US 3868728 A
A disposable surgical gown provided with a front panel having a central operative field comprising a liquid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface. Preferably, the sleeves comprise a liquid impervious layer and have an absorbent inner surface for absorbing perspiration, thus making the gown more comfortable to wear. The remaining portions of the gown preferably comprise a disposable liquid repellent nonwoven fabric.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' Unite States Patent 11 Krzewinski Mar. 4, 1975 SURGICAL GOWN 3.218.649 11/1965 RlCIel' Z/DlG. 7 313159.569 12/1967 Rotanz et al.. 2/114 1 1 Inventor; 9 Old 3,397,697 8/1968 Rickard 1 1 2/46 Q' 3,521.301 7/1970 Cowen 2/114 Assigneez Johnson J New r3,657,74l Blanco 7 Brunswick, NJ. I Primary Examiner-Werner H. Schroeder  F1led: Sept. 27, 1973  Appl. No.: 401,301 [57} ABSTRACT A disposable surgical gown provided with a front 52 us. c1. 2/114, 2/1310. 7 P e having a Central Operative field Comprising a q-  Int. Cl A4ld 13/00 uid impervious material having an absorbent Outer 53 i ld f S h 3/4 4 49 R 51 59 surface. Preferably, the sleeves comprise a liquid im- 2/87, 114, DIG. 7; 161/164, 170 pervious layer and have an absorbent inner surface for absorbing perspiration, thus making the gown more 5 R f cit d comfortable to wear. The remaining portions-of the UNITED STATES PATENTS gown preferably comprise a disposable liquid repellent nonwoven fabric. -1011.172 12/1961 Tames 2/D1G. 7 3.0141221 Brunetto 2/205 10 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PAIENIEUHAR' 4 8888.728
' Sum 30F 4 PATENTEDNAR M975 SHEET W 4 SURGICAL GOWN BACKGROUND or ri e INVENTION 1. Field Of Thelnvention This invention relates to surgical gowns and the like and, inparticular, to disposable surgical gowns which reduce liquid run-off,'prevent strike-through of'liquids and have improved moisture absorption properties.
2. Description Of The Prior Art Itis well known that the surgeons sterile gown must function, during the course of an operation, to prevent contamination of the patient, surgical instruments, and other personnel through contact with the wearer and to prevent the clothes of the wearer from becoming saturated with blood and other liquids.
Originally, surgical gowns were made of linen, the gowns beingsterilized prior to use in the operating room. Linen gowns were not capable of preventing strike-through" of various liquids which were encountered during surgical procedures. As a result, the wearers clothes became saturated with blood and the like, and a path was established for the transmission of bacteria to and from the wearer of the gown. Additionally, linen gowns, due to their high cost, had to be used a number of. times, thus necessitating laundering and sterilization between successive uses.
In an attempt to reduce strike-through of liquids and to eliminate the need for repeated laundering and sterilization, disposable gowns were made from fluid repellent nonwoven fabrics. These gowns reduced liquid strike-through foralimited time. In addition, liquids had a tendency to run off the outer surface of the gown, frequently wetting the shoes and the unprotected lower portions of the wearers clothing.
Surgical gowns were then made wherein the fluid repellent'nonwoven fabric was laminated to, or lined with, a fluid impervious material such as polyethylene. Although this approach prevented strike-through of liquids and solved the problems arising therefrom, the problems associatedwith liquid run-off still persisted. In addition, the fluid impervious material tended to trap perspiration, thus making the gown increasingly uncomfortable as the surgical operation proceeded.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION I have now made an inexpensive, disposable surgical tral operative field. As used herein .central operative field refers to that part of a surgical gown which is most likely to be contacted with blood, various body fluids, or treating liquids such as water or saline solutions, during the course of a particular surgical procedure. It will be understood that the size of the central operative field will vary according to the particular operation. In some instances, the central operative field would extend over the entire front panel of the gown, that is, the central operative field and the front panel would be coextensive, while in other cases the central operative field would include only a part of the front panel. In order to reduce liquid run-off and prevent liquid strikethrough, the central operative field of the front panel of my gown comprises a fluid impervious material having an absorbent outer-surface. Where the central operative field includes an area less than that of the entire front panel of the gown, the remaining portions of said front panel'may be made from any of the well known materials commonly used in the manufacture of surgical gowns. The various other parts of my gown, e.g., the side panels and sleeves, may be made from the same materials as used for the front panel of the gown, although other well known materials for constructing disposable gowns may be used if. desired.
In one modification of the presentinvention, at. least the forearm portion of the sleeve comprises a liquid impervious material having an absorbent inner surface, while in another modification, the entire sleeve is made from such a material. In the modifications mentioned, the absorbent inner surface provides means for absorbing perspiration, thus making the gown more comfortable towear. The liquid impervious characteristic of the material prevents perspiration from reaching the outer surface of the sleeve, and thus prevents the establishment of a pathway for the transmission of bacteria.
When the term ffront is used herein to describe a part of a gown, reference is being made to that part of the gown which, when the gown is being worn, overlies the chest of the wearer; the term back" refers to that part of the gown which, when the gown is being worn, overlies the back of the wearer. The term outer describes that surface of a gown, or of a part thereof,
which faces away from the wearer when the gown is being worn, and the term inner describes that surface of a gown, or of a part thereof, which contacts the clothes or body of the wearer when the gown is being worn. .The terms left and righ't, when used to describe a gown or portions thereof, refer to the left'hand:
side and right hand side, respectively, of the wearer when the gown is being worn.
When a material is described herein as being liquid repellent, it is meant that that material, when tested according to AATCC Test Method 22-1967, has a spray rating of at least about 70. Those skilled in the art will be aware that materials which are repellent according to the standards set by the above mentioned test may nevertheless permit the passage of water or other liquids therethrough under some circumstances. When a material is described herein as being liquid impervious it is meant that that material substantially completely prevents the passage of water and similar liquids therethro'ugh.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view, with parts magnified, I
taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary. cross-sectional view, with parts magnified, taken along line 4-4 of FIG. l.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. 1 show ing the shoulder and sleeve portion of another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view, with parts magnified,
taken along line 66 of FIG. 5.
in accordance with the present invention having central operativefield efgh;" I
FIG. 9 is a plan view of the outer surface of another gown having a central operative field pvwxyu.
FIG. 10 is a plan view of the outer surface of another gown having a central operative field abcfgh.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to FIG. 7, there is shown a back closing surgical gown in accordance with the present invention.' Gown 10 comprises a main sheet 12 having sleeves l3 and 14 fastened thereto. Main sheet 12 comprises a front panel 16, left side panel 18, and right side panel 20, the several panels being joined together by stitching (not shown). Sleeves l3 and, 14 are provided with knitted cuffs 15. Belt means 21, 210 are provided for securing the gown around the waist and tie strings 22, 22a are provided to secure the gown at the neck. Other well known means for securing the gown around the waist and at the neck of the wearer may be employed to suit various purposes.
Front panel l6'of back closing gown ltlcomprisesan absorbent outer surface 16a which is capable of absorbing body or other fluids. such as blood or water and the like, and a liquid impervious inner surface 16b (shown in'the' cutaway portion of FIG. 7) which prevents liquids absorbed by outer surface l6a from penetrating the front panel to contact the clothes or body of the wearer. Front panel 16 (designated in FIG. 7 as jklmn) is; made 'by extrusion coatinga nonwoven fabric made iii-accordance with the teaching of US.
Pat. No. 3,663,348 (which patent is hereby specifically ple, an absorbent polyurethane foam laminated to a fluidimpervious material such as polyethylene; an absorbent tissue'bonded to a sheet of polyvinyl chloride; or an absorbent nonwoven fabric bonded to a liquid impervious material such as polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or'the like. It will also be recognized that it is not necessary that the absorbent material be entirely bonded to the fluid impervious material; it is sufficient, e.g., if the two are spot-bonded in a desired configuration or if the two are joined togetherat their adjoining edges. I
Side panels 18,and 20,'shown in phantom in FIG. 7, may be made from any of the various disposable materials, suchas aliquid repellent nonwoven fabric, known to be of use in making surgical gowns.
Referring now to FIG. 8, there is shown a back closing'gown similar to the one shown in FIG. 7. Gown 25 comprises a front panel 26 designated by the letters jklmno. Front panel 26 has a generally rectangular central operative field 28 designated by the letters efgh Central operative field 28 comprises a fluid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface. The remaining portionsof front panel 26 may comprise any desired material such as a liquid repellent nonwoven. Gown 25 of FIG. 8 would be particularly useful in e.g., neurological or orthopedic surgery.
In FIG. 9 there is shown another modification of the surgical gown of this invention. Gown 35 comprises front panel 36 designated by the letters pgrstu, Front panel 36 has a central operative field, designated by the letters pvwxyu, which has a modified bib shape. Central operative field pvwxyu comprises a fluid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface. The
As illustrated in FIG. gown 45 comprises front 'panel 46, designated by letters abcdefgh." Panel 46 has a critical operative field, designated by letters abcfgh, which comprises a fluid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface. The remaining portion cedf of panel 46 comprises any of the materials commonly used for construction of disposable surgical gowns.
Gowns 35 and would be particularly useful in such surgical procedures as cystoscopy where large amounts of irrigating. fluids are to be used.
Referring now 'to FIGS. l-4 there is shown a particularly preferred back closing surgical gown embodying the present invention. Gown 50 comprises a main sheet '52 having sleeves 53 and 54 fastened thereto. Main sheet 52 comprises a front panel 58, left side panel 60,
and right side panel 62, the several panels being joined together by stitching 64. Right hand sleeve 53 and left hand sleeve 54 are provided with knitted cuffs 55. Tie strings 66, 66a and belt means 68, 68a are provided to secure the gown at the neck and around the waist of the wearer, respectively.
Referring specifically to FIGS. I and 3, front panel 58 of back closing gown 50 comprises an absorbent outerv surface 58a which is capable of absorbing body or other fluids such as blood or water and the like, and a liquid impervious inner surface 58b (see cutaway portion of FIG. .1) which prevents liquids absorbed by outer surface 58a from penetrating the front panel to contact the clothes of the wearer. The extrusion coated nonwoven fabric used for front panel 16 of gown l0 (FIG. 7) is used for front panel 58 of gown 50. Again, as indicated earlier herein, other materials having the above indicated required characteristics may be used for front panel 58.
Side panels 60 and 62 of gown 50 comprise a nonwoven fabric which is repellent to such fluids as water, blood, and the like. Although it is preferred that side panels 60 and 62 comprise a liquid repellent nonwoven fabric, any of the well known materials commonly used in making disposable surgical drapes may be employed if desired.
Referring to FIG. 4 and to the upper right hand portion of FIG. 1, left sleeve 54 of gown 50 comprises an outer layer 540 of a liquid repellent nonwoven fabric. The forearm portion of sleeve 54 further comprises an inner layer 54b of absorbent tissue which is capable of absorbing liquids such as perspiration, a'ndintermediate layer 54c of liquid impervious polyethylene film. As shown in the enlarged portion of FIG. 4, absorbent tissue 54b is secured by any well known securing means to polyethylene film 54c to form-a liquid impervious material having an absorbent surface. Liquid repellent nonwoven 54a, however, is not bonded to polyethylene film 540 except near the elbow and wrist portions of the sleeve. This is illustrated in the enlarged portion of FIG. 4 wherein there is a clearance between nonwoven 54a and polyethylene film 540. Liquid repellent nonwoven 54a is secured to polyethylene film 540 in the elbow area by heat sealing. Other securing means, e.g., a plasticized polyvinyl acetate resin-based adhesive, could also be employed. As shown in FIG. 4, liquid repellent nonwoven 54a, absorbent tissue 54b and polyethylene film 54c are secured to each other and to knitted cuff 53 at the wrist portion of sleeve-54 by stitching 64. Again, alternative securing means may be used in place of stitching 64 if desired. Sleeve 53 has the same construction as sleeve 54.
FIG. 2 shown the inner surface of surgical gown 50, with the sleeves turned inside out. The cutaway portion at the lower center of FIG. 2 shows the absorbent outer surface 58a of front panel 58 of the gown. Referring to the cutaway portion at the upper right hand portion of FIG. 2, right hand sleeve 53 is shown turned inside out. The forearm portion of sleeve 53 has a liquid absorbent inner surface comprising a layer 53b of absorbent tissue, and an outer surface 53a comprising a liquid repellent nonwoven fabric. Intermediate the absorbent tissue and the fluid repellent nonwoven fabric is a liquid impervious layer 53c of polyethylene.
FIG. 3 shows the construction of main sheet 52 of gown 50 with some parts magnified. Referring particularly to the magnified portion at the left hand'sideof FIG. 3, front panel 58 comprises an absorbent outer surface 58a and aliquid impervious inner surface 58b. Side panel 60, as indicated before, comprises a liquid repellent nonwoven, but may be made from other suitable materials of construction if desired.
FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate a variation on the sleeve construction of FIGS. 14. FIG. 5 shows the upper left hand portion of the outer surface of a back closing surgical gown 70. It will be understood that gown 70 comprises a mainsheet with sleeves, and has tie strings at the neck and belt means at the waist, although only left hand sleeve 73 and portions of front panel 78 and left side panel 80 are shown. Left sleeve 73 of gown 70 comprises a liquid impervious material having an absorbent inner surface. The inner surface 73b of sleeve 73 comprises an absorbent nonwoven fabric made in accordance with the teaching of US. Pat. No. 3,663,348. The outer surface 73a of sleeve 73 comprises a layer of liquid impervious polyethylene. In the embodiment of FIGS. 5 and 6, the nonwoven fabric has been extrusion coated with polyethylene, according to well known techniques, to provide the liquid impervious material having an absorbent surface. It will be understood that other materials and methods of construction may be used. Absorbent tissue could be substituted for the nonwoven fabric, and other plastic materials, such as polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene, could be substituted for the polyethylene. The fluid impervious plastic need not be applied by extrusion coating techniques to the absorbent tissue. A material serving the desired purposes can be conveniently made,- for example, by bonding absorbent tissue to a sheet of polyvinyl chloride by heat sealing or other bonding means. Sleeve 73 has a suitably cuff 85 attached thereto with stitching 84. The right hand sleeve (not shown) has the same construction as sleeve 73.
It has been found that the sleeve construction illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 is particularly advantageous. Since the inner surfaces of the sleeves are absorbent, they function to absorb perspiration, thus making the gown more comfortable to wear. During a surgical procedure the sleeves of a surgical gown frequentlycome into contact with the surgical drape. After repeated contacts the outer surfaces of the sleeves of the gown may become abraded and there is a danger of loose material being transferred into the incision area. The fluid impervious outer surface of the sleeve, being made of polyethylene or similar thermoplastic materials, has a considerable amount of abrasion resistance in addition to being fluid impervious. Sincethe outer surfaces of the sleeves shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 have improved abrasion resistance, the amount ofloose material produced during the course 'of surgery is considerably reduced, and the chance of loose material being transferred to the incision area is significantly lessened.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the principles of the present invention may be applied not only to the back closing surgical gowns illustrated in FIGS. 1-10, but also to other gowns such as a front closing gown. Other variations and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. I
What is claimed is: g
l. A disposable surgical gown comprising a main sheet. having a front portion and side portions, said main sheet having sleeves attached thereto, .said front portion having a central operative field comprising a liquid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface, said central operative field extending substantially to the bottom edge of said front portion;.the remainder of said main sheet comprising a liquid repellent nonwoven fabric;
2. The surgical gown of claim 1 wherein the central operative field is coextensive'with the front panel.
3. The surgical gown of claim 1 wherein the central operative field is rectangular in shape.
4. The surgical gown of claim 1. wherein the central fabric coated with polyethylene.
8. A surgical gown comprising a main sheet having a front portion and side portions, said main sheet having sleeves attached thereto, said front portion having a central operative field comprising a liquid impervious material having an absorbent outer surface. and said sleeves comprising a liquid impervious material having an absorbent inner surface.
9. The surgical gown of claim 8 wherein said central operative field comprises a liquid absorbent nonwoven fabric coated with polyethylene.
10. A surgical gown according to claim 8 wherein said outer absorbent surface comprises a liquid absorbent nonwoven fabric.