Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS5372135 A
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 08/216,083
Publication date13 Dec 1994
Filing date21 Mar 1994
Priority date31 Dec 1991
Fee statusPaid
Also published asWO1993012712A1
Publication number08216083, 216083, US 5372135 A, US 5372135A, US-A-5372135, US5372135 A, US5372135A
InventorsYitzhak Mendelson, Hannu Harjunmaa, Yi Wang, Brian D. Gross
Original AssigneeVivascan Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Blood constituent determination based on differential spectral analysis
US 5372135 A
Abstract
The present invention relates to the determination of an analyte or multiple analytes in blood using information derived from the differential optical absorption spectra of blood. Specifically, the information is derived from the differential spectra of tissue before and immediately after the volume of blood in the tissue has been changed.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(16)
We claim:
1. A non-invasive in vivo method for obtaining a differential absorption spectrum relating to the concentration of analyte in living tissue comprising the steps of:
a) illuminating the tissue with a first light beam which is varied in wavelength in a substantially continuous manner about a first wavelength over a first time period;
b) detecting the wavelength varied first light beam after the beam has traversed a first blood volume of tissue containing said analyte to produce a first absorption spectrum comprising a substantially continuous plot of absorption in said first volume versus wavelength;
c) changing the blood volume of tissue;
d) illuminating the changed blood volume of tissue with a second light beam which is varied in wavelength in a substantially continuous manner about a second wavelength over a second time period;
e) detecting the wavelength varied second light beam after the beam has traversed a second blood volume of tissue containing said analyte to produce a second absorption spectrum comprising a substantially continuous plot of absorption in said changed volume versus wavelength;
f) combining the two absorption spectrums to produce a differential absorption spectrum.
2. The method of claim 1 including processing of the differential spectrum to determine analyte concentration.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the analyte is glucose.
4. The method of claim 2 including detecting of the light by a photodetector and wherein the absorption spectrum is comprised of an electrical signal.
5. The method of claim 1 including varying the wavelength of at least one of said first and second light beams over a range between about 1100 nanometers and 2500 nanometers.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the blood volume is changed electromechanically.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the blood volume is changed by the natural blood pressure pulse of the cardiac cycle.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the wavelength is varied in step d) over a range which is similar to the wavelength variation in step a).
9. A non-invasive method for obtaining a differential absorption spectrum relating to the concentration of analyte in living tissue comprising the steps of:
a) illuminating the tissue at a first tissue site with a light beam which is varied in wavelength during a first time period;
b) during a second time period changing the blood volume of the tissue at the first tissue site from a first volume to a second volume;
c) detecting the light beam during the first time period after the wavelength varied beam has traversed the first volume of tissue containing said analyte to produce a first absorption spectrum;
d) detecting the light beam during the second time period after the wavelength varied beam has traversed the second volume of tissue containing said analyte to produce a second absorption spectrum;
e) combining the two absorption spectrum to produce a differential absorption spectrum which represents tissue absorption versus a spectrum of wavelengths.
10. The method of claim 9 including processing the differential spectrum to determine analyte concentration.
11. The method of claim 9 wherein the analyte is glucose.
12. Apparatus for non-invasive generation of a differential signal relating to the concentration of analyte in living tissue comprising:
a) a light source generating a beam of light;
b) a tuner varying the frequency of said beam of light over a predetermined time period;
c) a photosensitive detector for detecting said frequency varying light after traversing said tissue:
(ii) when the tissue contains a first volume of blood; and
(iii) when the tissue contains a second volume of blood; to produce two separate absorption signals a first one of which is proportional to the absorption of said frequency varying light by said tissue containing the first volume of blood versus frequency and a second of which is proportional to the absorption of said frequency varying light by said tissue containing the second volume of blood versus frequency; and
d) generating means for generating said differential signal which is proportional to the difference between the light detected versus frequency for each signal detected in (c) (i) and (ii) above.
13. The apparatus of claim 12 wherein the tuner comprises an acousto-optical tunable filter.
14. The apparatus of claim 12 including a beam splitter dividing the frequency varied beam of light into two beams, one of which traverses a greater volume of blood than the other.
15. The apparatus of claim 12 including clamp means for varying the volume of blood in the tissue traversed by the light.
16. The apparatus of claim 15 wherein the clamp means is an optically transparent body.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation of co-pending application Ser. No. 07/815,469 filed Dec. 31, 1991, now abandoned.

RELATED APPLICATIONS

The following are related applications: U.S. Ser. No. 07/511,341 filed Apr. 4, 1990, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,112,124, entitled "Method and Apparatus for Measuring the Concentration of Absorbing Substances"; U.S. Ser. No. 07/511,229 filed Apr. 19, 1990, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,137,023 entitled "Method and Apparatus for Monitoring Blood Analytes Noninvasively by Pulsatile Photoplethysmography"; U.S. Ser. No. 07/527,514 filed May. 23, 1990, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,099,123 entitled "Method for Determining by Absorption of Radiations the Concentration of Substances in Absorbing and Turbid Matrices"; U.S. Ser. No. 07/725,502 filed Jul. 3, 1991, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,183,042 entitled "Electromagnetic Method and Apparatus to Measure Constituents of Human or Animal Tissue" and U.S. Ser. No. 07/725,441 filed Jul. 3, 1991, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,178,142 entitled "Electromagnetic Method and Apparatus to Measure Constituents of Human or Animal Tissue", each of which is incorporated by reference herein.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to instrumentation and methods for noninvasive quantitative measurement of biochemical blood constituents such as blood glucose, urea, cholesterol, etc.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The determination of blood glucose is critical to diabetic patients. These patients must measure their blood glucose level several times daily in order to determine how much insulin their body requires. For diabetics with internally implantable or external insulin pumps, the ability to have a reliable glucose sensor that can continuously measure their blood glucose is essential for the realization of an artificial pancreas device.

Considerable efforts have been placed on the development of reliable methods for measuring blood glucose noninvasively. Although several sensors have been successfully developed for in vitro and in vivo applications, these sensors can be used only for intermittent measurements or short term monitoring. None of these devices are suitable for long-term in vivo applications utilizing noninvasive means.

The concentration of a limited number of analytes in blood can be measured noninvasively by spectroscopic means. For instance, by measuring the amount of optical radiation either absorbed by, transmitted through or reflected from biological tissues, it is possible to derive a quantitative measurement relative to the concentration of oxygen in blood. In contrast to invasive measurement, noninvasive measurements are clearly more attractive because they are safe, fast, convenient, painless and can be used to provide short-term and long-term continuous information on changing levels of blood analytes in the body. Therefore, noninvasive measurement of blood constituents is desirable, especially in children and older patients.

Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a reliable method for quantitative noninvasive measurement of glucose levels in biological tissues by irradiating the tissue with light at predetermined wavelengths and using the principle of absorption spectroscopy. Some methods are based on detecting the resonance absorption peaks in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, also known as the "fingerprints" region, which are caused by vibrational and rotational oscillations of the molecules and are characteristic for different molecules. Other techniques are based upon near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the sample's composition. Unlike the "fingerprint" region, which is valuable as a tool for obtaining structural information on the sample, structural measurements in the near infrared region of the spectra are obscured because of multiple and weak overtones yielding many overlapping peaks.

Regardless of which spectroscopic method is employed, there are four basic practical difficulties which limit the noninvasive detection of most biological substances including glucose: 1) The high intrinsic background absorption by water, 2) the relatively low concentration of most biological substances, 3) the number of weak and overlapping absorption peaks in the spectra, and 4) the highly scattering properties of biological tissues. Moreover, the large variations in the optical properties of skin among different individuals makes absolute measurements and calibrations very difficult and impractical.

Two methods are commonly utilized for obtaining spectral information from biological tissues for the purpose of measuring the concentration of various biochemical constituents noninvasively. One method is based on information derived from the absolute optical spectra of tissues containing blood. According to this concept, the tissue is illuminated with light at different preselected wavelengths and either the total or proportional amount of light which is transmitted through, reflected from, or transflected by the tissue is measured by a photodetector. This technique was utilized for example by Hewlett-Packard in their ear oximeter product (U.S. Pat. No. 3,638,640 by Shaw) and by Rosenthal et al. (U.S. Pat. No. 5,028,787). According to the other method, which is widely used in pulse oximetry, the tissue is illuminated by two different light sources. Typically, one wavelength around 660 nm and the other in the range between 815 nm and 960 nm are used. The change in optical absorption caused by the pulsation of arterial blood in the tissue is measured and analyzed to provide a quantitative measure of the amount of oxygen present in the arterial blood. According to this second technique, the ratio between the normalized pulsatile and nonpulsatile components of a single pair of red and infrared wavelengths transmitted through tissue is used to compute the amount of oxygen saturation in the arterial blood. Both of these methods are useful for measuring, for example, the oxygen saturation in blood but cannot be readily utilized for measuring the concentration of glucose or other low concentration substances in blood. The reasons are related to the fact that the optical absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin, which corresponds to fully oxygenated blood, and deoxyhemoglobin, which corresponds to fully deoxygenated blood, are significantly different from each other. Furthermore, the optical absorption spectra of blood in the 660 to 9660 nm region of the spectrum is significantly stronger than the background optical absorption of the blood-less tissue. Lastly, the relative concentration of hemoglobin is normally about 150 times higher than that of glucose and hemoglobin has a much higher optical absorption compared to that of glucose.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is based on information derived from the continuous differential spectra of blood obtained noninvasively through the skin by illuminating the tissue with light which rapidly varies in frequency over time. This differential optical spectra (absorption vs. wavelength) is obtained by measuring the difference between the total attenuation of tissue containing a first volume of blood and the same tissue containing a second volume of blood, which is an incremental or a decremental change from the first volume of the blood. Information related to the content of glucose in the blood is then derived from analyzing the features of this differential spectra over a selected range of wavelengths.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a normalized plot of a typical optical spectrum (absorption vs. wavelength) of tissue containing blood.

FIG. 2 is a normalized plot of a optical absorption spectrum of water.

FIG. 3 is a block diagram of an apparatus for determining blood analyte concentration in vivo using differential spectrum analysis.

FIG. 4A are two optical absorption spectra of tissue taken from the same tissue site for two different volumes of blood.

FIG. 4B is a normalized differential optical absorption spectrum corresponding to the spectra shown in FIG. 4A.

FIG. 5 is a block diagram showing an alternate embodiment of FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 is a plot of tissue absorption versus time during the normal cardiac cycle.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The spectrum shown in FIG. 1 represents a typical optical transmission spectrum of tissue containing blood acquired by a spectrophotometer in the wavelength region between 600 nm in the visible and 2500 nm in the infrared. The basic shape and relative magnitude of the absorption peaks in this spectra are similar to that of water (as shown for comparison in FIG. 2) which is known to be the major optical interfering constituent in blood and tissues for in vivo infrared spectroscopy. If the concentration of glucose in the blood is changed within physiological ranges compatible with life, the basic features of the spectra shown in FIG. 1 will remain unchanged, namely, the difference between the two spectra is so minute that it cannot be detected with ordinary spectrophotometers equipped with photodetectors sensitive to radiation in the corresponding infrared region. The main reason for that is the intrinsically high optical absorption of water compared to glucose and the relatively smaller concentration of glucose compared to that of water in blood and living tissue. In practical terms, in order to be able to detect variations in the optical absorption spectra of living tissue as a result of changes in the concentration of glucose in that tissue, it is essential to use an optical detector which can discriminate between changes in light intensities amounting to levels well below the intrinsic noise level of the optical detector itself. With the present state of the technology, this is impractical to accomplish. The present invention overcomes this problem by generating a differential spectrum which contains information that is significantly more sensitive to physiological variations in the level of blood glucose.

FIG. 3 illustrates how this differential spectra is generated. A light source 10, for example a quartz halogen lamp, powered by a power supply 12 is used to generate light in the wavelength region of interest. The light generated by the lamp is focused by optical lenses 14 onto optically tuneable filter 18. Alternatively, a narrow range of wavelengths can be pre-selected by passing the beam through an appropriate optical filter 16. The variable optical filter 18 is powered by an electronic driver 38. Filter 18 is used to select a certain wavelength and intensity beam of light 19 at its output. Preferably filter 18 comprises an acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) which is a solid-state tunable band-pass optical filter that allows very fast (fractions of a second, or less) narrow wavelength scanning. Other means of generating a fast scanning monochromatic light beam can also be used, instead.

The light 19 is divided by beam splitter 20 into two beams A and B. Beam B is reflected by mirror 22 and enters body tissue 24 at a site adjacent to the entry point of beam A.

The blood volume at the site of entry of beam A is greater than at entry of beam B. Modulation of the blood volume at the adjacent sites may be accomplished in a number of ways. In FIG. 3 a suitable tissue site such as an ear lobe or hand web is used and a light transparent clamp 26 is applied to the entry site of beam B to compress the tissue at that location. Similar light beams A and B enter the tissue 24 and after being partially absorbed by the tissue emerge as light beams A' and B'. Beams A' and B' are reflected by mirrors 28 and 30 onto a single photodetector and preamplifier 32 to produce an electrical signal corresponding to the differential spectra of the two adjacent tissue sites; therefore representing the differential absorptive spectra of blood.

This differential spectra is illustrated in FIG. 4B which shows the results of subtracting the absorptive spectra of beam A passing through the site with greater blood volume (Curve A of FIG. 4A) with the absorptive spectra of beam B passing through the lesser volume site (Curve B of FIG. 4A).

The driver 38 consists of a high frequency oscillator and power amplifier and is also used to chop the light propagating though the tuneable filter such that the output 19 is a train of optical pulses with a predetermined duty cycle, frequency, wavelength and intensity. The output of the photodetector/preamplifier 32 is further amplified by a sensitive amplifier 34 which can be a lock-in amplifier. If a lock-in amplifier is used, a reference signal taken from the driver 38 is used to synchronize the AOTF (18) with the lock-in amplifier. The output from this amplifier 39 is acquired by a computer 36 which is used to process the data and derive the information related to the concentration of the unknown analyte for presentation by a read-out meter 40.

The spectra shown in FIG. 4B represent the differential spectra of tissue generated by modulating the amount of blood in the tissue. Therefore, the shape of this spectra is characteristic of the spectra of blood. Since blood contains many biochemical analytes in addition to glucose, the spectra shown in FIG. 4B is a composite broad spectra and it contains information relative to the concentration of many blood analytes, including glucose. Some wavelength ranges (for example, 1580 to 1640 nm) contain information predominantly characteristic of blood glucose whereas other wavelengths (for example 1700-1750 nm) convey information predominantly related to other blood analytes, such as lipids. In order to derive information on blood glucose concentration, the spectra in FIG. 4B must be processed in a computer 36 using a number of different mathematical algorithms utilizing, for example, various known multivariate calibration techniques (see, for example, the book by H. Martens and T. Naes entitled "Multivariate Calibration", published by John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1989) such as: Partial Least-Squares (e.g., see paper by H. Michael Heise, Ralf Marbach, et al., "Multivariate Determination of Glucose in Whole Blood by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy" in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 61, No. 18, Sep. 15, pp. 2009-2015, 1989), Principal Component Regression (e.g., see paper by R Marbach and H. M. Heise, "Calibration Modeling by Partial Least-Squares and Principal Component Regression and its Optimization Using an Improved Leverage Correction for Prediction Testing" in Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, Vol. 9, pp. 45-63, 1990), special Fourier filtering procedures (e.g., see paper by Mark A. Arnold and Gary W Small, "Determination of Physiological Levels of Glucose in an Aqueous Matrix with Digitally Filtered Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectra", Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 62, pp. 1456-1464, 1990), neural networks (e.g., see paper by Peter A. Jansson, "Neural Networks: An Overview" in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 63, No. 6, March 15, pp. 357A-362A, 1991), etc. The resultant determination may then be presented in various forms on display 40.

The optical detection system described above has the ability to instantaneously frequency scan a tissue containing two different blood volumes such that the physiological and biochemical variables in the tissue remain virtually the same between consecutive scans. Conventional optical scanning devices, such as diffracting gratings or a mechanical device which consists of multiple band-pass interference filters mounted perpendicular to the incident light beam or tilted at different angles with respect to the incident beams, are not suitable for this application because they are too slow and the poor wavelength reproducibility of these mechanical devices is a major limiting factor when trying to measure small changes in the optical absorption spectra of the tissue. The unique properties of the electronic AOTF are utilized in this invention to generate a differential spectra from a living tissue which is similar to the intrinsic optical absorption property of blood.

Another embodiment of this invention is shown in FIG. 5. According to this arrangement, a single tissue site 24' is illuminated by a single beam A" generated, for example, by an AOTF device 18'. The blood content in this tissue is changed by rapidly applying an external pressure on the tissue using for instance a light transparent electro-mechanically squeezing head or clamp 26'. The properties of this head is such that it allows light to be transmitted through the tissue and it can be used to change the thickness of the tissue simultaneously during the measurement. Since the AOTF is capable of switching wavelengths at extremely high rates, it is possible to apply a quick external pressure pulse to squeeze out some of the blood in the tissue without causing any damage to the tissue or without altering the biochemical status of the tissue and take two successive scans of the tissue. One scan ANP is obtained before the external pressure pulse is applied to the tissue and the second scan App is obtained immediately after the external pressure pulse is applied. The two scans are then subtracted from each other in detector/preamplifier unit 32' to provide the differential spectra, which is further amplified by amplifier 34, as shown in FIG. 3. This procedure can be repeated several times in a periodic manner in order to acquire multiple scans which can then be averaged in time to improve the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement.

Alternatively, as shown in the typical photoplethysmogram of FIG. 6, the same procedure can be utilized without the external application of pressure by relying on the presence of the natural blood pressure pulse 1 to modulate the amount of blood in the tissue. The block diagram shown in FIG. 5 is suitable for performing this measurement, except that the electro-mechanically squeezing clamp 26' is not required. Accordingly, a fast wavelength scan between 1100 nm and 2500 nm is first obtained during the peak systolic phase of the blood pressure pulse point #2 and then the same wavelength scan is repeated during the peak diastolic period of the blood pressure point #3, as illustrated in FIG. 6. These two scans do not need to be synchronized with the peak and valley of the blood pressure waveform 1 but can occur at different times in the cardiac cycle, for example, points 4 and 5, or points 6 and 7, provided the two consecutive wavelength scans occur when different amounts of blood are present inside the tissue.

As shown in FIG. 6, a separate absorption versus time spectrum is generated each time there is a change in the volume of blood in the tissue. The difference between these spectra will have features similar to that depicted in FIG. 4B. Absolute calibration of the measurement is obtained by numerically correlating the features of this differential absorption spectra, shown, for example, in FIG. 4B with different concentrations of glucose during an empirical calibration study in patients or volunteers undergoing standard glucose tolerance tests. These spectral features consist of local peaks and valleys corresponding to regions in the spectra where various blood analytes absorb the optical radiation by different amounts.

The present invention overcomes the deficiencies in the prior art in several ways. Firstly, it provides a simple way to obtain absolute spectral data from blood by eliminated or canceling out the major optical interference caused by the skin and other non-blood components in the tissues. This makes the measurement significantly more accurate and repeatable since the optical properties of blood are similar among different individuals whereas the optical properties of skin and blood-less tissues are unpredictable and can vary widely among different subjects. Secondly, it allows significantly higher measurement sensitivity for physiological variations in the concentration of glucose and other analytes in blood. Thirdly, it provides a method for absolute calibration of the measurement.

Although the method described in this invention relates to the measurement of glucose in blood, it should be understood that the same technique is also applicable for measurement of other low concentration biochemical analytes in blood such a urea, alcohol, cholesterol, and various other important blood constituents of clinical relevance.

Equivalents

Those skilled in the art will recognize, or be able to ascertain, using no more than routine experimentation, many equivalents to the specific embodiments of the invention described herein.

For example, while the invention is illustrated by a transmission of light through tissue, reflected light, raman spectroscopy, fluorescence, or any other optical technique may also be utilized in a similar manner.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1758088 *29 Aug 192713 May 1930Siemens AgMethod of and means for determining alpha constituent in alpha mixture of substances
US2721942 *15 Jul 194825 Oct 1955Du PontInfrared analyzer and method
US3463142 *5 Jul 196626 Aug 1969Trw IncBlood content monitor
US3614450 *17 Feb 196919 Oct 1971Measurex CorpApparatus for measuring the amount of a substance that is associated with a base material
US3638640 *1 Nov 19671 Feb 1972Robert F ShawOximeter and method for in vivo determination of oxygen saturation in blood using three or more different wavelengths
US3926527 *5 Jun 197416 Dec 1975Philco Ford CorpRotating gas correlation cell
US3958560 *25 Nov 197425 May 1976Wayne Front MarchNon-invasive automatic glucose sensor system
US3963019 *25 Nov 197415 Jun 1976Quandt Robert SOcular testing method and apparatus
US4029085 *26 Mar 197614 Jun 1977Purdue Research FoundationMethod for determining bilirubin concentration from skin reflectance
US4033330 *8 Sep 19755 Jul 1977Hewlett-Packard CompanyTranscutaneous pH measuring instrument
US4169676 *17 Feb 19772 Oct 1979Nils KaiserMethod for determining the contents of metabolic products in the blood
US4266554 *19 Jun 197912 May 1981Minolta Camera Kabushiki KaishaDigital oximeter
US4267844 *2 May 197919 May 1981Minolta Camera Kabushiki KaishaMedical instrument for determining jaundice
US4306877 *23 Jul 197922 Dec 1981Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschaften E.V.Optical measurement of concentration
US4321930 *18 Sep 198030 Mar 1982Duke University, Inc.Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs
US4380240 *3 Aug 198119 Apr 1983Duke University, Inc.Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs
US4398541 *25 May 197816 Aug 1983Xienta, Inc.Method and apparatus for measuring moisture content of skin
US4427889 *12 Aug 198024 Jan 1984Carl Zeiss StiftungMethod and apparatus for molecular spectroscopy, particularly for the determination of products of metabolism
US4485820 *10 May 19824 Dec 1984The Johns Hopkins UniversityMethod and apparatus for the continuous monitoring of hemoglobin saturation in the blood of premature infants
US4490845 *2 Feb 198225 Dec 1984Westinghouse Electric Corp.Automated acousto-optic infrared analyzer system
US4513751 *11 Mar 198330 Apr 1985Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.Method for measuring oxygen metabolism in internal organ or tissue
US4523279 *4 Jun 198411 Jun 1985Oximetrix, Inc.Apparatus for determining oxygen saturation levels in blood
US4570638 *14 Oct 198318 Feb 1986Somanetics CorporationMethod and apparatus for spectral transmissibility examination and analysis
US4586513 *17 Feb 19836 May 1986Minolta Camera Kabushiki KaishaNoninvasive device for photoelectrically measuring the property of arterial blood
US4603700 *9 Dec 19835 Aug 1986The Boc Group, Inc.Probe monitoring system for oximeter
US4621643 *5 Feb 198611 Nov 1986Nellcor IncorporatedCalibrated optical oximeter probe
US4653498 *20 May 198631 Mar 1987Nellcor IncorporatedPulse oximeter monitor
US4655225 *18 Apr 19857 Apr 1987Kurabo Industries Ltd.Spectrophotometric method and apparatus for the non-invasive
US4704029 *26 Dec 19853 Nov 1987Research CorporationBlood glucose monitor
US4725147 *17 Sep 198416 Feb 1988Somanetics CorporationCalibration method and apparatus for optical-response tissue-examination instrument
US4750496 *28 Jan 198714 Jun 1988Xienta, Inc.Method and apparatus for measuring blood glucose concentration
US4759369 *7 Jul 198626 Jul 1988Novametrix Medical Systems, Inc.Pulse oximeter
US4768516 *18 Feb 19866 Sep 1988Somanetics CorporationMethod and apparatus for in vivo evaluation of tissue composition
US4785814 *11 Aug 198722 Nov 1988Cordis CorporationOptical probe for measuring pH and oxygen in blood and employing a composite membrane
US4796636 *10 Sep 198710 Jan 1989Nippon Colin Co., Ltd.Noninvasive reflectance oximeter
US4805623 *4 Sep 198721 Feb 1989Vander CorporationSpectrophotometric method for quantitatively determining the concentration of a dilute component in a light- or other radiation-scattering environment
US4817623 *18 Feb 19864 Apr 1989Somanetics CorporationMethod and apparatus for interpreting optical response data
US4832484 *29 Oct 198723 May 1989Nihon Kohden CorporationApparatus for determining the concentration of a light-absorbing material in blood
US4854699 *2 Nov 19878 Aug 1989Nippon Colin Co., Ltd.Backscatter oximeter
US4863265 *16 Oct 19875 Sep 1989Mine Safety Appliances CompanyApparatus and method for measuring blood constituents
US4867557 *11 Apr 198819 Sep 1989Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.Reflection type oximeter for applying light pulses to a body tissue to measure oxygen saturation
US4882492 *19 Jan 198821 Nov 1989Biotronics Associates, Inc.Non-invasive near infrared measurement of blood analyte concentrations
US4883055 *11 Mar 198828 Nov 1989Puritan-Bennett CorporationArtificially induced blood pulse for use with a pulse oximeter
US4927264 *1 Dec 198822 May 1990Omron Tateisi Electronics Co.Non-invasive measuring method and apparatus of blood constituents
US4975581 *21 Jun 19894 Dec 1990University Of New MexicoMethod of and apparatus for determining the similarity of a biological analyte from a model constructed from known biological fluids
US5028787 *19 Jan 19892 Jul 1991Futrex, Inc.Non-invasive measurement of blood glucose
US5054487 *2 Feb 19908 Oct 1991Boston Advanced Technologies, Inc.Laser systems for material analysis based on reflectance ratio detection
US5099123 *23 May 199024 Mar 1992Biosensors Technology, Inc.Method for determining by absorption of radiations the concentration of substances in absorbing and turbid matrices
US5112124 *19 Apr 199012 May 1992Worcester Polytechnic InstituteMethod and apparatus for measuring the concentration of absorbing substances
US5137023 *19 Apr 199011 Aug 1992Worcester Polytechnic InstituteMethod and apparatus for monitoring blood analytes noninvasively by pulsatile photoplethysmography
US5178142 *3 Jul 199112 Jan 1993Vivascan CorporationElectromagnetic method and apparatus to measure constituents of human or animal tissue
US5183042 *3 Jul 19912 Feb 1993Vivascan CorporationElectromagnetic method and apparatus to measure constituents of human or animal tissue
US5277181 *12 Dec 199111 Jan 1994Vivascan CorporationNoninvasive measurement of hematocrit and hemoglobin content by differential optical analysis
CH160768A * Title not available
DE74428C * Title not available
EP0152979A1 *6 Feb 198528 Aug 1985B.V. Optische Industrie "De Oude Delft"Device for detecting differences in color
EP0404562A2 *21 Jun 199027 Dec 1990University Of New MexicoMethod of and apparatus for determining the similarity of a biological analyte from a model constructed from known biological fluids
EP0407992A1 *11 Jul 199016 Jan 1991Kyoto Daiichi Kagaku Co., Ltd.Method for determination of glucose concentration
WO1990007905A1 *17 Jan 199026 Jul 1990Futrex, Inc.Non-invasive measurement of blood glucose
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Donahoe and Longini, "A New Noninvasive Backscattering Oximeter," Proc. IEEE/Seventh Annual Conf. Eng. in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 144-147 (1985).
2 *Donahoe and Longini, A New Noninvasive Backscattering Oximeter, Proc. IEEE/Seventh Annual Conf. Eng. in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 144 147 (1985).
3H. M. Heise and R. Marcbach, "Multivariate Determination of Glucose in Whole Blood by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy", Analytical Chemistry, 61(18):2009-2015 (1989).
4 *H. M. Heise and R. Marcbach, Multivariate Determination of Glucose in Whole Blood by Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy , Analytical Chemistry, 61(18):2009 2015 (1989).
5M. A. Arnold and G. W. Small, "Determination of Physiological Levels of Glucose in an Aqueous Matrix with Digitally Filtered Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectra.", Anal. Chem, 62:1457-1464, (1990).
6 *M. A. Arnold and G. W. Small, Determination of Physiological Levels of Glucose in an Aqueous Matrix with Digitally Filtered Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectra. , Anal. Chem, 62:1457 1464, (1990).
7 *P. A. Jansson, Neural Networks: An Overview, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 357A 362A, (1991).
8P. A. Jansson, Neural-Networks: An Overview, Analytical Chemistry, vol. 63, No. 6, pp. 357A-362A, (1991).
9R. A. Peura and Y. Mendelson, "Blood Glucose Sensors: An Overview" IEEE/NSF Symposium on Biosensors, pp. 63-68 (1984).
10 *R. A. Peura and Y. Mendelson, Blood Glucose Sensors: An Overview IEEE/NSF Symposium on Biosensors, pp. 63 68 (1984).
11R. Marbach and H. M. Heise, "Calibration Modeling by Partial Least-Squares and Principal Component Regression and its Optimization Using an Improved Leverage Correction for Prediction Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems" 9:45-63 (1990).
12 *R. Marbach and H. M. Heise, Calibration Modeling by Partial Least Squares and Principal Component Regression and its Optimization Using an Improved Leverage Correction for Prediction Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 9:45 63 (1990).
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5458128 *17 Jun 199417 Oct 1995Polanyi; MichaelMethod and apparatus for noninvasively measuring concentration of a dye in arterial blood
US5517987 *1 Jun 199421 May 1996Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.Method for measuring internal information in scattering medium and apparatus for the same
US5522388 *15 Sep 19944 Jun 1996Kowa Company Ltd.Pulse spectrometer
US5524617 *14 Mar 199511 Jun 1996Nellcor, IncorporatedIsolated layer pulse oximetry
US5529065 *1 Jun 199425 Jun 1996Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.Method for measuring scattering medium and apparatus for the same
US5533509 *12 Aug 19939 Jul 1996Kurashiki Boseki Kabushiki KaishaMethod and apparatus for non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level
US5615673 *27 Mar 19951 Apr 1997Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus and methods of raman spectroscopy for analysis of blood gases and analytes
US5655530 *9 Aug 199512 Aug 1997Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Method for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with improved optical interface
US5746206 *10 Jun 19965 May 1998Nellcor IncorporatedIsolated layer pulse oximetry
US5823951 *18 Apr 199720 Oct 1998Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Method for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with improved optical interface
US5836317 *19 May 199517 Nov 1998Kunst; HermannTranscutaneous non-bloody determination of the concentration of substances in the blood
US5898487 *24 Mar 199727 Apr 1999Avl Medical Instruments AgApparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives
US5900632 *12 Mar 19974 May 1999Optiscan Biomedical CorporationSubsurface thermal gradient spectrometry
US6025597 *23 Oct 199715 Feb 2000Optiscan Biomedical CorporationNon-invasive infrared absorption spectrometer for measuring glucose or other constituents in a human or other body
US6044285 *12 Nov 199828 Mar 2000Lightouch Medical, Inc.Method for non-invasive measurement of an analyte
US6061582 *7 Feb 19959 May 2000University Of Iowa Research FoundationMethod and apparatus for non-invasive determination of physiological chemicals, particularly glucose
US6113541 *30 Jun 19985 Sep 2000Agilent Technologies, Inc.Noninvasive blood chemistry measurement method and system
US6152876 *19 Oct 199828 Nov 2000Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Method for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with improved optical interface
US6157041 *8 Oct 19995 Dec 2000Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for tailoring spectroscopic calibration models
US621242429 Oct 19983 Apr 2001Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for determination of the adequacy of dialysis by non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy
US62221896 May 199824 Apr 2001Optix, LpMethods of enhancing optical signals by mechanical manipulation in non-invasive testing
US6229908 *22 Apr 19978 May 2001Edmonds, Iii Dean StockettDriver alcohol ignition interlock
US624030630 Jun 199929 May 2001Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with fluid compartment equilibration
US628589412 Mar 19984 Sep 2001Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod and device for non-invasive in vivo determination of blood constituents
US62892307 Jul 199911 Sep 2001Lightouch Medical, Inc.Tissue modulation process for quantitative noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic analysis of tissues
US629268621 Apr 199918 Sep 2001Lightouch Medical, Inc.Apparatus and method for thermal tissue modulation
US63525023 Dec 19995 Mar 2002Lightouch Medical, Inc.Methods for obtaining enhanced spectroscopic information from living tissue, noninvasive assessment of skin condition and detection of skin abnormalities
US637782810 Jan 200023 Apr 2002Lightouch Medical, Inc.Method for non-invasive measurement of an analyte
US638149420 Aug 199930 Apr 2002Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Response to ambient noise in implantable pulse generator
US638930619 Oct 199914 May 2002Lightouch Medical, Inc.Method for determining lipid and protein content of tissue
US64413883 May 200027 Aug 2002Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for spectroscopic calibration model transfer
US65050596 Apr 19997 Jan 2003The General Hospital CorporationNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US651948610 Apr 200011 Feb 2003Ntc Technology Inc.Method, apparatus and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
US652880928 Sep 20004 Mar 2003Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for tailoring spectroscopic calibration models
US655685015 Sep 200029 Apr 2003Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod for determining analyte concentration using periodic temperature modulation and phase detection
US656035211 Apr 20016 May 2003Lumidigm, Inc.Apparatus and method of biometric identification or verification of individuals using optical spectroscopy
US657449011 Apr 20013 Jun 2003Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.System for non-invasive measurement of glucose in humans
US657788515 Sep 200010 Jun 2003Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod for determining analyte concentration using periodic temperature modulation and phase detection
US662203228 Sep 200016 Sep 2003Inlight Solutions, Inc.Method for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with improved optical interface
US66288098 Oct 199930 Sep 2003Lumidigm, Inc.Apparatus and method for identification of individuals by near-infrared spectrum
US66312885 Apr 20007 Oct 2003Huntleigh Technology, PlcSkin evaluation apparatus
US663675928 Mar 200121 Oct 2003Inlight Solutions, Inc.Apparatus and method for determination of the adequacy of dialysis by non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy
US668113330 Nov 200120 Jan 2004Lightouch Medical, Inc.Methods and apparatus for obtaining enhanced spectroscopic information from living tissue
US671818924 May 20016 Apr 2004Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for non-invasive blood analyte measurement with fluid compartment equilibration
US672158220 Feb 200113 Apr 2004Argose, Inc.Non-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US672856028 Feb 200227 Apr 2004The General Hospital CorporationNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US6791674 *16 Mar 200114 Sep 2004Japan As Represented By Director Of National Food Research Institute Ministry Of Agriculture Forestry And FisheriesAnalytical method and apparatus for blood using near infrared spectroscopy
US68102776 Aug 200226 Oct 2004Ric Investments, Inc.Method, apparatus and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
US68166053 Apr 20039 Nov 2004Lumidigm, Inc.Methods and systems for biometric identification of individuals using linear optical spectroscopy
US686209111 Apr 20011 Mar 2005Inlight Solutions, Inc.Illumination device and method for spectroscopic analysis
US68654083 Mar 20038 Mar 2005Inlight Solutions, Inc.System for non-invasive measurement of glucose in humans
US687387529 Aug 200029 Mar 2005Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US688287326 Nov 200219 Apr 2005Respironics, Inc.Method and system for determining bilirubin concentration
US6931268 *6 Nov 200016 Aug 2005Masimo Laboratories, Inc.Active pulse blood constituent monitoring
US69444866 Jun 200313 Sep 2005Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod and apparatus for determining analyte concentration using phase and magnitude detection of a radiation transfer function
US6961598 *21 Feb 20031 Nov 2005Masimo CorporationPulse and active pulse spectraphotometry
US698317611 Apr 20013 Jan 2006Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Optically similar reference samples and related methods for multivariate calibration models used in optical spectroscopy
US7003337 *26 Apr 200221 Feb 2006Vivascan CorporationNon-invasive substance concentration measurement using and optical bridge
US700685728 Apr 200328 Feb 2006Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod for determining analyte concentration using periodic temperature modulation and phase detection
US70278484 Apr 200211 Apr 2006Inlight Solutions, Inc.Apparatus and method for non-invasive spectroscopic measurement of analytes in tissue using a matched reference analyte
US702962828 Dec 200018 Apr 2006Stat-Chem Inc.Portable co-oximeter
US705084211 Jul 200123 May 2006Lightouch Medical, Inc.Method of tissue modulation for noninvasive measurement of an analyte
US707270222 Jun 20044 Jul 2006Ric Investments, LlcMethod, apparatus and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
US709803716 Aug 200229 Aug 2006Inlight Solutions, Inc.Accommodating subject and instrument variations in spectroscopic determinations
US710708717 Mar 200412 Sep 2006Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for measuring a concentration of a component in a subject
US712668211 Apr 200124 Oct 2006Rio Grande Medical Technologies, Inc.Encoded variable filter spectrometer
US71471535 Apr 200412 Dec 2006Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral biometric sensor
US720043612 Jul 20043 Apr 2007Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US720334512 Sep 200310 Apr 2007Lumidigm, Inc.Apparatus and method for identification of individuals by near-infrared spectrum
US723990516 Aug 20053 Jul 2007Masimo Laboratories, Inc.Active pulse blood constituent monitoring
US724890612 Dec 200224 Jul 2007Danfoss A/SMethod and device for monitoring analyte concentration by optical detection
US724891118 Mar 200424 Jul 2007Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method and apparatus for noninvasively measuring a concentration of a blood component
US72632139 Dec 200428 Aug 2007Lumidigm, Inc.Methods and systems for estimation of personal characteristics from biometric measurements
US727191215 Apr 200418 Sep 2007Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod of determining analyte concentration in a sample using infrared transmission data
US73265769 Apr 20035 Feb 2008Prescient Medical, Inc.Raman spectroscopic monitoring of hemodialysis
US7330746 *7 Jun 200512 Feb 2008Chem Image CorporationNon-invasive biochemical analysis
US73307473 Nov 200512 Feb 2008Chemimage CorporationInvasive chemometry
US734736517 Dec 200425 Mar 2008Lumidigm, Inc.Combined total-internal-reflectance and tissue imaging systems and methods
US73861528 Jul 200510 Jun 2008Lumidigm, Inc.Noninvasive alcohol sensor
US739491925 Apr 20051 Jul 2008Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral biometric imaging
US741304725 Mar 200519 Aug 2008Brown Betty JAlcohol ignition interlock system and method
US74405978 Jul 200521 Oct 2008Rowe Robert KLiveness sensor
US746069625 Apr 20052 Dec 2008Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral imaging biometrics
US7477393 *20 Sep 200613 Jan 2009Fujifilm CorporationSpecimen analysis system obtaining characteristic of specimen by diffusion approximation
US750896528 Nov 200624 Mar 2009Lumidigm, Inc.System and method for robust fingerprint acquisition
US752467127 Jan 200528 Apr 2009Prescient Medical, Inc.Handheld raman blood analyzer
US753621426 Oct 200519 May 2009Hutchinson Technology IncorporatedDynamic StO2 measurements and analysis
US753933025 Apr 200526 May 2009Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral liveness determination
US754596319 Jul 20069 Jun 2009Lumidigm, Inc.Texture-biometrics sensor
US759310820 Aug 200722 Sep 2009Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMethod of determining analyte concentration in a sample using infrared transmission data
US7599065 *20 Sep 20066 Oct 2009Fujifilm CorporationSpecimen analysis system obtaining characteristic of specimen by diffusion approximation
US7613488 *22 Dec 20033 Nov 2009Niresults Inc.Apparatus and methods for compensation of blood volume effects on NIR spectroscopic measurements of blood analytes
US761350430 Sep 20023 Nov 2009Lumidigm, Inc.Spectroscopic cross-channel method and apparatus for improved optical measurements of tissue
US762021212 Aug 200317 Nov 2009Lumidigm, Inc.Electro-optical sensor
US762715123 Nov 20051 Dec 2009Lumidigm, Inc.Systems and methods for improved biometric feature definition
US765185127 Jan 200626 Jan 2010Prescient Medical, Inc.Handheld Raman body fluid analyzer
US76683501 Sep 200523 Feb 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Comparative texture analysis of tissue for biometric spoof detection
US768844026 Jan 200730 Mar 2010Prescient Medical, Inc.Raman spectroscopic test strip systems
US773572917 May 200615 Jun 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Biometric sensor
US775159419 Jul 20066 Jul 2010Lumidigm, Inc.White-light spectral biometric sensors
US7761126 *10 Jan 200620 Jul 2010Inlight Solutions, Inc.Apparatus for non-invasive determination of direction and rate of change of an analyte
US777597526 Mar 200717 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US778333310 Mar 200524 Aug 2010Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US780133824 Apr 200621 Sep 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral biometric sensors
US780133931 Jul 200621 Sep 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Biometrics with spatiospectral spoof detection
US780160614 Feb 200721 Sep 2010Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US780498431 Jul 200628 Sep 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Spatial-spectral fingerprint spoof detection
US781931118 May 200626 Oct 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral biometric sensor
US78310723 Oct 20089 Nov 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral imaging biometrics
US783555429 Oct 200816 Nov 2010Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral imaging biometrics
US785776022 Feb 200628 Dec 2010Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US787504725 Jan 200725 Jan 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release
US78901585 Jun 200115 Feb 2011Lumidigm, Inc.Apparatus and method of biometric determination using specialized optical spectroscopy systems
US78921833 Jul 200322 Feb 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for body fluid sampling and analyte sensing
US789921719 Jul 20071 Mar 2011Lumidign, Inc.Multibiometric multispectral imager
US789951812 Sep 20051 Mar 2011Masimo Laboratories, Inc.Non-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US790136521 Mar 20078 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US790977413 Feb 200722 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US790977526 Jun 200722 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for lancet launching device integrated onto a blood-sampling cartridge
US790977729 Sep 200622 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, IncMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US790977820 Apr 200722 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US79144658 Feb 200729 Mar 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US793878729 Sep 200610 May 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US795269212 Dec 200631 May 2011Orsense Ltd.Method and apparatus for determination of analyte concentration
US795958221 Mar 200714 Jun 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US797469231 Aug 20105 Jul 2011Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US797647616 Mar 200712 Jul 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Device and method for variable speed lancet
US798105522 Dec 200519 Jul 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Tissue penetration device
US798105618 Jun 200719 Jul 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US798864421 Mar 20072 Aug 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release
US79886453 May 20072 Aug 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Self optimizing lancing device with adaptation means to temporal variations in cutaneous properties
US799144821 Apr 20062 Aug 2011Philips Electronics North America CorporationMethod, apparatus, and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
US799580810 Jun 20089 Aug 2011Lumidigm, Inc.Contactless multispectral biometric capture
US800744619 Oct 200630 Aug 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US801677422 Dec 200513 Sep 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Tissue penetration device
US806223111 Oct 200622 Nov 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US807996010 Oct 200620 Dec 2011Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US812370026 Jun 200728 Feb 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for lancet launching device integrated onto a blood-sampling cartridge
US813317822 Feb 200613 Mar 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US815774810 Jan 200817 Apr 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Methods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US816066612 Oct 200717 Apr 2012Bayer Healthcare LlcSystem for determining the concentration of an analyte
US816285322 Dec 200524 Apr 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Tissue penetration device
US816535710 Sep 200924 Apr 2012Lumidigm, Inc.Two camera biometric imaging
US817534610 Jun 20088 May 2012Lumidigm, Inc.Whole-hand multispectral biometric imaging
US817566625 Sep 20068 May 2012Grove Instruments, Inc.Three diode optical bridge system
US818042213 Apr 200615 May 2012Bayer Healthcare LlcNon-invasive system and method for measuring an analyte in the body
US818487314 Jun 201022 May 2012Lumidigm, Inc.White-light spectral biometric sensors
US819742116 Jul 200712 Jun 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US819742314 Dec 201012 Jun 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US820223123 Apr 200719 Jun 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US820631722 Dec 200526 Jun 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US820631926 Aug 201026 Jun 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US821103722 Dec 20053 Jul 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Tissue penetration device
US821403730 Jun 20113 Jul 2012Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US821615423 Dec 200510 Jul 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US822133422 Dec 201017 Jul 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US82291859 Apr 200824 Jul 2012Lumidigm, Inc.Hygienic biometric sensors
US822953520 Feb 200924 Jul 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for blood glucose monitoring and alert delivery
US823591518 Dec 20087 Aug 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US825192110 Jun 201028 Aug 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for body fluid sampling and analyte sensing
US82626141 Jun 200411 Sep 2012Pelikan Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for fluid injection
US826787030 May 200318 Sep 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for body fluid sampling with hybrid actuation
US827543326 Jun 200725 Sep 2012Yu.Sys.CorporationNon-invasive blood constituent measuring instrument and measuring method
US82754387 Nov 200825 Sep 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US828257629 Sep 20049 Oct 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for an improved sample capture device
US828257715 Jun 20079 Oct 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for lancet launching device integrated onto a blood-sampling cartridge
US828501019 Mar 20089 Oct 2012Lumidigm, Inc.Biometrics based on locally consistent features
US82874537 Nov 200816 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US829055924 Oct 200816 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US829691823 Aug 201030 Oct 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod of manufacturing a fluid sampling device with improved analyte detecting member configuration
US82981427 Nov 200830 Oct 2012Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US83337105 Oct 200518 Dec 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US83374194 Oct 200525 Dec 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US833742024 Mar 200625 Dec 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US833742116 Dec 200825 Dec 2012Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US834307523 Dec 20051 Jan 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US835554510 Apr 200815 Jan 2013Lumidigm, Inc.Biometric detection using spatial, temporal, and/or spectral techniques
US836099123 Dec 200529 Jan 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US836099225 Nov 200829 Jan 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US836423025 Mar 200829 Jan 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US836423125 Mar 200829 Jan 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US83666373 Dec 20085 Feb 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US837201630 Sep 200812 Feb 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for body fluid sampling and analyte sensing
US83826826 Feb 200726 Feb 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US83826837 Mar 201226 Feb 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US838855127 May 20085 Mar 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release
US839652825 Mar 200812 Mar 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84038641 May 200626 Mar 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US841450316 Mar 20079 Apr 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US841731224 Oct 20089 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US842541625 Mar 200823 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84254177 Nov 200823 Apr 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated device for continuous in vivo analyte detection and simultaneous control of an infusion device
US843082826 Jan 200730 Apr 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with sterility barrier release
US843519019 Jan 20077 May 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US843987226 Apr 201014 May 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhApparatus and method for penetration with shaft having a sensor for sensing penetration depth
US84473767 Nov 200821 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US84494647 Nov 200828 May 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US845235910 Oct 200728 May 2013Bayer Healthcare LlcMethod for building an algorithm for converting spectral information
US845236524 May 200628 May 2013Bayer Healthcare LlcMethods of using Raman spectral information in determining analyte concentrations
US84783777 Nov 20082 Jul 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US849150016 Apr 200723 Jul 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US849660116 Apr 200730 Jul 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethods and apparatus for lancet actuation
US853272611 Feb 200810 Sep 2013ChemImage Technologies, LLLInvasive chemometry
US85327304 Oct 200610 Sep 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US855682927 Jan 200915 Oct 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US85625287 Nov 200822 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US856254516 Dec 200822 Oct 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US85625585 Jun 200822 Oct 2013Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US857014914 Mar 201129 Oct 2013Lumidigm, Inc.Biometric imaging using an optical adaptive interface
US857416826 Mar 20075 Nov 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for a multi-use body fluid sampling device with analyte sensing
US857489530 Dec 20035 Nov 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus using optical techniques to measure analyte levels
US85798316 Oct 200612 Nov 2013Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US859145520 Feb 200926 Nov 2013Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for customizing delivery of sensor data
US859719013 Dec 20103 Dec 2013Optiscan Biomedical CorporationMonitoring systems and methods with fast initialization
US860634231 Oct 200510 Dec 2013Cercacor Laboratories, Inc.Pulse and active pulse spectraphotometry
US862293018 Jul 20117 Jan 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US86262577 Nov 20087 Jan 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US86366731 Dec 200828 Jan 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US864164327 Apr 20064 Feb 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhSampling module device and method
US864164423 Apr 20084 Feb 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhBlood testing apparatus having a rotatable cartridge with multiple lancing elements and testing means
US865283126 Mar 200818 Feb 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for analyte measurement test time
US866865631 Dec 200411 Mar 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for improving fluidic flow and sample capture
US867903316 Jun 201125 Mar 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US869079629 Sep 20068 Apr 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US870262429 Jan 201022 Apr 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhAnalyte measurement device with a single shot actuator
US87216716 Jul 200513 May 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhElectric lancet actuator
US873125026 Aug 201020 May 2014Lumidigm, Inc.Multiplexed biometric imaging
US87509552 Nov 200910 Jun 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US87748864 Oct 20068 Jul 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US878118124 Feb 201115 Jul 2014Lumidigm, Inc.Contactless multispectral biometric capture
US878433525 Jul 200822 Jul 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhBody fluid sampling device with a capacitive sensor
US87876305 Jan 201122 Jul 2014Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral barcode imaging
US87920981 Jun 201229 Jul 2014Digital Light InnovationsSystem and method for hyperspectral illumination
US880820115 Jan 200819 Aug 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethods and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US881207217 Apr 200819 Aug 2014Dexcom, Inc.Transcutaneous medical device with variable stiffness
US882820320 May 20059 Sep 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhPrintable hydrogels for biosensors
US883129717 May 20119 Sep 2014Lumidigm, Inc.Contactless multispectral biometric capture
US88455492 Dec 200830 Sep 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod for penetrating tissue
US88455503 Dec 201230 Sep 2014Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US887290826 Aug 201028 Oct 2014Lumidigm, IncDual-imager biometric sensor
US88862737 Nov 200811 Nov 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US88910878 Jun 201218 Nov 2014Digital Light InnovationsSystem and method for hyperspectral imaging
US890594529 Mar 20129 Dec 2014Dominique M. FreemanMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US891136726 Mar 200716 Dec 2014Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US891380029 May 201216 Dec 2014Lumidigm, Inc.Optical biometrics imaging with films
US894591019 Jun 20123 Feb 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for an improved sample capture device
US896547618 Apr 201124 Feb 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US902057210 Sep 201028 Apr 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing, transmitting and displaying sensor data
US903463926 Jun 201219 May 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus using optical techniques to measure analyte levels
US907284231 Jul 20137 Jul 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US908929416 Jan 201428 Jul 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhAnalyte measurement device with a single shot actuator
US908967821 May 201228 Jul 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US913540224 Oct 200815 Sep 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US914356920 Feb 200922 Sep 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing, transmitting and displaying sensor data
US914440112 Dec 200529 Sep 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhLow pain penetrating member
US914923313 Jun 20126 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US914923413 Jun 20126 Oct 2015Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US9170201 *1 Jul 201327 Oct 2015Artificial Sensing Instrument Asi AgWaveguide grating structure and optical measurement arrangement
US918646814 Jan 201417 Nov 2015Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US92266999 Nov 20105 Jan 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhBody fluid sampling module with a continuous compression tissue interface surface
US924826718 Jul 20132 Feb 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deustchland GmbhTissue penetration device
US92614761 Apr 201416 Feb 2016Sanofi SaPrintable hydrogel for biosensors
US931419411 Jan 200719 Apr 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US933923816 May 201217 May 2016Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US933961216 Dec 200817 May 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US934157321 Oct 201517 May 2016Artificial Sensing Instruments Asi AgWaveguide grating structure and optical measurement arrangement
US935168014 Oct 200431 May 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for a variable user interface
US937516929 Jan 201028 Jun 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhCam drive for managing disposable penetrating member actions with a single motor and motor and control system
US938694410 Apr 200912 Jul 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for analyte detecting device
US942753229 Sep 201430 Aug 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhTissue penetration device
US945190819 Dec 201227 Sep 2016Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US948739829 Jul 20088 Nov 2016Hid Global CorporationApparatus and method of biometric determination using specialized optical spectroscopy systems
US949816029 Sep 201422 Nov 2016Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod for penetrating tissue
US955473526 Apr 201331 Jan 2017Ascensia Diabetes Care Holdings AgMethod for building an algorithm for converting spectral information
US956099320 Dec 20137 Feb 2017Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhBlood testing apparatus having a rotatable cartridge with multiple lancing elements and testing means
US956100010 Dec 20137 Feb 2017Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for improving fluidic flow and sample capture
US96941443 Dec 20134 Jul 2017Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhSampling module device and method
US971744915 Jan 20131 Aug 2017Dexcom, Inc.Systems and methods for processing sensor data
US97240218 Dec 20148 Aug 2017Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbhMethod and apparatus for penetrating tissue
US972402824 Nov 20148 Aug 2017Dexcom, Inc.Analyte sensor
US97411399 Aug 201322 Aug 2017Dexcom, Inc.Integrated medicament delivery device for use with continuous analyte sensor
US20020091324 *28 Feb 200211 Jul 2002Nikiforos KolliasNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US20030147078 *24 Apr 20017 Aug 2003Kai-Uwe ZirkMethod for the long-term stable and well-reproducible spectrometric measurement of the concentrations of components of aqueous solutions, and device for carrying out said method
US20030199742 *28 Apr 200323 Oct 2003Braig James R.Method for determining analyte concentration using periodic temperature modulation and phase detection
US20030204133 *26 Apr 200230 Oct 2003Hannu HarjunmaaNon-invasive substance concentration measurement using and optical bridge
US20030208169 *11 Jul 20016 Nov 2003Joseph ChaikenMethod of tissue modulation for noninvasive measurement of an analyte
US20030222445 *26 Mar 20034 Dec 2003Patterson Donald B.Multiple chamber dual stage inflator
US20040010185 *11 Jul 200215 Jan 2004Optical Sensors, Inc.Method for measuring a physiologic parameter using a preferred site
US20040034291 *27 Feb 200319 Feb 2004Braig James R.Method for determining analyte concentration using periodic temperature modulation and phase detection
US20040186364 *18 Mar 200423 Sep 2004Jeon Kye-JinMethod and apparatus for noninvasively measuring a concentration of a blood component
US20040204634 *9 Apr 200314 Oct 2004Womble M. EdwardRaman spectroscopic monitoring of hemodialysis
US20040243194 *12 Jul 20042 Dec 2004Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US20050036147 *15 Apr 200417 Feb 2005Sterling Bernhard B.Method of determining analyte concentration in a sample using infrared transmission data
US20050070770 *12 Dec 200231 Mar 2005Holger DiracMethod and device for monitoring analyte concentration by optical detection
US20050230175 *25 Mar 200520 Oct 2005Brown Betty JAlcohol ignition interlock system and method
US20050272987 *16 Aug 20058 Dec 2005Esmaiel Kiani-AzarbayjanyActive pulse blood constituent monitoring
US20060063983 *25 Mar 200323 Mar 2006Ken-Ichi YamakoshiNon-invasive blood component value measuring instrument and method
US20060167349 *10 Jan 200627 Jul 2006Gardner Craig MApparatus for non-invasive determination of direction and rate of change of an analyte
US20060195022 *12 Sep 200531 Aug 2006Pierre TrepagnierNon-invasive tissue glucose level monitoring
US20060258927 *21 Apr 200616 Nov 2006Edgar Reuben W JrMethod, apparatus, and system for removing motion artifacts from measurements of bodily parameters
US20060276697 *7 Jun 20057 Dec 2006Chemlmage CorporationNon-invasive biochemical analysis
US20060276713 *3 Nov 20057 Dec 2006Chemimage CorporationInvasive chemometry
US20070073157 *20 Sep 200629 Mar 2007Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Specimen analysis system obtaining characteristic of specimen by diffusion approximation
US20070073158 *20 Sep 200629 Mar 2007Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.Specimen analysis system obtaining characteristic of specimen by diffusion approximation
US20070093701 *26 Oct 200526 Apr 2007Hutchinson Technology IncorporatedDynamic StO2 measurements and analysis
US20070135851 *14 Feb 200714 Jun 2007Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.Implantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US20070208238 *25 Sep 20066 Sep 2007Hannu HarjunmaaThree diode optical bridge system
US20070224683 *26 Jan 200727 Sep 2007Prescient Medical, Inc.Raman spectroscopic test strip systems
US20080004531 *21 Jun 20073 Jan 2008Massachusetts General HospitalCancer detection by optical measurement of compression-induced transients
US20080027297 *26 Jun 200731 Jan 2008Tyt Institute Of Technology CorporationNon-invasive blood constituent measuring instrument and measuring method
US20080045820 *10 Oct 200721 Feb 2008Rebec Mihailo VMethod for building an algorithm for converting spectral information
US20080045821 *12 Oct 200721 Feb 2008Rebec Mihailo VSystem for determining the concentration of an analyte
US20080064120 *26 Jan 200713 Mar 2008Clarke Richard HRaman spectroscopic lateral flow test strip assays
US20080137066 *12 Dec 200612 Jun 2008Orsense Ltd.Method and apparatus for determination of analyte concentration
US20080158544 *5 Feb 20083 Jul 2008Prescient Medical, Inc.Raman spectroscopic monitoring of hemodialysis
US20080227142 *11 Feb 200818 Sep 2008Chemimage CorporationInvasive chemometry
US20090062632 *13 Apr 20065 Mar 2009Rebec Mihailo VNon-Invasive System and Method for Measuring an Analyte in the Body
US20090117606 *16 Jun 20087 May 2009Tunnell James WMeasuring Nanoparticle Concentrations in Tissue Using Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy
US20090177052 *24 May 20069 Jul 2009Bayer Health Care, Llc.Methods of using raman spectral information in determining analyte concentrations
US20100324622 *31 Aug 201023 Dec 2010Gilkerson James OImplantable pulse generator and method having adjustable signal blanking
US20110163163 *6 Jan 20117 Jul 2011Lumidigm, Inc.Multispectral barcode imaging
US20120059232 *24 Dec 20098 Mar 2012Glusense, Ltd.Implantable optical glucose sensing
US20130046154 *29 Nov 201121 Feb 2013Yue Der LinPpg imaging device and ppg measuring method
US20130288357 *1 Jul 201331 Oct 2013Artificial Sensing Instruments Asi AgWaveguide grating structure and optical measurement arrangement
US20140058224 *21 Aug 201227 Feb 2014Opticks, Inc.Systems and methods for detection of carotenoid-related compounds in biological tissue
USRE427532 Jul 200927 Sep 2011Masimo Laboratories, Inc.Active pulse blood constituent monitoring
USRE4487514 Mar 201129 Apr 2014Cercacor Laboratories, Inc.Active pulse blood constituent monitoring
DE10020615A1 *27 Apr 20008 Nov 2001Glukomeditech AgVerfahren zur langzeitstabilen und gut reproduzierbaren spektrometrischen Messung der Konzentrationen der Bestandteile wässriger Lösungen sowie Vorrichtung zur Durchführung dieses Verfahrens
DE10020615C2 *27 Apr 200028 Feb 2002Glukomeditech AgVerfahren zur langzeitstabilen und gut reproduzierbaren spektrometrischen Messung der Konzentrationen der Bestandteile wässriger Lösungen sowie Vorrichtung zur Durchführung dieses Verfahrens
DE19807939C1 *25 Feb 199830 Sep 1999Siemens AgNon-invasive blood glucose concentration determination in vivo
DE19880369C1 *12 Mar 19988 Aug 2002Siemens AgVerfahren und Vorrichtung zur nicht-invasiven in-vivo Bestimmung von Blutinhaltsstoffen
EP1219232A1 *24 Oct 20013 Jul 2002Biox CorporationSpectrophotometric blood glucose determination apparatus and determination method thereof
EP2400288A1 *4 Feb 200328 Dec 2011Bayer CorporationNon-invasive system for the determination of analytes in body fluids
WO1996013203A1 *28 Oct 19949 May 1996Diasense, Inc.Non-invasive measurement of analytes in blood
WO1996029925A2 *27 Mar 19963 Oct 1996Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyApparatus and methods of raman spectroscopy for analysis of blood gases and analytes
WO1996029925A3 *27 Mar 19965 Dec 1996Andrew J BergerApparatus and methods of raman spectroscopy for analysis of blood gases and analytes
WO1998043096A2 *12 Mar 19981 Oct 1998Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod and device for non-invasive in vivo determination of blood constituents
WO1998043096A3 *12 Mar 199814 Jan 1999Joachim KestlerMethod and device for non-invasive in vivo determination of blood constituents
WO2000001295A1 *7 Jul 199913 Jan 2000Lightouch Medical, Inc.Tissue modulation process for quantitative noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic analysis of tissues
WO2000060349A2 *5 Apr 200012 Oct 2000Huntleigh Technology PlcSkin evaluation apparatus
WO2000060349A3 *5 Apr 20005 Jul 2001Duncan Shirreffs BainSkin evaluation apparatus
WO2007055981A2 *1 Nov 200618 May 2007Chemimage CorporationInvasive and non-invasive chemometry
WO2007055981A3 *1 Nov 20065 Jul 2007Chemimage CorpInvasive and non-invasive chemometry
WO2007149971A2 *21 Jun 200727 Dec 2007General Hospital CorporationCancer detection by optical measurement of compression-induced transients
WO2007149971A3 *21 Jun 200714 May 2009Gen Hospital CorpCancer detection by optical measurement of compression-induced transients
WO2012170963A1 *8 Jun 201213 Dec 2012Digital Light InnovationsSystem and method for hyperspectral imaging
WO2013152177A14 Apr 201310 Oct 2013Grove Instruments Inc.Noninvasive measurement of analyte concentration using a fiberless transflectance probe
Classifications
U.S. Classification600/322, 600/316, 356/39, 600/368
International ClassificationG06K9/62, G06F15/18, G06K9/66, G01N21/31, A61B5/00, G06N99/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61B5/14532, A61B5/1455, G01N21/314
European ClassificationA61B5/145G, A61B5/1455, G01N21/31D
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
11 Apr 1995CCCertificate of correction
10 Jun 1998FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
21 May 2002FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
21 Jan 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: MORROW & CO. PARTNERSHIP, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:VIVASCAN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:016172/0718
Effective date: 20041210
Owner name: PEURA, ROBERT A., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:VIVASCAN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:016172/0718
Effective date: 20041210
Owner name: LOCK, J. PAUL, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:VIVASCAN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:016172/0718
Effective date: 20041210
Owner name: WELLS, STEPHEN, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:VIVASCAN CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:016172/0718
Effective date: 20041210
7 Jun 2006FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12