Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3640277 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date8 Feb 1972
Filing date9 Dec 1968
Priority date9 Dec 1968
Also published asDE1961761A1
Publication numberUS 3640277 A, US 3640277A, US-A-3640277, US3640277 A, US3640277A
InventorsMarvin Adelberg
Original AssigneeMarvin Adelberg
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Medical liquid administration device
US 3640277 A
Abstract
Positive pressure apparatus for providing an adjustable and reliably constant delivery rate of medical liquids from parenteral applicators, including a self-contained portable medical liquid administration device wherein precisely regulated gas flow through a first flow restrictor operates to pressurize and cause to flow at a substantially constant rate a liquid from a supply through a second flow restrictor which has a flow/pressure drop characteristic such that the liquid flow is essentially independent of gravity-induced pressure fluctuations.
Images(3)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

mte States Patent 1151 3,64,277 Adelberg Feb. 8, 1972 [54] MEDICAL LIQU ADMINISTRATION 3,298,367 1/1967 Bergman ..128/2l4 DEVICE 3,468,308 9/1969 Bierrnan ....128/214 3,486,539 12/1969 Jacuzzi ....222/386.5

[ lnvenwfl Marvin Adelbers, 4043 y Road, Sher- 1,617,614 2/1927 York ..13s/45 x man Oaks, Calif- 9140 1,869,443 8/1932 Stocklin ...l28/215 2,541,464 2/1951 Davies ..91/31 [22] 1968 2,642,867 6/1953 Livingston. ...128/214 [21] Appl. No.: 782,399 2,693,801 11/1954 Foreman... ...128/214 3,081,942 3/1963 Maclay ..91/31 [52] US. Cl. ..l28/214 1F, 128/D1G. 12, 138/45, P Em Dalt L T I k 222/61, 222/386.5, 222/399, 73/228 ZZZQ ZZ'SM 23 m [51] lint. Cl. ..A6lm 05/00 [58] Field ofSearch ..222/94, 95, 61, 386.5, 399; [57] ABSTRACT 91/31 Positive pressure apparatus for providing an adjustable and reliably constant delivery rate of medical liquids from parenteral [56] References Cited applicators, including a self-contained portable medical liquid administration device wherein precisely regulated gas flow UNITED STATES PATENTS through a first flow restrictor operates to pressurize and cause to flow at a substantially constant rate a liquid from a supply 2,761,445 9/1956 Cherkm ..12s/214 through a second new restrict), which has a flow/pressure 2,766,907 10/1956 Wallace ..222/94 drop characteristic Such that the liquid flow is essentially i 3042'086 7/1962 128/214 X pendent of gravity-induced pressure fluctuations.

3,048,171 8/1962 Grau 128/214 2 3,054,401 9/ 1962 Gewecke ..128/214 28 Claims, 19 Drawing Figures PATENTED FEB 8 i972 SHEET 3 BF 3 MEDICAL LIQUID ADMINISTRATION DEVICE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. Field of the Invention This invention is concerned with improvements in the administration of medical liquids to patients veins, arteries, and other portions of the body. More particularly the invention provides a device for such administration which is essentially independent of gravity and also assures a uniform flow rate.

2. Prior Art The administration of medical liquids is largely carried out by gravity-induced hydrostatic pressure infusion of the liquid from a bottle or other container suspended above the recipient an acceptable distance. The flow rate is not easily controlled since variations in relative positions of the receiving portion of the patient and the dispensing bottle may occur with time as the patient or bottle may be shifted about.

Moreover, previously available pressure-assisted administration devices for carrying out intravenous infusions are quite complicated and, when employed, relatively expensive. Previous devices have lacked portability and simplicity. Thus, should a patient require relocation such as from an operating to a recovery room, or from a field emergency unit to a permanent hospitaLspecial, costly and awkward means such as an additional attendant are required. In other cases, such as for cardiac or infant patients, the desired flow rate must prescribed accurately controlled or even deliberately changed from one prescribed rate to another.

In previously known pressurized delivery devices, various sources of pressure including gas and liquid have been used to pressurize a supply of medical liquid to be administered. For example in US. Pat. No. 3,044,663 to Norton et al. an auxiliary pressure supply means such as a pump, air pressure tank or gas cartridge is disclosed to be useful in displacing liquid from a container. Similarly, in US. Pat. No. 2,842,123 to Rundhaug a collapsible liquid supply is pressurized for subsequent delivery of liquid. In these. devices provision for control of flow of the administered liquid is either absent, as in Norton, or operator adjusted as in Rundhaug, either of which can result in unpredictable flow rate conditions depending on the reliability of the pressure supply and/or the skill and attention of the operator.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is a major objective of this invention to provide for positive, gravity independent control to a medical fluid delivery system in which a selected flow rate is provided and maintained at all times.

Briefly, and in general terms, the present invention provides, in a medical liquid administration system, means for providing a first fluid at a regulated, constant flow rate to selectively, reliably, and accurately displace a second fluid and cause the second fluid to also flow at a substantially constant flow rate. The invention may also include means for minimizing the effects of gravity-induced hydrostatic pressure upon flow of the second fluid, and may further include means for filtering the second fluid during pressurized flow. One fea ture of the present invention relates to a new and improved structural assembly incorporating a container for the second fluid together with combined means for filtering the fluid and minimizing fluid flow due to normally encountered levels of gravity-induced hydrostatic pressure.

Accordingly the invention provides a medical fluid administration device which includes a supply of medical liquid and fluid passage mans for connecting the liquid supply to a recipient. A flow-restricting means is provided within the The medical (second) liquid may be carried in a pressurecollapsible container for displacement by a compressed gas (first liquid) operating thereon for pressure displacing of the second liquid therefrom.

Thus there may be provided in accordance with the invention a medical fluid administration device which includes a container for medical liquid having a collapsible volume and a liquid outlet, and connector means defining a liquid passageway from the container outlet, the passageway terminating in or with an applicator. A flow restrictor is mounted within the passageway, the restrictor having a fixed-flow channel, to permit the desired flow of liquid when subjected to a pressure exceeding that induced by gravity. Pressurizing means is provided for contracting the volume of the container to expel the liquid therefrom at a predetermined pressure, including a controllably releasable high-pressure fluid supply.

Valve means are provided for controlling pressure and flow rate of the driving fluid, the latter preferably being achieved through use of a porous plug in the passageway providing narrow and tortuous flow paths of great efi'ective length relative to the axial flow path through the plug. A plurality of such plugs may be provided, each providing a different effective flow rate/pressure drop characteristic and mounted for al ternate registration with the driving fluid passageway. Further ll features include quick-fill means for rapidly pressurizing the container at the desired pressure level.

The pressurizing means may further include a variablevolume driving fluid receiver in pressure transmitting contact with the driven or second fluid container which cooperates with contracting means to contract the second fluid container upon a corresponding increase in the volume of the driving fluid receiver. The contracting means may take the form of inextensible material partially or totally circumscribing the volume of the second fluid container. and the first fluid receiver whereby an increase in volume of the first fluid receiver decreases the volume of the second fluid by a corresponding amount. The first fluid receiver and second fluid container may be each formed separately of thin inextensible plastic sheeting or be formed thereof with a common wall. In either event a rigid frame may surround the receiver and container to define their maximum combined volume and to protect them from external disturbances.

Still other features include provision of means associated with the driving fluid supply in a manner to meter predetermined amounts of this fluid corresponding to a quantity of second fluid to be displaced from the container and means for indicating occurrence of flow in the second fluid passage means at a portion thereof which is transparent. Such indicating means may also indicate flow rate.

Currently desired micron-sized particle filtering of medical liquids is easily accomplished by the present invention, because of the higher pressures available, in a medical liquid administration device in which the driven fluid flows from a supply thereof along a passageway into a user, by provision of means for filtering minute foreign solid material from this fluid in the passageway.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention, as well as the details of illustrative embodiments, will be more fully understood from the following description and drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION 'OF DRAWINGS FIG. I is a diagrammatic representation of a system incorporating the invention;

FIG. 2 is a table illustrating pressure conditions in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a graph of fill pressure versus time;

FIG. 4 shows one form of flow restrictor selector apparatus;

FIGS. 58 are sections illustrating various forms of gas and liquid defining zones usable in the FIG. 1 system;

FIG. 5a is an end view of the FIG. 5 housing;

FIG. 9 is a perspective showing advantageous packaging of the invention;

FIG. 10 is an end view of the FIG. 9 package;

FIG. 11 is an enlarged section taken through the flow restrictor rotary selector of FIG. 9;

FIG. 12 is a section taken on line 12-12 of FIG. 11; FIG. 13 is an enlarged section taken on line 13-13 of FIG.

FIG. 14 is a section showing a flow indicator; FIGS. a and 15b illustrate another flow indicator; FIG. 16 is a section showing a modified indicator; and, FIG. 17 is a section showing a check valve.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring first to FIG. 1, the illustrated system includes a driving fluid contained in a pressure reservoir 10 the outlet of which is connected at 11 to the inlet of a pressure regulator 12. The reservoir 10 may for example consist of a small bottle of two-phase (liquid-vapor) carbon dioxide or other highpressure fluid, as a source of driving energy. The pressure regulator 12 reduces the pressure of the driving fluid from a lever p to a level p as indicated, and the latter may be varied within limits by adjustment of the regulator control 13. Normally, p is much less than p,, as is stated in the FIG. 2 table of preferred conditions.

The fluid at pressure p then flows via connection 14 to and through a flow restrictor R FIG. 1 showing several of same grouped at 15 and individually labeled at 15a, 15b, and 150.

Merely for purposes of illustration, inlet valves are indicated at 16a, 16b and 160 as operable to control the flow to pass to and through any of the restrictors. The latter permit different flow rates corresponding to the pressure setting 17;. Such flow rates may vary over a wide range; and the design of the restrictors may be made to accommodate that range as by varying the lengths or cross-sectional areas, or both, of the restrictors as well as choosing materials of different porosity. FIG. 4 shows three restrictors 15a, 15b and 150 of different lengths in parallel passages 17a, 17b and 170 formed in a block 18. A valve unit 20 having branches 21 and 22 is movable relative to the block to selectively register passages 23 and 24 in those branches with the passages 17a-l7c. Preferably valve unit 20 is rotary, and one form of rotary unit will be described subsequently.

As referred to, it is the purpose of the flow restrictors R, to set the uniform rate of flow Q (usually) very low) of the driving fluid flowing at 33 to a zone wherein contained pressure 12 is operable to drive fluid from a fluid zone 31 at uniform rate, the rate Q being primarily determined by the pressure drop (p -p across the restrictor R Accordingly, there are different rates of flow Qa, Qb and 00 for example, associated with the different restrictors 15a, 15b and 150. Intermediate flow rates may be obtained by adjusting the control 13 on the pressure regulator 12, which may for example adjust the spring tension in the regulator. The latter may be of spring and diaphragm type, and one example is that known commercially as Model 1 1-039, manufactured by The Norgren Company of Littleton, Colo. The regulator is such that 2 is maintained despite large changes in p,, whereby the flow rate is kept uniform; however, the sizes or capacities of reservoir 10 and zone 31 may be so related that the reservoir exhausts just before zone 31 becomes exhausted, providing automatic shutoff.

The flow restrictor or restrictors R may, for example, consist of ceramic material or sintered metal, both of which are porous. While needle valves could be used, they tend to be contamination sensitive at low flow rates, and are not preferred. Note also the use of safety valves 32 and 32a connected to lines 11 and 33 in FIG. 1. Valve 32 is opened to relieve remaining pressure in reservoir 10, in response to opening of a container indicated at 34 containing fluid zone 31, in order to insure that the reservoir 10 cannot be reused without replacing with a full unit. Also, reservoir 10 may take the form of a metal cartridge which may be automatically disconnected from line 11 as by retractor 36 in response to opening of the container 34. Safety valve 32a operates to relieve pressure in line 33 should it inadvertently exceed a preset level.

Reference to FIG. 5 shows that the preferred driving and driven fluid zones are formed by separate and abutting collapsible containers 40 and 41, respectively, having a large common interface. These are housed within a rigid container or frame having upper and lower sections 42 and 43. The upper section may be removed to permit removal of an exhausted driven fluid container and insertion of the new driven fluid container 41 over the driving fluid container 40, which is typically, at such time, in a deflated state or caused to be deflated by opening valve 32a. It then becomes necessary to rapidly fill driving fluid into the deflated container 40 so that normal flow of driven fluid from container 41 may be resumed or commenced. Such driven fluid flow passes via line 44 containing flow restrictor R to a tip 45 (such as a needle) for delivery.

FIG. 1 illustrates a highly advantageous quick-fill system which may be used to rapidly fill zone 30, i.e., container 40 in FIG. 5, with driving fluid. As seen in FIG. 1, it includes flow restrictors R and R connected in series at 46, restrictor R having its inlet connected at 47 to line 14 via a valve 48. Similarly, line 46 is connected at 49 to the inlet to zone 30 via a valve 50. Finally, the outlet of restrictor R is connected to atmosphere. The flow resistance r; of restrictor R is made much less than r of a selected operating restrictor R so that the driving fluid readily flows via lines 47, 46 and 49 to the zone 30 when valves 48 and 50 are open. Also, the flow resistance r, of restrictor R is so related to the r of restrictor R that the following relationship is established:

n/rF a/n in Under these conditions, the pressure p;, will increase from a value p to the operating value L in a short time 1,, as seen in FIG. 3.

When a particular restrictor R, (15a-15c) is chosen to establish the desired operating pressure p;,, a corresponding restrictor R (19a19c, respectively,) is selected (as by appropriate valving a-180c operatively connected to valving l6al6b[) to provide the proper flow resistance in accordance with equation (I), so that the operating value L is rapidly obtained.

FIGS. 6-8 show alternate forms of containers for the gas and liquid zones 30 and 31. In FIG. 6, a single flexible container 52 contains both zones separated by a common pressure transmitting wall 53, and within a rigid frame or enclosure 54. In FIG. 7 the liquid zone 31 is formed by a flexible container 540, and the gas zone 30 is formed between that container and the rigid, fluid tight enclosure 55. In FIG. 8 both gas and liquid zones 30 and 31 are open to the interior of container 56, with a gas-liquid interface at 56a. Automatic shutoff is important to the latter to prevent unwanted feeding of gas such as carbon dioxide to a patient upon exhausting of liquid from zone 31. In all of these forms, the use of a rigid outer housing or frame enclosing zones 30 and 31 is important to prevent inadvertent squeezing of the containers (such as 40 and 41 in FIG. 5), i.e., pressurization of the zones. Also, the fixed shape of the housing or frame defines limits of container pressurized displacement to limit delivery of liquid to the outlet.

FIG. 1 also illustrates the provision of a gage to directly indicate the relative displacement status of the zones 30 and 31. Advantage is taken of the movement of interface 60 between the zones to indicate such status, through use of a marker 61 driven by that interface (say up and down) and adjacent to the calibration indicia 62. FIG. 5a shows an application of this in the FIG. 5 embodiment, wherein the end wall of the case or housing is slotted at 65 to pass the marker element 66 to the exterior from the interior. The marker shank is held between the containers 40 and 41, as at interface 67, and there are calibration markings on the housing to indicate the volume of fluid in the container 42.

Referring back to FIG. 1, the apparatus illustrated is well adapted to use in administering parenteral or other solutions (as for example intravenous infusions) to an animal or human patient, and typically a needle 45 is employed for this purpose. In such event R is constructed to provide a pressure drop (p p,,) sufficient in relation to gravity induced hydrostatic head changes that might occur during administration that the latter changes are not of critical significance as respects flow rate. (Such flow rate may be correlated with pressure and indicated by the gage 70 connected in line 14, and suitably calibrated.) On the other hand, the pressure drop (p -p afforded by restrictor R, is much greater than the drop afforded by R As a consequence, flow rate is primarily controlled by R,, and only secondarily controlled by R,,, but at the same time R assures that the gravity induced hydrostatic head fluctuations stemming from patient movement relative to the apparatus of FIG. 1 and vice versa and will not affect the flow rate to any significant degree. Also, R may be constructed to provide filtering action to insure delivery of fluid free of foreign particle contaminant. Such construction will be described later. By way of example only, the hydrostatic head fluctuations at the needle 45 would usually be less than one-half p.s.i., and the pressure 11 would usually exceed 3 p.s.i.

Finally, FIG. 1 illustrates the use of a shutoff and check valve 71 near the needle 45. Further, a bypass line 72 containing a valve 73 is connected across the restrictor R for emergency use. The bypass directs the flow in line 75 around R Altemately, provisions may be made for the emergency complete removal of restrictor R FIG. 9 shows elements of another form of medical liquid administration device as seen in FIG. 1. A container 100 formed of flexible inelastic plastic sheeting material contains medical liquid and overlies a gas receiving bag 1102 also of plastic construction. The container and bag are located within an enclosing rigid frame or housing 103 having upper and lower sections 104 and 105. The latter are hinge connected at 106 for convenience in insertion and removal of successive medical liquid containers 100, and terminals 104a and 105a serve to hold them connectedThe container 100 has an outlet 101 at an end thereof for discharge of the container contents. Outlet 101 is fluid tightly connected to tubing 108 which terminates at its opposite end in an applicator needle 120. Between the needle 120 (or other device such as a catheter for administering fluids) and outlet 101, the tubing 108 is provided or bisected with a flow restrictor filter 122, the construction and operation of which are described in detail hereinafter, but which broadly has the function of obstructing partially the passageway defined by tubing 108 to passage therealong of liquids permitting desired flow rates only when driving pressures are well in excess of those created by gravity and thus cooperating with the pressurizing system to be now described in providing controlled administration of medical liquids.

The medical liquid-administering device herein is advantageously portable, compact and self-contained. Apressurized driving fluid supply meeting these requirements is contained in a cartridge in which is stored liquefied CO fluorocarbons or hydrocarbons contained under pressures required to maintain liquid-gas equilibrium, or gases such as N under very high pressure. While other sources of gas may be used herein, for maximum operating convenience, univer' sal commercial availability and inherent portability, I prefer these cartridges. Note FIG. 9 illustrates use of such a cartridge 124 encased in a close-fitting mounting holder 126. The holder is provided at its upper end with a puncture tip conduit (not shown) adapted to receive, gastightly, the outlet neck of the cartridge in the well known manner. Pressure regulator 132, corresponding to that described at 12 in FIG. ii, is located as shown in FIG. 9, to be enclosed along with holder 126 when cover section 104 is in the position seen in FIG. 10. Note also the location of the pressure gage 128 (corresponding to gage 70 in FIG. 1) at one end of the package, as seen in FIG. 10. Gage 128 connects to conduit 130. Note also the bounding walls 180-183.

The control of the rate of flow of driving fluid, which rate is determinative of the rate thereof entering driving fluid receiver 102 and thus the rate of displacement of medical driven fluid into the recipient from container 100, is accomplished in conjunction with the downstream driven fluid pressure (which is set by appropriate adjustment of the pressure regulator 132) and also independently of normal variations of the pressure downstream of the flow rate control point. This is achieved by the use of the flow limiting restrictor within a cylindrical body having fixed end segments 140a and a rotatable center 14%. These body segments may be fastened at 138 and sealed with ring seals 141, as seen in FIG. 11.

The flow rate restriction is obtained by passing the gas along relatively narrow paths within the valve body 140 which tend to impede gas flow. In the illustrated preferred embodiment, a porous plug 142 in passage 144 is used as the gas-flow-restricting means, such plug providing a multiplicity of narrow and tortuous paths for gas flow whereby flow resistance is reliably controlled. Because various rates of flow may be desirable for different operating conditions, a plurality of driving fluid flow passages 144 may be provided for plugs 142 of varying restrictive characteristics. Thus, with reference to FIGS. 11 and 12 the center segment 140k of the valve body is bored to have passages 1144a, b, c and d therethrough. Passages 144a, b, and c are each provided with a gas flow restrictive porous plug 142 of different effective flow rate/pressure drop characteristic e.g., through difference in construction, diameter or, as illustrated, length of the plug whereby different rates of gas flow may be had by rotation of the center segment 1401) around fastener 138 to index one or the other of the passages to the single bore continuation of conduit 130 in the end segments 14011.

A nonrestrictive flow passage 144d is provided as a bypass for unrestricted gas flow to rapidly provide gas pressure e.g., at startup of the device. In this regard, the quick fill bypass of FIG. 12 does not appear in the FIG. 11 sectional view. To insure against accident, separately actuable means are provided, best shown in FIG. 12 for activating the quick fill. As there shown, the valve body segment 1411b is provided with a radial channel 146 in which there is positioned a push pin 148 having an enlarged outer end 148a for finger engagement and a reduced diameter inner end 150 axially slotted at 1500 to move radially of the fastener 138 about which the valve segment 140!) rotates. Finger depression of the pin 148 against tension spring 152 aligns aperture 154 of the pin with bypass passage 144d for quick fill gas flow. Inadvertent depression of the pin 48 may be prevented by a suitable lock (not shown) which may be gas pressure operated.

A further safety feature as seen in FIGS. 10 and 11 is found in the provision of a relief valve in conduit 131 which is set to insure no greater than some predetermined pressure, this valve corresponding to that seen at 32a in FIG. 1.

Having described the pressurizing means to include illustratively a source of positive pressure such as and preferably a miniature liquefied gas cylinder or cartridge, a pressure regulator and a gas flow restrictor combination which operates independent of normal variations of downstream gas pressure, reference is now made to FIGS. 9 and 13 for the ensuing discussion of the driven fluid flow restrictor aspect of the invention.

To remove operator error as a source of difficulty, the present device employs a fixed-flow-channel-type restrictor. For this purpose FIG. 13 illustrates a ceramic porous cylindrical plug 162, which is the preferred form of flow restrictor 122. Other flow-restricting devices including porous plugs formed of other natural and/or synthetic materials, fused or bonded or otherwise held in rigid configuration may be used. Membranous materials are generally insufficiently strong to withstand the applied pressures contemplated herein for satisfactory periods, but, if properly supported, may be employed.

A highly advantageous aspect of the use of finely porous plugs or similar type flow restrictor 122 is the opportunity to filter from the to-be-administered fluid foreign matter which occasionally is present therein. For this purpose channels 164 may have a size of 0.1 to 5 microns or more or less, these values being illustrative.

Whatever the material of construction of flow restrictor 122, the flow rate/pressure drop characteristic is desirably controlled for particular effects. For example, flow restrictors intended to have a filtering function may have a characteristic of less than 200 ml./hr./p.s.i., but this only by way of example. Every flow restrictor, of course, will have a characteristic to reduce to small degree the significance of gravity on flow of fluid to the recipient.

Reference is now made to FIGS. 1 and 14 showing a flow indicator 79 in the form of a thin disc 80 in the path of liquid flow in the line 75. The thin disc 80 includes a rigid stem 80a which is connected to one end of an elastic or springlike filament 81, the opposite end of which is suitably fixed in the line or tubing 75. As flow increases, the thin disc moves downstream, due to the elasticity or spring action as indicated by broken lines 82, and can be seen when the tubing is transparent. Calibrated indicia 83, mounted on and adjustable lengthwise of the tubing 75, may be provided to afford flow rate information. Also, the downstream flow line may be temporarily clamped to see if disc 80 snaps back, to confirm the existence of flow. FIGS. 15a and 15b illustrate another flow indicator in the form of a thin disc 85 having arigid stem 85a secured to one end of an inelastic filament 86. As flow commences, the disc 85 oscillates in the tubing, as between FIG. 15a and 15b positions, higher frequency indicating greater flow rates. FIG. 16 shows a combination of the FIG. 14 and 15 concepts, and wherein the disc element 80a stretches on spring element 81a to show flow rate; and in addition the oscillator element 85a oscillates on filament 86 (mounted on disc 80a) to confirm the existence of flow. The thin disc elements 85 and 85a may take other forms, e.g., small spheres, cylinders, grooved cylinders so long as there is clearance between the tube and the element. Also, the tubing containing the elements such as 85, 85a, 80 and 80a should be circular and may consist of a short section of glass tubing. FIG. 17 illustrates a type of check valve 90 that may be used in line 75 near needle 45, to prevent back-flow. The valve has flaps 91 which spread to pass flow to the right, but close together to block reverse flow.

It will be apparent that appropriate alarm devices (not shown) may be utilized wherever system parameters are monitored, e.g., as at 70, 32a, 62 and 79 in FIG. 1, to indicate malfunctions, unsafe, or undesirable conditions.

While particular forms of the invention have been illustrated and described, various modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the invention be limited, except as by the appended claims.

Iclaim:

1. In parenteral liquid administration apparatus, the combination comprising:

a. container means having a first zone to receive a pressurized first fluid and a second zone for a supply of a deliverable second fluid, said zones extending in such confined and pressure-transmitting relation that the second fluid remains pressurized by the first fluid as the second fluid zone diminishes and the first fluid zone expands; j

b. means to deliver said first fluid to said first zone and including a fluid pressure regulator and variable flow restrictor means connected in fluid-flow-transmitting relation between said regulator and said first zone; said flow restrictor means having selector means for providing a predetermined but variable pressure drop/flow rate characteristic; and

c. a conduit for delivering said second fluid for administration to a patient from said second zone.

2. In parenteral liquid administration apparatus, the combination comprising:

a. container means having a first zone to receive a pressurized first fluid and a second zone for a supply of a deliverable second fluid, said zones extending in such confined and pressure-transmitting relation that the second fluid remains pressurized by the first fluid as the second fluid zone diminishes and the first fluid zone expands;

b. means to deliver said first fluid to said first zone and including a fluid pressure regulator and flow restrictor means connected in fluid-flow-transmitting relation between said regulator and said first zone;

c. a conduit for delivering said second fluid for administration to a patient from said second zone; and

d. means for selectively bypassing said flow restrictor means.

3. The combination of claim 1 wherein said container means comprises first and second collapsible containers respectively defining said first and said second zones and having a pressure-transmitting and movable interface between said zones.

4. The combination of claim 3 including means confining said container means in said pressure-transmitting relation whereby said interface is movable relative to said confining means in response to fluid flow from the second container during collapse thereof.

5. The combination of claim 4 including an indicator having operative connection to said interface to move therewith.

6. The combination of claim 1 wherein said first fluid delivery means includes a liquefied gas container having an outlet in communication with said pressure regulator.

7. The combination of claim 6 including liquefied CO in said liquefied gas container.

8. The combination of claim 1 wherein said flow restrictor means includes multiple restrictors mounted for selective connection in said fluid-flow-transmitting relation.

9. The combination of claim 8 wherein each of said multiple restrictors comprises a porous plug.

10. In parenteral liquid administration apparatus, the combination comprising:

a. container means having a first zone to receive a presssurized first fluid and a second zone for a supply of a deliverable second fluid, said zones extending in such confined and pressure-transmitting relation that the second fluid remains pressurized by the first fluid as the second fluid zone diminishes and the first fluid zone expands;

b. means to deliver said first fluid to said first zone and including a pressure regulator and first variable flow restrictor means connected in flow-transmitting relation between said regulator and said first zone; said flow restrictor means having selector means for providing a predetermined but variable pressure drop/flow rate characteristic; and

c. means to deliver said second fluid for administration to a patient from said second zone and including a conduit and a second flow restrictor means connected in flowtransmitting relation with said conduit;

d. said restrictors characterized in that the first fluid pressure drop across said first restrictor means substantially exceeds the second fluid pressure drop across said second restrictor means whereby the second fluid flow rate in said conduit is maintained substantially uniform and independent of normal gravity induced pressure fluctuations.

11. In parenteral liquid administration apparatus, the combination comprising:

a. container means having a first zone to receive a pressurized first fluid and a second zone for a supply of a deliverable second fluid, said zones extending in such confined and pressure-transmitting relation that the second fluid remains pressurized by the first fluid as the second fluid zone diminishes and the first fluid zone expands;

b. means to deliver said first fluid to said first zone and including a pressure regulator and first flow restrictor means connected in flow-transmitting relation between said regulator and said first zone;

c. means to deliver said second fluid for administration to a patient from said second zone and including a conduit and a second flow restrictor means connected in flowtransmitting relation with said conduit;

cl. said restrictors characterized in that the first fluid pressure drop across said first restrictor means substantially exceeds the second fluid pressure drop across said second restrictor means whereby the second fluid flow rate in said conduit is maintained substantially uniform and independent of normal gravity induced pressure fluctuations; and

e. means for selectively bypassing said second flow restrictor means.

112. The combination of claim 10 wherein said container means comprises first and second collapsible containers respectively defining said first and second zones and having a pressure-transmitting and movable interface between said zones.

13. The combination of claim 12 including means confining said containers in said pressure-transmitting relation whereby said interface is movable relative to said confining means in response to fluid flow from the second container during collapse thereof.

14. The combination of claim 13 including an indicator having operative connection to said interface to move therewith.

15. The combination of claim 10 wherein said flow restrictor means includes multiple restrictors mounted for selective connection in said gas-flow-transmitting relation.

16. The combination of claim 15 wherein each of said multiple restrictors comprises a porous plug.

17. The combination of claim 10 including a bypass connectable between said regulator and said first zone and including other flow restrictor means of lower flow resistance than said first flow restrictor means in series with said bypass and characterized that said first fluid is rapidly flowable to said first zone to pressurize same to a level substantially equal to the pressure normally at the outlet side of said first flow restrictor means when said bypass is not connected.

18. The combination of claim 17 wherein said other flow restrictor means includes third flow restrictor means and fourth flow restrictor means in series, said first zone being connected in flow-transmitting relation to a point between said third and fourth flow restrictor means with said third restrictor means being in parallel with said first restrictor means, the ratio of the flow resistance of said first flow restrictor means to said third flow restrictor means being the same as the ratio of the flow resistance of said second restrictor means to said fourth restrictor means.

19. The combination of claim 17 including valve means to selectively connect said bypass between said regulator and said first zone.

20. The combination of claim 10 wherein said second restrictor means comprises a porous plug.

21. The combination of claim 4 wherein said collapsible container confining means comprises a housing having interconnected sections that are relatively separable to permit replacement of said second container, said conduit extending from said second container to move therewith during collapse thereof, and the housing wall containing an opening to pass said conduit and permit said movement thereof.

22. The combination of claim 21 wherein said opening is at one end of the housing, and said pressure regulator and said restrictor means are at one side of the housing and enclosed therein.

23. The combination of claim 21 wherein said restrictor means and said pressure regulator are contained within said housing, and said housing sections have hinge interconnection.

24. The combination of claim 1 and further including flowsensing means for indicating fluid flow within the apparatus.

25/1 he combination of claim 24 wherein said sensing means is located within said conduit. I

26. A combination as set forth in claim 2, mcludmg pressure-responsive means for inhibiting said means for selectively bypassing said flow restrictor means when the pressure at said first zone exceeds a predetermined value.

27. A combination as set forth in claim 3, wherein said container means comprise a flexible bag.

28. The combination of claim 10 wherein said second flow restrictor means is connected to be removable from said flowtransmitting relation.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1617614 *18 Aug 192415 Feb 1927Victor YorkFlow nipple
US1869443 *6 Aug 19282 Aug 1932Cook Lab IncAdministration of therapeutic agents
US2541464 *28 Nov 194413 Feb 1951Parker Appliance CoFluid throttling valve
US2642867 *16 Aug 195223 Jun 1953Livingston Herman HApparatus for the transfusion of blood
US2693801 *8 Jan 19519 Nov 1954Forcman JosephSafety cutoff valve for liquid administering apparatus
US2761445 *3 May 19524 Sep 1956Baxter Don IncApparatus for regulating fluid flow
US2766907 *15 Mar 195516 Oct 1956Robbins Instr CorpPressure infusion apparatus
US3042086 *30 Jan 19613 Jul 1962Chelwin Productions IncDevice for filling blood containers
US3048171 *3 Nov 19587 Aug 1962Bio Physical Res IncIntravenous injection device
US3054401 *23 Dec 195918 Sep 1962American Sterilizer CoTransfusion set
US3081942 *18 Sep 196119 Mar 1963IbmDigital-to-analog control system
US3298367 *10 Jan 196417 Jan 1967Bergman Richard IApparatus for administering parenteral liquids
US3468308 *17 Jan 196623 Sep 1969Howard R BiermanPressure infusion device for ambulatory patients with pressure control means
US3486539 *28 Sep 196530 Dec 1969Jacuzzi Bros IncLiquid dispensing and metering assembly
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3992706 *5 Jan 197616 Nov 1976Tunney Thomas PLiquid level monitoring apparatus
US4137917 *12 May 19776 Feb 1979Cohen Milton JSyringe filter unit
US4187847 *11 Jul 197712 Feb 1980Loeser Edward AAirless intravenous fluid system
US4210178 *10 Aug 19771 Jul 1980Basta Michael IPerpetual by-pass flushing device
US4267836 *16 Apr 197919 May 1981Whitney Douglass GInjection device and method
US4280637 *12 Sep 197928 Jul 1981Susann I. C. RuncimanConstant feed device
US4284502 *24 Oct 197918 Aug 1981Basf AktiengesellschaftApparatus for treating uremic patients
US4351335 *23 Mar 198128 Sep 1982Whitney Douglass GInjection device and method
US4382753 *10 Sep 198010 May 1983Avi, Inc.Nonpulsating IV pump and disposable pump chamber
US4391600 *15 Sep 19805 Jul 1983Avi, Inc.Nonpulsating IV pump and disposable pump chamber
US4410322 *10 Sep 198018 Oct 1983Avi, Inc.Nonpulsating TV pump and disposable pump chamber
US4470812 *28 Feb 198311 Sep 1984Martens Leslie VCutting handpiece and coolant means
US4539005 *24 Oct 19833 Sep 1985Greenblatt Gordon MBlood infusion apparatus and method
US4596558 *13 Sep 198524 Jun 1986Queen's University At KingstonPulsed external medication dispenser
US4613327 *10 Sep 198523 Sep 1986Tegrarian Haig VApparatus for infusing blood and other related fluids into a patient's body
US4626243 *21 Jun 19852 Dec 1986Applied Biomedical CorporationGravity-independent infusion system
US4657160 *21 Jan 198614 Apr 1987Andy WoodsPressure infusion control
US4666430 *5 Dec 198419 May 1987I-Flow CorporationInfusion pump
US4673392 *2 Oct 198516 Jun 1987Keime Bernard MPortable self-contained injector for perfusions, particularly in the case of road accident victims
US4779761 *12 Mar 198725 Oct 1988The Coca-Cola CompanyBeverage dispenser pump system with pressure control device
US4784648 *15 Sep 198615 Nov 1988Applied Biomedical CorporationFlow restrictor, for use in an infusion system
US4850971 *23 Feb 198825 Jul 1989Triangle Research And Development CorporationInfusion method and means
US4857048 *21 Mar 198815 Aug 1989Hewlett-Packard CompanyIV pump and disposable flow chamber with flow control
US4857055 *14 Apr 198715 Aug 1989Wang Paul YCompression device enabling flexible solution containers to produce constant delivery rate
US4867344 *19 Jun 198719 Sep 1989Thermacor Technology, Inc.Pressurized dispenser
US4913196 *20 May 19873 Apr 1990Surgikos, Inc.Fluid injection system pumping methods
US4955860 *11 Apr 198811 Sep 1990Ruano Miguel MVolumetric pump for parenteral perfusion
US4973247 *20 Sep 198927 Nov 1990Varnes Dewayne LDental handpiece assembly
US5062834 *15 Aug 19895 Nov 1991Product Development (S.G.Z.) LtdDevice for dispensing a liquid particularly useful for delivering medicaments at a predetermined rate
US5098409 *4 Jan 199124 Mar 1992Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyIntravenous bag and monitoring method
US5106374 *8 May 199021 Apr 1992Abbott LaboratoriesAmbulatory infusion device
US5192272 *25 Oct 19909 Mar 1993Faure Jean MariePack for administration of sterile liquids including pharmaceutical, nutrient and energy-source liquids
US5207645 *25 Jun 19914 May 1993Medication Delivery DevicesInfusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
US5232437 *21 Mar 19903 Aug 1993Baxter International Inc.Mobile, self-contained blood collection system and method
US5232439 *2 Nov 19923 Aug 1993Infusion Technologies CorporationMethod for pumping fluid from a flexible, variable geometry reservoir
US5308335 *2 Nov 19923 May 1994Medication Delivery DevicesInfusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
US5320503 *23 Sep 199314 Jun 1994Patient Solutions Inc.Infusion device with disposable elements
US5342313 *2 Nov 199230 Aug 1994Infusion Technologies CorporationFluid pump for a flexible, variable geometry reservoir
US5348539 *29 Jun 199320 Sep 1994Glenn HerskowitzInfusion pump for use with prepackaged IV bags
US5398850 *3 Mar 199421 Mar 1995River Medical, Inc.Gas delivery apparatus for infusion
US5398851 *6 Aug 199321 Mar 1995River Medical, Inc.Liquid delivery device
US5419772 *29 Sep 199330 May 1995Teitz; Bernard R.Surgical irrigation apparatus for cleaning and sterilizing wounds and surgical areas during surgery
US5433704 *3 May 199418 Jul 1995Medication Delivery DevicesInfusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
US5472420 *1 Apr 19945 Dec 1995Infusion Technologies CorporationValve system and method for control of an infusion pump
US5492534 *20 May 199420 Feb 1996Pharmetrix CorporationControlled release portable pump
US5553741 *23 Dec 199410 Sep 1996River Medical, Inc.Liquid delivery device
US5558255 *5 Jun 199524 Sep 1996River Medical, Inc.Liquid delivery device
US5571261 *5 Aug 19945 Nov 1996River Medical, IncLiquid delivery device
US5578005 *16 Sep 199426 Nov 1996River Medical, Inc.Apparatus and methods for multiple fluid infusion
US5581027 *8 Sep 19953 Dec 1996Honeywell Inc.For sensing a flow of a gas
US5584667 *6 Jun 199517 Dec 1996Davis; David L.Method of providing uniform flow from an infusion device
US5584811 *18 Jul 199517 Dec 1996Medication Delivery Devices, Inc.Infusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
US5588556 *5 Jun 199531 Dec 1996River Medical, Inc.Method for generating gas to deliver liquid from a container
US5743878 *11 Dec 199528 Apr 1998Medication Delivery Devices, Inc.Infusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
US5785688 *7 May 199628 Jul 1998Ceramatec, Inc.Fluid delivery apparatus and method
US5803712 *14 Feb 19958 Sep 1998Patient Solutions, Inc.Method of measuring an occlusion in an infusion device with disposable elements
US5911703 *22 May 199715 Jun 1999Avant Drug Delivery Systems, Inc.Two-stage fluid medicament jet injector
US5911716 *24 Jan 199215 Jun 1999I-Flow CorporationPlaten pump
US5928195 *28 Jul 199827 Jul 1999Malamud; DanielRemote control drug delivery device
US5954696 *15 Dec 199721 Sep 1999B. Braun Medical, Inc.Pressure infusion pump
US6074366 *16 Jan 199813 Jun 2000Tandem Medical Inc.Medication delivery apparatus
US6146109 *29 Jun 199814 Nov 2000Alaris Medical Systems, Inc.Infusion device with disposable elements
US6146360 *14 Jan 199914 Nov 2000Tandem Medical, Inc.Medication delivery apparatus
US625109823 Jun 199726 Jun 2001I-Flow, Corp.Fluid container for use with platen pump
US62804085 Apr 199928 Aug 2001Anatole J. SipinControlled fluid transfer system
US631222730 Mar 19936 Nov 2001I-Flow Corp.Infusion device with disposable elements
US63582399 Dec 199719 Mar 2002I-Flow CorporationPlaten pump
US63987601 Oct 19994 Jun 2002Baxter International, Inc.Volumetric infusion pump with servo valve control
US6406458 *9 Aug 199618 Jun 2002Premetec AbPressure infusion apparatus
US641649614 Nov 20009 Jul 2002Tandem Medical, Inc.Medication delivery apparatus
US646795330 Mar 200022 Oct 2002Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for monitoring temperature of intravenously delivered fluids and other medical items
US653724416 Apr 200125 Mar 2003Assistive Technology Products, Inc.Methods and apparatus for delivering fluids
US656663123 Oct 200120 May 2003Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for monitoring temperature of intravenously delivered fluids and other medical items
US6632194 *16 Nov 200014 Oct 2003W.O.M. World Of Medicine GmbhDevice for insufflating gas
US664516920 Sep 200011 Nov 2003Avant Drug Delivery Systems, Inc.Air-in-tip jet injector
US66696647 Sep 200130 Dec 2003Avant Drug Delivery Systems, Inc.Vacuum control cycle for jet injector
US672278223 Oct 200120 Apr 2004Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for monitoring temperature of intravenously delivered fluids and other medical items
US67266555 Nov 199927 Apr 2004Tandem MedicalMedication delivery system
US67429927 Nov 20021 Jun 2004I-Flow CorporationInfusion device with disposable elements
US675277920 Mar 200322 Jun 2004Assistive Technology Products, Inc.Methods and apparatus for delivering fluids
US68245283 Mar 199830 Nov 2004Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for pressure infusion and temperature control of infused liquids
US687175930 Sep 200329 Mar 2005I-Flow CorporationPlaten pump
US704194122 Mar 20049 May 2006Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMedical item thermal treatment systems and method of monitoring medical items for compliance with prescribed requirements
US7044002 *17 Apr 200116 May 2006Ganbro Lundia AbMethod and device for monitoring the flow speed of an infusion solution
US708306824 Mar 20051 Aug 2006I-Flow CorporationPlaten pump
US709065811 Oct 200115 Aug 2006Medical Solutions, Inc.Temperature sensing device for selectively measuring temperature at desired locations along an intravenous fluid line
US721725312 Sep 200315 May 2007Avant Medical Corp.Sequential impulse/delivery fluid medicament injector
US72766758 Aug 20062 Oct 2007Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMedical item thermal treatment systems and method of monitoring medical items for compliance with prescribed requirements
US730724521 Jul 200611 Dec 2007Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMedical item thermal treatment systems and method of monitoring medical items for compliance with prescribed requirements
US733792226 Jun 20014 Mar 2008I-Flow CorporationPlaten pump
US741720517 Jan 200626 Aug 2008Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMedical item thermal treatment systems and method of monitoring medical items for compliance with prescribed requirements
US754086420 May 20042 Jun 2009Medical Solutions, Inc.Temperature sensing device for selectively measuring temperature at desired locations along an intravenous fluid line
US76115049 Mar 20043 Nov 2009Patented Medical Solutions LlcMethod and apparatus for facilitating injection of medication into an intravenous fluid line while maintaining sterility of infused fluids
US774061117 Oct 200622 Jun 2010Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus to indicate prior use of a medical item
US79428519 Aug 200417 May 2011Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for pressure infusion and temperature control of infused liquids
US811304622 Mar 201014 Feb 2012Honeywell International Inc.Sensor assembly with hydrophobic filter
US8157747 *15 Feb 200817 Apr 2012Lary Research & Development, LlcSingle-use indicator for a surgical instrument and a surgical instrument incorporating same
US822629322 Feb 200724 Jul 2012Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for measurement and control of temperature for infused liquids
US822659721 Mar 200824 Jul 2012Baxter International, Inc.Fluid delivery system and flow control therefor
US822660517 Dec 200124 Jul 2012Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for heating solutions within intravenous lines to desired temperatures during infusion
US823156621 Mar 200831 Jul 2012Baxter International, Inc.Fluid delivery system and flow control therefor
US83134627 Jan 201020 Nov 2012Medical Solutions, Inc.Method and apparatus for pressure infusion and temperature control of infused liquids
US839758622 Mar 201019 Mar 2013Honeywell International Inc.Flow sensor assembly with porous insert
US844459910 May 201021 May 2013Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus to indicate prior use of a medical item
US8449506 *20 Jul 200528 May 2013Chang Ming YangAutomatic feeding/phlegm extractor device
US848503130 Jan 201216 Jul 2013Honeywell International Inc.Sensor assembly with hydrophobic filter
US84858188 Feb 201216 Jul 2013Biolase, Inc.Fluid controller
US863669110 May 201028 Jan 2014Patented Medical Solutions, LlcMethod and apparatus to indicate prior use of a medical item
US865677214 Oct 201125 Feb 2014Honeywell International Inc.Flow sensor with pressure output signal
US867287621 Mar 200818 Mar 2014Baxter International Inc.Fluid delivery system and flow control therefor
US869541731 Jan 201115 Apr 2014Honeywell International Inc.Flow sensor with enhanced flow range capability
US875699029 Mar 201124 Jun 2014Honeywell International Inc.Molded flow restrictor
US20090112160 *20 Jul 200530 Apr 2009Chang-Ming YangAutomatic Feeding/Phlegm Extractor Device
US20120226222 *22 Nov 20106 Sep 2012Spark S.R.L.Device For Dosing And Adjusting The Flow Of A Radiopaque Agent To Be Used In Performing An Angiography
USRE35501 *19 Dec 19946 May 1997Medication Delivery DevicesInfusion pump, treatment fluid bag therefor, and method for the use thereof
EP0721360A1 *8 Nov 199317 Jul 1996SIPIN, Anatole J.Controlled fluid transfer system
EP2506792A1 *6 Dec 201010 Oct 2012Biolase Technology, Inc.Fluid controller
WO1985003229A1 *27 Jan 19851 Aug 1985Directia Sanitara A JudetuluiMedicinal vegetable composition for treating some hepatic and biliary diseases
WO1985003232A1 *25 Jan 19841 Aug 1985Imed CorpHydraulic syringe drive
WO1988010216A1 *17 Jun 198829 Dec 1988Thermacor Technology IncPressurized dispenser
WO1993014688A1 *24 Jan 19925 Aug 1993Frantz Medical Dev LtdEndoscope sterile liquid supply system
WO1994009847A1 *2 Nov 199211 May 1994Medication Delivery DevicesInfusion pump, bag and method of use
WO1995001194A1 *1 Jun 199412 Jan 1995Glenn HerskowitzInfusion pump for use with prepackaged bags
WO1995009018A1 *27 Sep 19946 Apr 1995Bernard R TeitzSurgical irrigation apparatus
WO1996013288A1 *16 Oct 19959 May 1996Glenn HerskowitzInfusion pump with tube spike holder
WO2011069163A1 *6 Dec 20109 Jun 2011Biolase Technology, Inc.Fluid controller
WO2011153697A1 *10 Jun 201015 Dec 2011Ga MingMedical infusion device
Classifications
U.S. Classification604/141, 222/61, 73/861.71, 222/386.5, 138/45, 222/399, 128/DIG.120, 604/118
International ClassificationA61M5/148, A61M5/168
Cooperative ClassificationA61M5/1483, A61M5/16886, Y10S128/12
European ClassificationA61M5/148B, A61M5/168M