|Publication number||US3287848 A|
|Publication date||29 Nov 1966|
|Filing date||7 Apr 1964|
|Priority date||7 Apr 1964|
|Publication number||US 3287848 A, US 3287848A, US-A-3287848, US3287848 A, US3287848A|
|Inventors||Katz Abraham M, Lindsay Kenneth W|
|Original Assignee||Ideal Toy Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (6), Classifications (6), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 29, 1966 A. M. KATZ ETAL 3,237,348
DOLL EYES MOVABLE BY GRAVITY OR BY MOTOR MEANS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 7, 1964 miflm Nov. 29, 1966 M. KATZ ETAL 3,237,848
DOLL EYES MOVABLE BY GRAVITY OR BY MOTOR MEANS Filed April '7, 1964 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I I) I United States Patent 01 3,287,848 DOLL EYES MOVABLE BY GRAVITY OR BY MOTOR MEANS Abraham M. Katz and Kenneth W. Lindsay, both of Great Neck, N.Y., assignors to Ideal Toy Corporation,
Filed Apr. 7, 1964, Ser. No. 357,959 2 Claims. (Cl. 46135) The present invention relates generally to dolls and specifically to an eye mechanism for incorporation within dolls such that the eyes of the doll will move within their sockets in two directions, from side to side and between an opened and closed position, in response to internal mechanisms within the doll.
It has been the repeated and continuous efforts of the toy industry to produce dolls of greater and greater realism. To this end, it has become standard practice to incorporate eyes within a doll which can be moved from an opened to a closed position. Traditionally, this is done by mounting the dolls eyeballs on a transverse pivot and weighting the eyeballs to achieve a pendulum effect such that upon rearward tilting of the doll the eyes maintain their attitude in space but, with respect to the dolls head, the eyes move to a closed position. Eyelids are normally formed on the portion of the eyeballs immediately above the iris such that the doll has the appearance of closing its eyelids. In addition to the incorporation of such pendulum operated moving eye mechanisms, in recent times devices have been incorporated within dolls to make the same animated to some degree. For example, in United States Patent No. 3,029,552, entitled Animated Doll and issued on April 17, 1962, a doll is shown wherein the head moves with respect to the body simulating the motions of an infant in a crib.
The present invention is directly concerned with a further internally driven mechanism for adding a new degree of animation to dolls. In addition to movement of the dolls head with respect to its body, it has been found that a high degree of realism is achieved by providing an eye mechanism wherein the dolls eyes automatically move from side to side and from the opened to the closed position. Accordingly, it is advantageous to provide structures within a doll to achieve this desired effect. It is of course further advantageous to provide such structures in a manner which fulfills the overall requirements for commercial success in the mass production toy industry: dependability of product, low unit cost, ease in manufacture and simplicity of operation.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an eye mechanism for a doll which provides improved automated motion. Specifically, it is an object of the present invention to provide an eye mechanism for a doll which internally moves the dolls eyes from side to side and up and down.
It is still further Within the contemplation of the present invention to provide an eye mechanism for use in dolls which allows the dolls eyes to be moved from their opened to their closed position in response to tilting of the doll in the normal manner but which also provides for a rolling movement of the dolls eyes in response to internally driven mechanisms. It is the further object of the present invention to provide such a mechanism in a manner which is of sufficient dependability as to be capable of a commercial exploitation.
In accordance with one illustrative embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an eye mechanism for inclusion within a doll comprising a pair of eye units having transverse pivots for movement of the iris of the eye from an open to a closed position and having vertical pivots, substantially perpendicular to the transverse pivot, for movement of the eyeballs from side to side. In as- Patented Nov. 29, 1966 ice sociation with these mechanisms, there is provided an eccentric cam drive movable through a conical path and a yoke engaged about the eccentric cam. The yoke is operatively engaged, through a pair of arm extensions, to each of the eyeball units such that movement of the yoke within the doll head from side to side produces a complementary side to side movement of the dolls eyes. Vertical movement of the yoke, pivoting about the transverse pivots of the eyeballs, produces a complementary movement of the dolls eyes between their open and closed positions. Drive means are provided for the eccentric cam to drive same through its conical path thereby to move the yoke from side to side, the yoke being bifurcated and having positive engagement with the eccentric cam. In this construction, the eyeballs and the associated yoke comprise a unit which functions as a pendulum to move the dolls eyes to their closed position in response rearward tilting of the doll while at the same time providing for rolling movement of the dolls eyes in response to movement of the eccentric cam through its conical path.
The above brief description, as well as further objects, features and advantages of the present invention, will be best understood by reference to the following detailed description of an illustrative embodiment of the invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a dolls head incorporating an eye mechanism according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the dolls head shown in FIG. 1 taken along the line 22 of FIG. 1 and looking in the directions of the arrows illustrating the internal construction of a mechanism embodying the teachings of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken in a plane immediately behind the skin of the face of the doll and looking rearwardly taken generally along the line 3-3 of FIG. 2 and looking in the direction of the arrows;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken generally along the line 4-4 of FIG. 3 and looking in the directions of the arrows;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional view of the eye unit incorporated in the illustrated mechanism;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the eye unit showing the two directions of movement for the eye;
FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken along the line 7-7 of FIG. 4 looking in the direction of the drawings; and
FIG. 8 is a view similar to that of FIG. 2, but showing the dolls head in a tilted back position with the pendulum acting to close the dolls eyes.
Now referring specifically to the drawings, there is shown in FIG. 1 a doll generally designated by the numeral 10 having a head 12 of molded vinyl or the like which includes a pair of eye units 14, 16. As illustrated by the horizontal and vertical arrows in FIG. 1, the dolls eyes 14, 16 are mounted for movement from side to side rotating about a vertical axis and for movement up and down between an opened and closed position rotating about a transverse axis. The dolls head 12 is mounted on the dolls body 18 at a neck joint 20. A mounting block 22 is provided at the neck of the doll and the material which forms the skin of the head 12 is secured thereto.
Before referring to the particular mechanisms which operate the eyes 14, 16 reference will be made to FIGS. 2 and 6 for a description of the eye units themselves and the means which mount the dolls eyeballs for movement into two mutually perpendicular directions. The eye units 14, 16 are mounted within sockets 24-, 26 formed within the skin of the head 12. The units comprise outer shells 28 (not shown in FIG. 6 but see FIG. 4), fitted into the eye sockets of the doll which shells are joined together by a bridge member 29. The internal structures of the respective eye units are mounted for pivotal movement about a transverse axis, i.e. one which is parallel to a line drawn between the ears of the doll, which transverse axis is provided by pivots 30 which are received within appropriate pivot openings in cases 28. The pivots 30 are mounted on the eyelid member 32 which has formed on the forward and upper surface thereof eyelashes 34 and which is colored to simulate the eyelid of a baby. The eyeball unit 36 is pivotally supported on the eyelid unit 32 for rotation of the eyeball and its associated iris about a substantially vertical axis. The eyeball unit 36 includes a spherically shaped white portion 38 and an associated mounting strap 40 which are joined together at 42. Eyelid unit 32 and white portion 38 of eyeball unit 36 have partially coinciding circumferential edges (shown as lines of division in FIGS. 2, 5, 6 and 8) which move relative to each other when side to side eye movement occurs. The mounting strap 40 is engaged over the top of the eyelid portion 32 and is pivotally secured thereto at the pivot pin 44 which is rigid with the eyelid portion 32 and which extends through an appropriate bearing opening in the mounting strap 40. At its bottom, the eyeball portion 36 is pivotally engaged with a downward extending central pivot 46 which is rigidly formed as part of the eyelid unit and provides a second pivotfor the eyeball 36. Accordingly, the eyeball 36 is pivoted for movement about a vertical axis formed by the pivots 44,
46 with the white portion 38 and the mounting strap 40 moving as a unit about that axis. Accordingly, it will be appreciated that the eye units 14, 16 have two available directions of movement. The entire assembly as illustrated in FIG. 6 may be pivoted about the transverse axis formed by the pivot pins 30 such that the eye may be moved between the opened position with the iris facing forwardly and the closed position with the eyelid closing olf the eye openings in the face of the doll. Furthermore, the eyeball unit 36 may be pivoted about a vertical axis within the eye unit such that the iris may be moved from side to side. In accordance with the present invention, internal driving mechanisms are provided to move the eye units through a compound movement in both directions of movement.
Before making specific description of the eye-moving mechanisms, brief description will be made of the mechanisms incorporated within the doll which provide for relative movement between the dolls head 12 and the dolls body 18. As will be described below, in the presently preferred embodiment the motivating force for the headmoving mechanisms are conveniently utilized to drive the eye mechanisms. A spring wound motor (not shown) is mounted With the dolls body 18 and drives a shaft 48. The shaft is formed with a first bend 50 and extends upwardly through a bearing 52 which is rigid with the neck block 22. A bushing 54 is secured to the shaft 48 immediately above the bend 50 to maintain the axial alignment of the shaft 48 within the bearing 52 and the block 22. It will be appreciated that as the shaft 48 rotates, the section 53 of the shaft above the bend 50 will describe a cone with respect to the body 18 of the doll thus moving the head 12 through a generally conical path. A more complete description of the construction and operation of this head-moving mechanism may be obtained by reference to the previously mentioned U.S. Patent No. 3,029,552 of April 17, 1962, entitled Animated Doll.
For purposes of the present invention, the head-moving mechanism per se may be ignored and the shaft 53 may simply be considered as a drive shaft fixed within the head 12 and rotatably driven by a motor. At its upper end, the shaft 48, 53 has another bend, at 56, to form a second eccentric portion, generally designated herein as the eccentric portion 58. It will be appreciated that as the shaft portion 53 rotates, considering it as though it were rotating about its own axis, the eccentric portion 58 will be rotated about that same axis and will describe a conical surface having the axis of the shaft portion 53 as the axis of the cone. A bearing or cam sleeve 60 having a lower edge or shoulder 62 is securely pressed on the eccentric shaft portion 58 and provides a contact surface for the eye movment yoke 64 which will be described in complete detail below.
The yoke 64 is best seen in FIG. 4 and includes a pair of bifurcated arms 66, 68 and a bight portion 70 which combine to form a yoke opening 72. The spacing between the arms 66, 68, and therefore the width of the opening 72 is sized to be complementary to the diameter of the sleeve 60 on the eccentric portion 58 of the shaft 53. At the end of the yoke 64 opposite from the bight portion 70, there are formed a pair of outwardly extending arms 74, 76 which, at their outer ends, have forward extensions 78, 80 which, in turn, terminate in downwardly extending eye-engagement members 82. The eye-engagement members 82 are received within pivot openings .84 which allow for relative pivotal movement between the eyeball members 36 and the yoke 64 about a vertical axis, but which preclude pivotal movement between the yoke 64 and the eyeballs 36 about a transverse axis. Accordingly, when the yoke 64 is moved up and down, it pivots about the transverse pivotal axis of the eyeballs 36, i.e. the pivot points 30. Conversely, when the yoke 64 is moved from side to side within the head 12, the eye-engaging portions 82 pivot within the pivotal openings 84 thereby to swing the respective eyeballs 36 of each of the eye units 14, 16 in a tandem, side to side movement.
In accordance with well known principles, the weight of the yoke 64 provides a pendulum effect for the eye units 14, 16. The weight of the yoke 64 is effective to pivot the units about their transverse pivot pins 30 when the head of the doll is moved to its reclined position as shown in FIG. 8. Specifically, a pendulum formed of the yoke and the two eyelid assemblies 32 tends to maintain itself in a vertical orientation below the transverse pivots 30. When the doll is tilted rearwardly as in FIG. 8, the pendulum causes the eyes to pivot to their closed position with respect to the head. As illustrated in the doll 10, an additional weight 64a may be mounted on the yoke 64 at the bight portion 70 to assure such operation.
An understanding of the present invention will be most easily obtained by considering the following description of the operation of the eye mechanism in accordance with the present invention:
With the doll 10 in its upright position, the motor which drives the shaft 48 is activated to rotate that shaft about its own axis. The rotation of the shaft 48 will cause a complementary rotation of the inclined portion 53 to move the head 12 of the doll 10 with respect to the body 18 in the manner recited in the aforementioned United States patent. As the shaft 53 rotates within the head 12, it drives the inclined eccentric portion 58and the cam or sleeve 60 through a conical path within the head. The yoke 64 is positively engaged with the rotating cam 60 by means of the two arms 66, 68 in contact with opposite sides of the cam 60. As the cam 60 moves through its conical path, it will move the yoke 64 from side to side thus moving the eyeballs 36 from side to side. The movement of the eyeballs 36 and the yoke 64 may be viewed kinematically as the movement of a fourbar linkage wherein the cases 28 (including eyelid units 32) and the bridge member 29 form the stationary link. The movable links are the two eyeball units 36 between the pivots 44, 46 and the pivot 84 and the yoke member 64 between the two extensions 82. The movable elements of the four-bar linkage are driven through the extension 66, 68 of the yoke member 64 to move the center movable link 64 of the four-bar linkage from side to side thereby pivoting the other two movable links (the eyeball units 36) from side to side about their pivotal mounts 44, 46. Accordingly, side to side movement of the eyeballs is effective by the rotation of the eccentric cam shaft 58 engaged with the yoke 64.
It will be further appreciated that upon the rearward tilting of the doll 10, the pendulum effect will cause the eyes to move from the opened position to the closed position depending upon the degree of tilting. No matter what the degree of tilting is, the side to side movement of the eyeballs will nevertheless be performed in the same manner as described above. Furthermore, because the geometric relationship between the eccentric cam 60 and the yoke 64 varies as the shaft 58 moves throughout. its conical path, the angle of attack of the cam 60 on the yoke arms 66, 68 constantly varies. Accordingly, friction in some cases will drive the eye mechanism toward the closed position and in other cases toward the open position. If desired, the surface of the cam 60 may be provided with mechanisms such as a rough screw thread or a high friction surface to act as a drag to alternatively raise and lower the yoke 64 thereby to intermittently move the eyelid units 32 between the opened and closed position. Accordingly, with the doll in an intermediate tilted position, even without the provision of a special surface treatment on the cam 60, the eyes 14, 16 will be driven through a rolling movement by the action of a mechanism according to the present invention. Specifically, as the cam surface 60 is driven through its conical path, and as the dolls head 12 is moved with respect to the dolls body, the angle of attack of the cam 60 against the yoke 64 will be such as to move the yoke 64 both from side to side and up and down thereby to produce motion in the eye unit 14, 16 in both rotational directions.
It will be appreciated that the present invention provides a mechanism for inclusion within the head of a doll whereby the animated aspects of the doll will be enhanced thus adding to the realism of the doll. The structures according to the present invention are of a simple nature such that manufacture is both easy and inexpensive. The operation of the structure is similarly simple thereby providing a high degree of dependability.
Although only one specific embodiment of the present invention has been illustrated herein, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that a number of design changes therein from the specific structures described may be made without departing from the basic teachings of the invention. Accordingly, the following claims should be construed broadly in a manner consistent with the spirit and scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An eye mechanism for an animated doll having eyeballs therein comprising pivot means for mounting said eyeballs within the eye sockets of the doll for movement from side to side and for movement from an opened position to a closed position, and eyeball-moving means operatively connected to said eyeballs, said eyeball-moving means including a bifurcated yoke connected to said eyeballs, an inclined shaft mounted for rotation through a conical path, connection means connecting said shaft and said bifurcated yoke, and drive means within said doll for rotating said shaft through said conical path for imparting movement to said yoke, said eyeballs thereby moving in unison from side to side in response to rotation of said shaft, said bifurcated yoke and said eyeballs forming a pendulum assembly means for causing said movement of said eyeballs into the closed position in response to rearward tilting of the doll, said connection means maintaining the connection between said shaft and said bifurcated yoke during said last-mentioned movement.
2. An eye mechanism for an animated doll comprising a pair of eye units mounted within the eye sockets of the doll, said eye units having eyeballs, vertical pivots mounting said eyeballs for movement from side to side about respective normally substantially vertical axes, and transverse pivots mounting said eyeballs for movement from an opened position to a closed position about a transverse axis, and eyeball-moving means operatively connected to said eye units including an inclined shaft mounted for rotation through a conical path, connecting means operatively connected to said eyeballs and to said shaft, and drive means within said doll for activating said shaft for imparting movement to said eyeballs, said eyeballs moving in unison from side to side in response to movement of said shaft, said eyeballs and said connecting means forming a pendulum assembly pivoting about said transverse axis for moving said eyeballs into the closed position in response to rearward tilting of the doll independent of the position and movement of said shaft, said connecting means maintaining the operative connection between said eyeballs and said shaft during said last-mentioned movement.
References Cited by the Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,322,763 11/1919 Cone 46-168 1,831,602 11/1931 Maby 46-168 2,136,006 11/1938 Fisher 46-168 FOREIGN PATENTS 591,348 4/ 1925 France. 1,308,497 9/1962 France.
RICHARD C. PINKHAM, Primary Examiner.
F. B. SHAY, Examiner.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1322763 *||31 Dec 1917||25 Nov 1919||The Wigwam Co||Ralph r|
|US1831602 *||3 Jan 1930||10 Nov 1931||Maby Adelbert C||Movable eyes for dolls|
|US2136006 *||14 Feb 1936||8 Nov 1938||Fisher Carl G||Model|
|FR591348A *||Title not available|
|FR1308497A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3353296 *||6 Dec 1966||21 Nov 1967||Mattel Inc||Eye-moving apparatus combining plural output means to produce one motion|
|US3495351 *||12 Feb 1968||17 Feb 1970||Mattel Inc||Figure toy having apparatus for moving eyes in simulated reading motion|
|US4575347 *||19 Mar 1984||11 Mar 1986||Kabushiki Kaisha Sankyo Seiki Seisakusho||Toy music box|
|US5092811 *||19 Sep 1990||3 Mar 1992||Irwin Toy Limited||Mechanism for the crying and sucking motion of dolls|
|US8240671 *||15 Mar 2010||14 Aug 2012||Eastwest International (Taiwan) Enterprises||Roping practice apparatus|
|US20110221135 *||15 Mar 2010||15 Sep 2011||Eastwest International (Taiwan) Enterprises||Roping practice apparatus|
|U.S. Classification||446/344, 446/338|
|International Classification||A63H3/40, A63H3/00|
|16 Nov 1983||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CBS INC., 51 WEST 52ND STREET, NEW YORK, NY 1001
Free format text: NUNC PRO TUNC ASSIGNMENT;ASSIGNOR:IDEAL TOY CORPORATION, A CORP OF DE;REEL/FRAME:004210/0055
Effective date: 19831108
Owner name: IDEAL TOY CORPORATION 184-10 JAMAICA AVENUE HOLLIS
Free format text: NUNC PRO TUNC ASSIGNMENT;ASSIGNOR:IDEAL TOY CORPORATION, A NY CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004210/0050
Effective date: 19720410