|Publication number||US5776181 A|
|Application number||US 08/687,223|
|Publication date||7 Jul 1998|
|Filing date||25 Jul 1996|
|Priority date||25 Jul 1995|
|Also published as||CA2227754A1, CA2227754C, CN1207657A, CN1208101C, DE69636867D1, DE69636867T2, EP0840578A1, EP0840578B1, WO1997004721A1|
|Publication number||08687223, 687223, US 5776181 A, US 5776181A, US-A-5776181, US5776181 A, US5776181A|
|Inventors||J. Michael Lee, Katherin H. Crewe, Christine Mastrangelo|
|Original Assignee||Medstent Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (56), Referenced by (188), Classifications (11), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Expandable stents are widely used to provide local reinforcement in fluid-carrying vessels within the human body. The stent is essentially a cylindrical member which may be expanded radially to dilate the vessel and to provide support for the wall of the vessel to maintain it in the dilated condition.
In order to insert the stent, it has previously been proposed to place the stent into the vessel on an expandable or balloon catheter. With the stent positioned at the appropriate location, the catheter is inflated and the stent is caused to expand radially against the wall of the vessel. Once the stent is expanded to the required diameter, the catheter is deflated and may be removed, leaving the stent in position.
The stent must of course remain expanded against the wall of the vessel and should be capable of withstanding the forces imposed by the wall of the vessel. Moreover, the stent should be able to negotiate tight turns in the arterial system during placement while minimizing damage to the arterial wall.
A number of different mechanisms have been proposed to permit the expansion of the stent, including devices which reorient the components forming the stent so that they may adopt a greater overall diameter.
In another class of stents, as typified by the stent shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,733,665 to Palmaz, the stent is configured to be plastically deformable so that after expansion it retains the increased diameter. In the Palmaz stent, the plastic deformation is provided by means of an open-mesh diamond structure. As the catheter is expanded, the intersecting members of the mesh deform so that the stent adopts an increased diameter.
With the arrangements shown in the Palmaz stent and similar configurations, a radial expansion of the stent is accompanied by an axial foreshortening of the stent. The degree of foreshortening is predictable but the ultimate location of the stent along the vessel is not predictable. Thus, one end of the stent may remain stationary relative to the blood vessel so that the opposite end is subjected to the maximum axial displacement or there may be progressive foreshortening from both ends with an intermediate location remaining stationary. The foreshortening of the stent leads to an unpredictable location for the stent in its expanded condition and induces relative movement in an axial direction between the vessel wall and the stent which is generally undesirable.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a stent in which the above disadvantages are obviated or mitigated.
In general terms, the present invention provides a stent in which a plurality of circumferentially-spaced longitudinal struts are interconnected by multi-bar linkages. Adjacent links of the linkages are angularly disposed to one another such that a radial force causes relative rotation between adjacent links to permit radial enlargement of the stent. The longitudinal struts inhibit foreshortening of the stent so that the final location of the stent can be predicted.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of an assembled stent;
FIG. 2 is a view on the line 2--2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a developed view of the stent shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a view on an enlarged scale of a portion of the stent shown in FIGS. 1-3;
FIG. 5 is a view of the portion of the stent shown in FIG. 4 after radial expansion;
FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 4 of an alternative embodiment of stent;
FIG. 7 is a view of the embodiment of FIG. 6 after radial expansion;
FIG. 8 is a further alternative of stent shown in FIG. 4;
FIG. 9 is a view of the embodiment of FIG. 8 after radial expansion;
FIG. 10 is a comparative curve between the embodiments of stent shown in FIGS. 4, 6 and 8;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a further embodiment of stent;
FIG. 12 is a developed view of the embodiment of stent shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 13 is an enlarged view of a portion of the stent shown in FIG. 11;
FIG. 14 is a view similar to FIG. 9 showing the stent after radial expansion;
FIG. 15 is a sectional view of a stent support and catheter; and
FIG. 16 is a developed view, similar to FIG. 12, of a further embodiment.
Referring therefore to FIG. 1, a stent 10 has a generally tubular body 12 which is initially dimensioned to permit insertion into a vessel such as an artery. The body 12 includes a plurality of longitudinal struts 14 which are interconnected by multi-bar linkages 16. The linkages 16 are regularly spaced along the axial extent of the struts 14 and maintain struts 14 in circumferentially spaced relationship.
As can best be seen in FIG. 4, each of the linkages 16 includes a pair of oppositely directed circumferential links 18 with axial links 20 connected to the circumferential links 18 and extending parallel to the struts 14 but spaced therefrom.. The axial links 20 are connected to an L-shaped corner link 22 which has an axial leg 24 and circumferential leg 26. The legs 26 of opposed corner links 22 are interconnected by a circumferential connecting link 28 to interconnect the adjacent struts 14. The links 18, 20, 22 and 28 of the linkage 16 are formed by removal of material from a seamless tube of bio-compatible material so that the links are integrally connected to one another. Typically such material would be a metal such as both pure and alloyed titanium, platinum, nitinol memory metals, gold or stainless steel, and the linkage may suitably be machined through micro machining techniques. Other materials could be used that are considered suitable for implantation including plastics materials having the requisite properties.
Each of the linkages 16 is similar and the relative dimensions between the links in each linkage determine the change in diameter for a given load. In a typical example, as shown in FIG. 4, taking the length of the connecting link 28 to be of unit length, then the relative dimensions of the other links as indicated by the letters or FIG. 4 are as follows:
______________________________________a b c d e f g h i j k______________________________________1 2 1 0.625 1.125 0.125 2.125 2.0 1.375 1.125 0.125______________________________________
The stent 10 is typically inserted into the vessel by using a balloon catheter 60. The stent 10 is mounted on the catheter 60 shown in FIG. 15. To assist in placement of the stent 10 on the catheter 60, the stent is initially located on a support 62 that has a bar-like head 64 and a tapered body 66. The stent 10 is snugly received on the body 66 which has a concave recess 68 at one end to locate the tip of catheter 60. A bore 70 extends through the body 66 to accomodate a wire if the catheter is of the type that employs such.
A protective sleeve 72 is located over the body 66 and is retained on a boss 74 on the head 64. The sleeve 72 thus protects the stent 10 from extraneous external forces with the body 66 providing support for the stent 10 in transit.
To transfer the stent to the catheter 60, the sleeve 72 is removed and the body 66 is aligned with the catheter 60. The stent may then be slid axially from the body 66 over the catheter 60 and the support and sleeve discarded. In this way, the stent is guided during transfer and the placement of the stent on the catheter facilitated.
The recess 68 assists in locating and aligning the catheter 60 during transfer and of course the wire, if present, may be fed through the bore 70.
The stent 10 is located on the body 66 such that the links 28 are closer to the boss 74 than the associated links 18. Transfer of the stent 10 to the catheter thus ensures that the stent 10 is oriented on the catheter 60 such that the connecting link 28 of the linkage 16 is in advance of the circumferential links 18 during insertion of the stent 10 into the vessel.
The catheter is inserted into the vessel in a conventional manner until it is located at the stenosis.
After placement within the vessel, the catheter is then inflated to apply a radially expanding force to the stent.
As shown in FIG. 5, the application of the radial force causes the circumferential spacing of struts 14 to increase. The circumferential links 18 are carried with the struts 14 and a hinging action occurs at the connection of the axial link 20 to both the circumferential link 18 and the corner link 22 by plastic deformation of the links. Similarly, the connecting link 28 hinges at its connection to the corner link 22 to provide a hinging action between the links. The links 22 is thus bodily rotated as the struts 14 are spread.
By virtue of the relatively narrow links 20, 22, the hinging at their junction to the larger links 18,22 exceeds the yield point of the material and causes a permanent deformation and increase in diameter. A pair of spaced hinge points is thus established and thus the total rotation required between the axial links 20 and circumferential link 28 is distributed between two locations.
The catheter is then deflated and removed, leaving the stent 10 in situ. It will be noted, however, that during inflation the struts 14 maintain the axial spacing between the circumferential links 18 so that the overall length of the stent remains the same with no relative axial movement between the vessel and the stent.
In tests with samples of the configuration of FIGS. 4 and 5, an extension from the spacing of the struts 14 was increased from an initial value of 6 units to 8.48 units upon application of loads consistent with those used in the expansion of such stents.
An alternative embodiment of linkage 16 is shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, in which like components will be denoted with like reference numerals with a suffix `a` added for clarity.
In the embodiment of FIG. 6, the circumferential link 18a is formed as a pair of rectangular nodes 30,32 interconnected by a narrow bar 34. The length of the axial link 20a is reduced to 0.5 of a unit value and a corresponding reduction in the length of the connecting link 28 to 0.5 is made. As may be seen in FIG. 7, the application of the radial load causes the connection at the bar 34 to plastically deform, allowing rotation of the rectangular bar 32. The connecting link 28a is also subjected to bending load as well as plastic deformation at the connection to the links 22a.
In tests conducted with samples of the arrangements shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, the initial spacing of the struts 14 was increased to 8.5 units after application of a radial force consistent with that found in balloon catheters.
A further embodiment is seen in FIG. 8 where again like reference numerals will be used to denote like components with a suffix `b` added for clarity. In the embodiment of FIG. 8, the connection between the connecting links 20b and the circumferential links 18b progressively tapers to the dimension F. In a similar manner, the junction between the connecting link 28b and the link 22b progressively tapers and in each case the overall length of the links 20b,28b is reduced from 1 unit value to 0.5 unit value. A tapering in the order of 45° is found to be appropriate.
The results of tests conducted on the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4, 6 and 8 are represented on the curve of FIG. 10. This curve represents the applied radial load and the deflection obtained and it will be seen that in each embodiment there is an initial proportional increase of load and deflection followed by a much flatter curve indicating a plastic deformation. Thereafter, the load progressively increases, indicating that the orientation of the links is approaching a linear orientation. It will be seen that the embodiment of FIG. 8 provides a lower load to achieve the requisite deflections. With the provision of the relatively narrow links, it is possible to control the radial force necessary to expand the stent and the location at which the bending will occur. The force necessary to achieve radial expansion must be compatible with the forces available from a balloon catheter and the reduced width of the links permits this. Moreover, the plastic deformation of the narrow links maintains control of the orientation of the wider links during expansion.
A further embodiment is shown in FIGS. 11-14 offering enhanced flexibility for the stent during insertion, as may be needed to negotiate tight turns in the arterial system during placement, thereby minimizing damage to the arterial wall.
In the embodiment of FIGS. 11-14, in which like components are denoted with like numerals with a suffic "c" added for clarity, each of the struts 14c is segmented so as to be comprised of either a series of unitary struts 40 or a series of linking struts 42.
The unitary struts 40 alternate with linking struts 42 about the circumference of stent 10c and in the preferred embodiment an even number of each Is provided so that the linking struts 42 are diametrically opposed. It is preferred that four linking struts 42 are provided and are circumferentially spaced at 90° intervals.
Each of the unitary struts 40 extend between two of the linkages 16c so as to interconnect them. The unitary struts are spaced apart from one another by a gap indicated at 44 so that each linkage 16c is connected to only one of the adjacent linkages 16c. By contrast, the linking struts 42 extend between four of the linkages 16c and are then spaced from the next of the linking struts 42 by a space indicated at 46.
The gaps 44 between the unitary struts are circumferentially aligned to provide annular bands 48 whereas spaces 46 are staggered between alternate linking struts 42. Each of the linking struts 42 has a waist 50 to provide a region of enhanced flexibility in a plane tangential to the surface of the stent 10c. The waist 50 is aligned with one of the bands 48 and so provides the connection across the band 48 between the linkages 16c.
As can be seen in FIG. 11, the waists 50 are located at diametrically opposed locations it the respective bank 48 to define a pair of pivot axes X--X. By virtue of the staggered relationship between adjacent linking struts 42, the waists 50 are displaced by 90° in adjacent bands 48 so that the pivot axes X--X are disposed at 90°.
This arrangement provides flexibility about mutually perpendicular axially spaced axes allowing relative pivotal movement between sections of the stent to conform to the vessel into which it is inserted.
The linkage 16c is shown in detail in FIG. 13 and includes circumferential links 18c and axial links 20c connected by a node 32c.
The circumferential link 28c is connected to axial link 20c by corner link 22c which is formed as a rectangular leg 24c.
It will be noted that the connection of each of the links 18c,20c,28c to the struts 14c, nodes 32c and corner link 22c by radiused fillets 52 that reduce local stress concentrations.
In one preferred example, the relative dimensions are as follows:
______________________________________a b c d e f g h i______________________________________1.20 0.75 1.40 1.40 2.00 0.90 0.25 6.9 5.30______________________________________
The fillets 52 are each 0.125 and the thickness of the material between 0.0625 and 0.125.
With this configuration, the application of a radial load results in the circumferential expansion shown in FIG. 14 from which it can be seen that a uniform bending of the links 18c is obtained and that the axial links 20 have assumed a circumferential orientation.
Upon circumferential expansion, the linking struts 42 inhibit foreshortening as each band 48 has two axial struts that inhibit relative axial movement between adjacent linkages 16c. At the same time the relatively flexible waists 50 disposed at 90° to one another provides the requisite flexibility for insertion of the stent 10c.
Although the embodiment of FIG. 11 shows axes of rotation at 90° to one another, alternative arrangements may be used by varying the relative orientation of the waisted links. For example, by spacing the links at 60° angles, three axes of rotation are obtained at axially spaced locations.
The following relative dimensions of linkage 16 have also been found to provide satisfactory performance:
______________________________________a b c d e f g h i______________________________________10 7.5 11 17.8 38.6 12.3 3 46 74.2______________________________________
______________________________________a b c d e f g h i______________________________________10.3 7.7 12.2 17.8 38.6 12.3 3 48.2 74.2______________________________________
______________________________________a b c d e f g h i______________________________________10.0 7.5 11 14.3 20.4 9.2 3 46 49______________________________________
In each of these examples, the units are 0.001 inches and the thickness of the material used was 0.003 inches.
In Examples I and III, the width, ie. circumferential dimension, of the struts 14 was 5 units and the axial spacing between adjacent linkages 16 was 12 units.
In Example II, the width of the struts 14 was 2.85 units and the axial spacing between adjacent linkages was 3 units.
In each case, the linkages are repeated 4 times about the circumference. The diameter of the stent prior to expansion was 65 units and after expansion with a 45° rotation of the links 20c an outside diameter of 197 units was obtained with Example II and 152.3 units with Example III. The axial spacing between linkages 16 was sufficient to permit the bodily rotation of the corner links as the stent expands radially. The provision of the strut 14 inhibits foreshortening and therefore ensures that the linkages can rotate as required.
A further embodiment is shown in FIG. 16 in which like components will be identified with like reference numerals with a suffix `d` added for clarity. The embodiment of FIG. 16 is similar to that shown in FIGS. 12 and 13. However, each of the struts 14d is segmented into a series of unitary struts 40d that extend between two adjacent linkages 16d. The struts 40d are staggered circumferentially to alternate the direction of connection between adjacent linkages. The unitary linkages 40d are thus aligned at diametrically opposed locations and thus define a pair of orthogonal axes at axially spaced locations to provide flexibility during insertion.
The stent will of course be dimensioned to fit within the intended vessel and engage the wall when extended. A typical stent for insertion in an artery will have a diameter of between 1.5 mm and 3.5 mm when inserted and may have a diameter of between 2 mm and 12 mm when expanded.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4503569 *||3 Mar 1983||12 Mar 1985||Dotter Charles T||Transluminally placed expandable graft prosthesis|
|US4553545 *||15 Sep 1982||19 Nov 1985||Medinvent S.A.||Device for application in blood vessels or other difficultly accessible locations and its use|
|US4580568 *||1 Oct 1984||8 Apr 1986||Cook, Incorporated||Percutaneous endovascular stent and method for insertion thereof|
|US4655771 *||11 Apr 1983||7 Apr 1987||Shepherd Patents S.A.||Prosthesis comprising an expansible or contractile tubular body|
|US4665918 *||6 Jan 1986||19 May 1987||Garza Gilbert A||Prosthesis system and method|
|US4733665 *||7 Nov 1985||29 Mar 1988||Expandable Grafts Partnership||Expandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft|
|US4856516 *||9 Jan 1989||15 Aug 1989||Cordis Corporation||Endovascular stent apparatus and method|
|US5104404 *||20 Jun 1991||14 Apr 1992||Medtronic, Inc.||Articulated stent|
|US5197978 *||26 Apr 1991||30 Mar 1993||Advanced Coronary Technology, Inc.||Removable heat-recoverable tissue supporting device|
|US5201757 *||3 Apr 1992||13 Apr 1993||Schneider (Usa) Inc.||Medial region deployment of radially self-expanding stents|
|US5217483 *||15 May 1992||8 Jun 1993||Numed, Inc.||Intravascular radially expandable stent|
|US5226913 *||2 Mar 1992||13 Jul 1993||Corvita Corporation||Method of making a radially expandable prosthesis|
|US5344426 *||15 Apr 1993||6 Sep 1994||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Method and system for stent delivery|
|US5354308 *||1 May 1992||11 Oct 1994||Beth Israel Hospital Association||Metal wire stent|
|US5356423 *||22 Apr 1993||18 Oct 1994||American Medical Systems, Inc.||Resectable self-expanding stent|
|US5389106 *||29 Oct 1993||14 Feb 1995||Numed, Inc.||Impermeable expandable intravascular stent|
|US5395390 *||16 Dec 1993||7 Mar 1995||The Beth Israel Hospital Association||Metal wire stent|
|US5397355 *||19 Jul 1994||14 Mar 1995||Stentco, Inc.||Intraluminal stent|
|US5405377 *||21 Feb 1992||11 Apr 1995||Endotech Ltd.||Intraluminal stent|
|US5405380 *||27 Jul 1993||11 Apr 1995||Schneider (Europe) A.G.||Catheter with a vascular support|
|US5433723 *||28 Feb 1994||18 Jul 1995||Angiomed Ag||Apparatus for widening a stenosis|
|US5443499 *||8 Mar 1994||22 Aug 1995||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||Radially expandable tubular prosthesis|
|US5443500 *||8 Apr 1994||22 Aug 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US5449373 *||17 Mar 1994||12 Sep 1995||Medinol Ltd.||Articulated stent|
|US5476505 *||18 Nov 1993||19 Dec 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Coiled stent and delivery system|
|US5476508 *||26 May 1994||19 Dec 1995||Tfx Medical||Stent with mutually interlocking filaments|
|US5478349 *||28 Apr 1994||26 Dec 1995||Boston Scientific Corporation||Placement of endoprostheses and stents|
|US5507767 *||15 Jan 1992||16 Apr 1996||Cook Incorporated||Spiral stent|
|US5507768 *||6 Jul 1993||16 Apr 1996||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent delivery system|
|US5507771 *||24 Apr 1995||16 Apr 1996||Cook Incorporated||Stent assembly|
|US5514176 *||20 Jan 1995||7 May 1996||Vance Products Inc.||Pull apart coil stent|
|US5534007 *||18 May 1995||9 Jul 1996||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Stent deployment catheter with collapsible sheath|
|US5540712 *||1 Jun 1994||30 Jul 1996||Nitinol Medical Technologies, Inc.||Stent and method and apparatus for forming and delivering the same|
|US5549635 *||3 Apr 1995||27 Aug 1996||Solar, Rita & Gaterud, Ltd.||Non-deformable self-expanding parallel flow endovascular stent and deployment apparatus therefore|
|US5549662 *||7 Nov 1994||27 Aug 1996||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Expandable stent using sliding members|
|US5556414 *||8 Mar 1995||17 Sep 1996||Wayne State University||Composite intraluminal graft|
|US5562697 *||18 Sep 1995||8 Oct 1996||William Cook, Europe A/S||Self-expanding stent assembly and methods for the manufacture thereof|
|US5562725 *||14 Sep 1992||8 Oct 1996||Meadox Medicals Inc.||Radially self-expanding implantable intraluminal device|
|US5571135 *||22 Oct 1993||5 Nov 1996||Scimed Life Systems Inc.||Stent delivery apparatus and method|
|US5575816 *||12 Aug 1994||19 Nov 1996||Meadox Medicals, Inc.||High strength and high density intraluminal wire stent|
|US5591196 *||23 Jan 1995||7 Jan 1997||Endovascular Systems, Inc.||Method for deployment of radially expandable stents|
|US5591197 *||14 Mar 1995||7 Jan 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Expandable stent forming projecting barbs and method for deploying|
|US5591198 *||27 Apr 1995||7 Jan 1997||Medtronic, Inc.||Multiple sinusoidal wave configuration stent|
|US5591229 *||6 Jun 1995||7 Jan 1997||Parodi; Juan C.||Aortic graft for repairing an abdominal aortic aneurysm|
|US5593434 *||7 Jun 1995||14 Jan 1997||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Stent capable of attachment within a body lumen|
|US5593442 *||5 Jun 1995||14 Jan 1997||Localmed, Inc.||Radially expansible and articulated vessel scaffold|
|US5601593 *||18 Aug 1995||11 Feb 1997||Willy Rusch Ag||Stent for placement in a body tube|
|US5603722 *||6 Jun 1995||18 Feb 1997||Quanam Medical Corporation||Intravascular stent|
|US5607467 *||23 Jun 1993||4 Mar 1997||Froix; Michael||Expandable polymeric stent with memory and delivery apparatus and method|
|US5618300 *||10 Aug 1995||8 Apr 1997||Endovascular Systems, Inc.||Apparatus and method for deployment of radially expandable stents by a mechanical linkage|
|US5626602 *||17 Jan 1995||6 May 1997||Schneider (Europe) A.G.||Catheter with a vascular support|
|US5626603 *||3 Oct 1995||6 May 1997||Fogazzi Di Ventureli Andrea & C. S.N.C.||Hydraulic stent inserter|
|EP0540290A2 *||27 Oct 1992||5 May 1993||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.||Expandable stents and method for making same|
|WO1995003010A1 *||20 Dec 1993||2 Feb 1995||Cook Incorporated||A flexible stent having a pattern formed from a sheet of material|
|WO1995009584A1 *||5 Oct 1994||13 Apr 1995||Guerbet S.A.||Tubular expandable member for an intraluminal endoprosthesis, intraluminal endoprosthesis and method of production|
|WO1996009013A1 *||30 Aug 1995||28 Mar 1996||Wake Forest University||Expandable, intraluminal stents|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6027527 *||5 Dec 1997||22 Feb 2000||Piolax Inc.||Stent|
|US6179868 *||27 Mar 1998||30 Jan 2001||Janet Burpee||Stent with reduced shortening|
|US6187035 *||16 Jul 1998||13 Feb 2001||Yang-Soo Jang||Vascular stent|
|US6241760 *||25 Mar 1997||5 Jun 2001||G. David Jang||Intravascular stent|
|US6241762 *||29 Oct 1998||5 Jun 2001||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with ductile hinges|
|US6273909||5 Oct 1998||14 Aug 2001||Teramed Inc.||Endovascular graft system|
|US6280466||3 Dec 1999||28 Aug 2001||Teramed Inc.||Endovascular graft system|
|US6309414 *||4 Nov 1997||30 Oct 2001||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US6409761||20 Apr 2001||25 Jun 2002||G. David Jang||Intravascular stent|
|US6432127||14 Nov 1997||13 Aug 2002||Transvascular, Inc.||Devices for forming and/or maintaining connections between adjacent anatomical conduits|
|US6517572||23 Aug 2001||11 Feb 2003||Teramaed, Inc.||Endovascular graft system|
|US6527799||20 Aug 2001||4 Mar 2003||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with ductile hinges|
|US6562065||28 Aug 2000||13 May 2003||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with beneficial agent delivery mechanism|
|US6565602||30 Oct 2001||20 May 2003||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US6613081||20 Aug 2001||2 Sep 2003||Transvascular, Inc.||Deformable scaffolding multicellular stent|
|US6616690 *||30 Oct 2001||9 Sep 2003||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US6652572||13 Aug 2001||25 Nov 2003||Cordis Corporation||Endovascular graft system|
|US6679910||25 Jul 2000||20 Jan 2004||Latin American Devices Llc||Intraluminal stent|
|US6764507 *||7 Sep 2001||20 Jul 2004||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with improved spatial distribution|
|US6776791||5 Nov 1999||17 Aug 2004||Endovascular Technologies, Inc.||Stent and method and device for packing of same|
|US6805706||15 Aug 2003||19 Oct 2004||Gmp Cardiac Care, Inc.||Stent-graft with rails|
|US6855125||31 May 2001||15 Feb 2005||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device delivery system and method|
|US6863684||9 Jul 2003||8 Mar 2005||Medtronic Vascular, Inc.||Deformable scaffolding multicellular stent|
|US6884260||14 Jan 2003||26 Apr 2005||Cordis Corporation||Endovascular graft system|
|US6896698||24 Jul 2003||24 May 2005||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US6939371||5 Nov 2002||6 Sep 2005||Cordis Corporation||Endovascular graft system|
|US6964680||25 Jan 2002||15 Nov 2005||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with tapered hinge|
|US6981982||25 Feb 2002||3 Jan 2006||Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc.||Method of producing low profile stent and graft combination|
|US7097658 *||22 Aug 2002||29 Aug 2006||Hasan Semih Oktay||Flexible MEMS actuated controlled expansion stent|
|US7112217||31 Aug 2000||26 Sep 2006||Cordis Corporation||Biluminal endovascular graft system|
|US7160321||15 Jun 2004||9 Jan 2007||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US7169179||5 Jun 2003||30 Jan 2007||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Drug delivery device and method for bi-directional drug delivery|
|US7179288||5 Jun 2003||20 Feb 2007||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US7267684||24 May 2005||11 Sep 2007||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.R.L.||Angioplasty stents|
|US7279004 *||4 Dec 2003||9 Oct 2007||Innovational Holdings, Llc.||Expandable medical device with curved hinge|
|US7314477||18 Aug 2000||1 Jan 2008||C.R. Bard Inc.||Removable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US7344514||17 Aug 2004||18 Mar 2008||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device delivery system and method|
|US7611531 *||16 May 2006||3 Nov 2009||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Stent|
|US7691109||19 Sep 2005||6 Apr 2010||Gore Enterprise Holdings, Inc.||Method of producing low profile stent and graft combination|
|US7727272 *||12 Nov 2003||1 Jun 2010||Biotronik Gmbh & Co. Kg||Bearing structure|
|US7758628||18 Feb 2004||20 Jul 2010||Nexeon Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable device having bistable spring construction|
|US7766956||26 Nov 2003||3 Aug 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Intravascular stent and assembly|
|US7789904||22 Dec 2003||7 Sep 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7789905||30 Jul 2004||7 Sep 2010||Abbottt Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7794491||30 Jul 2004||14 Sep 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure and delivery system|
|US7811314||2 Apr 2007||12 Oct 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation|
|US7815672||29 Sep 2004||19 Oct 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7815763||19 Dec 2005||19 Oct 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture|
|US7819912||4 Mar 2003||26 Oct 2010||Innovational Holdings Llc||Expandable medical device with beneficial agent delivery mechanism|
|US7828836||11 Oct 2002||9 Nov 2010||Nexeon Medsystems Inc.||Bistable spring construction for a stent and other medical apparatus|
|US7842078||30 Jul 2004||30 Nov 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure and delivery system|
|US7842079||29 Sep 2004||30 Nov 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure and delivery system|
|US7846196||30 Jul 2004||7 Dec 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7850726||20 Dec 2007||14 Dec 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Endoprosthesis having struts linked by foot extensions|
|US7850727||14 Nov 2005||14 Dec 2010||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US7850728||6 Mar 2006||14 Dec 2010||Innovational Holdings Llc||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US7887577||30 Jul 2004||15 Feb 2011||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7887578||16 Nov 2006||15 Feb 2011||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Stent having an expandable web structure|
|US7896912||13 Apr 2004||1 Mar 2011||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device with S-shaped bridging elements|
|US7909865||17 Apr 2009||22 Mar 2011||Conor Medsystems, LLC||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US7927364||3 Jun 2004||19 Apr 2011||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation|
|US7927365||29 Mar 2007||19 Apr 2011||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for stenting comprising enhanced embolic protection coupled with improved protections against restenosis and thrombus formation|
|US8016874||23 May 2007||13 Sep 2011||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Flexible stent with elevated scaffolding properties|
|US8021414||25 Jul 2002||20 Sep 2011||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US8052734||13 Jun 2008||8 Nov 2011||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device with beneficial agent delivery mechanism|
|US8052735||16 Jun 2008||8 Nov 2011||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device with ductile hinges|
|US8062327||9 May 2006||22 Nov 2011||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Embolus blood clot filter and delivery system|
|US8066760 *||18 Apr 2006||29 Nov 2011||Medtronic Vascular, Inc.||Stent with movable crown|
|US8088157||30 Mar 2007||3 Jan 2012||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited|
|US8128679||9 Oct 2007||6 Mar 2012||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Flexible stent with torque-absorbing connectors|
|US8133251||10 Jun 2005||13 Mar 2012||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Removeable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US8187321||7 Sep 2005||29 May 2012||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US8197881||31 Aug 2010||12 Jun 2012||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for loading a beneficial agent into an expandable medical device|
|US8206435||23 Feb 2009||26 Jun 2012||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US8226707||15 Apr 2010||24 Jul 2012||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US8230913||13 Aug 2010||31 Jul 2012||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Expandable device for use in a well bore|
|US8246674||13 Dec 2010||21 Aug 2012||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Endoprosthesis having struts linked by foot extensions|
|US8303645||3 Sep 2010||6 Nov 2012||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure|
|US8337544||20 Dec 2007||25 Dec 2012||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Endoprosthesis having flexible connectors|
|US8343208||18 Nov 2010||1 Jan 2013||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Stent having an expandable web structure|
|US8349390||22 Jul 2010||8 Jan 2013||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for loading a beneficial agent into an expandable medical device|
|US8353948||29 Mar 2006||15 Jan 2013||Celonova Stent, Inc.||Fracture-resistant helical stent incorporating bistable cells and methods of use|
|US8353950||7 Mar 2011||15 Jan 2013||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Stent with flexible hinges|
|US8361537||26 Oct 2007||29 Jan 2013||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device with beneficial agent concentration gradient|
|US8372109||18 Mar 2010||12 Feb 2013||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Non-entangling vena cava filter|
|US8430903||18 Nov 2011||30 Apr 2013||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Embolus blood clot filter and delivery system|
|US8439965||5 May 2011||14 May 2013||Cid S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US8439968||22 Mar 2011||14 May 2013||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US8449901||7 Mar 2006||28 May 2013||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Implantable medical device with beneficial agent concentration gradient|
|US8535380||13 May 2010||17 Sep 2013||Stout Medical Group, L.P.||Fixation device and method|
|US8545545||18 Oct 2006||1 Oct 2013||Innovational Holdings Llc||Stent with flexible hinges|
|US8562665||17 Dec 2002||22 Oct 2013||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Tubular stent consists of chevron-shape expansion struts and contralaterally attached diagonal-connectors|
|US8574261||27 Jun 2011||5 Nov 2013||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Removable embolus blood clot filter|
|US8613754||29 Jul 2010||24 Dec 2013||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Tubular filter|
|US8623068||30 Sep 2011||7 Jan 2014||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with ductile hinges|
|US8628556||28 Nov 2012||14 Jan 2014||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Non-entangling vena cava filter|
|US8663311 *||22 Dec 2005||4 Mar 2014||Celonova Stent, Inc.||Device comprising biodegradable bistable or multistable cells and methods of use|
|US8685080||21 Jul 2009||1 Apr 2014||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US8690906||7 Mar 2012||8 Apr 2014||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Removeable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US8709042||21 Mar 2007||29 Apr 2014||Stout Medical Group, LP||Expandable support device and method of use|
|US8814926||18 Apr 2011||26 Aug 2014||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited|
|US8852261||23 May 2011||7 Oct 2014||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US8920488||20 Dec 2007||30 Dec 2014||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Endoprosthesis having a stable architecture|
|US8974515||26 Jun 2013||10 Mar 2015||Innovational Holdings Llc||Stent with flexible hinges|
|US9005272||19 May 2011||14 Apr 2015||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US9017367||16 Dec 2013||28 Apr 2015||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Tubular filter|
|US9039756||22 Mar 2011||26 May 2015||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US9050112||22 Aug 2012||9 Jun 2015||Flexmedex, LLC||Tissue removal device and method|
|US9056001||25 Sep 2009||16 Jun 2015||W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.||Method of producing low profile stent and graft combination|
|US9078778||14 Sep 2011||14 Jul 2015||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US9131999||17 Nov 2006||15 Sep 2015||C.R. Bard Inc.||Vena cava filter with filament|
|US9144484||2 Jan 2014||29 Sep 2015||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Non-entangling vena cava filter|
|US9149286||14 Nov 2011||6 Oct 2015||Flexmedex, LLC||Guidance tool and method for use|
|US9173977||27 Sep 2012||3 Nov 2015||Angioscore, Inc.||Coating formulations for scoring or cutting balloon catheters|
|US9179936||7 Feb 2013||10 Nov 2015||Quattro Vascular Pte Ltd.||Constraining structure with non-linear axial struts|
|US9199066||9 Mar 2011||1 Dec 2015||Quattro Vascular Pte Ltd.||Device and method for compartmental vessel treatment|
|US9204956||13 Aug 2012||8 Dec 2015||C. R. Bard, Inc.||IVC filter with translating hooks|
|US9216033||21 Aug 2013||22 Dec 2015||Quattro Vascular Pte Ltd.||System and method for treating biological vessels|
|US9241782 *||8 Nov 2010||26 Jan 2016||Celonova Stent, Inc.||Bistable spring construction for a stent and other medical apparatus|
|US9254202||8 Jan 2013||9 Feb 2016||Innovational Holdings Llc||Method and apparatus for loading a beneficial agent into an expandable medical device|
|US9259314||10 Jun 2011||16 Feb 2016||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US9259329||20 Nov 2013||16 Feb 2016||Stout Medical Group, L.P.||Expandable support device and method of use|
|US9301860||11 Mar 2014||5 Apr 2016||Jenesis Surgical, Llc||Articulated commissure valve stents and methods|
|US9314349||21 Mar 2007||19 Apr 2016||Stout Medical Group, L.P.||Expandable support device and method of use|
|US9320627||2 Mar 2012||26 Apr 2016||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Flexible stent with torque-absorbing connectors|
|US9326842||4 Jun 2007||3 May 2016||C. R . Bard, Inc.||Embolus blood clot filter utilizable with a single delivery system or a single retrieval system in one of a femoral or jugular access|
|US9351756||27 Aug 2013||31 May 2016||Angioscore, Inc.||Method and system for treating valve stenosis|
|US9351821||20 Nov 2013||31 May 2016||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Removable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US9364254||15 May 2013||14 Jun 2016||Angioscore, Inc.||Method and system for treating valve stenosis|
|US9364323||23 May 2011||14 Jun 2016||Jennifer K. White||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US9375328||26 Jan 2010||28 Jun 2016||Angioscore, Inc.||Balloon catheter with non-deployable stent|
|US9387063||5 Dec 2012||12 Jul 2016||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Embolus blood clot filter and delivery system|
|US9445926||15 Aug 2008||20 Sep 2016||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Intravascular stent|
|US9498318||4 Nov 2013||22 Nov 2016||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Removable embolus blood clot filter|
|US9517146||3 Jul 2014||13 Dec 2016||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited|
|US9586031||15 Mar 2013||7 Mar 2017||Angioscore, Inc.||Methods and systems for delivering substances into luminal walls|
|US9615909||29 Apr 2016||11 Apr 2017||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Removable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US9700442||11 Nov 2014||11 Jul 2017||Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc||Methods for manufacturing a stent frame|
|US9770339 *||14 Jan 2008||26 Sep 2017||Stout Medical Group, L.P.||Expandable support device and method of use|
|US9801714||11 Feb 2014||31 Oct 2017||Edwards Lifesciences Cardiaq Llc||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|US20020049493 *||21 Aug 2001||25 Apr 2002||Jang G. David||Intravascular stent|
|US20020052645 *||13 Aug 2001||2 May 2002||Kugler Chad J.||Endovascular graft system|
|US20020062149 *||9 Aug 2001||23 May 2002||Jang G. David||Intravascular stent|
|US20020068969 *||7 Sep 2001||6 Jun 2002||Shanley John F.||Expandable medical device with improved spatial distribution|
|US20020107563 *||25 Jan 2002||8 Aug 2002||Shanley John F.||Expandable medical device with locking mechanism|
|US20020138129 *||25 Feb 2002||26 Sep 2002||Armstrong Joseph R.||Method of producing low profile stent and graft combination|
|US20030009214 *||30 Aug 2002||9 Jan 2003||Shanley John F.||Medical device with beneficial agent delivery mechanism|
|US20030040791 *||22 Aug 2002||27 Feb 2003||Oktay Hasan Semih||Flexible MEMS actuated controlled expansion stent|
|US20030055487 *||12 Sep 2002||20 Mar 2003||Jomed Nv||Stent|
|US20030074052 *||11 Oct 2002||17 Apr 2003||Jomed Gmbh||Bistable spring construction for a stent and other medical apparatus|
|US20030135261 *||14 Jan 2003||17 Jul 2003||Kugler Chad J.||Endovascular graft system|
|US20040015225 *||9 Jul 2003||22 Jan 2004||Kim Steven W.||Deformable scaffolding multicellular stent|
|US20040122505 *||4 Dec 2003||24 Jun 2004||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device with curved hinge|
|US20040122506 *||5 Dec 2003||24 Jun 2004||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US20040127976 *||22 Sep 2003||1 Jul 2004||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Method and apparatus for loading a beneficial agent into an expandable medical device|
|US20040153140 *||24 Jul 2003||5 Aug 2004||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US20040193247 *||18 Feb 2004||30 Sep 2004||Besselink Petrus A.||Expandable device having bistable spring construction|
|US20040236408 *||15 Jun 2004||25 Nov 2004||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US20050004651 *||30 Jul 2004||6 Jan 2005||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Methods and apparatus for a stent having an expandable web structure and delivery system|
|US20050015135 *||17 Aug 2004||20 Jan 2005||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device delivery system and method|
|US20050060024 *||20 Jan 2004||17 Mar 2005||Lee J. Michael||Expandible stent|
|US20050203608 *||26 Apr 2005||15 Sep 2005||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Expandable medical device for delivery of beneficial agent|
|US20050228485 *||24 May 2005||13 Oct 2005||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US20050234503 *||10 Jun 2005||20 Oct 2005||Ravenscroft Adrian C||Removeable embolus blood clot filter and filter delivery unit|
|US20060015167 *||19 Sep 2005||19 Jan 2006||Armstrong Joseph R||Method of producing low profile stent and graft combination|
|US20060079956 *||10 Aug 2005||13 Apr 2006||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Bifurcation stent with crushable end and method for delivery of a stent to a bifurcation|
|US20060149352 *||12 Nov 2003||6 Jul 2006||Biotronik Gmbh & Co. Kg||Bearing structure|
|US20060175727 *||19 Dec 2005||10 Aug 2006||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Porous membranes for medical implants and methods of manufacture|
|US20060206195 *||16 May 2006||14 Sep 2006||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Entities Limited||Stent|
|US20060217795 *||29 Mar 2006||28 Sep 2006||Paragon Intellectual Properties, Llc||Fracture-resistant helical stent incorporating bistable cells and methods of use|
|US20060241739 *||22 Dec 2005||26 Oct 2006||Paragon Intellectual Properties, Llc||Device comprising biodegradable bistable or multistable cells and methods of use|
|US20070067026 *||16 Nov 2006||22 Mar 2007||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Medical device with beneficial agent delivery mechanism|
|US20070191928 *||10 Apr 2007||16 Aug 2007||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.P.A.||Angioplasty stents|
|US20070244543 *||18 Apr 2006||18 Oct 2007||Medtronic Vascular, Inc. A Delaware Corporation||Stent With Movable Crown|
|US20080097579 *||18 Oct 2006||24 Apr 2008||Conor Medsystems, Inc.||Stent with flexible hinges|
|US20090131970 *||9 May 2006||21 May 2009||C.R. Bard Inc.||Embolus blood clot filter and delivery system|
|US20100004736 *||14 Sep 2009||7 Jan 2010||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.R.L.||Angioplasty stents|
|US20100114297 *||29 Oct 2009||6 May 2010||Abbott Laboratories Vascular Enterprises Limited||Stent|
|US20110208291 *||8 Nov 2010||25 Aug 2011||Nexeon Medsystems, Inc.||Bistable spring construction for a stent and other medical apparatus|
|US20110213457 *||5 May 2011||1 Sep 2011||Sorin Biomedica Cardio S.R.L.||Angioplasty stents|
|US20110224781 *||23 May 2011||15 Sep 2011||White Jennifer K||Repositionable endoluminal support structure and its applications|
|USRE45011||31 Aug 2010||15 Jul 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Expandable tubing and method|
|USRE45099||31 Aug 2010||2 Sep 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Expandable tubing and method|
|USRE45244||31 Aug 2010||18 Nov 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Expandable tubing and method|
|CN101594839B||18 Oct 2007||25 Dec 2013||革新控股有限责任公司||Stent with flexible hinges|
|EP2489337A1||17 Feb 2012||22 Aug 2012||Cook Medical Technologies LLC||Prosthesis and method of manufacture|
|WO2008049045A2 *||18 Oct 2007||24 Apr 2008||Innovational Holdings, Llc||Stent with flexible hinges|
|WO2008049045A3 *||18 Oct 2007||25 Sep 2008||Innovational Holdings Llc||Stent with flexible hinges|
|International Classification||A61F2/915, A61F2/91|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2002/91533, A61F2230/0013, A61F2002/9155, A61F2002/91575, A61F2/915, A61F2/91|
|European Classification||A61F2/91, A61F2/915|
|21 Oct 1996||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MEDSTENT INC., CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LEE, J. MICHAEL;CREWE, KATHERINE H.;MASTRANGELO, CHRISTINE;REEL/FRAME:008217/0756
Effective date: 19960929
|13 Dec 2001||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|30 Dec 2005||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8
|8 Feb 2010||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|7 Jul 2010||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|24 Aug 2010||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20100707