US 3464507 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PORTABLE ROTARY DRILLING PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM Filed July 5, 1967 Sept 2, 1969 E. l.. ALEXANDER ETAL 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 gzrJvENTOR.
EVMETT L. ALEXANDER BY f HUGH DA 5M 1TH ATTOR NE YS 2.1.. ALEXANDER ErAL 3,464,507
PORTABLE ROTARY DRILLING PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 I`NVENTOR5.
EMME-TT L. ALEXANDER BY HUGH D. SMITH A'ronnisys Sept. 2, 1969 Filed July 3, 1967 dk A5 me @L v 2 Sept. 2, 1969 E. l.. ALEXANDER ETAL 3,454,507
PORTABLE ROTARY DRILLING PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM Filed July s, 19e? 5 sheets-sheet z La n INVENTORJ.
EMMETT L. ALEXANDER E HUGH D. .SMITH ATTORNE V5 Sept. 2, 1969 E. 1 ALEXANDER STAI. 3,464,507
PORTABLE ROTARY DRILLING PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM Filed July s, 1967 5 sheets-'sheet 4 IN V EN TOR.
ANDER EMMETT L. Ex 5 6 HUGH mamma AT'TQRNE V5 PORTABLE ROTARY DRILLING PIPE HANDLING SYSTEM Filed July 5, 1967 SePt- 2, 1969 E. L. ALEXANDER ETAI- 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ATTORNEYS United Staes 3,464,507 PORTABLE RTARY DRlLLING PEE HANDLING SYSTEM Emmett L. Alexander and Hugh D. Smith, Enid, Okla.,
assignors to Westinghouse Air Bral-:e Company, Enid,
Okla., a corporation of Pennsylvania Filed July 3, 1967, Ser. No. 650,838 Int. Cl. E21b 19/00, 33/03; EZlc 5/00 U.S. Cl. 175-85 11 Claims ABSTRACT 0F THE DISCLOSURE A mobile support carrying drilling equipment including a mast pivotally mounted thereon and movable from a reclining transport position to a desired position at the site of drilling operations which may be at any angle up to vertical. The mast has ways or guides for a traveling mechanism including a block movable up and down the mast through operation of cables reeved from the traveling block over crown block pulleys and to a draw works. A power drill drive is carried by the traveling block. An elevator for drill pipe is carried by arms swingably mounted relative to the power unit. Power tongs, slips, and slip bushings are supported adjacent the lower end of the mast and adapted to have a drill pipe extend therethrough from .a drive bushing connected to the power drive whereby the drill pipe extends in the direction of the hole to be drilled. The apparatus includes drill pipe handling from storage to hole and has a mobile drill pipe storage for movably supporting drill pipe sections in substantially horizontal position with a transfer arm swingably mounted at the end thereof adjacent the mast and operable to raise the adjacent end of a pipe section to a position to be engaged by the elevator when the traveling block is at its lowered position and the elevator arms are swung to raise the elevator into engagement with said pipe section, whereby the pipe section is moved, in response to movement of the traveling block, up the mast. A stabbing arm is swingably mounted on the mast in a position for swinging into supporting engagement with a mid-portion of the drill section being moved to or from the storage. ln moving the pipe from the storage the engagement by the stabbing arm is prior to the trailing end of the pipe leaving said storage, whereby the pipe section may then be supported by the elevator and stabbing arm until the trailing end is raised above the tongs and then by movement of the stabbing arm and elevator, the trailing end is aligned with an end of a drill pipe extending from the drilled hole and lowered and engaged therein and a connection made therebetween. The drill pipe and slips have engageable serrations or mating lugs for holding the drill string during making and breaking pipe joints.
Drilling rigs for drilling bore holes into the earth usually include a mobile support for carrying the drilling equipment such as a power unit, draw works, pumps, compressors, and a mast in which the traveling block, elevators and the like are movable in handling of the drilling pipe and sections thereof. Such rigs usually have a drill pipe rotating mechanism at the lower end of the mast through which the pipe extends into the bore hole and while elevators are used to raise the pipe into the mast, the threads of the drive pipe or shaft are used for 3,464,507 Patented Sept. 2, 1969 ice The principal objects of the present `invention are to provide a hole drilling rig wherein the mast is pivoted on a mobile support and swingable from a reclining transport position to any desired angle up to the vertical, with adjustable means for retaining the mast in selected inclined position; to provide such a drilling rig with a power drive mechanism movably mounted in the derrick mast and supported by the traveling block, said power drive having a drive bushing connectable with an upper end of a drill pipe section for rotating same; to provide a mobile pipe storage for a plurality of drill pipe sections with structure for moving the pipe sections one at a time to a position wherein the longitudinal axis of the pipe section extends from adjacent the lower end of the mast in a vertical plane that extends through the longitudinal center of the mast; to provide such a drilling rig with a swingably mounted transfer arm for raising and centering the pipe section adjacent the mast; to provide such a structure with an elevator swingably mounted relative to the traveling mechanism in the mast for movement into engagement with the raised end of the drill pipe section whereby said end is raised into the mast by upward movement of the traveling mechanism with the pipe storage having mobile support for the trailing end of the drill pipe section; to provide such a structure with a swingable support member on the mast to guidingly support the drill pipe section intermediate its ends as the elevator moves thereabove, said guide arm being operable to move the lower portion of the pipe section for clearing of the mechanism yas it is lifted and then to move it into alignment with the upper end of a drill pipe string extending from the bore hole whereby upon lowering of the elevator the section can be connected thereto; to provide a structure in which the traveling mechanism, elevator, guide arm, and pipe end support cooperate in handling the drill pipe in movement thereof from storage to drill string when running same into the hole and in movement of said pipe from the drill string to the storage when pulling the string from the hole; to provide such an apparatus wherein the elevator supports the pipe when tripping in and out of the hole eliminating use of the threads on the drive shaft or pipe for such pipe support; to provide a handling apparatus that will accommodate varying tool size and varying pipe and casing diameters; and to provide a drill rig and pipe storage that facilitates handling of drill pipe and moving same into positions during drillling operations with a minimum of manual labor and Without damage to the pipe sections or other equipment.
Other objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein are set forth by way of illustration and example certain embodiments of this invention.
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a drilling rig for drilling vertical or slanting holes with the mast in position to drill a slanting hole and with a pipe storage showing a pipe section being moved to the mast.
FIG. 2 is a top view of the drilling rig and pipe storage with the mast in vertical position.
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of an end portion of the pipe storage showing the transfer arm in pipe elevating position.
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view of the pipe 'storage and pipe retarder.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged end elevation of the lower portion of the drill rig mast with traveling mechanism therein. FIG. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of the lower portion of the mast and traveling mechanism therein.
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary perspective view of a mast portion and pipe stabbing arm and operating mechanism. FIG. 8 is a fragmentary side elevation of the mast with a pipe section supported by the elevators and stabbing arm. A portion is broken away to show the parts.
FIG. 9 is a similar side elevational view with the pipe section aligned with the drill string for lowering and connection therewith.
FIG. l is a fragmentary plan view of the elevator latch.
FIG. 11 is a detailed sectional wiew through the elevator showing a latch release.
FIG. 12 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation of the drill pipe collar showing the serrations thereon.
FIG. 13 is an enlarged sectional view through the slip and bushing structure at the mast base.
FIG. 14 is an elevation of an end of the pipe carriage.
Referring more in detail to the drawings:
The reference numeral 1 generally designates a drilling rig for drilling bore holes and particularly bore holes that slant from the vertical, the drilling rig in the illustrated structure being associated with a pipe storage 2 for supplying drill pipe for movement into the drilling rig.
The drilling rig includes a mobile support 3 which may be any suitable form of carrier and which in the illustrated structure is in the form of a semi-trailer having supporting wheels 4 under one end portion and 4a stiff leg 5 under the other end portion to support a frame and platform 6 which carries a power unit 7, a pull down and draw works 8 and mast 9. The platform also is adapted to carry equipment such as pumps, compressors and the like (not shown) but used in drilling operations. It is desired that when the ymast is in reclining position it be above the power unit 7, draw works 8 and other equipment on the platform and that said mast Ibe pivotable to erected position. The mast may be of any suitable structure with trussed or reinforced side members iti and 11 with each having a laterally outwardly extending trunnion 12 mounted in respective bearings 13 on the upper end of posts 14 fixed to and opstanding from opposite sides of the platform 6 adjacent the rear end 15 thereof. A suitable brace 16 between the platform and each post is provided for rigidity of the post. The platform also has opstanding support members 17 and 18 on the forward portion thereof to engage and support the mast when in reclining position.
The mast 9 in the illustrated structure has each of the side mem-bers and 11 as elongate rigid members forming -a structure supported so as to require a minimum of transverse members therebetween and permit unobstructed space for move-ment of traveling mechanism 19 in said mast. The upper end of the mast members are connected 'by a transverse member 20 and the mast carries a crown block 21 on said upper end having a plurality of pulleys 22 over which ropes 23 are reeved as later described.
The lower ends of the mast members 10 and 11 are connected by a transverse member or base 24 which also forms a support .for a guide bushing structure 25 through which a drill pipe string 26 extends as later described, the guide bushing having removable slips 27 for gripping and supporting the pipe string when desired. The mast 9 may be swung from a reclined to erected position in any suitable manner, however, in the illustrated structure, a hydraulic ram 28 for each mast has a cylinder 29 with one end pivotally mounted on the platform as at 30 with the piston rod 31 extending from the cylinder with the end pivotally connected as at 32 with downward extending ears 33 on the respective mast members. The structure of the rams 28 is preferably of a multiple telescoping type for long extension with a short collapsed length. When the mast 9 is in selected inclined or upright position, a strut 3'5 that is adjustable in length as by screw jack portions 36 in side members 37 thereof provides a rigid connection between the platform and the mast. Each of the mast members 10 and 11 have downwardly extending ears 38 spaced along the length of the m-ast for selective connection of the strut therewith as at 40. The platform 6 has laterally spaced rails 4l fixed thereto and extending longitudinally thereof the rails have upstanding portions 42 4 with a plurality of apertures or connection portions 43 to which the lower end of the side members of the strut 35 are connectable as at 44. The strut preferably has suitable bracing and connections 45 -between the side members to form a rigid structure and prevent side sway whereby the strut 35 cooperates with the rams 28 in raising and ho1d ing the mast 9 at selected inclined or vertical posltions. The lower end of the mast 9 is also supported at each side, the support being provided by a substructure 46 which has side members 47 and 4S extending longitudinally of the trailer structure and connected thereto for rigidity. In the illustrated structure the substructure is also connected to a portion of the pipe storage 2.
The pipe storage 2 include a member 50 that is preferably mobile and is illustrated in the form of a semi-trailer arranged longitudinally in rear end-to-end relation to the rig mobile support or trailer 3. The mobile member or trailer 50 has wheels 51 under the rear portion and a stiff leg 52 under the forward portion to support a frame 53 on which is mounted a platform 54. The frame `53 iS connected by elongate adjustable ties in the form of turnbuckles 55 to the adjacent end of the substructure side members as at 56. The other end of each of the substructure side members is connected by adjustable elongate members or turnbuckles 57 to the drill rig trailer frame or platform 6 as at 5S. The substructure side members 47 and 48 also have jacks 59 and 66 for engaging the platform 6 of the trailer 3 and the platform 54 of the trailer 50 to support same at a constant elevation yby removing the weight from the springs of the trailer structures. The substructure members are arranged relative to the pivotal axis of the trunnions 12 of the -mast 9 whereby an arcuate upper edge 61 of upstanding support rails 62 are on a radius from said pivotal axis. These rails are supported by lateral braces or gussets 63 and provide a support surface for engagement by guide heads 64 on the lower ends of threaded jack members 65 that are screwed into threaded sockets 66 in the lower ends of the mast members 10 and 11 whereby when the mast is in position the jack members 65 are threaded relative to the mast members to apply pressure on the surfaces 61 0f each of the substructure side members that cooperate with the connections 57 and strut 35 to hold the substructure 46, mast 9 and trailer 3 in a rigid fixed relationship with the trailer frame 50 extending substantially to the rear end of the platform 6 of the drill rig.
A working platform 68 extends longitudinally of the pipe storage trailer 50 at one side thereof and at the other side the platform has a longitudinal side rail or sill 69 supported from the frame by transverse members 70. Secured to said trailer of the pipe storage is a laterally extending pipe rack 71 which includes spaced beams 72 and 73 having end portions 74 held between opstanding fianges 75. The outer ends of the beams 72 and 73 are supported by stitf legs 76. Brace members 77 are connected between ears 78 on the beams and ear 79 on the trailer side sill 69 to hold the pipe storage beams in proper parallel relation. Each of the beams 72 and 73 have upstanding abutments 80 at the outer ends to prevent movement of drill pipe off said ends. The stiff legs 76 are adjustable and in the form of jacks to vary the elevation of the outer portion of the beams 72 and 73 whereby they selectively incline slightly toward or away from the trailer platform 54 and drill pipe sections 81 resting on the beams will tend to roll from the beams to a longitudinal position on the trailer 50 when running pipe into the hole and will roll the pipe from the trailer onto the beams when pipe is being removed from the hole. The trailer has 1ongitudinally extending tracks 82 on which a movable carriage 83 rolls or otherwise moves, in response to engagement of a pipe end as a pipe is moved to or from the mast, said carriage being returned to a respective end starting position after disengagement of the pipe by a suitable return mechanism 83 as later described. The drill pipe sections 31 are arranged on the rack with the box or threaded socket end 84 toward the mast and the threaded pin end 8S positioned so that when the pipe rolls into position on the trailer for movement into the drill rig, the pin end 85 will move onto a surface member 85 of the carriage 83 which selectively slopes downwardly in the direction the pipe is to roll.
The frame of the trailer 50 has pipe retarders 86 mounted thereon. The retarders 86 in the illustrated structure are arranged whereby they will permit one pipe section 81 at a time to move into position on the trailer and in the illustrated structure each of the retarders consists of a laterally extending bracket 87 fixed to the frame 53 and rotatably mounting a shaft 88 on which are secured spaced fingers 90 and 91. The fingers are spaced apart on the shaft 8S approximately the diameter of the drill pipe and the fingers are of such length and annular relationship that when the finger 90 is swung whereby it moves downwardly below the pipe, the finger 91 will move upwardly between said pipe and the next succeeding pipe to hold said next succeeding pipe while the first pipe moves onto the trailer, then by reversing the swinging movement of the fingers, the next succeeding pipe will be released to move downwardly into engagement with the finger 90', as illustrated in FIG. 4. It is preferred that there be two separate sets of lingers in order to provide proper retarding and stopping of long lengths of drill pipe.
In the movement of the drill pipe into the mast 9, it is desired to raise the box end 84 to a position to be picked up by elevating mechanism as later described. In the raising of the end of the drill pipe, a pipe transfer arm 93 has one end portion pivotally mounted as at 94 on the ends of the trailer frame 53 adjacent the mast 9. The arm 93 includes laterally spaced members 95 reinforced by cross members 96 and at the other end has a head 97 primarily in the form of a plate 98 having a pipe engaging recess 99 with edges 100 inclined outwardly therefrom where-by a pipe moving onto the trailer when released by the fingers 90 will roll to a centered position with the pin end 35 on the carriage 83 and the portion the pipe adjacent to a collar 101 positioned in said recess 99. This centers the drill pipe substantially in a line that intersects the vertical plane through the axis of d`rill pipe in the mast aligned with the hole being drilled. The collar 101 on the pipe section 81 is preferred whereby in raising movement of the transfer arm 93 the head 97 will engage said collar 101 to move the box end 84 further toward the mast 9 and facilitate engagement of an elevator therewith. The transfer arm 93 may be moved by any suitable means, however, in the illustrated structure, a lever arm 102 is fixed to an end of a shaft 103 and the other end of said lever arm 102 is connected to one end of an extensible member such as a hydraulic ram 104 having the other end S pivotally mounted as at 106 on a bracket 107 extending from the trailer frame. The shaft 103 is part of the pivotal mounting of the transfer arm 93 and is fixed relative thereto whereby extension of the arm 104 swings the transfer arm 93 to a substantially upright position as illustrated in FIG. 3 and contracting movement of the ram 104 swings the transfer arm 93 downwardly to a pipe receiving position wherein it is between the members of the trailer frame 53. When the transfer arm 93 is swung upwardly to raise the pipe section S1, there is some longitudinal movement thereof and during such movement the pin end 85 of the pipe remains on the carriage 83 which carriage will roll or move along the tracks 82 therewith to continue support of said pin end in the movement toward the mast. This continues as the drill pipe is lifted into the mast as later described.
The mast members 10 and 11 may be in the form of box like beams or may be of other suitable structural shapes. Mounted on each beam or mast member are spaced parallel tracks or rails 111 and 112 extending inwardly therefrom, said tracks extending from a point 113 adjacent the crown block downwardly to a point 114 which is below any normal movement of the traveling mechanism guided thereby as later described. Pulleys 16 are rotatably mounted on stub shafts 118 secured to the mast beam members 10` and 11 respectively and extending inwardly therefrom whereby ropes 119 extending from the pull down drum of the draw works may be reeved under the pulleys 116 and extend upwardly to the power unit side members 134 and 135 of the traveling mechanism 115 to effect down movement in the mast 9 and downward force on a drill bit. The ropes 23 extend from the hoisting drum of the draw work and are reeved over the crown block 21 and under the traveling block 120` of the traveling mechanism for raising the same in the mast`9.
In the structure illustrated, the traveling block 120 has a housing 121 enclosing the traveling block pulleys (not shown) said housing 121 having outwardly extending arms 122 with extensions 123 mounting axles 124 on which are rotatably mounted rollers or wheels 125 of a size to engage the tracks 110 and 111 of respective mast members to guide the traveling block 120 in yits movement up and down the mast.
The traveling mechanism 115 includes a power unit 127 carried below the traveling block 120 and movable therewith. The power unit includes a power drive in the form of a hydraulic motor in a housing 128 which includes a downward extension 129 from which a hollow drive shaft 130 extends, the driving shaft being rotatably mounted in the housing 128 and arranged substantially axially thereof and terminating in a pin connection portion 131 for connection of the shaft 130 with a box end 84 of a pipe section 81. The drive motor housing 128 has an upwardly extending portion 132 having a swivel connection 133 for supply of drilling fluid to the shaft 130 for fiow through a drill pipe string. The power unit 127 has side members 134 and 135 extending outwardly from the housing 128 and provided with spaced trunnions 136 that mount wheels or rollers 137 adapted to engage the tracks 111 on each mast member 10 and 11 for rollingly supporting the power unit structure relative to the mast 9 The power unit 127 is connected to the traveling block 120 for movement therewith and in the illustrated structure the connection is by a pair of shock absorbers 138 having pivotal connections as at 139 with upstanding ears 140 on the side members 134 and 135. The upper ends of the shock absorbers 138 are connected to depending ears 141 on the arms 122 of the traveling block housing 121. The power drive structure 127 and particularly the side members thereof have depending ears 142 on opposite sides of the drive extension 129 to pivotally mount one end of bails or arms 143 which extend downwardly and carry an elevator coupling 144 at their other ends whereby the elevator 144 is substantially `below the pin end 131 of the drive shaft 130. The arrangement of the bails 143 is such that the elevator is swingable in a central longitudinal plane of the mast about an axis transversely thereof. The swinging movement of the elevator 144 and bails 143 is effected by extensible members such as hydraulic rams 145 which are on opposite sides of the housing 128 and have one end connected to the side members 134 and 135 as at 146, and their other ends connected as at 147 to ends of arms 148 fixed to and extending from the bails 143. With this arrangement, extension of the rams 145 swings the elevator generally upwardly, FIG. l.
The elevator 144 is a modified conventional structure and has coupling portions 150 hingedly connected as at and with each fhaving an outwardly extending loop or eye 156 engaged by the respective bail 143. The coupling portions 150 are hinged apart to open same whereby the elevator 144 can be moved over a drill pipe and then closed to encircle said pipe. The elevator 144 is provided with a latch member 157 eugageable with a lug 158 to hold the elevator members 150 in closed drill pipe encircling position. The latch may be released manually and also it is preferred that the structure have an automatic release consisting of a rod 159 slidably mounted in bores 160 and having a wedge portion 161 engaging the latch member 157. The rod extends downwardly from the elevator and is adapted to engage the collar 101 on the drill pipe as later described to effect the moving of the latch member 157 and disengage same from the lug 158.
A support or stabbing arm 163 is carried on the mast 9 and adapted to support the midportion of a drill pipe 81 as it is' moved into the mast area from the pipe storage 2 and then connected to the drill pipe string in the hole being drilled. In the structure illustrated, the stabbing arm consists of two arm members 164 and 165 having laterally extending shaft portions 166 rotatably mounted in bearings 167 carried by depending ears 168 on each of the mast members and 11. The other ends of the arm members 164 and 165 converge downwardly and rotatably mounted on a pin 169 carried by said other ends is a roller 170 preferably having a concave periphery or groove 171 to receive and rollingly support a drill pipe section 81. The stabbing arm 163 is swingably mounted and in the illustrated structure, the outer ends of the shaft portions 166 have lever arms 172 fixed thereto with free ends 173 of said arms pivotally connected to one end of respective extensible rams 174 which have their other ends connected as at 175 to the respective mast members. It is preferred that there be a lever arm 172 on each of the shafts 166 and with the rams, preferably hydraulically actuated, mounted at the exterior of each mast member to equalize the forces swinging the arm members 164 and 16S.
At the lower end of the mast the guide bushing structure 25 is mounted in the transverse or base member 24 and is adapted to have slips 27 mounted therein to engage and support a drill pipe string that extends down in the hole as later described. Arranged in the mast 9 above said guide bushing is a tong structure 177 used in rotating a drill pipe section relative to another to eifect making up or breaking out of the threaded joints. In the structure illustrated a carrier 178 extends transversely between the mast members 10 and 11 and has oppositely disposed guide portions 179 engaging guide ways 180 extending inwardly from the mast members 10 and 11, said guide ways extending from the lower ends of the mast adjacent the transverse member 24 and terminating slightly below the guide tracks 110 and 111 for the traveling mechanism 115. Each of the guide portions 179 have outwardly extending braced ears 181 connected to one end of spring loaded capsules 182, the other ends of which are connected to lift guide members 183 that are arranged to move on each of the mast members with each being connected to the lower end of a respective extensible member or hydraulic ram 184. The other end of the hydraulic rams 184 are connected as at 185 to the respective mast members. The arrangement shown has each of the ram cylinders 186 pivotally connected as at 187 to ears 185, respectively, on the mast members and the piston rod 188 extending from the cylinders and pivotally connected as at 189 to the sliding elevating members 183. The capsules 182 are spring loaded and telescoping to permit up and down movement of the carrier 178 relative to the lift guide members 183. A powered tong member 190 which is of standard design, except as herein described, has portions 191 adapted to grip a drill pipe extending through an axial opening 192 and is rotatably mounted on the carrier 178 and adapted to be rotated through a suitable arc by means of a pair of actautors such as hydraulic rams 192 forming extensible members with an end of the cylinder 193 thereof pivotally connected as at 194 to ears 195 on the guide portions 179. The piston rods 196 have their ends pivotally connected as at 197 to radially outwardly extending ears 198 on the operating portions of the tongs. With this arrangement and long grips engaging the drill pipe, operation of the tong member provides a powerful quick rotating action that will break loose threaded joints. After the joint is broken the grip and pipe are rotated by the motor of the powered tong to unscrew the pipe joint. In the longitudinal movement of the member being rotated by the tong due to the screwing of the parts either apart or together, the tong can follow due to the extension permitted by the spring loading capsules 182.
In order to facilitate movement of a drill pipe Section 81 from the storage beams 72 and 73 to a proper position on the transfer arm 93 and the carriage 83, the carriage has a surface member arranged with one edge 200 adjacent to the ends of the storage beams and at a level slightly there'below and the surface of the carriage slopes away from the beams whereby the pipe section will roll on the carriage surface until it engages a stop 201 positioned whereby when the pin end 85 of the pipe section 81 engages the stop and the other end portion 84 is centered relative to the transfer ar-m the pipe section is aligned with the axial line of the ybore hole. The surface member 85 is movable relative to the remainder of the carriage so as to change the tilt whereby when the pipe is being removed from the hole and returned to storage the pipe can be moved from the mast to the trailer member and then roll onto the beams 72 and 73. ln such return to storage the beams are changed in elevation whereby they incline outwardly away from the trailer platform so the pipe will tend to roll toward the outer ends thereof. Also, the carriage surface member 85 is inclined downwardly toward the beams with the edge 200 adjacent said beams being slightly above the adjacent ends thereof so the pipe can roll from the carriage onto the beams. In the structure illustrated, the surface member 85 is mounted on the carriage 83 whereby the surface member Imay be raised and turned to change the tilt or inclination from being toward the beams 72 and 73 to an inclination away from the beams, the stop 201 being removed when the surface member is inclined toward the beams.
When moving drill pipe from the storage into the mast as when running pipe into the hole it is desirable to have the carriage 83 returned to and in a position remote from the mast after the pipe end 85 is removed from said carriage so the carriage will be in position to receive another pipe section from the pipe storage. Also, when removing the pipe from the hole and returning it to storage it is desirable to have the carriage 4move to the end of the trailer `50 adjacent the transfer arm 93 after a pipe section has rolled from the trailer onto the pipe storage beams 72 and 73. While any suitable means for selectively applying the returning forces to the carriage, as for example, springs and the like, in the structure illustrated, there 1s a frame 202 arranged at the end of the trailer remote from the mast with said frame having a weight 203 movable therein, said weight being hung on a pulley block 204 with -a cable or rope 205 reeved under the pulley block and extending over a crown 'block 206 at the upper end of the frame. The rope extends downwardly from the crown block and under a pulley 207 with an end connected as at 208 to the carriage whereby movement of the carriage toward the mast effects raising of the weight 203 and release of the carriage from the pipe permits the weight to cause the carriage to be pulled back to the end remote from the mast when running pipe into the bore hole. For pulling pipe from the hole and returning it to storage, the rope 205 extends from the pulley 207 and under a pulley 209 and then 'back to connect to the carriage on a connector 210. By the difference of this connection in the rope 205 to the carriage the force can `be selectively applied to the carriage to return it to the desired end depending upon the pipe moving operation.
In the making of connections or joints it is preferred there 1be a positive engagement between the drill pipe 81 and slips 27. In the drill pipe as shown in FIG. l2, the collar 101 is nearest the box end 84 and in the operation as shown the pin end 85 is lowerinost when the drill pipe is in the bore hole. With this structure the lower end 211 of the collar 101 is provided with spaced notches 212 forming lugs 213 therebetween which deiine a plurality of circumferentially spaced serrations adapted to engage or mesh with serrations 214 in the slips 27. In the slip and bushing arrangement illustrated particularly in FIG. 13, the transverse or base member 24 has a through bore 215 in which is positioned bushing halves 216 secured to the base member by suitable fastening devices such as screws 217. In the structure illustrated the opening through the base member is further reduced by inner bushing halves 218 mounted in the bore 219 of the bushing halves 216, the bushing halves 218 being secured to the bushing halves 216 -by suitable fastening devices such as screws 220. The bushing halves 218 have a tapered bore 221 in which is mounted bushing halves 222 forming the guide bushings of the structure illustrated. Supported on the bushing halves 222 are the slips 27, said slips being swingably mounted on the bushing by means of hinge pins 223 whereby said slips can be swung out of the way for free movement of a drill pipe through the bushings. The slips are diametrically opposed and have inner surfaces 224 forming jaws to grip the pipe and also have an upper recess 225 that acts as a counterbore with the lower end terminating in a shoulder having the serrations 214 therein, the counterbore being such as to receive the collars 101 so the serrations 213 can -mesh with the serrations 214 in the slips to thereby positively hold the drill pipe relative to the slips and bushings. While the slips may be manually swung outwardly to release the pipe it is preferred that they be operable from an operating platform at the side of the drilling apparatus, and in the structure illustrated, the guide bushing 222 has 'bores 226 in which are slideably mounted rods 227 with the lower ends resting on an operating lever 228 that is pivotally mounted as at 229 with an end 230 that extends therefrom and is suitably operated whereby raising of the lever portion engaged by the rods will move said rods upwardly and swing the slips outwardly relative to the drill pipe positioned therein thereby releasing the drill pipe.
In using a drill rig and pipe storage constructed, assembled and connected as illustrated and described, the mast 'being elevated to a desired angular position relation corresponding to the slant or direction of the hole to be drilled, drill pipe S1 is moved and deposited on the outrigger beams 72 and 73 with the box end 84 of each section being positioned toward the mast 9. Then in running pipe into the hole the beams are adjusted by the jacks or supports 76 whereby the drill pipe roll inwardly against the stop fingers 90 with the carriage 83 connected to the rope 205 so the weight 203 urges same to the end of the pipe storage storage trailer 50 remote from the mast. The stop finger structure is actuated to move the finger 90 from stop engagement with the foremost drill pipe section with the stop arm 91 engaging the next pipe permitting the foremost pipe to roll onto the trailer structure positioning the pin end 85 on the carriage 83 and the pipe portion adjacent the collar 101 thereon at the pipe transfer head arm 97. The stop linger structure is then manipulated to allow the next pipe on the storage to roll down and engage the stop linger 90.
The draw works 8 is then actuated whereby rope 23 is paid out permitting the traveling mechanism 115 to lower in the mast. This lowers the elevator 144 to a position adjacent the tong structure 177. The hydraulic rams 145 are extended to swing the elevator 144 upwardly to a position above that to which the transfer arm 93 moves the drill pipe. The hydraulic ram 104 is then actuated to swing the transfer arm 93 upwardly whereby the drill pipe 81 in the recess 99 of the transfer arm with the collar 101 on the drill pipe engaged thereby raises the box end of the drill pipe upwardly and moves same toward the mast. During this movement the pin end 85 is resting on the carriage 83 which moves along the trailer 50 facilitating movement of the drill pipe section to the position shown in FIG. 1. With the elevator in raised position and the portions 150 in open position the hydraulic rams are operated to swing the bails 143 downwardly to engage the portions around the portion of the drill pipe 81 between the box end 84 and the collar 101 and then the elevator halves are moved to closed position and the latch 157 engaged with the lug 158 to secure the elevator onto the drill pipe section. The draw works 8 is operated to reel in the rope 23 that extends over the crown block 21 and to the traveling block 120 to raise the traveling mechanism 115 upwardly in the mast which also draws the elevator 144 and drill pipe 81 therewith. This will lift the drill pipe from the transfer arm 93 which by actuation of the arm 104, to contract same, lowers the transfer arm back into pipe receiving position, however, during the lifting movement of the drill pipe the pin end 85 still remains on the carriage 83 which moves longitudinally of the trailer 50 to continue the support of said pin end. As the elevator 144 moves upwardly beyond the roller on the stabbing arm 163, the rams 174 are extended to swing the stabbing arm upwardly whereby the roller 170 engages the drill pipe below the elevator 144. As the traveling mechanism 115 continues in its upward movement, the stabbing arm is further raised by action of the rams 174 until the drill pipe section is supported by the elevator 144 and the stabbing arm roller 170 releasing the pin end S5 from the carriage 83 which is then returned to the other end of its travel by action of the weight 203 of the carriage return mechanism. As the traveling mechanism reaches the upper portion of its movement, the pin end 85 of the drill pipe section 81 will clear the tong structure 177, and then by contracting the rams 174 the stabbing arm 163 is lowered until the pin end 85 of the drill pipe section aligns with the opening 192 through the tongs. The draw works is operated to lower the traveling mechanism 115 which lowers the drill pipe section supported by the elevator 144 through the tong opening 192 into the box end of a drill pipe string supported by the slips 27 in the guide bushing 25 with the serrations 213 of the collar 101 on the upper section of the pipe string engaged with the serrations in the slips 27 holding the pipe section against rotation. The power tongs are actuated by the motor thereof to rotate the drill pipe section 81 and thread the pin end thereof into the box end at the top of the pipe string. The rams 92 may then be used to cinch the joint tight. During such threading movement the tongs 177 will I'nove downwardly, the movement being permitted by the spring loaded capsules 182. After this connection is made the stabbing arm 163 st-ill supports the drill pipe section, and the traveling mechanism is raised to disengage the serrations 213 and 214, the lever raised to raise the slips 27 then the traveling mechanism is lowered to lower the drill string which is supported by the elevator 144. After the joint passes through the bushing 25 the slips 27 are lowered to receive and engage the collar 101 of the added pipe section and mesh the serrations. The latch of the elevator 144 is then released and the elevator swung upwardly to clear the pipe and the traveling mechanism 115 raised whereby the elevator can then be swung to a position to receive the next drill pipe section. This pipe moving process from storage to joining with the string is repeated until the string is made up. If the drill string is of desired length then the traveling mechanism 115 is further lowered until the rod 159 in the elevator 144 engages the collar 101 of drill pipe effecting release of the elevator latch so the elevator portions 150' open releasing same from the drill pipe section. Then the rams 145 actuating the elevator bails 143 are extended causing the bails and elevator 144 to swing upwardly away from the drill pipe section. After this release is effected further lowering of the traveling mechanism engages the pin end 131 on the drive shaft 130 -in the box end 84 of the drill pipe section 81 and rotation of said driveshaft by the power drive threads said pin end into make the threaded joint of the drive shaft 130 and drill pipe section. The rams 174 are contracted to swing the stabbing arm 163 downwardly and the slips 27 then are removed from the guide bushing 25 with control on the drill pipe then being through the ropes 23 and 119 to the draw works hoist and pull down for proper downward pressure on the drill in the hole. The power drive is then actuated to rotate the drill pipe to continue the drilling operation.
In removing drill pipe from the hole to storage, the stiff legs or jacks 76 are adjusted to lower the outer ends of the beams 72 and 73 on the trailer storage whereby said beams incline outwardly and pipe thereon will tend to roll toward said outer end and the stops thereon. The carriage 83 is moved toward the mast and the rope 205 attached thereto as at 210 so that the weight 203 urges the carriage toward the mast into position to receive the pin end of pipe as the pipe is removed from the mast. The Surface portion 85 of the carriage is turned so that the top thereof slopes toward the beams 72 and 73 with the edge 201 at an elevation whereby the pipes can move from the carriage surface onto the beams. The stop 261 is removed so as not to interfere with such movement.
The slips 27 are moved to pipe or coupling engaging position to support the drill string and then the latch on the elevator 144 is released whereby the portions 15d are opened, then by operation of the rams 14S the bails 143 are swung to move the elevator into engagement with the uppermost pipe section of the drill string between the collar 101 and the upper box end 84 thereof. The power drive is then actuated to disconnect the drive shaft 13) from the drill string and the traveling mechanism 115 is raised, raising the elevator so it engages the end of the pipe section and further upward movement of the traveling mechanism will then raise the drill string until the collar 101 of the next lower pipe section is above the guide bushing 2.5. The slips Z7 are then moved into position and the pipe lowered to engage the collar serrations with those in the slip to hold the drill string. The rams 174 are then operated to move the stabbing arm 163 into engagement with the uppermost pipe section to help support same and the tongs are raised to engage said pipe section and the rams 192 actuated to provide the sharp rotating force to break the joint, the next lowermost pipe section being held by the slips 27 and the engagement of the serrations 213 and 214.
After the joint between the uppermost pipe section and the rest of the pipe string is disconnected the hoist of the draw works 8 is operated raising the traveling mechanism and thereby raising the elevators 144 and the uppermost pipe section until the lower end of said pipe section will clear the other mechanism. T hen the rams 174 are operated to swing the stabbing arm 163 to raise or swing the lower end of the pipe section outwardly toward the trailer. The arms 194 are operated to swing the transfer arm 93 upwardly into pipe receiving position then the traveling mechanism 115 is lowered to lower the pipe section and the stabbing arm 163 is moved to coordinate the operation whereby the pin end 85 of the pipe section is swung beyond the transfer arm 63 and is deposited on the carriage surface member 85. Further lowering will tend to cause the pipe to push the carriage 83 away from the mast and this operation is continued until the pipe is lowered to approximately position the collar 101 at the roller 171 of the stabbing arm 163. The rams 174 are then contracted to lower the stabbing arm out of the way and the traveling mechanism further lowered and the movement coordinated with movement of the bails 143 of the elevator 144 by the rams 145. With this operation the pipe is lowered until it is engaged with the transfer arm 93. The elevator 144 is then released and the rams 104 contracted to lower the transfer arm 93 thereby lowering the pipe section into a position where it can roll onto the pipe storage, which action is permitted by operation of the control arms 90 and 91. After the pipe is rolled onto the beams '72 and 73 the operation of the carriage return through the weight 293 and rope 205 returns the carriage S3 to the end adjacent the transfer arm 93 to receive the next pipe section. The transfer arm is again raised and the traveling mechanism is raised sufciently whereby the elevator can be swung downwardly to engage the upper portion of the next pipe section of the pipe string which is supported by the slips 27. Then the hoist of the draw works 8 is operated to raise the traveling mechanism and elevator to pull the pipe string upwardly to a point where the slips can be placed in the bushing to receive the collar of the next lower pipe section and then the disconnecting operation and movement of the pipe section to the storage is repeated. During the tripping in and out of the hole there is no use of the thread of the drill pipe shaft of the power drive. It is necessary to make the connection with said shaft only when it is desired to rotate the drill string.
What we desire to claim and secure by Letters Patent 1. In a drilling rig for drilling bore holes including,
(a) a mast,
(b) a traveling mechanism movably mounted in the mast,
(c) means connected to said traveling mechanism for applying raising force thereto lfor effecting upward movement of the traveling mechanism in said mast,
(d) a drill pipe storage structure outside the mast,
(e) means on said storage structure operable to elevate one end of a drill pipe section and support same adjacent the mast,
(f) an elevator means swingably mounted on said traveling mechanism and engageable with the raised end of a drill pipe section from said storage for raising and lowering said section in response to movement of the traveling mechanism in the mast, and
(g) means swingably mounted on the mast and having a portion engaging a drill pipe section as it is raised and lowered relative to said mast and operative to move the drill pipe section lower end laterally to guide same.
2. A drilling rig as set forth in claim 1, including (a) means pivotally mounting the mast on the mast support for swinging movement from a reclining position to an erected position,
(b) means on said support and engaging the mast for raising the mast to selected inclined position,
(c) elongate rigid brace members adjustable in length and connected to selected positions on the mast and support for holding the mast at selected angular position, and
(d) a drill pipe guide and removable support slips at the lower end of the mast and aligned therewith in the `selected inclined position for supportingly engaging an upper end portion of a series of connected drill pipe sections extending into a hole being drilled.
3. A drilling rig as set forth in claim 2, wherein the mast support and pipe storage structure are mobile members arranged in end to end relation with the mast extending upwardly Ifrom the end portion of the mast support that is adjacent the pipe storage, and a substructure extends between the mast support and pipe storage structure and is adjustably connected therewith, and means on the mast lower ends adjustably extends therefrom and engages the substructure for support therefrom.
4. A drilling rig as set forth in claim 3, wherein the pipe storage structure includes (a) an elongate platform having an end adjacent said mast and a carrier selectively movable longitudinally of the platform from adjacent the other end toward and away from said mast,
(b) spaced rails extending laterally from said platform and selectively sloping relative thereto for supporting i3 a plurality of pipe sections for movement to and from said platform with one end moving onto said carrier,
(c) pipe section retarding stops at said platform operable to permit movement of one pipe section at a time `from the rails to said platform.
5. In a drilling rig for drilling bore holes including,
(b) a traveling mechanism movably mounted in the mast,
(c) means connected to the traveling mechanism for applying raising force thereto for effecting upward movement of the traveling mechanism in the mast,
(d) a drill pipe guide and removable support slips at a lower end portion of said mast for supportingly engaging an upper end portion of a series of connected drill pipe sections extending into a hole being drilled,
(e) a drill pipe rotating shaft supported by said traveling mechanism and having a threaded lower end for connection with an uppermost drill pipe section of said series for rotating same when drilling,
(f) power means operatively connected to said drill pipe rotating shaft for selectively rotating same, (g) an elevator means swingably mounted on said traveling mechanism and having a portion engageable with a portion of a drill pipe section adjacent the upper end thereof for raising and lowering said section in response to movement of the traveling mechanism in said mast,
(h) said elevator means supporting the upper end of the drill pipe section in raising and lowering ksame in downward spaced relation to the lower end of said shaft whereby pipe sections in traveling to and from the bore hole are disconnected from said drill pipe rotating shaft.
`6. A drilling rig as set forth in claim 5, lwherein the drill pipe sections have a collar spaced from the upper end of each section with a plurality of serrations on said collars, and the Slips have serrations therein to receive and mesh with the serrations of the drill pipe sections for retaining said drill pipe sections against rotation when supported by the slips.
7. A drilling rig as set forth in claim 6 including (a) a powered tongs in said mast above the guide and slips,
(b) means supporting said tongs for up and down movement in the lower portion of the mast,
(c) means in the tongs for gripping an uppermost pipe section of a drill pipe series with the collar of the second uppermost pipe section supported and engaged in the slips,
(d) and means for rotating the tong gripping to rotate the respective pipe section for connecting and disconnecting same with said second uppermost pipe section.
8. In a drilling rig for drilling bore holes including,
(b) a traveling mechanism movably mounted in the mast,
(c) means connected to said traveling mechanism for applying raising force thereto for effecting upward movement of the traveling mechanism in said mast,
(d) a drill pipe storage having an elongate platform with an end adjacent said mast and a carrier selectively movable longitudinally of the platform from adjacent the other end toward and away from said mast,
(e) spaced rails extending laterally from said platform and selectively sloping relative thereto for supporting a plurality of pipe sections for movement to and from said platform with one end moving onto said carrier,
(f) pipe section retarding stops at said platform operable to permit movement of one pipe section at a time from the rails to said platform,
(g) means operable to elevate one end of a drill pipe section and support same adjecent the mast and including an arm having one end pivotally mounted relative to the end of the platform adjacent the mast, said arm extending from said one end away from the mast and in a lowered position to receive a pipe section portion spaced from the end moved onto the carrier,
(h) extensible means connected to said arm and operative to swing same to and from lowered position to -raise and lower an end of a drill pipe engaged thereon, said carrier moving along the platform with one end of the drill pipe as said pipe moves longitudinally of the platform in response to raising and lowering movement of said arm,
(i) an elevator means swingably mounted on said traveling mechanism and engageable with the raised end of a drill pipe section from said storage for raising and lowering said section in response to movement of the traveling mechanism in the mast,
(j) means mounted on the mast and having a portion engaging a drill pipe section as it is raised and lowered relative to said mast to guide the drill pipe section lower end.
'9. In a drilling rig for drilling bore holes including,
(b) a traveling mechanism movably mounted in the mast,
(c) means connected to said traveling mechanism for applying raising force thereto for effecting upward movement of the traveling mechanism in said mast.
(d) adrill pipe storage,
(e) means operable to elevate one end of a drill pipe section and support same adjacent the mast,
(f) an elevator means swingably mounted on said traveling mechanism and engageable with the raised end of a drill pipe section from said storage for raising and lowering said section in response to movement of the traveling mechanism in the mast, said elevator means including spaced bail arms having one end portion pivotally mounted on the traveling mechanism with an elevator member at the other end thereof adapted to be secured around a drill pipe end portion,
g) extensible means connected between the traveling mechanism and bail arms and operable to swing said arms and elevator member to move same out of line with the drill string to the raised end of the drill pipe section on the pipe storage, and
(h) means mounted on the mast and having a portion engaging a drill pipe section as it is raised and lowered relative to said mast to guide the drill pipe section lower end.
10. A drilling rig as set forth in claim `9, wherein the drill pipe has a collar spaced from one end and the elevator means includes (c) means connected to said traveling mechanism for applying raising force thereto for effecting upward movement of the traveling mechanism in said mast,
(d) a drill pipe storage,
(e) means operable to elevate one end of a drill pipe section and support same adjacent the mast,
() an elevator means swingably mounted on said traveling mechanism and engageable with the raised end of a drill pipe section from said storage for raising and lowering said section in response to movement of the traveling mechanism in the mast,
(g) means mounted on the mast and having a portion engaging a drill pipe section as it is raised and low ered relative to said mast to guide the drill pipe section lower end,
(h) said means guiding the pipe section including a pair of arms having one end pivotally mounted on the mast at each side thereof, said arms extending from the pivotal mounting on the mast in converging relation,
(i) Aa roller rotatably mounted on said arms at the converged end thereof and engageable `with a drill pipe section moved in the mast, and
(j) extensible means on the mast and having an end portion connected to said arms to swing said arms and the lower end of the drill pipe section as it is raised and lowered in the mast.
References Cited ERNEST R. PURSER, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.