YSZ epitaxial barrier layer and an epitaxial superconducting layer|
|US5371734||29 Jan 1993||6 Dec 1994||Digital Ocean, Inc.||Medium access control protocol for wireless network|
|US5372992||3 Jan 1994||13 Dec 1994||Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.||Superconducting thin film|
|US5373166||24 Sep 1993||13 Dec 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Modulated strain heterostructure light emitting device|
|US5391515||17 Jun 1992||21 Feb 1995||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Capped anneal|
|US5393352||27 Sep 1993||28 Feb 1995||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Pb/Bi-containing high-dielectric constant oxides using a non-P/Bi-containing perovskite as a buffer layer|
|US5394489||27 Jul 1993||28 Feb 1995||At&T Corp.||Wavelength division multiplexed optical communication transmitters|
|US5395663||26 Apr 1993||7 Mar 1995||Kawasaki Jukogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Process for producing a perovskite film by irradiating a target of the perovskite with a laser beam and simultaneously irradiating the substrate upon which the perovskite is deposited with a laser beam|
|US5397428||28 Aug 1992||14 Mar 1995||The University Of North Carolina At Chapel Hill||Nucleation enhancement for chemical vapor deposition of diamond|
|US5399898||12 Nov 1992||21 Mar 1995||Lsi Logic Corporation||Multi-chip semiconductor arrangements using flip chip dies|
|US5404581||23 Jul 1992||4 Apr 1995||Nec Corporation||Microwave . millimeter wave transmitting and receiving module|
|US5405802||25 May 1994||11 Apr 1995||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Process of fabricating a semiconductor substrate|
|US5406202||8 Dec 1992||11 Apr 1995||Deutsche Itt Industries Gmbh||Offset-compensated hall sensor having plural hall detectors having different geometrical orientations and having switchable directions|
|US5418216||15 May 1992||23 May 1995||Fork; David K.||Superconducting thin films on epitaxial magnesium oxide grown on silicon|
|US5418389||9 Nov 1993||23 May 1995||Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation||Field-effect transistor with perovskite oxide channel|
|US5420102||1 Aug 1994||30 May 1995||Neocera, Inc.||Superconducting films on alkaline earth fluoride substrate with multiple buffer layers|
|US5427988||7 Mar 1994||27 Jun 1995||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Ceramic ferroelectric composite material - BSTO-MgO|
|US5436759||14 Jun 1994||25 Jul 1995||The Regents Of The University Of California||Cross-talk free, low-noise optical amplifier|
|US5438584||23 Dec 1993||1 Aug 1995||Xerox Corporation||Dual polarization laser diode with quaternary material system|
|US5441577||17 Jun 1994||15 Aug 1995||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Thin film solar cell and production method therefor|
|US5442191||5 Jul 1994||15 Aug 1995||Yale University||Isotopically enriched semiconductor devices|
|US5442561||10 May 1993||15 Aug 1995||Nippon Telegraph And Telephone Corporation||Production management system and its application method|
|US5444016||25 Jun 1993||22 Aug 1995||Abrokwah; Jonathan K.||Method of making ohmic contacts to a complementary III-V semiconductor device|
|US5450812||8 Dec 1993||19 Sep 1995||Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.||Process for growing a film epitaxially upon an oxide surface and structures formed with the process|
|US5452118||20 Apr 1993||19 Sep 1995||Spire Corporation||Optical heterodyne receiver for fiber optic communications system|
|US5453727||16 Jul 1992||26 Sep 1995||Asahi Kasai Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Semiconductor sensors and method for fabricating the same|
|US5466631||23 Feb 1995||14 Nov 1995||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Method for producing semiconductor articles|
|US5473047||11 Oct 1994||5 Dec 1995||Motorola, Inc.||Soluble precursor to poly (cyanoterephthalydene) and method of preparation|
|US5473171||4 Apr 1994||5 Dec 1995||Texas Instruments Incorporated||High-dielectric constant oxides on semiconductors using a Ge buffer layer|
|US5478653 *||4 Apr 1994||26 Dec 1995||Guenzer; Charles S.||Bismuth titanate as a template layer for growth of crystallographically oriented silicon|
|US5479033||27 May 1994||26 Dec 1995||Sandia Corporation||Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor|
|US5479317||5 Oct 1994||26 Dec 1995||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Ferroelectric capacitor heterostructure and method of making same|
|US5480829||25 Jun 1993||2 Jan 1996||Motorola, Inc.||Method of making a III-V complementary heterostructure device with compatible non-gold ohmic contacts|
|US5481102||31 Mar 1994||2 Jan 1996||Hazelrigg, Jr.; George A.||Micromechanical/microelectromechanical identification devices and methods of fabrication and encoding thereof|
|US5482003||6 Jul 1993||9 Jan 1996||Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.||Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process|
|US5484664||21 Jan 1994||16 Jan 1996||Fujitsu Limited||Hetero-epitaxially grown compound semiconductor substrate|
|US5486406||7 Nov 1994||23 Jan 1996||Motorola||Green-emitting organometallic complexes for use in light emitting devices|
|US5491461||9 May 1994||13 Feb 1996||General Motors Corporation||Magnetic field sensor on elemental semiconductor substrate with electric field reduction means|
|US5492859||6 Jan 1995||20 Feb 1996||Canon Kk||Method for producing semiconductor device substrate by bonding a porous layer and an amorphous layer|
|US5494711||11 Jan 1994||27 Feb 1996||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Method of preparing InSb thin film|
|US5504035||12 Aug 1993||2 Apr 1996||Lsi Logic Corporation||Process for solder ball interconnecting a semiconductor device to a substrate using a noble metal foil embedded interposer substrate|
|US5504183||12 Sep 1994||2 Apr 1996||Motorola||Organometallic fluorescent complex polymers for light emitting applications|
|US5511238||26 Jun 1987||23 Apr 1996||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Monolithic microwave transmitter/receiver|
|US5512773||20 Dec 1994||30 Apr 1996||U.S. Philips Corporation||Switching element with memory provided with Schottky tunnelling barrier|
|US5514484||19 Oct 1993||7 May 1996||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Oriented ferroelectric thin film|
|US5514904||26 Aug 1994||7 May 1996||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Semiconductor device with monocrystalline gate insulating film|
|US5515047||20 Dec 1993||7 May 1996||Hitachi, Ltd.||Converter, offset adjustor, and portable communication terminal unit|
|US5515810||22 Mar 1995||14 May 1996||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method and apparatus for manufacturing semi-insulation GaAs monocrystal|
|US5516725||30 Jun 1993||14 May 1996||Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation||Process for preparing schottky diode contacts with predetermined barrier heights|
|US5519235||18 Nov 1994||21 May 1996||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Polycrystalline ferroelectric capacitor heterostructure employing hybrid electrodes|
|US5528057||27 May 1994||18 Jun 1996||Omron Corporation||Semiconductor luminous element with light reflection and focusing configuration|
|US5528067||8 May 1995||18 Jun 1996||Hughes Aircraft Company||Magnetic field detection|
|US5528414||5 May 1994||18 Jun 1996||Lots Technology||Two dimensional electro-optic modulator array|
|US5530235||16 Feb 1995||25 Jun 1996||Xerox Corporation||Interactive contents revealing storage device|
|US5538941||28 Feb 1994||23 Jul 1996||University Of Maryland||Superconductor/insulator metal oxide hetero structure for electric field tunable microwave device|
|US5541422||12 Dec 1994||30 Jul 1996||U.S. Philips Corporation||Tunnel diode with several permanent switching states|
|US5549977||15 Apr 1994||27 Aug 1996||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Article comprising magnetoresistive material|
|US5551238||23 Aug 1995||3 Sep 1996||Prueitt; Melvin L.||Hydro-air renewable power system|
|US5552547||13 Feb 1995||3 Sep 1996||Shi; Song Q.||Organometallic complexes with built-in fluorescent dyes for use in light emitting devices|
|US5553089||18 Oct 1994||3 Sep 1996||Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha||Semiconductor laser stack with lens and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5556463||5 Jun 1995||17 Sep 1996||Guenzer; Charles S.||Crystallographically oriented growth of silicon over a glassy substrate|
|US5561305||16 Feb 1994||1 Oct 1996||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Method and apparatus for performing internal device structure analysis of a dual channel transistor by multiple-frequency Schubnikov-de Haas analysis|
|US5569953||24 May 1995||29 Oct 1996||Fujitsu Limited||Semiconductor device having an isolation region enriched in oxygen|
|US5572052||19 Jan 1995||5 Nov 1996||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Electronic device using zirconate titanate and barium titanate ferroelectrics in insulating layer|
|US5576879||19 Oct 1994||19 Nov 1996||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Composite optical modulator|
|US5588995||3 May 1995||31 Dec 1996||Midwest Research Institute||System for monitoring the growth of crystalline films on stationary substrates|
|US5589284||7 Jun 1995||31 Dec 1996||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Electrodes comprising conductive perovskite-seed layers for perovskite dielectrics|
|US5596205||19 May 1995||21 Jan 1997||Peregrine Semiconductor Corporation||High-frequency wireless communication system on a single ultrathin silicon on sapphire chip|
|US5596214||30 May 1995||21 Jan 1997||Nec Corporation||Non-volatile semiconductor memory device having a metal-insulator-semiconductor gate structure and method for fabricating the same|
|US5602418||7 Aug 1992||11 Feb 1997||Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Nitride based semiconductor device and manufacture thereof|
|US5603764||5 Jan 1995||18 Feb 1997||Sumitomo Chemical Company, Limited||Process for crystal growth of III-V group compound semiconductor|
|US5606184||4 May 1995||25 Feb 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Heterostructure field effect device having refractory ohmic contact directly on channel layer and method for making|
|US5608046||29 Sep 1994||4 Mar 1997||Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.||Conjugated 4'-desmethyl nucleoside analog compounds|
|US5610744||16 Feb 1995||11 Mar 1997||Board Of Trustees Of The University Of Illinois||Optical communications and interconnection networks having opto-electronic switches and direct optical routers|
|US5614739||2 Jun 1995||25 Mar 1997||Motorola||HIGFET and method|
|US5619051||23 Jun 1995||8 Apr 1997||Nec Corporation||Semiconductor nonvolatile memory cell|
|US5621227||18 Jul 1995||15 Apr 1997||Discovery Semiconductors, Inc.||Method and apparatus for monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit using selective epitaxy|
|US5623439||12 May 1995||22 Apr 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Ferroelectric memory device|
|US5623552||15 Aug 1995||22 Apr 1997||Cardguard International, Inc.||Self-authenticating identification card with fingerprint identification|
|US5629532 *||7 Jun 1995||13 May 1997||Myrick; James J.||Diamond-like carbon optical waveguide|
|US5629534||2 Aug 1996||13 May 1997||Nippondenso Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor device|
|US5633724||29 Aug 1995||27 May 1997||Hewlett-Packard Company||Evanescent scanning of biochemical array|
|US5635433||11 Sep 1995||3 Jun 1997||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Ceramic ferroelectric composite material-BSTO-ZnO|
|US5640267||1 Mar 1995||17 Jun 1997||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Optical apparatus|
|US5648294 *||7 Jun 1995||15 Jul 1997||Texas Instruments Incorp.||Integrated circuit and method|
|US5650646||27 Feb 1995||22 Jul 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Pb/Bi-containing high-dielectric constant oxides using a non-Pb/Bi-containing perovskite as a buffer layer|
|US5656382||18 Mar 1996||12 Aug 1997||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Oriented conductive film and process for preparing the same|
|US5659180||13 Nov 1995||19 Aug 1997||Motorola||Heterojunction interband tunnel diodes with improved P/V current ratios|
|US5661112||22 Jul 1988||26 Aug 1997||Hatta; Shinichiro||Superconductor|
|US5668048||3 Mar 1995||16 Sep 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Method of making a semiconductor device utilizing crystal orientation dependence of impurity concentration|
|US5670798||29 Mar 1995||23 Sep 1997||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of Group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact non-nitride buffer layer and methods of fabricating same|
|US5670800||14 Jun 1995||23 Sep 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Semiconductor device and method for fabricating the same|
|US5674366||7 Jun 1995||7 Oct 1997||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for fabrication of dielectric thin film|
|US5679965||9 Nov 1995||21 Oct 1997||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of Group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact, non-nitride buffer layer and methods of fabricating same|
|US5682046||3 Nov 1995||28 Oct 1997||Fujitsu Limited||Heterojunction bipolar semiconductor device and its manufacturing method|
|US5686741||6 Dec 1995||11 Nov 1997||Fujitsu, Ltd.||Compound semiconductor device on silicon substrate and method of manufacturing the same|
|US5689123||1 Oct 1996||18 Nov 1997||Sdl, Inc.||III-V aresenide-nitride semiconductor materials and devices|
|US5725641||30 Oct 1996||10 Mar 1998||Macleod; Cheryl A.||Lightfast inks for ink-jet printing|
|US5729394||24 Jan 1996||17 Mar 1998||Hewlett-Packard Company||Multi-direction optical data port|
|US5729641||30 May 1996||17 Mar 1998||Sdl, Inc.||Optical device employing edge-coupled waveguide geometry|
|US5731220||7 Jun 1995||24 Mar 1998||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of making barium strontium titanate (BST) thin film by erbium donor doping|
|US5733641||31 May 1996||31 Mar 1998||Xerox Corporation||Buffered substrate for semiconductor devices|
|US5734672||6 Aug 1996||31 Mar 1998||Cutting Edge Optronics, Inc.||Smart laser diode array assembly and operating method using same|
|US5735949||13 Sep 1991||7 Apr 1998||Forschungszentrum Julich Gmbh||Method of producing electronic, electrooptical and optical components|
|US5741724||27 Dec 1996||21 Apr 1998||Motorola||Method of growing gallium nitride on a spinel substrate|
|US5745631||26 Jan 1996||28 Apr 1998||Irvine Sensors Corporation||Self-aligning optical beam system|
|US5753300||19 Jun 1995||19 May 1998||Northwestern University||Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films|
|US5753928||26 Feb 1996||19 May 1998||Siemens Components, Inc.||Monolithic optical emitter-detector|
|US5754319||16 Sep 1996||19 May 1998||Alcatel N.V.||Optical amplifier combiner arrangement and method for upstream transmission realized thereby|
|US5760426||16 Jul 1996||2 Jun 1998||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Heteroepitaxial semiconductor device including silicon substrate, GaAs layer and GaN layer #13|
|US5760427||5 Dec 1995||2 Jun 1998||Nec Corporation||High electron mobility transistor with an improved interface between donor and schottky layers|
|US5764676||26 Sep 1996||9 Jun 1998||Xerox Corporation||Transversely injected multiple wavelength diode laser array formed by layer disordering|
|US5767543||16 Sep 1996||16 Jun 1998||Motorola, Inc.||Ferroelectric semiconductor device having a layered ferroelectric structure|
|US5770887||11 Oct 1994||23 Jun 1998||Mitsubishi Cable Industries, Ltd.||GaN single crystal|
|US5776359||8 May 1995||7 Jul 1998||Symyx Technologies||Giant magnetoresistive cobalt oxide compounds|
|US5776621||25 Oct 1995||7 Jul 1998||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Oriented ferroelectric thin film element|
|US5777350||30 Nov 1995||7 Jul 1998||Nichia Chemical Industries, Ltd.||Nitride semiconductor light-emitting device|
|US5777762||24 Sep 1997||7 Jul 1998||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Network system for performing bidirectional transmission, and node device and transmission control method used in the system|
|US5778018||15 Sep 1995||7 Jul 1998||Nec Corporation||VCSELs (vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers) and VCSEL-based devices|
|US5778116||23 Jan 1997||7 Jul 1998||Tomich; John L.||Photonic home area network fiber/power insertion apparatus|
|US5780311||15 Jan 1997||14 Jul 1998||Harris Corporation||bonded wafer processing|
|US5789733||20 Sep 1996||4 Aug 1998||Motorola, Inc.||Smart card with contactless optical interface|
|US5789845||15 Nov 1995||4 Aug 1998||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Film bulk acoustic wave device|
|US5790583||24 May 1996||4 Aug 1998||Northwestern University||Photonic-well Microcavity light emitting devices|
|US5792569||19 Mar 1996||11 Aug 1998||International Business Machines Corporation||Magnetic devices and sensors based on perovskite manganese oxide materials|
|US5792679||30 Aug 1993||11 Aug 1998||Sharp Microelectronics Technology, Inc.||Method for forming silicon-germanium/Si/silicon dioxide heterostructure using germanium implant|
|US5796648||10 Dec 1996||18 Aug 1998||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Nonvolatile semiconductor memory device and method for manufacturing same|
|US5801072||14 Mar 1996||1 Sep 1998||Lsi Logic Corporation||Method of packaging integrated circuits|
|US5801105||14 Jun 1996||1 Sep 1998||Tdk Corporation||Multilayer thin film, substrate for electronic device, electronic device, and preparation of multilayer oxide thin film|
|US5807440||18 Jun 1996||15 Sep 1998||Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.||Photovoltaic device|
|US5810923||10 May 1996||22 Sep 1998||Tdk Corporation||Method for forming oxide thin film and the treatment of silicon substrate|
|US5812272||30 Jan 1997||22 Sep 1998||Hewlett-Packard Company||Apparatus and method with tiled light source array for integrated assay sensing|
|US5814583||1 Jul 1996||29 Sep 1998||Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.||Superconducting thin film and a method for preparing the same|
|US5815084||31 May 1996||29 Sep 1998||Harrow Products, Inc.||Programmer for contact readable electronic control system and programming method therefor|
|US5825055||3 Jan 1997||20 Oct 1998||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Fabricating high-dielectric constant oxides on semiconductors using a GE buffer layer|
|US5825799||25 May 1995||20 Oct 1998||Northwestern University||Microcavity semiconductor laser|
|US5827755||22 Aug 1995||27 Oct 1998||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Liquid crystal image display unit and method for fabricating semiconductor optical member|
|US5828080||17 Aug 1995||27 Oct 1998||Tdk Corporation||Oxide thin film, electronic device substrate and electronic device|
|US5830270||5 Aug 1996||3 Nov 1998||Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.||CaTiO3 Interfacial template structure on semiconductor-based material and the growth of electroceramic thin-films in the perovskite class|
|US5833603||13 Mar 1996||10 Nov 1998||Lipomatrix, Inc.||Implantable biosensing transponder|
|US5834362||21 Mar 1996||10 Nov 1998||Fujitsu Limited||Method of making a device having a heteroepitaxial substrate|
|US5838035||10 Jun 1997||17 Nov 1998||Bell Communications Research, Inc.||Barrier layer for ferroelectric capacitor integrated on silicon|
|US5844260||24 Sep 1997||1 Dec 1998||Fujitsu Limited||Compound semiconductor device constructed on a heteroepitaxial substrate|
|US5846846||20 Nov 1995||8 Dec 1998||Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute||Method for making a superconducting field-effect device with grain boundary channel|
|US5852687||9 Jul 1997||22 Dec 1998||Trw Inc.||Integrated optical time delay unit|
|US5857049||5 May 1997||5 Jan 1999||Lucent Technologies, Inc.,||Precision alignment of optoelectronic devices|
|US5858814||12 Dec 1996||12 Jan 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Hybrid chip and method therefor|
|US5861966||27 Dec 1995||19 Jan 1999||Nynex Science & Technology, Inc.||Broad band optical fiber telecommunications network|
|US5863326||14 Mar 1997||26 Jan 1999||Cermet, Inc.||Pressurized skull crucible for crystal growth using the Czochralski technique|
|US5869845||26 Jun 1997||9 Feb 1999||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Resonant tunneling memory|
|US5872493||13 Mar 1997||16 Feb 1999||Nokia Mobile Phones, Ltd.||Bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filter having a top portion that includes a protective acoustic mirror|
|US5873977||22 Feb 1995||23 Feb 1999||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Dry etching of layer structure oxides|
|US5874860||4 Dec 1996||23 Feb 1999||Motorola, Inc.||High frequency amplifier and control|
|US5879956||26 Nov 1996||9 Mar 1999||Lg Semicon Co., Ltd.||Method of forming a perovskite structure semiconductor capacitor|
|US5880452||13 Aug 1997||9 Mar 1999||Geo Labs, Inc.||Laser based PCMCIA data collection system with automatic triggering for portable applications and method of use|
|US5883564||11 Sep 1996||16 Mar 1999||General Motors Corporation||Magnetic field sensor having high mobility thin indium antimonide active layer on thin aluminum indium antimonide buffer layer|
|US5883996||2 Jul 1997||16 Mar 1999||Motorola, Inc.||Electronic component for aligning a light transmitting structure|
|US5886867||10 Mar 1997||23 Mar 1999||Northern Telecom Limited||Ferroelectric dielectric for integrated circuit applications at microwave frequencies|
|US5888296||29 Sep 1997||30 Mar 1999||Motorola, Inc.||Method for making a ferroelectric semiconductor device and a layered structure|
|US5889296||30 May 1997||30 Mar 1999||Fujitsu Limited||Semiconductor optical device and an optical processing system that uses such a semiconductor optical system|
|US5896476||17 Jul 1997||20 Apr 1999||Trw Inc.||Optical loop signal processing using reflection mechanisms|
|US5907792||25 Aug 1997||25 May 1999||Motorola,Inc.||Method of forming a silicon nitride layer|
|US5912068||5 Dec 1996||15 Jun 1999||The Regents Of The University Of California||Epitaxial oxides on amorphous SiO2 on single crystal silicon|
|US5926493||20 May 1997||20 Jul 1999||Sdl, Inc.||Optical semiconductor device with diffraction grating structure|
|US5926496||20 May 1997||20 Jul 1999||Northwestern University||Semiconductor micro-resonator device|
|US5937274||18 Dec 1997||10 Aug 1999||Hitachi, Ltd.||Fabrication method for AlGaIn NPAsSb based devices|
|US5937285||23 May 1997||10 Aug 1999||Motorola, Inc.||Method of fabricating submicron FETs with low temperature group III-V material|
|US5948161||24 Mar 1995||7 Sep 1999||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Method of fabricating a semiconductor device and method of cleaning a crystalline semiconductor surface|
|US5953468||5 Feb 1998||14 Sep 1999||Mendez R&D Associates||Scalable, quantized, delay-line array based on nested, generalized spirals|
|US5955591||13 Mar 1997||21 Sep 1999||Imbach; Jean-Louis||Phosphotriester oligonucleotides, amidites and method of preparation|
|US5959879||31 Mar 1998||28 Sep 1999||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Ferroelectric memory devices having well region word lines and methods of operating same|
|US5962069||25 Jul 1997||5 Oct 1999||Symetrix Corporation||Process for fabricating layered superlattice materials and AB03 type metal oxides without exposure to oxygen at high temperatures|
|US5963291||21 Jul 1997||5 Oct 1999||Chorum Technologies Inc.||Optical attenuator using polarization modulation and a feedback controller|
|US5963949||22 Dec 1997||5 Oct 1999||Amazon.Com, Inc.||Method for data gathering around forms and search barriers|
|US5966323||18 Dec 1997||12 Oct 1999||Motorola, Inc.||Low switching field magnetoresistive tunneling junction for high density arrays|
|US5977567||6 Jan 1998||2 Nov 1999||Lightlogic, Inc.||Optoelectronic assembly and method of making the same|
|US5981400||18 Sep 1997||9 Nov 1999||Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.||Compliant universal substrate for epitaxial growth|
|US5981976||4 Dec 1997||9 Nov 1999||Showa Denko K.K.||Epitaxial wafer for AlGaInP light-emitting diode|
|US5981980||18 Apr 1997||9 Nov 1999||Sony Corporation||Semiconductor laminating structure|
|US5984190||15 May 1997||16 Nov 1999||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for identifying integrated circuits|
|US5987011||30 Aug 1996||16 Nov 1999||Chai-Keong Toh||Routing method for Ad-Hoc mobile networks|
|US5990495||18 Jul 1996||23 Nov 1999||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Semiconductor light-emitting element and method for manufacturing the same|
|US5995359||19 May 1997||30 Nov 1999||U.S. Philips Corporation||Electronic component and method of manufacturing same|
|US5995528||28 Mar 1997||30 Nov 1999||Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor laser|
|US6002375||2 Sep 1997||14 Dec 1999||Motorola, Inc.||Multi-substrate radio-frequency circuit|
|US6008762||31 Mar 1997||28 Dec 1999||Qualcomm Incorporated||Folded quarter-wave patch antenna|
|US6011641||30 Oct 1997||4 Jan 2000||Korea Advanced Institute Of Science And Technology||Wavelength insensitive passive polarization converter employing electro-optic polymer waveguides|
|US6011646||20 Feb 1998||4 Jan 2000||The Regents Of The Unviersity Of California||Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics|
|US6013553||15 Jul 1998||11 Jan 2000||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Zirconium and/or hafnium oxynitride gate dielectric|
|US6020222||16 Dec 1997||1 Feb 2000||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Silicon oxide insulator (SOI) semiconductor having selectively linked body|
|US6022140||19 Sep 1997||8 Feb 2000||Braun Thermoscan||Enhanced protective lens cover for an infrared thermometer|
|US6022410||1 Sep 1998||8 Feb 2000||Motorola, Inc.||Alkaline-earth metal silicides on silicon|
|US6022963||10 Apr 1996||8 Feb 2000||Affymetrix, Inc.||Synthesis of oligonucleotide arrays using photocleavable protecting groups|
|US6023082||30 Jul 1998||8 Feb 2000||Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation||Strain-based control of crystal anisotropy for perovskite oxides on semiconductor-based material|
|US6028853||6 Jun 1997||22 Feb 2000||Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson||Method and arrangement for radio communication|
|US6039803||27 Feb 1997||21 Mar 2000||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Utilization of miscut substrates to improve relaxed graded silicon-germanium and germanium layers on silicon|
|US6045626||23 Jun 1998||4 Apr 2000||Tdk Corporation||Substrate structures for electronic devices|
|US6046464||13 Aug 1997||4 Apr 2000||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact comprising multiple quantum well|
|US6048751||13 Dec 1995||11 Apr 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Process for manufacture of composite semiconductor devices|
|US6049702||4 Dec 1997||11 Apr 2000||Rockwell Science Center, Llc||Integrated passive transceiver section|
|US6051858||15 Jul 1997||18 Apr 2000||Symetrix Corporation||Ferroelectric/high dielectric constant integrated circuit and method of fabricating same|
|US6055179||17 May 1999||25 Apr 2000||Canon Kk||Memory device utilizing giant magnetoresistance effect|
|US6058131||17 Nov 1997||2 May 2000||E-Tek Dynamics, Inc.||Wavelength stabilization of laser source using fiber Bragg grating feedback|
|US6064078||22 May 1998||16 May 2000||Xerox Corporation||Formation of group III-V nitride films on sapphire substrates with reduced dislocation densities|
|US6064092||13 Apr 1999||16 May 2000||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor-on-insulator substrates containing electrically insulating mesas|
|US6078717||20 Jul 1998||20 Jun 2000||Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.||Opical waveguide device|
|US6083697||13 Nov 1997||4 Jul 2000||Affymetrix, Inc.||Chemical amplification for the synthesis of patterned arrays|
|US6087681||8 Sep 1998||11 Jul 2000||Rohm Co., Ltd.||GaN semiconductor light emitting device having a group III-V substrate|
|US6088216||28 Apr 1995||11 Jul 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Lead silicate based capacitor structures|
|US6090659||19 May 1999||18 Jul 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Lead silicate based capacitor structures|
|US6093302||5 Jan 1998||25 Jul 2000||Combimatrix Corporation||Electrochemical solid phase synthesis|
|US6096584||12 Mar 1998||1 Aug 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Silicon-on-insulator and CMOS-on-SOI double film fabrication process with a coplanar silicon and isolation layer and adding a second silicon layer on one region|
|US6100578||28 Aug 1998||8 Aug 2000||Sony Corporation||Silicon-based functional matrix substrate and optical integrated oxide device|
|US6103008||30 Jul 1998||15 Aug 2000||Ut-Battelle, Llc||Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications|
|US6103403||15 May 1997||15 Aug 2000||University Of Kentucky Research Foundation Intellectual Property Development||Clathrate structure for electronic and electro-optic applications|
|US6107653||23 Jun 1998||22 Aug 2000||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Controlling threading dislocation densities in Ge on Si using graded GeSi layers and planarization|
|US6107721||27 Jul 1999||22 Aug 2000||Tfr Technologies, Inc.||Piezoelectric resonators on a differentially offset reflector|
|US6108125||13 Oct 1998||22 Aug 2000||Nec Corporation||Optical regenerative repeater|
|US6113690||8 Jun 1998||5 Sep 2000||Motorola, Inc.||Method of preparing crystalline alkaline earth metal oxides on a Si substrate|
|US6114996||31 Mar 1997||5 Sep 2000||Qualcomm Incorporated||Increased bandwidth patch antenna|
|US6121642||20 Jul 1998||19 Sep 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Junction mott transition field effect transistor (JMTFET) and switch for logic and memory applications|
|US6121647||26 Jun 1997||19 Sep 2000||Tdk Corporation||Film structure, electronic device, recording medium, and process of preparing ferroelectric thin films|
|US6128178||20 Jul 1998||3 Oct 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Very thin film capacitor for dynamic random access memory (DRAM)|
|US6134114||19 Feb 1999||17 Oct 2000||Stocko Metallwarenfabriken Henkels Und Sohn Gmbh & Co||Vertically assembled chip card reader|
|US6136666||30 Dec 1998||24 Oct 2000||Hyundai Electronics Industries Co., Ltd.||Method for fabricating silicon-on-insulator wafer|
|US6137603||15 Oct 1997||24 Oct 2000||Nec Corporation||Optical network, optical division and insertion node and recovery system from network failure|
|US6139483||27 Jul 1993||31 Oct 2000||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of forming lateral resonant tunneling devices|
|US6143072||6 Apr 1999||7 Nov 2000||Ut-Battelle, Llc||Generic process for preparing a crystalline oxide upon a group IV semiconductor substrate|
|US6143366||24 Dec 1998||7 Nov 2000||Lu; Chung Hsin||High-pressure process for crystallization of ceramic films at low temperatures|
|US6146906||16 Sep 1999||14 Nov 2000||Nec Corporation||DC magnetron sputtering method for manufacturing electrode of ferroelectric capacitor|
|US6150239||30 Sep 1998||21 Nov 2000||Max Planck Society||Method for the transfer of thin layers monocrystalline material onto a desirable substrate|
|US6153010||9 Apr 1998||28 Nov 2000||Nichia Chemical Industries Ltd.||Method of growing nitride semiconductors, nitride semiconductor substrate and nitride semiconductor device|
|US6153454||9 Jul 1997||28 Nov 2000||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Convex device with selectively doped channel|
|US6156581||3 Dec 1997||5 Dec 2000||Advanced Technology Materials, Inc.||GaN-based devices using (Ga, AL, In)N base layers|
|US6173474||14 Jul 1999||16 Jan 2001||Fantom Technologies Inc.||Construction of a vacuum cleaner head|
|US6174755||29 Apr 1999||16 Jan 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Methods of forming SOI insulator layers and methods of forming transistor devices|
|US6175497||11 Mar 1999||16 Jan 2001||World Wiser Electronics Inc.||Thermal vias-provided cavity-down IC package structure|
|US6175555||11 Jun 1998||16 Jan 2001||At&T Wireless Svcs. Inc.||Transmit/receive compensation|
|US6180252||15 Aug 1997||30 Jan 2001||Energenius, Inc.||Semiconductor supercapacitor system, method for making same and articles produced therefrom|
|US6180486||16 Feb 1999||30 Jan 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Process of fabricating planar and densely patterned silicon-on-insulator structure|
|US6184044||10 Dec 1998||6 Feb 2001||Nec Corporation||Thin film capacitor including perovskite-type oxide layers having columnar structure and granular structure|
|US6184144||6 Oct 1998||6 Feb 2001||Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.||Methods for growing defect-free heteroepitaxial layers|
|US6191011||28 Sep 1998||20 Feb 2001||Ag Associates (Israel) Ltd.||Selective hemispherical grain silicon deposition|
|US6194753||20 Jan 1999||27 Feb 2001||Hyundai Electronics Industries Co., Ltd.||Method of forming a perovskite structure semiconductor capacitor|
|US6197503||26 Nov 1997||6 Mar 2001||Ut-Battelle, Llc||Integrated circuit biochip microsystem containing lens|
|US6204737||27 May 1999||20 Mar 2001||Nokia Mobile Phones, Ltd||Piezoelectric resonator structures with a bending element performing a voltage controlled switching function|
|US6208453||30 Mar 1998||27 Mar 2001||Northwestern University||Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices|
|US6210988||14 Jan 2000||3 Apr 2001||The Regents Of The University Of California||Polycrystalline silicon germanium films for forming micro-electromechanical systems|
|US6211096||21 Mar 1997||3 Apr 2001||Lsi Logic Corporation||Tunable dielectric constant oxide and method of manufacture|
|US6222654||4 Aug 1997||24 Apr 2001||Lucent Technologies, Inc.||Optical node system for a ring architecture and method thereof|
|US6224669||14 Sep 2000||1 May 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Method for fabricating a semiconductor structure having a crystalline alkaline earth metal oxide interface with silicon|
|US6225051||15 Apr 1997||1 May 2001||Haruo Sugiyama||Method of detecting solid cancer cells and tissue atypia and method of testing tissues for use in bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation|
|US6229159||31 Aug 1999||8 May 2001||Sony Corporation||Silicon-based functional matrix substrate and optical integrated oxide device|
|US6232910||19 Feb 1999||15 May 2001||Amerigon, Inc.||High performance vehicle radar system|
|US6235145||20 Jul 1998||22 May 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||System for wafer cleaning|
|US6238946||17 Aug 1999||29 May 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for fabricating single crystal resonant devices that are compatible with integrated circuit processing|
|US6239449||14 Apr 1999||29 May 2001||National Research Council Of Canada||Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIP)|
|US6241821||22 Mar 1999||5 Jun 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Method for fabricating a semiconductor structure having a crystalline alkaline earth metal oxide interface with silicon|
|US6242686||11 Jun 1999||5 Jun 2001||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||Photovoltaic device and process for producing the same|
|US6248459||22 Mar 1999||19 Jun 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Semiconductor structure having a crystalline alkaline earth metal oxide interface with silicon|
|US6248621||20 Oct 1999||19 Jun 2001||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of growing high-quality crystalline silicon quantum wells for RTD structures|
|US6252261||28 Jun 1999||26 Jun 2001||Nec Corporation||GaN crystal film, a group III element nitride semiconductor wafer and a manufacturing process therefor|
|US6253649||16 Nov 1999||3 Jul 2001||Yugenkaisha Shinjo Seisakusho||Screw with a recessed head and a driver bit engageable therewith|
|US6255198||17 Nov 1999||3 Jul 2001||North Carolina State University||Methods of fabricating gallium nitride microelectronic layers on silicon layers and gallium nitride microelectronic structures formed thereby|
|US6256426||7 Dec 1999||3 Jul 2001||Alcatel||Semiconductor phase modulator|
|US6265749||14 Oct 1997||24 Jul 2001||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Metal silicide transistor gate spaced from a semiconductor substrate by a ceramic gate dielectric having a high dielectric constant|
|US6268269||30 Dec 1999||31 Jul 2001||United Microelectronics Corp.||Method for fabricating an oxide layer on silicon with carbon ions introduced at the silicon/oxide interface in order to reduce hot carrier effects|
|US6271619||13 May 1997||7 Aug 2001||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Piezoelectric thin film device|
|US6275122||17 Aug 1999||14 Aug 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Encapsulated MEMS band-pass filter for integrated circuits|
|US6277436||18 Dec 1998||21 Aug 2001||Advanced Technology Materials, Inc.||Liquid delivery MOCVD process for deposition of high frequency dielectric materials|
|US6278137||5 Mar 1998||21 Aug 2001||Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation||Semiconductor light-emitting devices|
|US6278138||31 Aug 1999||21 Aug 2001||Sony Corporation||Silicon-based functional matrix substrate and optical integrated oxide device|
|US6278523||13 Feb 1998||21 Aug 2001||Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique-Cnrs||Optical sensor on a silicon substrate and application for the in situ measurement of a fluorescent marker in the small bronchia|
|US6291319||17 Dec 1999||18 Sep 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Method for fabricating a semiconductor structure having a stable crystalline interface with silicon|
|US6297842||21 Sep 1995||2 Oct 2001||Oki Data Corporation||Organic electroluminescent light-emitting array and optical head assembly|
|US6300615||27 Aug 1999||9 Oct 2001||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Photoelectric conversion apparatus|
|US6306668||23 Sep 1999||23 Oct 2001||Ut-Battelle, Llc||Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials|
|US6312819||26 May 1999||6 Nov 2001||The Regents Of The University Of California||Oriented conductive oxide electrodes on SiO2/Si and glass|
|US6313486||15 Jun 2000||6 Nov 2001||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Floating gate transistor having buried strained silicon germanium channel layer|
|US6316785||14 Oct 1999||13 Nov 2001||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Nitride-compound semiconductor device|
|US6316832||13 Nov 1998||13 Nov 2001||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Moldless semiconductor device and photovoltaic device module making use of the same|
|US6319730||15 Jul 1999||20 Nov 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Method of fabricating a semiconductor structure including a metal oxide interface|
|US6320238||25 Jun 1999||20 Nov 2001||Agere Systems Guardian Corp.||Gate structure for integrated circuit fabrication|
|US6323057 *||9 Aug 2000||27 Nov 2001||Nec Corporation||Method of producing a thin-film capacitor|
|US6326637||18 Oct 1999||4 Dec 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled structure for magnetic tunnel junction device|
|US6326645||30 Aug 1999||4 Dec 2001||Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor photonic device|
|US6338756||15 Dec 2000||15 Jan 2002||Seh America, Inc.||In-situ post epitaxial treatment process|
|US6339664||4 Aug 2000||15 Jan 2002||British Technology Group Intercorporate Licensing Limited||Wavelength division multiplexing|
|US6340788||2 Dec 1999||22 Jan 2002||Hughes Electronics Corporation||Multijunction photovoltaic cells and panels using a silicon or silicon-germanium active substrate cell for space and terrestrial applications|
|US6343171||20 Apr 1999||29 Jan 2002||Fujitsu Limited||Systems based on opto-electronic substrates with electrical and optical interconnections and methods for making|
|US6345424||5 Jun 1995||12 Feb 2002||Seiko Epson Corporation||Production method for forming liquid spray head|
|US6348373||29 Mar 2000||19 Feb 2002||Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc.||Method for improving electrical properties of high dielectric constant films|
|US6359330||24 May 1999||19 Mar 2002||Alcatel||Optoelectronic module and method for stabilizing its temperature|
|US6362017||2 Jun 2000||26 Mar 2002||Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.||Light-emitting semiconductor device using gallium nitride group compound|
|US6365420 *||16 Mar 2001||2 Apr 2002||Fujitsu Limited||Method of forming dielectric film with good crystallinity and low leak|
|US6367699||17 Sep 1998||9 Apr 2002||Intermec Ip Corp.||Method and apparatus for utilizing specular light to image low contrast symbols|
|US6372356||28 Apr 2000||16 Apr 2002||Xerox Corporation||Compliant substrates for growing lattice mismatched films|
|US6372813||25 Jun 1999||16 Apr 2002||Motorola||Methods and compositions for attachment of biomolecules to solid supports, hydrogels, and hydrogel arrays|
|US6389209||7 Sep 1999||14 May 2002||Agere Systems Optoelectronics Guardian Corp.||Strain free planar optical waveguides|
|US6391674||28 Dec 2000||21 May 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for fabricating single crystal resonant devices that are compatible with integrated circuit processing|
|US6392257||10 Feb 2000||21 May 2002||Motorola Inc.||Semiconductor structure, semiconductor device, communicating device, integrated circuit, and process for fabricating the same|
|US6393167||18 Dec 1998||21 May 2002||Monica K. Davis||Fast, environmentally-stable fiber switches using a Sagnac interferometer|
|US6404027||7 Feb 2000||11 Jun 2002||Agere Systems Guardian Corp.||High dielectric constant gate oxides for silicon-based devices|
|US6410941||30 Jun 2000||25 Jun 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Reconfigurable systems using hybrid integrated circuits with optical ports|
|US6410947||12 May 2000||25 Jun 2002||Sony Corporation||Semiconductor device and process of production of same|
|US6411756||7 Feb 2001||25 Jun 2002||Chiaro Networks, Ltd.||Ultra-fast tunable optical filters|
|US6417059||29 May 2001||9 Jul 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Process for forming a silicon-germanium base of a heterojunction bipolar transistor|
|US6427066||30 Jun 2000||30 Jul 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Apparatus and method for effecting communications among a plurality of remote stations|
|US6432546||24 Jul 2000||13 Aug 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Microelectronic piezoelectric structure and method of forming the same|
|US6438281||30 Mar 2000||20 Aug 2002||Toppan Printing Co., Ltd.||Optical wiring layer, optoelectric wiring substrate, mounted substrate, and methods for manufacturing the same|
|US6461927||28 Aug 2001||8 Oct 2002||Hitachi, Ltd.||Semiconductor device and method of producing the same|
|US6462360||6 Aug 2001||8 Oct 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Integrated gallium arsenide communications systems|
|US20010013313||9 Feb 2001||16 Aug 2001||Motorola, Inc.||Apparatus for fabricating semiconductor structures and method of forming the structures|
|US20020006245||18 Jan 2001||17 Jan 2002||Yoshinobu Kubota||Optical circuit|
|US20020008234||23 Apr 2001||24 Jan 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Mixed-signal semiconductor structure, device including the structure, and methods of forming the device and the structure|
|US20020030246||25 Jul 2001||14 Mar 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Structure and method for fabricating semiconductor structures and devices not lattice matched to the substrate|
|US20020047123||7 Nov 2001||25 Apr 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Semiconductor structure, semiconductor device, communicating device, integrated circuit, and process for fabricating the same|
|US20020047143||7 Nov 2001||25 Apr 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Semiconductor structure, semiconductor device, communicating device, integrated circuit, and process for fabricating the same|
|US20020072245||8 Dec 2000||13 Jun 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Pyroelectric device on a monocrystalline semiconductor substrate and process for fabricating same|
|US20020131675||19 Mar 2001||19 Sep 2002||General Instrument Corporation||Time slot tunable all-optical packet data routing switch|
|DE10017137A1||6 Apr 2000||26 Oct 2000||Siemens Ag||Novel silicon structure, used for solar cells or LCD TFTs, comprises a crystalline textured silicon thin film over a biaxially textured lattice-matched diffusion barrier buffer layer on a thermal expansion-matched inert substrate|
|DE19607107A1||26 Feb 1996||28 Aug 1997||Sel Alcatel Ag||Light conductor to opto-electronic component coupling apparatus for optical communications|
|DE19712496A1||25 Mar 1997||30 Oct 1997||Mitsubishi Materials Corp||Piezoelectric thin-film component|
|EP0250171B1||12 Jun 1987||11 Nov 1992||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Compound semiconductor devices|
|EP0300499B1||22 Jul 1988||28 Sep 1994||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Composite superconductor layer|
|EP0309270B1||23 Sep 1988||30 Dec 1992||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Microwave oscillator|
|EP0331467B1||1 Mar 1989||14 Sep 1994||Fujitsu Limited||Method of forming semiconductor thin film|
|EP0342937B1||16 May 1989||27 Jul 1994||Fujitsu Limited||Manufacturing a semiconductor wafer having a III-V group semiconductor compound layer on a silicon substrate|
|EP0455526A1||3 Apr 1991||6 Nov 1991||Thomson-Csf||Process for adaptation between two crystallized semiconductor materials, and semiconductor device|
|EP0483993A3||15 Oct 1991||23 Sep 1992||Hughes Aircraft Company||Integrated optics gyroscope sensor|
|EP0514018A2||16 Apr 1992||19 Nov 1992||AT&T Corp.||Method for making low defect density semiconductor heterostructure and devices made thereby|
|EP0538611B1||9 Sep 1992||13 Mar 1996||Daimler-Benz Aktiengesellschaft||Multilayered composition with a single crystal beta-silicon carbide layer|
|EP0581239A3||28 Jul 1993||17 Aug 1994||Hughes Aircraft Co||Strained interband resonant tunneling negative resistance diode|
|EP0602568A3||10 Dec 1993||28 Dec 1994||Eastman Kodak Co||A multilayer structure having a (111)-oriented buffer layer.|
|EP0607435B1||7 Aug 1992||3 Nov 1999||Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha||Nitride based semiconductor device and manufacture thereof|
|EP0630057A3||14 Jun 1994||13 May 1998||Shin-Etsu Handotai Company Limited||A semiconductor device with optical waveguides to achieve signal transmission using optical means|
|EP0682266B1||4 Apr 1995||29 Aug 2001||Delphi Technologies, Inc.||Magnetic field sensor|
|EP0711853B1||5 Apr 1995||8 Sep 1999||Japan Energy Corporation||Method for growing gallium nitride compound semiconductor crystal, and gallium nitride compound semiconductor device|
|EP0777379B1||21 Nov 1995||20 Feb 2002||SGS-THOMSON MICROELECTRONICS S.r.l.||Adaptive optical sensor|
|EP0810666B1||16 May 1997||25 Aug 2004||Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.||Non-volatile semiconductor memory cell and method for production thereof|
|EP0875922A1||2 Apr 1998||4 Nov 1998||France Telecom||Etching-free technology for integration of components|
|EP0881669B1||30 May 1997||14 Dec 2005||Co.Ri.M.Me. Consorzio Per La Ricerca Sulla Microelettronica Nel Mezzogiorno||Manufacturing process of a germanium implanted heterojunction bipolar transistor|
|EP0884767A3||12 Jun 1998||26 Jan 2000||Dieter Prof. Dr. Bimberg||Method of epitaxy of gallium nitride on silicon substrates|
|EP0926739A1||11 Dec 1998||30 Jun 1999||Texas Instruments Incorporated||A structure of and method for forming a mis field effect transistor|
|EP0957522A3||12 May 1999||17 May 2000||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor memory device and method for fabricating the same|
|EP0964259B1||27 Feb 1998||16 Nov 2005||Asahi Kasei Electronics Co. Ltd.||Magnetic sensor|
|EP0964453A3||25 May 1999||10 May 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Article comprising an oxide layer on a GaAs-Based semiconductor body, and method of making the article|
|EP0993027A4||26 Mar 1998||29 May 2002||Sharp Kk||Method for manufacturing compound semiconductors|
|EP0999600A3||26 Aug 1999||13 Aug 2003||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Multi-band infrared photodetector|
|EP1001468A1||2 Nov 1999||17 May 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Rare earth oxide layer on a GaAs- or GaN-based semiconductor body|
|EP1043426A1||21 Mar 2000||11 Oct 2000||Motorola, Inc.||Method for fabricating a semiconductor structure having a single atomic layer with alkaline earth metal metal, oxygen and silicon at the interface between a silicon substrate and a single crystal oxide layer|
|EP1043765A1||15 Oct 1999||11 Oct 2000||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Thin film forming method, and semiconductor light emitting device manufacturing method|
|EP1069606A2||12 Jul 2000||17 Jan 2001||Motorola Inc.||Method for fabricating a semiconductor structure with reduced leakage current destiny|
|EP1085319B1||13 Sep 2000||1 Jun 2005||Interuniversitair Micro-Elektronica Centrum Vzw||A device for detecting an analyte in a sample based on organic materials|
|EP1109212B1||15 Dec 2000||17 May 2006||Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.||Semiconductor structure having a crystalline alkaline earth metal silicon nitride/oxide interface with silicon|
|FR2779843A1||Title not available|
|GB1319311A||Title not available|
|GB2335792B||Title not available|
|JP1102435A||Title not available|
|JP1179411A||Title not available|
|JP5086477B2||Title not available|
|JP5152529B2||Title not available|
|JP5288354B2||Title not available|
|JP5289070B2||Title not available|
|JP5291299B2||Title not available|
|JP5587424B2||Title not available|
|JP6136981A||Title not available|
|JP6163015A||Title not available|
|JP6232126A||Title not available|
|JP6291299A||Title not available|
|JP6334168A||Title not available|
|JP6334994A||Title not available|
|JP10256154A||Title not available|
|JP10303396A||Title not available|
|JP10321943A||Title not available|
|JP11135614A||Title not available|
|JP11238683A||Title not available|
|JP11260835A||Title not available|
|JP11340542A||Title not available|
|JP52135684A||Title not available|
|JP54134554U||Title not available|
|JP58075868U||Title not available|
|JP58213412A||Title not available|
|JP60210018A||Title not available|
|JP60212018A||Title not available|
|JP61108187U||Title not available|
|JP63131104A||Title not available|
|JP63198365U||Title not available|
|JP63289812A||Title not available|
|JP2000068466A||Title not available|
|JP2000351682A||Title not available|
|JPS5289070A *||Title not available|
|1||"Epitaxial 3d Structure Using Mixed Spinels," IBM Technical Bulletin, vol. 30, No. 3, Aug. 1987, p. 1271.|
|2||"GaInAs Superconducting FET," IBM Technical Bulletin, vil. 36, No. 8, Aug. 1993, p. 655-656.|
|3||"Integration of GaAs on Si Using a Spinel Buffer Layer", IBM Technical Bulletin, vol. 30, No. 6, Nov. 1987, p. 365.|
|4||"Technical Analysis of Qualcomm QCP-800 Portable Cellular Phone (Transmitter Circuitry)," Talus Corporation, Qualcomm QCP-800 Technical Analysis Report, Dec. 10, 1996, pp. 5-8.|
|5||A. J. Moulson et al.; "Electroceramics Materials Properties Applications"; Chapman & Hall; pp. 366-369.|
|6||A. Mansingh et al., "Surface Acoustic Wave Propagation in PZT/YBCO/SrTiO3 and PbTiO3/YBCO/SrTiO3 Epitaxial Heterostructures," Ferroelectric, vol. 224, pp. 275-282, 1999.|
|7||A. Y. Wu et al.; "Highly Oriented (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 Thin Films on Amorphous Substrates"; IEEE, 1992; pp. 301-304.|
|8||Abhay M. Joshi et al., "Monolithic InGaAs-on-silicon Wave Infrared Detector Arrays," Intn. Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 2999, pp. 211-224.|
|9||Alex Chediak et al; "Integration of GaAs/Si with Buffer Layers and Its Impact on Device Integration"; TICS 4, Prof. Sands. MSE 225, Apr. 12, 2002; pp. 1-5.|
|10||Antonio Mecozzi, et al.; "The Roles of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers in Optical Networks"; Optics & Photonics News; Mar. 2001; pp. 37-42.|
|11||Arnold Leitner et al.; "Pulsed Laser Deposition of Superconducting Strontium Titanate Thin-Films"; ; Session K11-Thin Films and Borocarbides; Mixed Saeson, Wednesday Afternoon; Mar. 19, 1997; Room 1202 B, Conv. Center (Abstract).|
|12||B. A. Block, et al; "Photoluminescence properties of Er<3>-doped BaTiO3 thin films"; Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (1), Jul. 4, 1994, pp. 25-27.|
|13||B. A. Block, et al; "Photoluminescence properties of Er3-doped BaTiO3 thin films"; Appl. Phys. Lett. 65 (1), Jul. 4, 1994, pp. 25-27.|
|14||Bang-Hung Tsao et al; "Sputtered Barium Titanate and Barium Strontium Titanate Films for Capacitor Applications"; Applications of Ferroelectrics, 2000; Proceedings of the 2000 12th International Symposium on vol. 2; pp. 837-840.|
|15||Ben G. Streetman; "Solid State Electronic Devices"; 1990, Prentice Hall; Third Edition; pp. 320-322.|
|16||Brian A. Floyd, et al.; "The projected Power Consumption of a Wireless Clock Distribution System and Comaprison to Conventional Distribution Systems"; IEEE, 1999; pp. IITC99-249-IITC99-250.|
|17||Bruley et al., "Nanostructure and Chemistry of a (100)MgO/(100) GaAs Interface," Appl. Phys. Lett, 65(5), Aug. 1994, pp. 564-566.|
|18||C. Donn et al.; "A 16-Element K-Band Monolithic Active Receive Phased Array Antenna"; Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1988; pp. 188-191, vol. 1; Jun. 6-10, 1988.|
|19||C. J. Palmstrom et al.; "Stable and Epitaxial Contacts to III-V Compound Semiconductors"; Contacts to Semiconductors Fundamentals and Technology; Noyles Publications, 1993; pp.67-150.|
|20||C. Martinez; "Epitaxial Metallic Nanostructures on GaAs"; Surface Science; vol. 482-485; pp. 910-915; 2001.|
|21||Carlin et al., Impact on GaAs Buffer Thickness on Electronic Quality of GaAs Grown on Graded Ge/GeSi/Si Substrates, Appl. Phys. Letter, vol. 76, No. 14, Apr. 2000, pp. 1884-1886.|
|22||Chenning Hu et al.; Solar Cells From Basic to Advanced Systems; McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1983.|
|23||Clem et al., "Investigation of PZT//LSCO//Pt//Aerogel Thin Film Composites for Uncooled Pyroelectric IR Detectors," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 541, pp. 661-666, 1999.|
|24||Cuomo et al., "Substrate Effect on the Superconductivity of YBa2Cu3O7 Thin Films," AIP Conference 1988, pp. 141-148.|
|25||D. A. Francis, et al.; "A single-chip linear optical amplifier"; OFC, 2001; Mar. 17-22, 2001.|
|26||D. E. Aspnes, et al.; "Steps on (001) silicon surfaces"; J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 5, No. 4, Jul./Aug. 1987; pp. 939-944.|
|27||D. M. Newns, et al.; "Mott transition field effect transistor"; Applied Physics Letters, vol. 73, No. 6, Aug. 10, 1998; pp. 780-782.|
|28||Don W. Shaw; "Epitaxial GaAs on Si: Progress and Potential Applications"; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.; pp. 15-30; 1987.|
|29||Douglas B. Chrisey, et al; Pulsed Laser Deposition of Thin Films; pp. 273-285.|
|30||Douglas J. Hamilton et al.; "Basic Integrated Circuit Engineering"; pp. 2; 1975.|
|31||F. M. Buffer, et al.; "Strain-dependence of electron transport in bulk Si and deep-submicron MOSFET's'" Computatural Electronics, 2000, Book of Abstracts, IWCE Glasgow 2000, 7<th >Int'l Workshop on, 2000; pp. 64-65.|
|32||F. M. Buffer, et al.; "Strain-dependence of electron transport in bulk Si and deep-submicron MOSFET's'" Computatural Electronics, 2000, Book of Abstracts, IWCE Glasgow 2000, 7th Int'l Workshop on, 2000; pp. 64-65.|
|33||Farrow et al., "Heteroepitaxy of Dissimilar Materials," Mat. Res. Soc. Symposium Prodeedings, vol. 221, pp. 29-34, Apr. 29-May 2, 1991.|
|34||Fathimulla et al.; "Monolithic Integration of InGaAs/InAlAs MODFETs and RTDs on InP-bonded-to Si Substrate"; Fourth International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Newport, RI, USA; Apr. 21-24, 1992; pp. 167-170; XP000341253; IEEE, New York, NY, USA; ISBN; 0-7803-0552-1.|
|35||Fork et al., "Epitaxial MgO on Si(001) for Y-Ba-Cu-O Thin Film Growth by Pulsed Laser Deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett., 58(20), May 20, 1991, pp. 2294-2296.|
|36||G. H. Jin, et al.; "PLZT Film Waveguide Mach-Zehnder Electrooptic Modulator"; Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 18, No. 6, Jun. 2000; pp.807-812.|
|37||G. J. M. Dormans, et al.; "PbTiO/3/Thin Films Grown by Organometallic Chemical Vapour Deposition"; Third International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics; Apr. 3-5, 1991 (Abstract).|
|38||G. Passiopoulos, et al.; "V-Band Single Chip, Direct Carrier BPSK Modulation Transmitter with Integrated Patch Antenna"; 1998 IEEE MTT-S Digest; pp. 305-308.|
|39||G. Vogg et al.; "Epitaxial alloy films of zinti-phase Ca(Si1-xGex)2"; Journal of Crystal Growth 223 (2001); pp. 573-576.|
|40||Gentex Corporate Website; Photoelectric Smoke Detectors -How They Work; 2001.|
|41||Gerald B. Stringfellow; "Organometallic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy: Theory and Practice"; Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Electrical Engineering, University of Utah; Academic Press, 1989|
|42||Gilbert Lecarpentier et al.; "High Accuracy Machine Automated Assembly for Opto Electronics"; 2000 Electronic Components and Technology Conference; pp. 1-4.|
|43||Gunapala et al., "Bound-To-Quasi-Bound Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetectors," NASA Tech Brief, vol. 22, No. 9, Sep. 1998.|
|44||H. Ishiwara et al., "Epitaxial Growth of Perovskite Type Oxide Films on Substrates"; Materials Research Symposium Proceedings, vol. 220, pp. 595-600, Apr. 29-May3, 1991.|
|45||H. Nagata, "A Preliminary Consideration of the Growth Behaviour of CeO2, SrTiO3 and SrVO3 Films on Si Substrates," Thin Solid Films, 224, 1993, pp. 1-3.|
|46||H. Shichijo, et al.; "GaAs MESFET and Si CMOS Cointegration and Circuit Techniques"; 1988 IEEE; GaAs IC Symposium -239-242.|
|47||H. Shichijo, et al.; "Monolithic Process for Co-Integration of GaAs and Silicon Circuits"; 1988 IEEE; pp. 778-781.|
|48||H. Takahashi et al.; "Arrayed-Waveguide Grating for Wavelength Division Multi/Demultiplexer with Nanometre Resolution"; Electronics Letters; vol. 26., No. 2, Jan. 18, 1990.|
|49||H. Wang et al.; "GaAs/GaAlAs Power HBTs for Mobile Communications"; Microwave Symposium Digest; 1993 IEEE; vol. 2; pp. 549-552.|
|50||Hideaki Adachi et al.; "Sputtering Preparation of Ferroelectric PLZT Thin Films and Their Optical Applications"; IEEE Transactions of Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, vol. 38, No. 6, Nov. 1991.|
|51||Himpsel et al., "Dialectrics on Semiconductors," Materials Science and Engineering, B1(1988), pp. 9-13.|
|52||Hisashi Shichijo, et al.; "Co-Integration of GaAs MESFET and Si CMOS Circuits"; IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 9, No. 9, Sep. 1988; pp. 444-446.|
|53||Ishiwara et al., "Heteroepitaxy on Silicon: Fundamentals, Structure, and Devices," Mat. Res. Soc., Symposium Proceedings, vol. 116, pp. 369-374, Apr. 5-8, 1988.|
|54||J. F. Kang, et al., "Epitaxial Growth of CeO2(100) Films on Si(100) Substrates by Dual Ion Beams Reactive Sputtering," Solid State Communications, vol. 108, No. 4, pp. 225-227, 1998.|
|55||J. K. Abrokwah, et al.; "A Manufacturable Complementary GaAs Process"; GaAs IC Symposium, IEEE, 1993; pp. 127-130.|
|56||J. K. Abrokwah, et al.; "A Manufacturing High-Speed Low-Power Complementary GaAs Rrocess"; Extended Abstracts of the 1994 International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials, Yokohama, 1994, pp. 592-594.|
|57||J. M. Daughton et al.; "Applications of Spin Denendent Transport Materials"; J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys. 32(1999) R169-R177.|
|58||James Schellenberg, et al.; "Low-Loss, Planar Monolithic Baluns for K/Ka-Band Applications"; 1999 IEEE MTT-S Digest; pp. 1733-1736.|
|59||Jayshri Sbaarinathat, et al.; "Submicron three-dimensional infrared GaAs/AlxOy-based photonic crystal using single-step epitaxial growth"; Applied Physivs Letters, vol. 78, No. 20, May 14, 2001; pp. 3024-3026.|
|60||Jeffrey B. Casady, et al.; "A Hybrid 6H-SiC Temperature Sensor Operationsl from 25 C to 500 C"; IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology -Part A, vol. 19, No. 3, Sep. 1996; pp. 416-422.|
|61||Jo-Ey Wong, et al.; "An Electrostatically-Actuated MEMS Switch for Power Applications"; IEEE, 2000; pp. 633-638.|
|62||John D. Joannopoulos, et al.; "Molding the Flow of Light"; Photonic Crystals; Princeton University Press, 1995.|
|63||Joseph W. Goodman et al; "Optical Interconnections for VLSI Systems"; Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 72, No. 7 Jul. 1984.|
|64||K. Eisenbeiser; "Field Effect Transistors with SrTiO3 Gate Dielectric on Si"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 76, No. 10; Mar. 6, 2000; pp. 1324-1326.|
|65||K. Nashimoto et al; "Patterning of Nb, LaOnZr, TiO3 Waveguides for Fabricating Micro-Optics Using Wet Etching and Solid-Phase Epitaxy"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 75, No. 8; Aug. 23, 1999; pp. 1054-1056.|
|66||K. Sreenivas et al., "Surface Acoustic Wave Propagation on Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52 (9), Feb. 29, 1998, pp. 709-711.|
|67||Kado et al., "Heteroepitaxial Growth of SrO Films on Si Substrates," J. Appl. Phys., 61(6), Mar. 15, 1987, pp. 2398-2400.|
|68||Katherine Derbyshire; "Prospects Bright for Optoelectronics Volume, Cost Drive Manufacturing for Optical Applications"; Semiconductor Magazine; vol. 3, No. 3; Mar. 2002.|
|69||*||Kaushik et al., Device Characteristics of Crystalline Epitaxial Oxides on Silicon Jun. 19, 2000, 58th Annual Device Research Conference pp. 17-20.*|
|70||Keiichi Sakuno et al; "A 3.5W HBT MMIC Power Amplifier Module for Mobile Communications"; IEEE 1994; Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Monolithic Circuits Symposium; pp. 63-66.|
|71||Kevin J. Chen et al; "A Novel Ultrafast Functional Device: Resonant Tunneling High Electron Mobility Transistor"; Electron Devices Meetingk 1996; IEEE Hong Kong; Jun. 29, 1996; pp. 60-63, XP010210167.|
|72||Kihong Kim, et al."On-Chip Wireless Interconnection with Integrated Antennas"; 2000 IEEE; pp. 20.2.1-20.3.4.|
|73||Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; Fourth Edition, vol. 12; Fuel Resources to Heat Stabilizers; A Wiley-Interscience Publication; John Wiley & Sons.|
|74||Kurt Eisenbeiser, et al.; "Metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs Enhancement Mode HEMT's on GaAs Substrates"; IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 20, No. 10, Oct. 1999; pp. 507-509.|
|75||Ladislav Pust et al.; "Temperature Dependence of the Magnetization Reversal in Co(fcc)-BN-Co(poly hcp) Structures"; Journal of Applied Physics; vol. 85, No. 8; Apr. 15, 1999; pp. 5765-5767.|
|76||Li et al., "Epitaxial La 0.67Sr0.33MnO3 Magnetic Tunnel Junctions," J. Appl. Phys. 81(8), Apr. 15, 1997, pp. 5509-5511.|
|77||Lucent Technologies, Inc. "Arraye4d WAveguide Grating Multiplexer/Demultiplexer"; Jan. 2000; 4 pages.|
|78||M. A. Herman, et al.; "Molecular Beam Epitaxy Fundamentals and Current Status"; Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1989, 1996.|
|79||M. Rotter et al., "Nonlinear Acoustoelectric Interactions in GaAs/LiNbO3 Structures", Applied Physics Letters, vol. 75(7), Aug. 16, 1999, pp. 965-967.|
|80||M. Rotter et al., "Single Chip Fused Hybrids for Acousto-Electric and Acousto-Optic Applications," 1997 Applied Physics Letters, vol. 70(16), Apr. 21, 1997, pp. 2097-2099.|
|81||M. Schreiter, et al.; "Sputtering of Self-Polarized PZT Films for IR-Detector Arrays"; 1998 IEEE; pp. 181-185.|
|82||Man Fai Ng et al; "Heteroepitaxial growth of lanthanum aluminate films derived from mixed metal nitrates"; Journal of Materials Research; vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 1306.|
|83||Mau-Chung Frank Chang, et al.; "RF/Wireless Interconnect for Inter-and Intra-Chip Communications"; Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 89, No. 4, Apr. 2001; pp. 456-466.|
|84||McKee et al., "BaSi2 and Thin Film Alkaline Earth Silicides on Silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett., 63 (20), Nov. 1993, pp. 2818-2820.|
|85||McKee et al., "Crystalline Oxides on Silicon: The First Five Monolayers", Physical Review Letters, vol. 81, No. 14, Oct. 1998, pp. 3014-3017.|
|86||McKee et al., "Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of Epitaxy Growth of Epitaxial Barium Silicide, Barium Oxide, and Barium Titanate on Silicon," 1991 American Institute of Physics, pp. 782-784, Aug. 13, 1991.|
|87||McKee et al., "Surface Structures and the Orthorhombic Transformation of Thin Film BaSi2 on Silicon," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 221, pp. 131-136.|
|88||McKee et al., "The MBE Growth and Optical Quality of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 Thin Films on MgO," Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 341, Apr. 1994, pp. 309-314.|
|89||Mikami et al., "Formation of Si Epi/MgO-Al2O3Epi./SiO3/Si and Its Epitaxial Film Quality," Fundamental Research Laboratories and Microelectronics Laboratories, pp. 31-34, 1983.|
|90||Mitsubishi Semiconductors Press Release (GaAs FET's) Nov. 8, 1999 pp. 1-2.|
|91||Moon et al., "Growth of Crystalline SrTiO3 Films on Si Substrates Using Thin Fluoride Buffer Layers and Their Electrical Properties," Jpn. J. of Appl. Phys., vol. 33, (1994), pp. 5911-5916.|
|92||Moon et al., "Roles of Buffer Layers in Epitaxial Growth of SrTiO3 Films on Silicon Substrates," Japan J of Appl. Phys., vol. 33, Mar. 1994, pp. 1472-1477.|
|93||Mori et al., "Epitaxial Growth of SrTiO3 Films on Si(100) Substrates Using a Focused Electron Electron Beam Evaporation Method," Jpn. J. of Apl. Phys., vol. 30, No. 8A, Aug. 1991, pp. L1415-L1417.|
|94||Myung Bok Lee; "Formation and Characterization of Epitaxial TiO2 and BaTiO3/TiO2 Films on Si Substrate"; Japan Journal Applied Physics Letters; vol. 34; 1995; pp. 808-811.|
|95||Myung Bok Lee; "Heteroepitaxial Growth of BaTiO3 Films on Si by Pulsed Laser Deposition"; Applied Physics Letters; Mar. 13, 1995; pp. 1331-1333.|
|96||Nagata et al., "Heteroepitaxial Growth of CeO2(001) Films on Si(001) Substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Ultrahigh Vacuum," Jpn. Jour. Appl. Phys., vol. 30, No. 6B, Jun. 1991, pp. L1136-L1138.|
|97||Nakagawara et al., Effects of Buffer Layers in Epitaxial Growth of SrTiO3 Thin Film on Si(100), J. Appl. Phys., 78(12), Dec. 15, 1995, pp. 7226-7230.|
|98||O. J. Painter et al.; "Room Temperature Photonic Crystal Defect Lasers at Near-Infrared Wavelenghts in InGaAsp"; Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 17, No. 11, Nov. 1999.|
|99||O'Donnell et al., "Colossal Magnetoresistive Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Grown by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy," Appl. Physics Letters, vol. 76, No. 14, Apr. 3, 2000, pp. 1914-1916.|
|100||P. A. Langjahr et al.; "Epitaxial Growth and Structure of Cubic and Pseudocubic Perovskite Films on Perovskite Substrates"; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., vol. 401; 1995 Materials Research Society; pp. 109-114.|
|101||P. J. Borrelli et al.; "Compositional and Structural Properties of Sputtered PLZT Thin Films"; Ferroelectric Thin Films II Symposium; Dec. 2-4, 1991 (Abstract).|
|102||Peter S. Guilfoyle, et al.; "Optoelectronics Architecture for High-Speed Switching and Processing Applications"; 1998 The Photonics Design and Applications Handbook; pp. H-399-H-406.|
|103||*||Peter Singer, "GaAs-on-Silicon, Finally", Oct. 1, 2001, Semiconductor International, Website.*|
|104||Philip Ball; "The Next Generation of Optical Fibers"; Technology Review, May 2001; pp. 55-61.|
|105||Pierret, R. F.; "1/J-FET and MESFET"; Field Effect Devices; MA, Addison-Wesley; 1990; pp. 9-22.|
|106||Q.-Y. Tong et al.; "IOS-a new type of materials combination for system-on-a chip preparation"; 1999 IEEE International SOI Conference, Oct. 1999; pp. 104-105.|
|107||R. A. Morgan et al., "Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers Come of Age," SPIE, vol. 2683, pp. 18-29.|
|108||R. D. Vispute; "High quality optoelectronic grade epitaxial AlN Films on -Al203, Si and 6H-SiC by pulsed laser deposition"; Thin Solid Films 299 (1997), pp.94-103.|
|109||R. Houdre et al., "Properties of GaAs on Si Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy," Solid State and Materials Sciences, vol. 16, Issue 2, 1990, pp. 91-114.|
|110||R. J. Matyi et al; "Selected Area Heteroepitaxial Growth of GaAs on Silicon for Advanced Device Structures"; 2194 Thin Solid Films; 181 (1989) Dec. 10; No. 1; pp. 213-225.|
|111||R. Ra,esh; "Ferroelectric La-Sr-Co-O/Pb-Zr-Ti-O/La-Sr-Co-O Heterostructures on Silicon via Template Growth"; 320 Applied Physics Letters; 63(1993); Dec. 27; No. 26; pp. 3592-3594.|
|112||Ranu Nayak et al; "Enhanced acousto-optic diffraction efficiency in a symmetric SrRiO3/BaTiO3/SrTiO3 thin-film heterostructure"; Nov. 1, 2000; vol. 39, No. 31; Applied Optics; pp. 5847-5853.|
|113||Ranu Nayak et al; "Studies on acousto-optical interaction in SrTiO3/BaTiO3/SrTiO3 epitaxial thin film heterostructures"; J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 32 (1999) 380-387.|
|114||Ringel et al., "Epitaxial Integration of III-V Materials and Devices with Si Using Graded GeSi Buffers," 27<th >International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, Oct. 2000.|
|115||Ringel et al., "Epitaxial Integration of III-V Materials and Devices with Si Using Graded GeSi Buffers," 27th International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, Oct. 2000.|
|116||Ronald W. Waynant, et al.; "Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits"; Electro-Optics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994; Chapter Twenty Seven.|
|117||S. A. Chambers et al.; "Epitaxial Growth and Properties of Ferromagnetic Co-Doped TiO2 Anatase"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 79, No. 21; Nov. 19, 2001; pp. 3467-3469.|
|118||S. A. Chambers et al; "Band Discontinuities at Epitaxial SrTiO3Si(001) Heterojunctions"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 77, No. 11; Sep. 11, 2000; pp. 1662-1664.|
|119||S. F. Fang et al., "Gallium Arsenide and Other Compound Semiconductors on Silicon," J. Appl. Phys., 68(7), Oct. 1, 1990, pp. R31-R58.|
|120||S. K. Tewksbury et al.; "Cointegration of Optoelectronics and Submicron CMOS"; Wafer Scale Integration; 1993; Proceedings, Fifth Annual IEEE; Jan. 20, 1993; pp. 358-367.|
|121||S. Mathews et al., "Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor Based on Epitaxial Perovskite Heterostructures", Science, vol. 276, Apr. 11, 1997, pp. 238-240.|
|122||S. N. Subbarao et al.; "Monolithic PIN Photodetector and FET Amplifier on GaAs-os-Si"; IEEE; GaAs IC Symposium-163-166; 1989.|
|123||S. S. Lu, et al.; "Piezoelectric field effect transistor (PEFET) using In0.2Ga0.8As/Al0.35Ga0.65As/In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs Strained layer structure on (111)B GaAs substrate"; Electronics Letters, 12<TH >Ma 1994, vol. 30, No. 10; pp. 823-825.|
|124||S. S. Lu, et al.; "Piezoelectric field effect transistor (PEFET) using In0.2Ga0.8As/Al0.35Ga0.65As/In0.2Ga0.8As/GaAs Strained layer structure on (111)B GaAs substrate"; Electronics Letters, 12TH Ma 1994, vol. 30, No. 10; pp. 823-825.|
|125||Shogo Imada et al.; "Epitaxial Growth of Ferroelectric YmnO3 Thin Films on Si (111) Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy"; Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. vol. 37 (1998); pp. 6497-6501; Part 1, No. 12A, Dec. 1998.|
|126||Stephen A. Mass; "Microwave Mixers"; Second Edition; 2pp.|
|127||Suzuki et al., "A Proposal of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Film Structures for Future Oxide Electronics," Materials Science and Engineering B41, (1996), pp. 166-173.|
|128||T. A. Langdo et al.; "High Quality Ge on Si by Epitaxial Necking"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 76, No. 25; pp. 3700-3702; Jun. 19, 2000.|
|129||T. Asano et al., "An Epitaxial Si/Insulator/Si Structure Prepared by Vacuum Deposition of CaF2 and Silicon," Thin Solid Films, vol. 93, (1982), pp. 143-150.|
|130||T. Chikyow et al., "Reaction and Regrowth Control of CeO2 on Si(111)Surface for the Silicon-On-Insulator Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 65, No. 8, Aug. 22, 1994, pp. 1030-1032.|
|131||T. Kanniainen et al.; "Growth of Dielectric 1hfo2/Ta205 Thin Film Nanolaminate Capacitprs by Atomic Layer Epitaxy"; Electrochemical Scoiety Proceedings, U.S. Electrochemical Society; Pennington, N.J.; Aug. 31, 1997; pp. 36-46.|
|132||T. Mizuno, et al.; "Electron and Hole Mobility Enhancement in Strained-Si MOSFET's on SiGe-on-Insulator Substrates Fabricated by SIMOX Technology"; IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 21. No. 5, May 2000; pp. 230-232.|
|133||T. Warren Weeks, et al.; "GaN thin films deposited via organometallic vapor phase epitaxy on (6H)-SiC(001) using high-temperature monocrystalline AlN buffer layers'"320 Applied Physics Letters, vol. 67, No. 3, Jul. 17, 1995, pp;401-403.|
|134||Takeshi Obata; "Tunneling Magnetoresistance at Up to 270 K in La0.8Sr0.2MnO3/SrTiO3/La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 Junctions with 1.6-nm-Thick Barriers"; Applied Physics Letters; vol. 74, No. 2; Jan. 11, 1999; pp. 290-292.|
|135||Tambo et al., Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of SrTiO3 Films on Si(100)-2x1 with SrO Buffer Layer, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 37, 1998, pp. 4454-4459.|
|136||The Electronics Industry Report; Primark; 2001; pp. 111-120.|
|137||Thomas F. Krauss, et al.; "Photonic crystals in the optical regime -past, present and future"; Progress in Quantum Electronics 23 (1999) 51-96.|
|138||Timothy E. Glassman et al.; "Evidence for Cooperative Oxidation of MoCVD Precursors Used in BaxSr1-xTiO3 Film Growth"; Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. vol. 446, 1997 Materials Research Society; pp. 321-326.|
|139||Tomonori Nagashima, et al.; "Three-Terminal Tandem Solar Cells with a Back-Contact Type Bottom Cell'" Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation; 4 pages.|
|140||Umesh K. Mishra et al.; "Oxide Based Compound Semiconductor Electrons"; Electron Devices Meeting; 1997; Technical Digest, International; Washington, D.C.; Dec. 7-10, 1997; pp. 545-548.|
|141||V. Kaushik et al.; "Device Characteristics of Crystalline Epitaxial Oxides on Silicon"; Device Research Conference, 2000; Conference Digest 58th DRC; pp. 17-20; Jun. 19-21, 2000.|
|142||W. F. Egelhoff et al., "Optimizing GMR Spin Valves: The Outlook for Improved Properties", 1998 Int'l Non Volatile Memory Technology Conference, pp. 34-37.|
|143||Wang et al., "Processing and Performance of Piezoelectric Films", Univ. of MD, Wilcoxon Research Col, and Motorola Labs, May 11, 2000.|
|144||Wang et al.; "Depletion-Mode GaAs MOSFETs with Negligible Drain Current Drift and Hysteresis"; Electron Devices Meeting, 1998, IEDM '98 Technical Digest; pp. 67-70.|
|145||Wei Zhang et al.; "Enhanced Magnetoresistance in La-Ca-Mn-O Films on Si Substrates Using YbaCuO/CeO2 Heterostructures"; Physica C; vol. 282-287, No. 2003; Aug. 1, 1997; pp. 1231-1232.|
|146||Wei Zhang et al.; "Stress Effect and Enhanced Magnetoresistive in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3-delta Films"; Physical Review, B. Condensed Matter; American Institute of Physics; vol. 58, No. 21, Part 1; Dec. 1, 1998; pp. 14143-14146.|
|147||Wei Zhang et al.; "Stress Effect and Enhanced Magnetoresistive in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3-δ Films"; Physical Review, B. Condensed Matter; American Institute of Physics; vol. 58, No. 21, Part 1; Dec. 1, 1998; pp. 14143-14146.|
|148||Wen-Ching Shih et al.; "Theoretical Investigation of the SAW Properties of Ferroelectric Film Composite Structures"; IEEE Transactions of Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control; vol. 45, No. 2; Mar. 1998; pp. 305-316.|
|149||Wenhua Zhu et al.; "Molecular Beam Epitaxy of GaAs on Si-on-Insulator"; 320 Applied Physics Letters 59(1991) Jul. 8, No. 2; pp. 210-212.|
|150||Xiong et al., "Oxide Defined GaAs Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers on Si Substrates," IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 12, No. 2, Feb. 2000, pp. 110-112.|
|151||Y. Ota et al.; "Application of Heterojunction FET to Power Amplifier for Cellular Telephone"; Electronics Letters; May 26, 1994; vol. 30, No. 11; pp. 906-907.|
|152||Yodo et al., GaAs Heteroepitaxial Growth on Si Substrates with Thin Si Interlayers in situ Annealed at High Temperatures, 8257b Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, May/Jun. 1995, vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 1000-1005.|
|153||Yuji Matsumoto et al.; "Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Transparent Transition Metal-Doped Titanium Dioxide"; Science; Feb. 2, 2001; vol. 291; pp. 854-856.|
|154||Z. H. Zhu, et al. "Growth of InGaAs multi-quantum wells at 1.3 m wavelength on GaAs compliant substrates"; Applied Physics Letters, vol. 72, No. 20, May 18, 1998; pp. 2598-2600.|
|155||Z. Yu, et al.; "Epitaxial oxide thin films on SI(001)*"; J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. vol. 18, No. 4, Jul./Aug. 2000; pp. 2139-2145.|
|156||Zhu Dazhong et al.; "Design of ZnO/SiO2/Si Monolithic Integrated Programmable SAW Filter"; Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Solid-State and Integrated Circuit Technology; 21-23; Oct. 1998; pp. 826-829.|
|157||Zogg et al., "Progress in Compound-Semiconductor-on-Silicon-Heteroepitaxy with Fluoride Buffer Layers," J. Electrochem Soc., vol. 136, No. 3, Mar. 1998, pp. 775-779.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7511678||24 Feb 2006||31 Mar 2009||Northrop Grumman Corporation||High-power dual-frequency coaxial feedhorn antenna|
|US7671420||18 Nov 2005||2 Mar 2010||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor devices having faceted channels and methods of fabricating such devices|
|US8115224 *||5 Oct 2009||14 Feb 2012||Lg Innotek Co., Ltd.||Light emitting device|
|US9263586||6 Jun 2014||16 Feb 2016||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.||Quantum well fin-like field effect transistor (QWFinFET) having a two-section combo QW structure|
|US9337265||25 Aug 2014||10 May 2016||Globalfoundries Inc.||Compound semiconductor structure|
|US20060148154 *||18 Nov 2005||6 Jul 2006||Dong-Suk Shin||Semiconductor devices having faceted channels and methods of fabricating such devices|
|US20080297428 *||24 Feb 2006||4 Dec 2008||Northrop Grumman Corporation||High-power dual-frequency coaxial feedhorn antenna|
|US20100181586 *||5 Oct 2009||22 Jul 2010||Sun Kyung Kim||Light emitting device|
|U.S. Classification||438/240, 257/E21.12, 257/E21.127, 438/718, 438/197, 257/E27.012, 257/E21.125, 438/191, 257/E21.603|
|International Classification||H01L21/8258, H01L21/20, H01L27/06|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L21/02505, H01L21/8258, H01L21/02488, H01L21/02513, H01L21/02381, H01L27/0605, H01L21/02521|
|European Classification||H01L27/06C, H01L21/8258|
|16 Oct 2001||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MOTOROLA, INC., ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GORRELL, JONATHAN F.;CORNETT, KENNETH D.;REEL/FRAME:012659/0757
Effective date: 20010817
|11 Jan 2002||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MOTOROLA, INC., ILLINOIS
Free format text: INVALID RECORDING;ASSIGNORS:GORRELL, JONATHAN F.;CORNETT, KENNETH D.;REEL/FRAME:012457/0362
Effective date: 20010817
|7 May 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MOTOROLA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:015698/0657
Effective date: 20040404
Owner name: FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.,TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MOTOROLA, INC.;REEL/FRAME:015698/0657
Effective date: 20040404
|2 Feb 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A. AS COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;FREESCALE ACQUISITION CORPORATION;FREESCALE ACQUISITION HOLDINGS CORP.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:018855/0129
Effective date: 20061201
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A. AS COLLATERAL AGENT,NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNORS:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;FREESCALE ACQUISITION CORPORATION;FREESCALE ACQUISITION HOLDINGS CORP.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:018855/0129
Effective date: 20061201
|21 Jun 2007||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|13 May 2010||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A., AS COLLATERAL AGENT,NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024397/0001
Effective date: 20100413
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A., AS COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YORK
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:024397/0001
Effective date: 20100413
|22 Jun 2011||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|18 Jun 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A., AS NOTES COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YOR
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:030633/0424
Effective date: 20130521
|6 Nov 2013||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CITIBANK, N.A., AS NOTES COLLATERAL AGENT, NEW YOR
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMENT;ASSIGNOR:FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:031591/0266
Effective date: 20131101
|14 Aug 2015||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|21 Dec 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: PATENT RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A., AS COLLATERAL AGENT;REEL/FRAME:037354/0225
Effective date: 20151207
Owner name: FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: PATENT RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A., AS COLLATERAL AGENT;REEL/FRAME:037356/0553
Effective date: 20151207
Owner name: FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: PATENT RELEASE;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A., AS COLLATERAL AGENT;REEL/FRAME:037356/0143
Effective date: 20151207
|6 Jan 2016||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|12 Jan 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC., MARYLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENTS;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:037486/0517
Effective date: 20151207
|13 Jan 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC., MARYLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION OF SECURITY INTEREST IN PATENTS;ASSIGNOR:CITIBANK, N.A.;REEL/FRAME:037518/0292
Effective date: 20151207
|23 Feb 2016||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20160106
|21 Sep 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NXP, B.V., F/K/A FREESCALE SEMICONDUCTOR, INC., NE
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:040925/0001
Effective date: 20160912
|7 Nov 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: NXP B.V., NETHERLANDS
Free format text: RELEASE BY SECURED PARTY;ASSIGNOR:MORGAN STANLEY SENIOR FUNDING, INC.;REEL/FRAME:040928/0001
Effective date: 20160622