|Publication number||US3377232 A|
|Publication date||9 Apr 1968|
|Filing date||8 Sep 1964|
|Priority date||24 Sep 1963|
|Also published as||DE1560662A1, DE1560662B2, DE1560662C3|
|Publication number||US 3377232 A, US 3377232A, US-A-3377232, US3377232 A, US3377232A|
|Inventors||Gilchrist Paterson William, Walter Meacock Graham|
|Original Assignee||British Nylon Spinners Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (57), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A nonwoven fabric is made by forming an open, nonwoven web of staple fibres or continuous filaments, electrostatically projecting potentially crimpable flock fibres into the web and developing the crimp in the flock fibres to entangle them with the web fibres. Either the flock fibres or web fibres or both may be heterofilaments having a potentially adhesive component which is bonded to the neighboring fibres at the cross-over points.
DISCLOSURE This invention relates to nonwoven fabrics and, in particular, to nonwoven fabrics comprising an open web the fibres in which are bonded together by short length textile fibres, the fibres being projected into the web by the action of an electrostatic field.
Many processes for binding the fibres in a web together to yield a non-woven fabric having a degree of strength are known to the art. Thus fibres in webs may be bonded together by applying an adhesive to the whole or selected parts of the web, by needle punching or, where the web contain potentially adhesive fibres, by causing the potentially adhesive fibres to become tacky and bond themselves to other fibres in the web at points of contact.
We have now found that particularly attractive and novel fabrics can be obtained by electrostatically projecting short length staple fibres, generally known as flock, into an open web of fibres and then causing the flock fibres to crimp and bond the web together.
According to one aspect of the present invention therefore there is provided a nonwoven fabric comprising a web the fibres in which are bonded together by crimped flock, the fibres of the flock having an uncrimped length no greater than 4 inch.
The most desirable results from the standpoint of tensile strength in the resulting fabric are obtained when the fibres of the flock have a crimp frequency not less than 20 crimps per inch.
In the specification the term bonded includes bonding by fibre entanglement, bonding by fusion and bonding by chemical adhesion brought about by rendering one component of the fabric tacky by the addition of some substance, e.g., a solvent, which can subsequently be removed to cause that compenent to revert to the nontacky state, but does not include bonding which is the result of the deliberate addition of an adhesive to the web.
The fabrics of this invention can be manufactured by projecting flock, com-prising potentially crimpable fibres, which may contain a potentially adhesive component into an open fibrous web, by the action of electrostatic forces. The web may be composed of staple length fibres or of continuous filament components and may also contain a significant proportion of a potentially adhesive component. The fibres in the web are then bonded together by causing the flock to crimp and thus become entangled with the web fibres to give a nonwoven fabric of some strength. The fabric may be further strengthened by causing the po- 3,377,232 Patented Apr. 9, 1968 tentially adhesive component of the flock to become tacky and bond the fibres in the web and flock together at their crossover points.
The flock employed may be composed of heterofilament fibres in which one component of the heterofilament is potentialy adhesive, in which case particularly good bonding of the flock onto the web is obtained.
The web may also be composed of heterofilaments, in staple fibre form if required, in which one component is potentially adhesive.
Suitable heterofilaments for flock or web fibres may be in the form where the components exist in a side-by-side or sheath and core relationship, in the latter instance of course the potentially adhesive component will be the sheath components.
Accordingly, from another aspect the present invention provides a process for the manufacture of fabrics wherein flock composed of potentially crimpable fibres is projected into fibrous web by the action of electrostatic forces and the structure obtained treated to cause the flock fibres to crimp and thereby bond together fibres inthe fibrous web, by entanglement of the fibres of the flock with fibres of the web.
When the flock fibres contain a potentially adhesive component, it may be rendered tacky, thereby further strengthening the fabric, in the same treatment by which the flock fibres are crimped or in a subsequent treatment.
In order to improve the penetration of the flock into the web, the flock may be forced further into the web by mechanical means, for-example, by rolling, preferably whilst still subject to the action of the electrostatic forces. Any of the flock fibres which have not penetrated sufficiently into the web may then be removed by a vacuum extractor before the fabric is further treated.
To give added strength to the fabric, flock may be projected into both faces of the web before treating the fabric to crimp the fibres in the flock.
The invention will now be more fully described, in the following examples, which examples are by way of illustration only and are in no way intended to be limitative.
EXAMPLE 1 A carded open web of 1% inch staple fibres of polyhexamethylene adipamide having a weight of 4 ounces per square yard is laid on the earthed working top of a conventional flocking unit and below a flock container, comprising a sieve and a brush, which is charged by a high tension source at 110 kv. The unit is also provided with a roller and vacuum extractor. Flock for this experiment consists of 3 mm. staple fibres cut from heterofilaments composed of 66 nylon and 66/6 (/20) nylon copolymer components existing in a side-by-side relationship.
The flock, is fed to the sieve, distributed uniformly by the brushes, allowed to fall into the electric field maintained between the charged container and the earthed working top, and projected into the staple fibre web. The web is then rolled using an insulated roller whilst under the influence of the electric field, to press the fibres further into the web. Flock which has not penetrated into the web is removed by the vacuum extractor. Examination of the web at this stage shows that the flock fibres in the web are oriented within the web in a direction substantially perpendicular to the plane of the web.
The web is immersed in boiling water for 3 minutes to cause the flock fibres to crimp and entangle themselves into the web. The crimped flock possesses a crimp frequency of approximately 25 per inch. At this stage the fabric has some strength owing to the mechanical bonding effect of the crimped flock in the web, but on handling tends to shed flock. To bond the flock firmly in the web,
EXAMPLE 2 The process of Example 1 was repeated to give fabrics containing various percentages of flock. The percentage fiock in the fabric and'the tenacity of the fabric are given in Table 1.
TABLE 1 Denier of Fabric Tenacity of Fabric, g./d.
Percentage Flock in Fabric:
Fabrics containing more than about 45% of flock tend to have a harsh handle and relatively poor drape.
The heterofilament flock may be crimped by means other than immersion in boiling water, thus it may be subjected to a steam treatment, or dry heated, or to a chemical treatment. If superheated steam is used and the potentially adhesive component of the heterofilament has a sufficiently low melting, then the crimping and bonding steps can be carried out simultaneously.
Variations in the handle and surface effect of flocked web and can be obtained by applying other processes, e.g. needle punching to the flocked web before the bonding operation. v
The invention is not limited to the use of webs or flock based only on polyamides; any suitable materials may be employed provided that effective bonding between the flock and the web can be attained, i.e. the potentially adhesive component where employed should be compatible with the other components of the fabric.
What we claim is:
1'. A nonwoven fabric in the form of an open, nonwoven, fibrous web having crimped flock fibres embedded within the body of the fibrous web, said flock fibres having an uncrimped length no greater than inch and being substantially shorter than the web fibrescomposingsaid Web, said flock fibres being entangled with the web fibres by virtue of the crimp in said flock fibres, said crimped flock fibres extending generally at right angles to the plane of said web and being substantially completely embedded in said Web, thereby bonding the web fibres in place and imparting strength to said fabric.
2. A nonwoven fabric as in claim 1 wherein the web fibres are heterofilaments having at least one potentially adhesive component bonded to the flock fibres at the cross-over points between fibres.
3. A process for enhancing the strength of nonwoven fabrics comprising: substantially completelyembedding potentially crirnpable fiock fibres into a preformed, nonwoven web by projecting the flock-fibres into said web by the action of electrostatic forces and subsequently entangling the flock fibres with the web fibres by developing crimp in the flock fibres, thereby bonding the Web fibres in the nonwoven fabric and enhancing the strength of the nonwoven fabric.
4. A process as in claim 3 wherein the flock fibres are projected into the web in a direction generally perpendicular to the plane of the web.
5. A process as in claim 3 wherein the web, with the flock fibres embedded therein, is mechanically compacted prior to developing the crimp in said flock fibres.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 6/1962 Breen l6ll77 4/1967 Perri l56279
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3038236 *||3 Nov 1958||12 Jun 1962||Du Pont||Crimped textile products|
|US3314845 *||23 Jul 1964||18 Apr 1967||Du Pont||Method of flocking and subsequently developing latently crimpable fibers and article produced thereby|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4187343 *||8 Oct 1976||5 Feb 1980||Toyobo Co., Ltd.||Process for producing non-woven fabric|
|US5336552 *||26 Aug 1992||9 Aug 1994||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Nonwoven fabric made with multicomponent polymeric strands including a blend of polyolefin and ethylene alkyl acrylate copolymer|
|US5382400 *||21 Aug 1992||17 Jan 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Nonwoven multicomponent polymeric fabric and method for making same|
|US5405682 *||26 Aug 1992||11 Apr 1995||Kimberly Clark Corporation||Nonwoven fabric made with multicomponent polymeric strands including a blend of polyolefin and elastomeric thermoplastic material|
|US5418045 *||22 Sep 1994||23 May 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Nonwoven multicomponent polymeric fabric|
|US5425987 *||6 Oct 1994||20 Jun 1995||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Nonwoven fabric made with multicomponent polymeric strands including a blend of polyolefin and elastomeric thermoplastic material|
|US5643662 *||21 Jan 1994||1 Jul 1997||Kimberly-Clark Corporation||Hydrophilic, multicomponent polymeric strands and nonwoven fabrics made therewith|
|US6500538||16 May 1995||31 Dec 2002||Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.||Polymeric strands including a propylene polymer composition and nonwoven fabric and articles made therewith|
|US7338697||21 Mar 2003||4 Mar 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Co-molded direct flock and flock transfer and methods of making same|
|US7344769||24 Jul 2000||18 Mar 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacture including the flocked transfer|
|US7351368||3 Jul 2003||1 Apr 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles and methods of making same|
|US7364782||13 Dec 2000||29 Apr 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacture including the application of the transfer by thermoplastic polymer film|
|US7381284||4 Jun 2003||3 Jun 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacture including the application of the transfer by thermoplastic polymer film|
|US7390552||23 Sep 2003||24 Jun 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacturing including the flocked transfer|
|US7393576 *||14 Jan 2005||1 Jul 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Process for printing and molding a flocked article|
|US7402222||4 Jun 2003||22 Jul 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacture including the flocked transfer|
|US7410682||3 Jul 2003||12 Aug 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked stretchable design or transfer|
|US7413581||3 Jul 2003||19 Aug 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Process for printing and molding a flocked article|
|US7465485||30 Nov 2004||16 Dec 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Process for dimensionalizing flocked articles or wear, wash and abrasion resistant flocked articles|
|US7632371||22 Oct 2007||15 Dec 2009||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked transfer and article of manufacture including the application of the transfer by thermoplastic polymer film|
|US7749589||20 Sep 2006||6 Jul 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked elastomeric articles|
|US7799164||27 Jul 2006||21 Sep 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles having noncompatible insert and porous film|
|US8007889||28 Apr 2006||30 Aug 2011||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked multi-colored adhesive article with bright lustered flock and methods for making the same|
|US8168262||14 Jun 2010||1 May 2012||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked elastomeric articles|
|US8206800||2 Nov 2007||26 Jun 2012||Louis Brown Abrams||Flocked adhesive article having multi-component adhesive film|
|US8354050||14 Jan 2008||15 Jan 2013||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Co-molded direct flock and flock transfer and methods of making same|
|US8475905||14 Feb 2008||2 Jul 2013||High Voltage Graphics, Inc||Sublimation dye printed textile|
|US9012005||16 Feb 2010||21 Apr 2015||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked stretchable design or transfer including thermoplastic film and method for making the same|
|US9175436||11 Mar 2011||3 Nov 2015||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles having a resistance to splitting and methods for making the same|
|US9193214||14 Oct 2013||24 Nov 2015||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flexible heat sealable decorative articles and method for making the same|
|US20020009571 *||13 Dec 2000||24 Jan 2002||Abrams Louis Brown|
|US20030098529 *||20 Jul 2001||29 May 2003||Robert Drumm||Nanoscale corundum powders, sintered compacts produced from these powders and method for producing the same|
|US20030186019 *||4 Jun 2003||2 Oct 2003||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.|
|US20030207072 *||21 Mar 2003||6 Nov 2003||Abrams Louis Brown||Co-molded direct flock and flock transfer and methods of making same|
|US20040053001 *||3 Jul 2003||18 Mar 2004||Abrams Louis Brown||Process for printing and molding a flocked article|
|US20040077247 *||22 Oct 2002||22 Apr 2004||Schmidt Richard J.||Lofty spunbond nonwoven laminate|
|US20040081791 *||3 Jul 2003||29 Apr 2004||Abrams Louis Brown||Flocked articles and methods of making same|
|US20050266204 *||14 Jan 2005||1 Dec 2005||Abrams Louis B||Process for printing and molding a flocked article|
|US20050268407 *||26 May 2005||8 Dec 2005||Abrams Louis B||Process for high and medium energy dye printing a flocked article|
|US20070022548 *||1 Aug 2006||1 Feb 2007||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Process for heat setting polyester fibers for sublimation printing|
|US20070102093 *||20 Sep 2006||10 May 2007||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked elastomeric articles|
|US20070289688 *||4 Sep 2007||20 Dec 2007||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Processes for precutting laminated flocked articles|
|US20080006968 *||21 Aug 2007||10 Jan 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Heat moldable flock transfer with heat resistant, reusable release sheet and methods of making same|
|US20080111047 *||14 Nov 2007||15 May 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Rigid mouse pad|
|US20080124503 *||2 Nov 2007||29 May 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked adhesive article having multi-component adhesive film|
|US20080150186 *||14 Jan 2008||26 Jun 2008||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Co-molded direct flock and flock transfer and methods of making same|
|US20090239025 *||4 Mar 2009||24 Sep 2009||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles having a woven graphic design insert and methods of making the same|
|US20100068447 *||18 Mar 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked slurried thermosetting adhesive article|
|US20100092719 *||11 Dec 2009||15 Apr 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.|
|US20100143669 *||4 Nov 2009||10 Jun 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Sublimation dye printed textile design having metallic appearance and article of manufacture thereof|
|US20100209654 *||19 Aug 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked stretchable design or transfer including thermoplastic film and method for making the same|
|US20100233410 *||16 Sep 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Wet-on-wet method for forming flocked adhesive article|
|US20100276060 *||14 Jun 2010||4 Nov 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked elastomeric articles|
|US20100316832 *||16 Dec 2010||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked article having a woven insert and method for making the same|
|US20110052859 *||3 Mar 2011||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Processes for precutting laminated flocked articles|
|US20110223373 *||15 Sep 2011||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles having a resistance to splitting and methods for making the same|
|USRE45802||21 Sep 2012||17 Nov 2015||High Voltage Graphics, Inc.||Flocked articles having noncompatible insert and porous film|
|U.S. Classification||428/90, 28/112, 427/474, 428/362, 428/338, 427/462, 442/359, 28/103|
|International Classification||D04H1/4334, D04H1/549, D04H1/06|
|Cooperative Classification||D04H1/549, D04H1/4334, D04H1/06|
|European Classification||D04H1/4334, D04H1/549, D04H1/06|