|Publication number||US3859504 A|
|Publication date||7 Jan 1975|
|Filing date||6 Apr 1973|
|Priority date||6 Apr 1972|
|Also published as||DE2316707A1, DE2316707B2, DE2316707C3|
|Publication number||US 3859504 A, US 3859504A, US-A-3859504, US3859504 A, US3859504A|
|Inventors||Masaharu Fukushima, Yutaka Motokawa|
|Original Assignee||Kureha Chemical Ind Co Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (61), Classifications (24)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 1 1 1111 3,859,504 Motokawa et al. Jan. 7, 1975 [5 MOISTURE RESISTANT PANEL HEATER 3,584,198 6/1971 Doi et al. 1. 338/212 X 3,627,981 12/1971 Kuhn .1 338/210 X [751 Invemorsi 3,657,516 4/1972 Fujihara 219/345 9 1 Japan FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 731 Assignees; Kureha Kagaku Kogyo Kabushiki 1,267,248 6/1961 France... 219/345 i y ki 866,938 4/l958 Great Br1ta1n 2l9/345 Kabushiki Kaisha, Osaka, Japan Primary ExaminerJ, V. Truhe  Flled 1973 Assistant Examiner-Clifford C. Shaw  Appl. No.: 348,786 Attorney, Agent, or FirmSughrue, Rothwell, Mion,
Zinn & Macpeak  Foreign Application Priority Data Apr. 6, 1972 Japan 47-34698 ABSTRACT A panel heater comprising a heat-generating element  CI 4 4 5 formed of a sheet of carbon fiber-containing paper I 3 8/212 33 ,25 3 B g 28 and electrodes at ,both ends, layers ofa synthetic resin g i and then aluminum foils laminated successively 0n [5 1 g both surfaces of said sheet of paper, and sheets of a 3 lzlz 3 3 synthetic resin further laminated on both surfaces of 219/528 541 the aluminum foils. Electricity can be passed to the electrodes of the heat-generating element with good  References CIted insulation.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,422,130 7/1922 Reynolds 338/329 x 3 Clam, 3 Drawmg Flgures ,fish culture.
MOISTURE rdtsrsrANr PANEL HEATER BACKGROIIND or THE INVENTION l. Fieldof the Invention This invention relates to a panel heater for use in water or in a wet condition, especially in a fish tank for 2. Description of the Prior Art The panel heater for such purposes must meet a number of requirements, among which are;
I. It shouldhave an output suited for the particular size of the water tank, and be free from current leakage.
2.,Its surfacetemperature should not be too high (watt density).
3. It should not be corroded by sea water.
4'. There should be no change in the resistance of the heat-generating element with the passage of time, and the element should generate a constant amount of heat.
5. The outer sheath of the heater should not burn when exposed to air. I
6. The size of the heater should be moderate and easy to withdraw from the tank.
The conventional underwater heater which has a metal surface-has a high watt density and a surface temperature of more than 200C, and its temperature gradient in a water tank is steep.,Therefore, it is unsuitable for fish culture. Furthermore, the metal coating on the surface is especially heavily corroded in a fish tank for sea fish, and can be used only for a short duration of time. I
Commercially available vinyl resin coated wires are sometimes used as a heater for a fish tank. Officially,
with laminated layers of synthetic resin films on both sides suffer from an increase in the resistance of the heating element by the influence of moisture which has permeated through the films as time passes, and a decrease in output cannot be avoided. Furthermore, when the heaters of this type are connected in water to an alternating current source, the worker standing on the ground feels leaked current when putting his hand into the water, although the leakage does not affect the fish in the tank. According to the Law for Regulating Electric Appliances, the leaked current should be less than 1 mA. Experiments show that in order to adjust the leaked current to less lmA, the maximum area of the panel heater should be restricted to 700cm and its output should be adjusted to less than 140 W. With such a panel heater, it is impossible to maintain a water tank having a capacity of 300 to 500 liters at a moderate temperature of to 28C.
SUMMARY. OF THE INVENTION The present invention Provides a panel heater containing a carbon fiber-containing paper as a heating element, which is free from the above-mentioned defects as an underwater heater.
The main object of this invention is to provide an underwater heater for maintaining a fish tank for sea fish culture at a moderate temperature, which is safe and usable for prolonged periods of time, that is, to reduce leakage of current by incorporating aluminum foil in a panel heater, and to prevent a change of the resistance of the heating element with the passage of time.
Still another object is to prevent the leakage of current at the current passing part of a panel heater.
- BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a plan view showing the structure ofa moisture resistant panel heater of this invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of a part of the panel heater shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a partly sectional plan view showing the current passing part of the panel heater of this invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The structure of the panel heater of this invention will be described by reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring to FIGS. 1 and 2, there is shown a panel heater consisting of a heating element 1, layers 2 and 2' of a synthetic resin such as polyethylene, aluminum foils 3 and 3', layers 4 and 4' of the above-mentioned synthetic resin, outer layers 5 and 5 of a synthetic resin such as a polyester, electrodes 6 and 6, and conducting wires 7 and 7' for passing electricity. Specifically. on both surfaces of the heating element 1 consisting of a sheet of carbon fiber-containing paper and electrodes 6 and 6 made, for example, of a copper wire gauze I connected to both ends of the paper sheet are laminated the synthetic resin layers 2 and 2. On both surfaces of the resin layers, the aluminum foils 3 and 3' are then laminated. Furthermore, on both surfaces of the.
aluminum foils, the synthetic resin layers such as polyethylene 4 and 4 and then the synthetic resin sheets such as polyester 5 and 5' are laminated successively. The heating element 1 is adapted to be heated by passing electricity through the electrodes 6 and 6.
For example, when the panel heater is used in water or in a wet condition, it is necessary to take measures for preventing current leakage at terminals leading to the heating element in water or in a wet condition, as shown in FIG. 3. An extension of the electrode 6 of the panel heater is soldered to a core 10 of an exteriorly insulated conductor, and a polyethylene insulating layer ll of the conductor is laminated by hot pressing to the polyethylene layer2 and 2 which is an interlayer of the synthetic resinportion of the above-heating element. Then, a part of a polyvinyl chloride sheath 8 of the conductor is brought into contact with the edge 12 of the above laminated synthetic resin Sand 5, and then, both of them are wrapped in contact with each other in a cloth, such as a felt or flannel I3, impregnated with an epoxy resin, and by curing the epoxy resin the, terminal portions of thepanel heater are completed.
By this construction, the impermeability of the aluminum foils serves to avoid an increase in the resistance of the carbon fiber-containing paper, and hence a decrease inoutput. Furthermore, the presence of the aluminum foils contributes to the reduction of leaked current to about one-third as compared with a panel heater which does not include aluminum foils. Thus, the area of the panel heater can be increased by about three times.
The panel heater of this invention produces output suitable for a given fish culture tank, and is free from current leakage and corrosion by sea water. It also prevents changes in the resistance of the heating element with the passage of time, and also burning of the outer layer during heat generation in air. It is flexible and can be formed into any desired shape, and moreover, a suitable temperature gradient in the fish tank can be provided by its suitable surface temperature. Thus, the panel heater of this invention can be effectively used with safety not only in water but also ina wet environment. v
What we claim is: g
l. A moisture resistant panel heater comprisinga heating element consisting of a carbon fiber-containing paper sheet and electrodes on two opposite ends thereof, a layer of polyethylene laminated to both surfaces of said heating element, a layer of aluminum foil laminated to both outer surfaces of the polyethylene layers, sheets of a synthetic resin laminated to both outer surfaces of said aluminum foils, and further comprising extended portions of said electrodes soldered to a core of an insulated conductor having a polyethylene vlaminated to both outer surfaces of the polyethylene layers, .a polyethylene layer laminated to both outer surfaces of said aluminum foils, and polyester sheets laminated to both outer surfaces of the last-mentioned polyethylene layers, and further comprising extended portions of said electrodes soldered to a core of an insulated conductor having a polyethylene insulating layer and an outer sheath, said polyethylene insulating layer of said conductor being melt-bonded to said firstmentioned polyethylene layers, and a felt impregnated insulating layer and an outer sheath, said polyethylene insulating layer of said conductor melt-bonded to said polyethylene layers, and a felt impregnated with an with an epoxy resin which is cured, said felt holding an edge of the outer synthetic resin layers of said heater and the outer sheath of said conductor.
3. The panel heater of claim 1 wherein said electrodes are made of a copper wire guaze.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1422130 *||18 Feb 1921||11 Jul 1922||Woolridge Reynolds Robert||Electrical heater resistance element|
|US3584198 *||25 Feb 1969||8 Jun 1971||Matsushita Electric Works Ltd||Flexible electric surface heater|
|US3627981 *||5 Nov 1969||14 Dec 1971||Kabel Metallwerke Ghh||Areal heating element|
|US3657516 *||30 Oct 1970||18 Apr 1972||Kansai Hoon Kogyo Kk||Flexible panel-type heating unit|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4119836 *||21 Jul 1977||10 Oct 1978||Kakogawa Plastics Kabushiki Kaisha||Heat-controlled doctor knife|
|US4242573 *||24 Jan 1979||30 Dec 1980||Raychem Corporation||Water immersible heater|
|US4250398 *||3 Mar 1978||10 Feb 1981||Delphic Research Laboratories, Inc.||Solid state electrically conductive laminate|
|US4314231 *||21 Apr 1980||2 Feb 1982||Raychem Corporation||Conductive polymer electrical devices|
|US4442139 *||11 Dec 1979||10 Apr 1984||Raychem Corporation||Elements comprising fibrous materials|
|US4471212 *||21 Dec 1981||11 Sep 1984||Armstrong World Industries, Inc.||Light weight thin buckle-resistant ceiling heating panel|
|US4534886 *||15 Jan 1981||13 Aug 1985||International Paper Company||Non-woven heating element|
|US4547659 *||5 Dec 1983||15 Oct 1985||Raychem Corporation||PTC Heater assembly|
|US4560428 *||20 Aug 1984||24 Dec 1985||Rockwell International Corporation||System and method for producing cured composites|
|US4673801 *||28 Jun 1985||16 Jun 1987||Raychem Corporation||PTC heater assembly|
|US4719335 *||19 May 1987||12 Jan 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US4761541 *||19 May 1987||2 Aug 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US4777351 *||20 May 1987||11 Oct 1988||Raychem Corporation||Devices comprising conductive polymer compositions|
|US5138134 *||22 Dec 1988||11 Aug 1992||Ellison Mearl E||Decorative wall hanging heater|
|US5155800 *||27 Feb 1991||13 Oct 1992||Process Technology Inc.||Panel heater assembly for use in a corrosive environment and method of manufacturing the heater|
|US5451351 *||13 Sep 1991||19 Sep 1995||Composite Components, Inc.||Method for rehabilitating a pipe with a liner having an electrically conductive layer|
|US5605418 *||20 Sep 1993||25 Feb 1997||Taisei Home Engineering Kabushiki Kaisha||Road snow melting system using a surface heating element|
|US5925275 *||2 Oct 1997||20 Jul 1999||Alliedsignal, Inc.||Electrically conductive composite heater and method of manufacture|
|US5932124 *||19 Apr 1996||3 Aug 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, or countertop surface|
|US5942140 *||22 Aug 1996||24 Aug 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating the surface of an antenna dish|
|US5954977 *||19 Apr 1996||21 Sep 1999||Thermion Systems International||Method for preventing biofouling in aquatic environments|
|US5966501 *||19 Apr 1996||12 Oct 1999||Themion Systems International||Method for controlling the viscosity of a fluid in a defined volume|
|US5981911 *||19 Apr 1996||9 Nov 1999||Thermicon Systems International||Method for heating the surface of a food receptacle|
|US6004418 *||28 Oct 1997||21 Dec 1999||Lear Corporation||Method of joining a cover material to a substrate utilizing electrically conductive bonding|
|US6015965 *||13 May 1999||18 Jan 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface|
|US6018141 *||19 Apr 1996||25 Jan 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a tooling die|
|US6087630 *||7 Dec 1999||11 Jul 2000||Thermion Systems International||Method for heating a solid surface such as a floor, wall, roof, or countertop surface|
|US6145787 *||20 May 1998||14 Nov 2000||Thermion Systems International||Device and method for heating and deicing wind energy turbine blades|
|US6420682 *||3 Nov 2000||16 Jul 2002||Newhome Bath & Mirror, Inc.||Fogless mirror for a bathroom shower and bathtub surround|
|US6432344||4 Nov 1998||13 Aug 2002||Watlow Polymer Technology||Method of making an improved polymeric immersion heating element with skeletal support and optional heat transfer fins|
|US6483087||8 Dec 2000||19 Nov 2002||Thermion Systems International||Thermoplastic laminate fabric heater and methods for making same|
|US6516142||12 Feb 2001||4 Feb 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Internal heating element for pipes and tubes|
|US6519835||18 Aug 2000||18 Feb 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Method of formable thermoplastic laminate heated element assembly|
|US6541744 *||12 Feb 2001||1 Apr 2003||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Packaging having self-contained heater|
|US6748646||21 Feb 2002||15 Jun 2004||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Method of manufacturing a molded heating element assembly|
|US7131739||8 Apr 2004||7 Nov 2006||Newhome Bath And Mirror, Inc.||Fogless mirror|
|US8058194||30 May 2008||15 Nov 2011||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US8172982||22 Dec 2008||8 May 2012||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs and process for making same|
|US8334226||28 May 2009||18 Dec 2012||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs containing electrical pathways and method for making same|
|US8372766||31 Jul 2007||12 Feb 2013||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US8697934||31 Jul 2007||15 Apr 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Sensor products using conductive webs|
|US8866052||28 May 2009||21 Oct 2014||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Heating articles using conductive webs|
|US20020038801 *||12 Feb 2001||4 Apr 2002||Keith Laken||Formable thermoplastic laminate heating tray assembly suitable for heating frozen food|
|US20030136078 *||22 Jan 2003||24 Jul 2003||Hugo Brown||Thermal insulation|
|US20030199947 *||13 Nov 2002||23 Oct 2003||Gardner Alan D.||Thermoplastic laminate fabric heater and methods for making same|
|US20040056020 *||19 Sep 2003||25 Mar 2004||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Heated patient positioning device for a medical apparatus|
|US20040257656 *||8 Apr 2004||23 Dec 2004||Sellgren Reid C.||Fogless mirror|
|US20050098684 *||14 Mar 2003||12 May 2005||Watlow Polymer Technologies||Polymer-encapsulated heating elements for controlling the temperature of an aircraft compartment|
|US20060186110 *||22 Feb 2005||24 Aug 2006||Mark Campello||Electric heater with resistive carbon heating elements|
|US20070172215 *||20 Jan 2006||26 Jul 2007||Charves Chang||Far infrared heater|
|US20070181565 *||9 Jan 2007||9 Aug 2007||Ichikoh Industries, Ltd.||Parts for vehicles and line heater unit for snow-melting structure part thereof|
|US20090036012 *||31 Jul 2007||5 Feb 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide,Inc.||Conductive webs|
|US20090036015 *||30 May 2008||5 Feb 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs|
|US20090036850 *||31 Jul 2007||5 Feb 2009||Davis-Dang Nhan||Sensor products using conductive webs|
|US20090294435 *||3 Dec 2009||Davis-Dang Hoang Nhan||Heating Articles Using Conductive Webs|
|US20090321238 *||31 Dec 2009||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs Containing Electrical Pathways and Method For Making Same|
|US20100155006 *||22 Dec 2008||24 Jun 2010||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Conductive Webs and Process For Making Same|
|EP0030479A1 *||10 Dec 1980||17 Jun 1981||RAYCHEM CORPORATION (a California corporation)||Conductive element and process for making the same|
|EP0223444A2 *||27 Oct 1986||27 May 1987||COLLINS & AIKMAN CORPORATION||Electrical heating pad with antistatic surface|
|WO1979000705A1 *||5 Mar 1979||20 Sep 1979||Delphic Res Labor||Solid state electrically conductive laminate|
|WO1991011891A1 *||24 Jan 1991||8 Aug 1991||Hastings Otis||Electrically conductive laminate for temperature control of surfaces|
|U.S. Classification||219/528, 392/503, 392/448, 219/549, 338/255, 338/314, 338/212, 338/329|
|International Classification||H05B3/30, H05B3/22, A61B6/04, H05B3/20, A01K63/06, H05B3/06, H05B3/14, H05B3/78|
|Cooperative Classification||H05B3/06, H05B3/30, A61B6/045, H05B3/145|
|European Classification||A61B6/04A10, H05B3/30, H05B3/14G, H05B3/06|