US 3476119 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 4, 1969 R. R. WALTON 3,476,119
SMOKING MACHINE Filed Nov. 2, 1967 3 Sheets-Sheet RH-R. WALTON SMOKING MACHINE Nov. 4, 1969 5 Sheets-Sheet. 2
Filed Nov. 2, 1967 Nov. 4, 1969 R. WALTON 3,476,119
smoxme MACHINE Filed Nov. 196'? .5 Sheets-Sheet 5 United States Patent G U.S. Cl. 131-171 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A laboratory machine for administering fresh mainstream cigarette smoke to the skin, lungs or other organs of animals on a controlled basis and simulating conditions of cigarette smoking in which the cigarette is held in a smoking chamber which is opened and closed by raising and lowering a cover. Air is supplied under pressure to the closed chamber and passes down through the cigarette to a mixing chamber to mix with diluting air supplied in controlled volume. A manifold provides smoke passages from the mixing chamber to one or more animalholding stations. Smoke to the mixing chamber is controlled by a valve which is actuated by reciprocal movement in unison of the cover and the base on which it rests. A timer opens and closes the smoking chamber, controls the diluting air, and directs purging air into the mixing chamber at the desired intervals.
This invention relates to a new and improved machine for administering tobacco smoke to laboratory animals for experimental purposes.
The invention makes possible the administration of fresh mainstream cigarette smoke to laboratory animals almost as it comes from the cigarette, diluted to whatever degree desired, in putts of any desired length, and at controllable intervals, the animals between the puffs being subjected to fresh air which purges the smoke path.
According to the invention I provide a machine for administering cigarette smoke to skin, lungs, or other organs of laboratory animals on a controlled basis and simulating conditions of actual smoking comprising a base having an opening to receive and hold a cigarette by its butt and a cover spaced from the base, together with mechanism for moving the cover and base toward and away from each other from a first position wherein the cigarette is exposed to a second position wherein the cover is in sealing engagement with the base to define therewith a smoking chamber which encloses the cigarette. A body is mounted adjacent the base having a mixing chamber in communication with the cigarette holding opening. This body is provided with one or more passages leading from the mixing chamber to one or more animal holding stations. Further, I provide an air supply control mechanism for supplying air under controlled pressure and flow rate to the smoke chamber so that the smoke will be forced through the cigarette from the lighted end through its butt and the opening to the mixing chamber and a duct communicating with the mixing chamber for supplying diluting air which will uniformly mix with and dilute the smoke. A valve is disposed between the opening and the mixing chamber to control the admission of smoke and an additional air supply is arranged for supplying purging air to the mixing chamber when the valve is closed, the latter serving when so closed to prevent the purging air from reaching and smoking the cigarette. A timer in my preferred embodiment actuates the mechanism which produces relative movement of the cover and base and controls the diluting and purging air supply in timed relation to the opening and closing of the smoke chamber. The invention further includes Patented Nov. 4, 1969 the provision of a non-injurious flexible gasket mounted in the opening for gripping and sealingly engaging the butt of the cigarette and an incandescent filament of low mass mounted within the cover for lighting the cigarette so that the animal will receive the very first puff. Likewise in a preferred embodiment the parts are so arranged that the mechanism for producing the relative movement between cover and base serves to lower the cover into sealing engagement with the base and then causes movement in unison of the cover and base, the valve being opened by such movement in unison in one direction and being closed by such movement in unison in another direction.
Further objects, features, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description taken together with the accompanying drawings illustrating a preferred embodiment.
FIG. 1 is a view in perspective of the entire machine;
FIG. 2 is a vertical section through a portion of the machine as seen in FIG. 1 showing the smoking chamber, ignition system, manifold chamber and duct arrangement for conducting the smoke to the laboratory animals in their holders;
FIG. 3 is a plan view taken on line 3-3 of FIG. 2 showing the ignition wiring connections;
FIG. 4 is a detail of the lighting filament from beneath taken on line 4-4 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 is a diagram of the air supply system; and
FIG. 6 is a wiring diagram of the control system.
Vertically movable base 10 comprises two flat sheets 10a and 10b of suitable material, such as acrylic plastic, locked together by fasteners 12. Sandwiched between the two sheets is an apertured thin rubber gasket 14 which may be a piece of dental dam rubber or the like. The member 10a has a central opening 16 of suitable diameter to receive the butt of a cigarette 82. The lower member 10b has a cavity 18 registering with the opening 16 and which is narrowed at the bottom and is adapted to communicate with the central passage 32 of fitting 29. The rubber gasket 14 is designed non-injuriously to grip the cigarette, holding it upright in the center of the base, and likewise to simulate the human lips in preventing leakage of air around the outside of the cigarette to the cavity 18.
The fitting 20 comprises an apertured member having an enlarged upper disc portion 22, received in a corresponding circular recess in the bottom of the member 10b and serving to hold the base 10 in place. The fitting 20 has a depending nipple 24 which is received within the opening 42 of upstanding neck 26 of the body 28 which comprises a manifold housing. Surrounding the neck 26 and bearing on the bottom surface of the disc 22 is a coil spring 30 the bottom of which rests on the upper surface of the manifold body 28. The spring 30 urges the fitting 20 upward to a position wherein the base 10 is positioned as shown in dotted lines in FIG. 2. The duct 32 within the fitting 20 places the cavity 18 in communication with the central mixing chamber 34 of the manifold 28.
Carried by the bottom of the fitting 20 is a valve 36 which when the base and fitting are in their lower position is open to permit passage of smoke from the butt of the cigarette through passage 32 and openings 37 into the chamber 34. When the fitting 20 and base 10 are in their upper position the valve seat 38 closes against the surface 40 of the chamber thereby completely sealing the chamber 34 from the entry of any further smoke from the cigarette and isolating the cigarette from the purging air which then enters the mixing chamber, as described below until the valve reopens.
The manifold chamber 34 communicates with a plu rality of suitable animal holders 44 through passages therebetween as seen in FIG. 2. Each holder is detachably mounted by means of connectors 47, 49 and are provided with any necessary internal animal restraining device and smoke bafile indicated generally by the number 51. The construction of the animal holder itself does not form part of the present invention. It will be understood that the invention is not limited to the employment of any particular number or type of animal holders. I may provide one or more, within the limits of eflicient supply of smoke form the number of cigarettes smoked in the smoking chamber, which, ordinarily will be but a single cigarette.
The chamber 34 also communicates with a diluting and purging air tube 48 through passage 50. The manifold body 28 and the associated part 54 are mounted on a stationary platform 52. The tube 48 is attached to the manifold body by means of a suitable connection 56.
Now referring to the upper portion of FIG. 2, it will be seen that I provide an open mouthed cover 58 preferably comprising a transparent plastic cylinder or bell, which is shown in FIG. 1 in its raised position and in FIG. 2 in its fully lowered position. A gasket 60 surrounds its lower rim for sealing engagement with the upper surface of the base 10. The cover 58 when lowered forms with the base a smoking chamber. It is raised and lowered by rod 61 of piston 118 of cylinder 62 (FIG. mounted within the upper housing 64 (FIG. 1). The latter is supported above the platform 52 by hollow post 65. The upper rim 66 of the cover 58 is sealed to a body 68 which is provided with an internal duct 70 communicating with the smoking air supply tube 72. Beneath the body 68 is the filament holder 74 mounted by means of an adjusting screw 76. The filament 78 itself is a zig-zag flattened piece of suitable chrome nickel wire through which an electrical current is passed and which coolers immediately when the current stops flowing. Electricity may be so applied to the filament 78 through a pair of springlike wires 80 which permit the holder 74 to be adjusted vertically by the screw 76 turned by knob 77. The external connections are shown in FIG. 3.
It will be seen that when piston rod 61 is lowered, it will in turn lower the cover 58 so that the gasket 60 on its lower rim contacts the surface of the base to form the smoke chamber. After the gasket makes initial contact, the piston rod continues downward causing the cover to push the base down against spring 30 from the position shown in dotted lines to the position shown in solid lines in FIG. 2 thereby opening valve 36 so that air may flow through the cigarette from the tube 72 and the smoke from the cigarette will reach the manifold chamber 34. Prior to the first cycle the filament holder 74 is manually adjusted to a suitable height so that filament 78 will contact the top of the cigarette 82 which may be of standard or any king size length. The lighter switch is manually closed to cause the filament to incandesce on the first downward stroke to ignite the cigarette.
In order to provide smoking, purging, and diluting air in the right amounts at the right time, I provide the air systems shown diagrammatically in FIG. 5. There are four distinct systems of ducts and tubes supplied with air under suitable pressure from a common source (not shown) by means of inlet 89 and manifold 90, and branches 92, 94, 96, and 98. Three of the systems are pro vided with control type manometers 100, 102, and 104 of a well-known type each of which includes a valve having a control knob surmounted by a vertically arranged transparent case having a hollow ball or the like therein adapted to rise according to the quantity of air passing upwardly therethrough, as shown in FIG. 1. Branch 92 supplies air to actuate the piston 118 in the cylinder 62 to force the piston rod 61 downwardly to close the smoking chamber and open the valve 36. Branch 94 is arranged t provided purging air through the base 52 to the mixing chamber 34 and thence through the manifold 28 to the animals. This system is arranged to operate upon completion of the smoking cycle so that the animal will receive fresh air in between each puff. Branch 96 with its manometer 102 supplies air through tubes 72 to the top of the smoking chamber 84 to smoke the cigarette. This air supply is on at all times when the machine is in use, the rate of flow being adjustably controlled by the manometer 102, so that when the cover 58 is sealed against the top of the base 10 air from this system will pass from the cigarette chamber through the length of the cigarette, just as if a smoker had taken a puff. Branch 98 supplies diluting air to the manifold chamber 34 in desired quantity controlled by manometer 104 to dilute the smoke before it passes to the animal holders.
In order to operate the systems in proper timed relation I provide several maunal switches and an electrical timer T with associated microswitches and needed solenoid valves as shown in the wiring diagram of FIG. 6. The timer is arranged to activate at desired intervals the piston-cylinder microswitch 112 for opening and closing the chamber 84, the diluting air microswitch 128 and the purging air supply microswitch 114. These switches in turn operate solenoid valves V V and V respectively. The switch 112 when closed opens valve V to supply air to the top of the cylinder 62 forcing the piston 118 downwardly against the coil spring 120 and closing the cover of the smoking chamber. Simultaneously the timer closes switch 128 starting the supply of diluting air to the mixing chamber 34. The timer 110 can be arranged to retain the microswitches 112 and 128 closed for any desired period of time, in this instance two seconds. Opening of the switch 112 closes valve V permitting the spring 120 (FIG. 5) to force the piston 118 and piston rod 61 back to their upper positions, opening the cigarette smoking chamber and exposing the cigarette to the atmosphere as though it had been removed from a smokers lips. At the same time V is closed by the timer 110 and diluting air is turned olf, valve 36, of course, closes the moment the spring 30 can force the base 10 back to its upper position.
When the smoking cycle is thus completed, the purge microswitch 114 is activated by the timer for a period of time adjustable as desired, say 32 seconds. This opens the purging valve V supplying purging air at a How rate controlled by manometer 100 to the chamber 34 and thence to the animal holders, giving the animals needed fresh air between puffs.
In order to light the cigarette, there is provided a manual switch 114 which, as previously described, is momentarily closed immediately before the beginning of the first cycle. A rheostat 126 may be provided to permit adjustment of the voltage applied to the low mass filament 78. It is desirable thus to be able to administer the very first puff of a newly lighted cigarette to the animals while at the same time adding a minimum amount of heat to the system.
Diluting air is controlled by the manometer 104 and air will flow through the diluting system whenever the microswitch 128 is closed by the timer causing valve V to open and remain open until the smoking cycle ends. A main on and off switch 130 controls the entire electrical system.
In operation a cigarette 82 is first placed in the opening in the base 10 where it is lightly gripped in sealing engagement by the gasket 14 and the smoking air supply under pressure is turned on. The filament holder 74 has previously been adjusted by knob 77 for the proper height of the filament 78 for ignition. The main switch 130 is closed. The timer 110 now takes over to open valves V and V and the cover 58 is thereupon lowered against the upper surface of the base 10, and then moves further downwardly to open valve 36; meanwhile the diluting air is flowing to the chamber 34. Air from the tube 72 will now be forced through the cigarette from the top down, simulating actual smoking. The undiluted smoke travels into the manifold chamber 34 where it is diluted by the diluting air from the tube 48 and then passes to the animal holders 44 through the passages therebetween. After the one or more animals have been given a puff of say two seconds, the timer opens switches 112 and 128 and spring 120 causes the piston rod 61 to elevate the covers 58 permitting the base to be raised by its spring 30 to close valve 36. Microswitch 114 closes at this point to open valve V so that purging air will be supplied through tube 48, duct 50 and said passages to the animal holders, the diluting air supply having been cut off by the closing of valve V By suitable adjustment of the manometers and the electrical timing system, smoke, diluting air, and purging air may be supplied in any selected quantities and for desired periods of time to the laboratory animals. The animals are held in special containers with their heads and/ or bodies in chambers of predetermined volume so that administration of the smoke can be effectively maintained. The invention makes possible mounting of the animal holders in very close proximity to the cigarette butt thereby providing the shortest possible path for the mainstream smoke from the cigarette. In this respect the machine of the invention approximates the conditions of smoking by human beings where the smoke travels directly from the lips to the throat and lungs. It will thus be seen that my novel machine permits a high degree of control and simulation of the actual human smoking process in the conduct of tests of the effect of tobacco smoke on laboratory animals.
1. In a machine for administering fresh mainstream cigarette smoke to laboratory animals on a controlled basis and simulating conditions of actual smoking, the improvement comprising the combination of:
a base having an opening to receive and hold a cigarette by its butt,
a cover spaced from the base,
mechanism for producing relative movement of the cover and base toward and away from each other from a first position wherein the cigarette is exposed to a second position wherein the cover is in sealing engagement with the base to define therewith a smoking chamber enclosing the cigarette, and
an air supply in communication with the smoking chamber to force smoking air through the cigarette toward its butt and through said opening.
2. The combination as claimed in claim 1 including a body mounted adjacent said base having a mixing chamber in communication with said opening and at least one smoke passage leading from said mixing chamber to an animal holding device.
3. The combination as claimed in claim 2 including an air suplpy communicating with said mixing chamber for supplying smoke diluting air thereto.
4. The combination as claimed in claim 3 including a valve between said opening and said mixing chamber for controlling the admission of smoke thereto.
5. The combination as claimed in claim 4 including an air supply in communication with said mixing chamber for supplying purging air thereto during the intervals when said valve is closed.
6. The combination as claimed in claim 5 including a timer for actuating the mechanism which produces relative movement of the cover and base and for controlling the diluting and purging air supplies in timed relation to the opening and closing of the smoking chamber.
7. The combination as claimed in claim 6 including a non-injurious flexible gasket mounted in said opening for gripping and sealingly engaging the butt of the cigarette.
8. The combination as claimed in claim 1 including an incandenscant filament mounted within said cover for lighting the cigarette.
9. The combination as claimed in claim 4 wherein said first named mechanism after said cover is in sealing engagement with said base causes further movement in unison of said cover and platform and wherein said valve is opened and closed by such movement in unison.
10. A machine for administering cigarette smoke to laboratory animals on a controlled basis and simulating conditions of actual smoking which comprises:
a base provided with an opening to receive and hold the butt end of a cigarette,
said base being vertically movable between an upper position and a lower position,
a vertically movable cover mounted above the base and having a lower rim adapted when the cover is lowered to seal against the base and define therewith a smoking chamber,
an apertured fitting below the base and on which the latter is mounted,
a manifold body fixedly mounted beneath the base and having an opening slidably receiving a portion of the fitting,
a coil spring surrounding the fitting and acting between the bottom surface of the base and the top surface of the manifold body to urge the base to its upper position,
a piston and cylinder mounted above and supporting the cover and arranged to move the same vertically from a first position remote from the base, exposing the cigarette, then to a second position wherein the cover is sealed against the base to form the smoke chamber, and finally to move the cover and base in unison further downwardly to the latters lower position,
said manifold body having an internal mixing chamber in communication through said fitting with said cigarette holding opening and being provided with passages to a plurality of animal holding stations for supplying smoke thereto,
a valve within said mixing chamber mounted on the end of the portion of said fitting which is received in said manifold body, said valve seating against the internal surface of said mixing chamber to close off the entry of smoke except when said base is in its lower position,
an airpre'ssure supply including a tube in communication with said mixing chamber for supplying diluting air thereto,
an air pressure supply in communication with said smoking chamber through said cover so that smoke will pass downwardly through the cigarette to the mixing chamber when the smoking chamber is closed,
a purging air pressure supply for supplying purging air through said tube to the mixing chamber when the valve is closed, and
a timer for actuating the diluting and purging air supplies and the movements of said piston and cylinder in timed relation to each other.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,740,334 12/ 1929 Churchill l31172 1,864,400 6/ 1932 Berger. 2,228,216 1/1941 Morgan 7328 X FOREIGN PATENTS 450,631 10/ 1927 Germany.
OTHER REFERENCES Page 45 of booklet, Dont Let Smoking Kill You, by Clarence W. Lieb, M.D., published 1957 by Bonus Books, Inc., 122 E. 42nd St., New York, NY. A copy of page 45 may be found in 131-171; the booklet, in 131-1.
JOSEPH S. REICH, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R.