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Publication numberUS3919999 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date18 Nov 1975
Filing date5 Jul 1973
Priority date5 Jul 1973
Publication numberUS 3919999 A, US 3919999A, US-A-3919999, US3919999 A, US3919999A
InventorsGluck Louis, Watson William Keith Ross
Original AssigneeKay Laboratories Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Baby transporting apparatus
US 3919999 A
Abstract
A portable and self sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby in an environment having a substantially constant temperature includes a plurality of insulated walls defining an enclosure. A bed held at a desirable level in the enclosure includes a highly porous fabric for supporting the baby. At least one cartridge providing a source of chemical heat is coated with a material having a high emissivity for increasing the amount of heat transferred to the baby by radiation. At least one of the walls of the enclosure is curved to reflect radiant heat from the cartridge toward the baby. An auxiliary door is provided to facilitate disposition of the baby with the head of the baby exposed for emergent attention and the remaining portion of the baby positioned to receive radiant heat from the cartridge.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1 1 Gluck et al. v

1 1 BABY TRANSPORTING APPARATUS [75] Inventors: Louis Gluck, La Jolla; William Keith Ross Watson, San Diego, both of Calif.

Kay Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, Calif.

22 Filed: July 5,1973 21 Appl. No.: 376,792

[73] Assignee:

[ Nov. 18, 1975 Primary E.rwm'ner-Richard A. Gaudet Ass/51am Examiner-Henry J, Recla Arm/1w Agent, or Firm-Ellsworth R, Roston [57] ABSTRACT A portable and self sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby in an environment having a substantially constant temperature includes a plurality of insulated walls defining an enclosure, A bed held at a desirable level in the enclosure includes a highly porous fabric for supporting the baby At least one cartridge providing a source of chemical heat is coated with a material having a high emissivity for increasing the amount of heat transferred to the baby by radiation. At least one of the walls of the enclosure is curved to reflect radiant heat from the cartridge toward the baby. An auxiliary door is provided to facilitate disposition of the baby with the head of the baby exposed for emergent attention and the remaining portion of the baby positioned to receive radiant heat from the cartridge.

23 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures l I l BABY TRANSPORTING APPARATUS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention relates generally to portable baby transporting apparatus and more specifically to chemical means providing a source of primarily radiant heat interiorly thereof.

2. Description of the Prior Art Baby transporting apparatus of the prior art have included an enclosure for the baby and a plurality fo electrically energized coils disposed interior] y of the enclosure to provide a source of heat. It is well known that the use of electricity for heating demands a significant magnitude and quantity of electrical energy. This has been particularly objectionable in the baby transporting apparatus of the prior art wherein batteries of significant size and weight have been used to energize the coils. These batteries, which have increased the weight of the prior art apparatus to a magnitude such as 225 pounds, have significantly reduced the portability of these apparatus.

The batteries have also been undesirable due to the explosive nature of the gases produced by the batteries. As a result of these explosive gases, the baby transporting apparatus of the prior art have been excluded from many areas, such as delivery rooms, wherein their use could be particularly beneficial.

The heating characteristics of the prior art apparatus have been particularly deficient. Approximately 90% of the heat provided by the electrical coils has been distributed throughout the enclosure by convection. In other words, heated air adjacent to the coils has moved by reason of its lesser density to displace colder air into proximity with the heater coils. This colder air in turn has been heated until all of the air in the apparatus has achieved the desired temperature. Unfortunately, the uniform distribution of heat by convection has taken place over a substantial length of time such as 20 or 30 minutes. Practically speaking, this has meant that the apparatus has been effective generally only when it has been known in advance that its use might be desired. Less than approximately of the heat provided by the electrical coils has been distributed through the enclosure by means of radiation.

The transfer of heat primarily by convection has also had an adverse effect upon the comfort of the baby. It is well known that heated air which circulates contacts only the surface of an object so that only the surface is heated. With respect to a baby being transported in the apparatus, this has meant that primarily only the skin of the baby has been heated by convection. The interior regions of the baby have been heated primarily by the conduction of heat from the skin of the baby.

As long as the temperature of the heated air has remained at the desired level, the baby has been comfortable. Unfortunately, however, those babies Which benefit most from a source of heat are also those babies which are most apt to require immediate attention. In the past, when the door of the enclosure has been opened to gain access to the baby, the temperature of the air within the enclosure has dropped by as much as 10 C. Since the temperature of the skin of the baby has been primarily dependent upon the temperature of the heated air, this has also resulted in a significant drop in the skin temperature of the baby. Furthermore, since the interior regions of the baby have been primarily dependent upon the skin to provide a source of heat, the 10C drop in temperature has been a significant shock to the baby. Literally thousands of babies who have needed their limited energy to combat disease and other disorders have died each year as a result of this shock.

The electrically heated coils have been energized and de-energized typically by means of a thermostat which has been responsive to the temperature of the air in the enclosure. Since the heat provided by the coils has not immediately started and stopped with the energizing and de-energizing, respectively, of the coils, the temperature of the air in the enclosure has varied considerably about the desired temperature. Furthennore, since the skin temperature of the baby has followed the tem-- perature of the air, this servomechanism has provided significant variations in the temperature of the baby even when the door of the enclosure has remained closed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In the present invention an enclosure is provided with a cartridge containing at least one chemical which can be fired to provide a source of constant temperature such as 42C for an extended period such as 17 hours. The cartridge is coated with a paint having a high emissivity so that approximately of the heat provided by the cartridge is transferred to the baby by radiation.

The transfer of heat by radiation is particularly desirable since radiant heat penetrates the skin to heat directly the interior regions of the baby. This advantage is particularly apparent when the door of the enclosure is opened. Though the temperature of the air within the enclosure may be reduced by as much as 10 C, the baby will remain internally warm so that the opening of the door will not provide a substantial temperature shock to the baby.

Radiant heat is also of advantage since it can be reflected. This permits the walls of the apparatus to be curved in a manner such that radiant heat waves passing beyond the baby can be reflected back to the baby. This also enables the baby to receive radiant heat from more than one direction, even though the heat source may be disposed on but one side of the baby.

It will be noted that the cartridge can provide a substantially constant temperature so that it need not be energized and de-energized by a servomechanism such as a thermostat. Thus, the heat provided by the cartridge has a constant temperature which neither overshoots nor undershoots the desired temperature.

Since there are no electrical coils, batteries for energizing coils are neither needed nor desired. In the absence of batteries, no flammable gases are given off by the apparatus so that it can be used in a delivery room where it is most apt to be needed. The absence of batteries also signficantly reduces the weight of the apparatus which may be approximately 35 pounds as compared to the 225 pound apparatus of the prior art.

The cartridge can be filled with a supercooled chemical having a melting point in a preferred range between 35C and 44C. A eutectic compound including 60% sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and 40% sodium acetate trihydrate is particularly desirable since it has a high latent of fusion such as 45 calories per gram and a melting point at a particularly desirable temperature of 42c. The supercooled chemical can be heated to a temperature above its melting point to liquify the chemical. Of particular interest is the fact that even after the supercooled chemical is cooled below its melting point it maintains the liquid state until another chemical, typically referred to as a trigger, is introduced to the supercooled chemical. This causes the supercooled chemical to solidify or crystallize at the substantially constant temperature of its melting point. Crystals of sodium borate pentahydrate in a suspension of silicone oil are particularly adapted for injection into the cartridge to initiate the crystallization of the eutectic compound including sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate and sodium acetate trihydrate.

The crystallization of the supercooled chemical will continue at a rate dependent upon the temperature of air in the enclosure. If the door of the enclosure remains closed, the crystallization will take place over a relatively long period of time and at a relatively slow rate. However, if the door of the apparatus is opened, the temperature of the air in the enclosure will be reduced and the crystallization of the supercooled chemical will take place at a faster rate. This is particularly desirable since it automatically increases the quantity of heat provided at a time when additional heat is particularly desired.

The supercooled chemical provides the constant temperature immediately upon being fired. This is particularly important since the use of the apparatus need not be anticipated. This will make the apparatus particularly advantageous for use in emergencies.

The cartridge can include a large planar surface partially defining a narrow air cavity. An air/oxygen mixture introduced into the narrow air cavity can be heated by the cartridge prior to movement into contact with the baby. In this manner, even the air breathed by the baby can be heated by the chemical heat source.

An auxiliary door can be provided in proximity to the head of the baby to provide an opening through which the head of the baby can be moved in emergencies. Typically, the remaining portions of the body of the baby will remain in the enclosure to receive the radiant heat provided by the chemical heat source. Thus, even in moments of emergency, the baby can be attended without producing a significant temperature shock.

These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent with a detailed discussion of the preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the associated drawings.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a front, elevational view partially in section showing a transporting apparatus of the present invention having a baby disposed therein;

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus taken on line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 1; and

FIG. 4 is a front, elevational view showing an auxiliary door opened to facilitate emergent attention of the baby.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS A portable baby transporting apparatus is shown generally in FIG. 1 and designated by the reference numeral 11. The apparatus 11 includes an enclosure 13 and a platform or bed 15 supporting a baby 17 interiorly of the enclosure 13. A cartridge 19, which may have a generally planar configuration, can be advantageously supported by the walls of the enclosure 13 on the side of the bed 15 opposite that of the baby 17. A

4 first chemical 21 can be disposed within the cartridge 19 to provide a source of chemical energy for heating the interior regions of the enclosure 13 generally and for heating the baby 17 specifically.

A plurality of gauges and controls can be advantageously positioned near the top of the enclousre 13 to monitor the vital statistics of the baby 17 and provide controls for the interior environment of the enclosure 13. For example, a plurality of meters shown generally at 12 can be provided to measure the heart rate and respiration rate of the baby 17 as well as the temperature and oxygen content of the air within the enclosure 13. These meters 12 will typically be responsive to electrodes and other sensors (not shown) provided inside the enclosure 13. The controls for the apparatus will typically include a suction control 16 and an air/oxygen mixture control 18. In addition, the apparatus may be provided with a disposable humidifier 20, best shown in FIG. 2. In combination with the humidifier 20, an oxygen flow control 22 and the oxygen flow meter 24 will typically be provided. These meters 12, 24 and controls 16, 18, 22 are of a common type and perform functions which are well known to those skilled in the art.

The enclosure 13 will typically be an insulated structure including an exterior wall 23, an interior wall 25, and an insulating material 27, such as plastic foam, disposed between the walls 23 and 25. The bed 15, which is preferably removable from the enclosure 13, will typically include a tubular frame 28 and a fabric 31 tightly stretched on the frame 29. It is desirable that the fabric 31 be highly porous to facilitate the transfer of heat by radiation from the cartridge 19 to the baby 17. In the preferred embodiment, the fabric 31 includes a nylon mesh having a multiplicity of holes therein.

The interior wall 25 of the enclosure 13 can be configured to define a first pair of shoulders 26 running longitudinally of the enclosure 13 for supporting the frame 29 at a convenient height. The interior wall 25 can also define a second pair of shoulders 28 running longitudinally of the enclosure 13 for supporting the cartridge 19 preferably at a position beneath and substantially parallel to the bed 15.

The cartridge 19 is preferably formed from materials having some structural integrity to facilitate the removal of the cartridge 19 from the enclosure 13. In addition, it is desirable that the materials forming the cartridge 19 have a high heat conductivity so that heat provided by the chemical 21 can be readily conducted through the cartridge 19. In a preferred embodiment of of the cartridge 19, a first sheet 33 facing the baby 17 is sealed to a second sheet 35 at the edges thereof to define a cavity 37 between the sheets 33 and 35. The chemical 21 is disposed in the cavity 37.

The edges of the sheets 33 and 35 can be joined by any suitable method providing an airtight seal. In a preferred embodiment, the cartridge 19 is formed from aluminum sheets 33 and 35 and the edges thereof are sealed by soldering or welding. Aluminum is particularly advantageous for use in the cartridge 19 due to its availability, high heat conductivity and non-reactivity with the chemical 21. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many other metals, such as stainless steel, will meet these design goals.

It is desirable that the shoulders 28 support the cartridge 19 at a height such that the second sheets 35 defines, typically with the bottom of the enclosure, an air cavity 30. An air/oxygen inlet 32 can then be provided for introducing the air/oxygen mixture into the air cavity 30. This is particularly desirable in the present invention since the second sheet 35 can provide a relatively large planar surface for heating the air/oxygen mixture introduced into the enclosure 13. It is apparent that to facilitate the heating of the air/oxygen mixture, the air cavity 30 can be configured to maximize the contact of the incoming mixture with the second surface 35 of the cartridge 19. Thus, the cavity 30 will typically be of minimal height so that the mixture will travel across substantially the entire area of the second sheet 35 before passing into proximity with the baby 17.

The cartridge 19 can be provided with a valve 39, such as an airtight check valve, for initially filling the cavity 37 with the chemical 21. The filling of the cartridge 19 can be facilitated by providing an opening 45 between the cavity 37 and the atmosphere; the opening 45 provides for the escape of air as the chemical 21 is introduced through the valve 39. After the cavity 37 has been substantially filled with the chemical 21, the opening 45 can be blocked by a plug 47. [n a preferred embodiment, 8 to 10 pounds of the chemical 21 are disposed in the cartridge 19.

The valve 39 may be configured to register with an injection apparatus such as a syringe 41 to provide for the introduction of a second chemical 43 into the cavity 37. lt is the introduction of this second chemical 43 which causes the first chemical 21 to crystallize and provide heat at the substantially constant temperature of its melting point. This stimulus is sometimes referred to as a trigger. Various types of triggers which can be advantageously used with the present apparatus are described in significant detail in copending application Ser. No. 357,817 assigned of record to the assignee of record of the present invention.

The walls 23 and 25 of the enclosure 13 can define an opening 40 preferably at the level of the cartridge 19 and appropriately shaped to facilitate insertion and removal of the cartridge 19 from the enclosure 13. During normal operation, the opening 40 is blocked by a removable partition 42 which may define an opening 44 to permit registration of the syringe 43 with the valve 39 through the opening 44.

[t is of particular importance that the heating of the enclosure 13 is accomplished by means of chemical energy. There are no heating coils in the apparatus 11 so that an external source of power such as heavy batteries is neither needed nor desired. This can be particularly appreciated with reference to the apparatus 11 of the present invention which may weigh as little as 35 pounds while the apparatus of the prior art have weighed as much as 225 pounds.

The heat transfer characteristics of the cartridge 19 are also of particular advantage to the baby transporting apparatus 11. Whereas 90% of the heat provided by the apparatus of the prior art has been transferred by convection, the cartridge 19 transfers approximately 90% of its heat by means of radiation. The radiant heat is highly desirable since it penetrates the skin of the baby 17 to heat directly the vital regions interior of the baby 17. The present apparatus is not restricted by the delays associated with the prior art apparatus which convectively heat the air and the skin of the baby 17, and then conductively heat the interior regions of the baby 17.

The significant improvement in heat transfer characteristics provided by the present apparatus can be particularly appreciated when the door 14 of the enclosure 13 is opened. Although the opening of the door 14 may reduce the temperature of the air within the enclosure 13 by as much as 10C, the vital interior regions of the baby 17 will remain warm and will continue to receive radiant heat from the cartridge 19. Thus, the baby 17 can be readily attended without the fear of providing a severe temperature shock to the baby 17.

The highly desirable radiant heat characteristics of the cartridge 19 augment a further feature of the present invention which is particularly desirable under emergency conditions. For example, if air passages of the baby 17 become blocked, or the baby 17 has a cardiac arrest, it is particularly desirable that the head of the baby be made accessible. In the past, the baby has been entirely removed from the transporter to receive this emergency attention. The resulting temperature shock has added to the already emergent circumstances.

The present invention significantly reduces the possibility of temperature shock under these circumstances by providing an opening 34a in proximity to the head of the baby 17. The opening 34a preferably has a lower edge 36 which is disposed at substantially the level of the bed 15. Under normal circumstances an auxiliary door 34, preferably pivotal on the lower edge 36, seals the opening 34a to maintain the integrity of the enclosure 13.

Under emergency conditions, the door 34 can be opened and supported in substantially the same plane as the bed 15 by a pivotal stop 38. In this position, the door 34 will provide a platform onto which the head of the baby 17 can be moved to facilitate any functions which may be desirable under the emergent circumstances. It will be noted that even though the door 34 is opened, the remaining portions of the baby 17 are maintained within the enclosure 13 so that they continue to receive radiant heat from the cartridge 19. This feature of the present invention enables the baby 17 to be attended without complicating his condition with a temperature shock which might otherwise be associated with entirely removing the baby 17 from an enclosure.

To enhance the radiation of heat in the direction of the baby 17, the sheet 33 of the cartridge 19 can be provided with a dark, rough outer surface preferably having an emissivity greater than 0.85. In a preferred embodiment the outer surface of the sheet 33 is provided with a coating of black paint. The material forming such a coating is preferably heat resistant so that is is not deleteriously affected by the temperatures of the cartridge 19. To inhibit the radiation of heat from the cartridge 19 in directions away from the baby 17, the second sheet 35 can be provided with a light-colored, smooth outer surface preferably having an emissivity less than 0.60. For example, the second sheet 35 may have a silver color which is characteristic of many metals, such as aluminum.

The interior wall 25 can include portions 30 extending above the bed 15 and curving over the baby 17. The curvature of these portions 30 of the interior wall 25 can be such that any radiant heat impinging upon the portions 30 from the cartridge 19 is reflected in the direction of the baby 17. Thus, even though the cartridge 19 is disposed at the bottom of the enclosure 13, the baby 17 receives radiant heat from substantially all directions. in a preferred embodiment, the cross section of the portions 30 of the interior wall 25 approximate the circumstance of a semicircle having its center sub- 7 stantially at the center of the baby 17.

The first chemical 21 disposed in the cartridge 19 can be any chemical, compound, mixture or combination thereof preferably having a melting point in the range between 35C to 44C. It is also desirable that the first chemical 21 have properties for responding to the introduction of the second chemical 43 by changing state at its melting point to provide a source of substantially constant temperature. For example, the first chemical 21 can be of the type disclosed in copending application Ser. No. 375,332 assigned of record to the assignee of record of the present application.

In a preferred embodiment, for example, the first chemical 21 has characteristics for being supercooled, which means generally that it can maintain a liquid state at temperatures below its melting point until it is triggered by the second chemical 43. in such an embodiment, the second chemical 43 performs the function of a trigger to initiate the crystallization of the first chemical 21. It is of particular importance that this crystallization takes place at the temperature of the melting point so that as the crystallization progresses the cartridge 19 provides the substantially constant temperature.

Supercooled chemicals are also advantageous for the first chemical 21 because they can be recycled by merely heating the cartridge 19 to a temperature above the melting point. After the chemical 21 has achieved a fluid state, the cartridge 19 can be cooled below the melting point, for example, to room temperature. The supercooled chemical 21 will maintain this liquid state until the use of the apparatus 11 is again desired and the cartridge 19 receives a further injection of the second chemical 43.

In a preferred embodiment, the first chemical 21 is a eutectic compound including sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate, hereinafter referred to as hypo, and sodium acetate trihydrate. Although it is known that hypo has a melting point of 48C and sodium acetate trihydrate has a melting point of 58C, these chemicals can be combined in relative ratios to provide the quasi-eutectic compound with any desirable melting point in a range between 42C and 48C. For example, a first chemical 21 including 60% hypo and 40% sodium acetate trihydrate provides a particularly desirable melting point of 42C. The addition of an impurity such as water can further depress the melting point of the eutectic compound if so desired.

The hypo and sodium acetate trihydrate are additionally desirable for use as the chemical 21 since they provide the eutectic compound with a significantly high latent heat of crystallization of approximately 45 calories per gram. Thus, as the compound crystallizes a significant quantity of heat is given off at the substantially constant melting temperature for an extended period of time. These chemicals are also desirable because they are highly stable and have a long storage life. It may also be of importance that these chemicals are nontoxic and non-irritating to the human skin.

It is of particular interest that after a first portion of the second chemical 43 has been injected into the cartridge 19 and the first chemical 21 has crystallized, the cartridge 19 can be recycled by heating the first chemical 21 above its melting point and then cooling the first chemical 21 to a supercooled state below its melting point. Upon a subsequent injection of a second portion of the second chemical 43, the cartridge will again provide a source of heat at the substantially constant temperature of the melting point of the first chemical 21. Although the physical and chemical transformations are not fully understood, it is generally believed that when the first chemical 21 and the first portion of the second chemical 43 are heated to recycle the cartridge 19, they may form a third chemical which has a melting point and properties for being supercooled which are substantially the same as those of the first chemical 21. Thus, the cartridge 19 provides substantially the same constant temperature heat characteristics each time it is recycled and a portion of the second chemical 43 is introduced into the cartridge 19. This is true even though previous portions of the second chemical 43 remain in the cartridge 19. The number of times the cartridge 19 can be recycled appears to be limited only by the volume of the cavity 37 and hence the ability of the cartridge 19 to accept an additional portion of the first chemical 21.

The portable baby transporting apparatus 11 as disclosed herein is of particular advantage in providing a source of heat in order to conserve the limited energy of the baby 17. It is of particular significance that the heat provided by the cartridge 19 is transferred to the baby 17 primarily by radiation, not convection. This enables the baby 17 to remain internally warm even though the temperature of the air within the enclosure 13 suddenly declines.

Since no batteries need be provided to perform the heating function, the apparatus 11 is significantly lighter in weight and far less cumbersome than the transporters of the prior art. Additionally, the chemical heating action will enable the apparatus 11 to be present in a delivery room for immediate use upon delivery of a baby. Since the heat is provided at a substantially constant temperature in the desired range, no servomechanism is needed to turn the heat on and off. This will alleviate the possibility of overshooting and undershooting the desired temperature.

If the cartridge 19 is formed from materials having a high heat conductivity, there is substantially no warmup time so that the use of the apparatus 1 1 need not be anticipated. This will make the apparatus 11 particularly advantageous for use in emergencies.

Emergencies which occur when the baby 17 is already in the enclosure 13 can be more easily attended with the provision of the door 34 in proximity to the head of the baby 17. This door 34 can provide a platform for supporting the head of the baby 17 while the remaining portions of the baby 17 continues to be heated by the cartridge 19.

The large surface area of the cartridge 19 is desirable not only to facilitate the transfer of heat by radiation, but also to provide a heated surface at least partially defining the air cavity 30. This enables the air/oxygen mixture to be introduced into the air cavity 30 and to be heated by the cartridge 19 before it flows into proximity with the baby 17.

The supercooled eutectic compound including hypo and sodium acetate trihydrate is particularly advantageous for use as the chemical 21. This compound has a melting point of 42C which is a preferred temperature within the desirable range of temperatures. The compound is highly stable when it contains the chemicals in the percentages providing this preferred melting point. Lower temperatures in the desirable range of temperatures can be achieved adding impurities, such as water, to this eutectic compound.

The eutectic compound containing the hypo and sodium acetate trihydrate has a relatively high latent heat of fusion so that 8 to pounds of the compound can sustain the constant temperature of 42C for as long as 17 hours.

As developed and disclosed herein, this new and improved concept provides a significant advancement in the art of portable baby transporting apparatus. Many other embodiments and alterations of the described embodiments will now become evident to those skilled in the art without avoiding the scope and intent of the invention as defined in the following claims:

We claim:

1. A portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure having a plurality of walls;

means disposed in one wall of the enclosure means and defining a door movable between a first position for closing the enclosure means and a second position for opening the enclosure means to provide for an admittance of the baby into the enclosure means and a removal of the baby from the enclosure means;

a second wall of the enclosure means being shaped to provide for a reflection of heat from the second wall into the enclosure means to heat the baby within the enclosure means even upon the disposition of the door in the second position;

a platform supported in the enclosure;

a cartridge supported in the enclosure at a position near the bottom of the enclosure and chemical means disposed within the cartridge for generating heat at the substantially constant temperature and for directing heat to the second wall to be reflected by the second wall.

2. The transporter recited in claim 1 further comprisa plurality of walls defining the cartridge and having characteristics for conducting heat from the chemical means into the enclosure;

at least one of the walls of the cartridge defining at least in part a cavity within the enclosure; and

means for introducing an air/oxygen mixture into the cavity to permit heating of the mixture by the cartridge prior to breathing of the mixture by the bab 3. Th: transporter set forth in claim 1 wherein the heat generating means includes a cartridge and at least one supercooled fluid having a melting temperature corresponding to the substantially constant temperature and having properties of crystallizing at the melting temperature and of being converted to the fluid form at a temperature above the melting temperature and of remaining in the fluid form at temperatures below the melting temperature.

4. The transporter set forth in claim 3 wherein the cartridge has an upper surface coated with a material to provide for a radiation from the cartridge of heat generated upon the crystallization of the supercooled fluid.

5. The transporter set forth in claim 4 wherein:

the enclosure means is constructed to provide heat insulation; and, wherein means are provided for instituting the generation of heat by the chemical means.

6. The transporter set forth in claim 5 wherein:

the chemical means include supercooled fluid having a particular melting temperature and having properties of crystallizing at the particular melting temperature and of being converted to the fluid form at a temperature above the particular melting temperature and of remaining in the fluid form at temperatures below the particular melting temperature.

7. A portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure having a plurality of walls;

a support platform in the enclosure near the bottom of the enclosure for supporting the baby;

a cartridge disposed relative to the platform;

supercooled fluid means disposed in the cartridge for generating heat;

the supercooled fluid means having a particular melting temperature and having properties of crystallizing at the particular melting temperature and of being converted to the fluid form at a temperature above the particular melting temperature and of remaining in the fluid form at temperatures below the particular melting temperature;

one of the walls being constructed and shaped to reflect to the baby the heat generated by the supercooled fluid means; and

a door in a second wall, the door being movable between open and closed positions to retain the baby within the enclosure means in the closed position and to provide for a transfer of the baby into and out of the enclosure means in the open position.

8. The transporter set forth in claim 7 wherein:

the enclosure means is insulated; and wherein valve means is provided in the cartridge for obtaining a triggering of the supercooled fluid means into the crystalline state.

9. The transporter recited in claim 7 further comprisa door in a third wall of the enclosure near the head of the baby and movable to an open position to facilitate disposition of the baby with the head of the baby extending from the enclosure for emergency attention and the remaining portions of the baby extending into the enclosure for heating.

10. Apparatus for transporting a baby, comprising:

first means for enclosing the baby;

second means disposed in the first means for providing a source of heat at a substantially constant temperature to heat the baby;

a cartridge included in the second means and defining a cavity;

at least one first chemical disposed in the cavity of the cartridge and having a melting point at the substantially constant temperature, the first chemical having properties for becoming supercooled at a temperature below the substantially constant temperature and for being crystallized at the substantially constant temperature to generate heat;

a second chemical having properties when mixed with the first chemical in the supercooled state for initiating the crystallization of the first chemical at the substantially constant temperature;

means for introducing the second chemical to the first chemical in the cavity of the cartridge to initiate the crystallizatioii the first chemical at the substantially constalli temperature; and

1 1 means included in the first means for reflecting to the baby from a position above the baby at least a portion of the heat generated by the crystallization of the first chemical.

11. The apparatus recited in claim wherein the second means defines with the first means a cavity adapted to receive an air/oxygen mixture to permit heating of the mixture by the second means prior to breathing of the mixture by the baby.

12. The apparatus recited in claim 10 wherein the second chemical is in the form of a multiplicity of crystals each providing a nucleation center about which a portion of the first chemical crystallizes.

13. The apparatus recited in claim 12 wherein the second chemical has properties which do not affect the constant temperature provided by the first chemical during the crystallization of the first chemical even after limited quantities of the second chemical have been introduced into the first chemical to crystallize the first chemical.

14. A portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure and having a plurality of walls;

means disposed in one of the walls of the enclosure and defining a door movable between a first position for closing the enclosure and a second position for opening the enclosure to provide for admittance of the baby into the enclosure and removal of the baby from the enclosure;

a cartridge disposed within the enclosure;

platform means disposed within the enclosure relative to the cartridge for supporting the baby in the enclosure;

chemical means disposed in the cartridge and having properties for being triggered for generating heat at a substantially constant temperature over an extended period of time to heat the baby even upon the disposition of the door in the second position; and

means for introducing air into the enclosure and in proximity to the cartridge to heat the air in the enclosure before the air flows into proximity to the baby in the enclosure.

15. The transporter recited in claim 14 wherein the chemical means includes sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate and sodium acetate trihydrate.

16. A portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure and having a plurality of walls;

means disposed in one of the walls of the enclosure and defining a door movable between a first position for closing the enclosure and a second position for opening the enclosure to provide for admittance of the baby into the enclosure and removal of the baby from the enclosure;

a cartridge disposed within the enclosure;

platform means disposed within the enclosure relative to the cartridge for supporting the baby in the enclosure;

at least one particular chemical disposed in the cartridge and having a melting temperature and characteristics for maintaining a fluid state at temperatures below the melting temperature, the particular chemical having further properties for being trig- 12 gered to crystallize and to give off heat at the substantially constant temperature of the melting temperature for an extended period of time.

17. A portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure and having a plurality of walls;

means disposed in one of the walls of the enclosure and defining a door movable between a first position for closing the enclosure and a second position for opening the enclosure to provide for admittance of the baby into the enclosure and removal of the baby from the enclosure;

a cartridge disposed within the enclosure;

platform means disposed within the enclosure relative to the cartridge for supporting the baby in the enclosure;

chemical means disposed in the cartridge and having properties for being triggered for generating heat at a substantially constant temperature over an extended period of time to heat the baby even upon the disposition of the door in the second position; and

means coating at least a portion of the surface of the cartridge for increase in the amount of heat which is generated by the chemical means and radiated into the enclosure.

18. a portable and self-sufficient transporter for maintaining a baby in a heated environment for an extended period of time, including:

means defining an enclosure having a plurality of walls including a particular wall;

means disposed in one of the walls of the enclosure and defining a door movable between a first position for closing the enclosure and a second position for opening the enclosure to provide for admittance of the baby into the enclosure and removal of the baby from the enclosure;

means for supporting the baby within the enclosure,

the supporting means defining with the walls of the enclosure a first cavity on one side of the supporting means and a second cavity on the opposite side of the supporting means;

heating means disposed in a second cavity for radiating heat through the supporting means to provide for the heating of the baby on the supporting means;

, chemical means included in the heating means and having properties for being triggered to generate heat at a substantially constant temperature for an extended period of time to heat the baby on the supporting means even when the door is disposed in the second position; and

a particular wall of the enclosure means being disposed to receive a portion of the heat radiating from the heating means through the supporting means for reflecting a portion of the heat in the direction of the baby.

19. The transporter recited in claim 18 wherein the heating means further comprises:

a cartridge disposed in the second cavity; and

the chemical means being disposed within the cartridge to generate heat at the substantially constant temperature for the extended period of time to heat the baby on the supporting means.

20. The transporter recited in claim 18 wherein the chemical means includes a supercooled fluid having a 14 sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate having a relative percentage by weight within a range of approximately 50 percent to percent; and

sodium acetate trihydrate having a relative percentage by weight within a range of approximately 30 percent to 50 percent.

23. The transporter recited in claim 22 wherein the sodium thiosulphate pentahydrate has a relative percentage by weight of approximately 60 percent and the sodium acetate trihydrate has a relative percentage by weight of approximately 40 percent.

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5186710 *21 Jun 199116 Feb 1993Dragerwerk AktiengesellschaftTransport incubator having an integrated energy store
US5330415 *24 Sep 199019 Jul 1994Air-Shields, Inc.Incubator with remote control and display module
US5707006 *27 Aug 199613 Jan 1998Skulic; VedranInfant incubator heater assembly
US6673007 *4 Nov 20026 Jan 2004Fisher & Paykel Healthcare LimitedRadiant warmer
DE3119213A1 *14 May 19819 Dec 1982Draegerwerk AgTransport-inkubator
EP1132072A2 *7 Mar 200112 Sep 2001Fischer & Paykel LimitedRadiant warmer
WO1998048755A1 *24 Apr 19985 Nov 1998Univ QueenslandInfant incubator
Classifications
U.S. Classification600/22
International ClassificationA61G11/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61G11/00
European ClassificationA61G11/00
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
30 Jan 1990ASAssignment
Owner name: BAXTER INTERNATIONAL INC.
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:BAXTER TRAVENOL LABORATORIES, INC., A CORP. OF DE;REEL/FRAME:005050/0870
Effective date: 19880518
2 Mar 1987ASAssignment
Owner name: BAXTER TRAVENOL LABORATORIES, INC. A CORP. OF DE
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY CORPORATION INTO;REEL/FRAME:004760/0345
Effective date: 19870126
7 Mar 1983ASAssignment
Owner name: AMERICAN HOSPITAL SUPPLY CORPORATION ONE AMERICAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:AMERICAN KAY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004118/0601
Effective date: 19830303