|Publication number||US3241429 A|
|Publication date||22 Mar 1966|
|Filing date||14 May 1962|
|Priority date||14 May 1962|
|Also published as||DE1447789A1, DE1797183A1|
|Publication number||US 3241429 A, US 3241429A, US-A-3241429, US3241429 A, US3241429A|
|Inventors||Sam L Leach, Harold D Rice|
|Original Assignee||Pid Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (11), Referenced by (117), Classifications (26)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS l5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed May 14, 1962 XXllll IIHXXXXXIIIIIIL IIIIXX) [xx XXIII! [NVENTOR o A PM! 1.
ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 SheetsSheer. 2
1N\-ENTOR /6/9040 D, 37, 7(a) M A. [6 614 BY 6W ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. 0. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 SheetsSheet. 3
I NV ENTOR am .0, 3
ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 Sheets-Sheet 4.
INVENTOR 1 mm; 1). 76!
379/ Z. ZEfiC/i BY e' QMWU ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 D |cE L 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 Sheets-Sheet 5 flfifidia IWCEIEQVENTOR ATTORNEYQ March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 Sheets-Sheet e ATTORNEYS ZEACA MMI March 22, 1966 H.. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14,'19e2 l5 Sheets-Sheet 7 \CAISO s m mm T ,N w Mm v.5 w 0 .A 3 206.. 9 01 8. WM M A 0 0 3 O 3 March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14, 1962 15 Sheets-Sheet a TUNE d2 J23 r24 r25 IZI I INVENTOR (7441x 049 2 27, Sam ,4. 454.4%
BY W a I ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS I Filed May 14, 1962 15 Sheets-Sheer. 9
INVENTOR 1 /19404 D 2c;
ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS 1S Sheets-Sheet 10 Filed May 14, 1962 ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS l5 Sheets-Sheet 11 Filed May 14, 1962 5 4 a m U a z 0M w M W M I 2? "Him INVENTOR HA /9191.0 D. Z65 Sam A. 45/90 451 "mum ATTORNEY 5 M h 2 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL 3,241,429
PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Filed May 14 1962 15 Sheets-Sheet l2 INVENTOR. 94E
BY 1 A. 459
%aca% #MM ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 I H. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS l5 Sheets-Sheet 15 Filed May 14, 1962 INVENTOR (f/6 901.0 b
ATTORNEYS March 22, 1966 H. D. RICE ETAL PIC'IORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS l5 Sheets-Sheet 14.
Filed May 14, 1962 ATTORNEYS H. D. RICE ETAL PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS March 23, 1966 15 Sheets-Sheet 15 Filed May 14, 1962 lxxxl 001x; Jxxxl XXI 'HHII 'Hlll' llllll MIN;
INVENTOR HAW/4p .9.
ATTORNEYS United States Patent 324L429 PICTORIAL PARALLAX PANORAMAGRAM UNITS Harold D. Rice, Leawood, Kans., and Sam L. Leach, St. Louis, Mo., assignors, by mesne assignments, to PID Corporation, Beverly Hills, Calif., a corporation of California Filed May 14, 1962, Ser. No. 202,930 12 Claims. (Cl. 88-1) This invention relates broadly to optical display units, and is particularly concerned with the provision of optical display units incorporating lenticular screens. Such display units are generically known in the art as pictorial parallax panoramagram units.
In order to understand the various aspects of the instant invention which relate to pictorial parallax panoramagram units themselves as products, methods of producing the products, and apparatus for producing the products, it is desirable to initially comprehend the principles which underlie the formation and use of the panoramagram units, and secondly, the basic processes by which panoramagram units can be fabricated.
Pictorial parallax panoramagrams might be generically referred to as optical units which produce an illusion of depth to a person viewing the unit. The illusion can take on diiferent types of characteristics. For example, in one type of pictorial parallax panoramagram unit, the viewer observes what appears to be an image field having true three-dimensional characteristics. In another type of pictorial parallax panoramagram unit, the depth characteristics of the image illusion are not pronounced, and instead the viewer observes what may be deemed a changeable picture. In the former type of panoramagram unit considered in this paragraph, the viewer nor mally maintains the panoramagram unit in a comparatively fixed position while viewing the same, although movement of the panoramagram unit does not destroy the illusion necessarily. More specifically, with the former type of panoramagram unit, the viewer observes an image with apparent three dimensional characteristics whether the panoramagram unit is moved slightly or not.
In contrast, the second type of panoramagram unit referred to above, is in normal use moved in position relative to the viewers eyes, and with the movement of the panoramagram unit, the viewer has the illusion of seeing at least a portion of the image being viewed change in its position. Thus, with this latter type of panoramagram unit, the viewer may see in observing and moving the same, some aspect of the image in motion, e.g., a mans arm move from a position where his hand is in his pocket to a position where his hand is above the head.
While two basic different types of pictorial parallax panoramagram units have been described in the preceding paragraphs, and while reference has been made to a person whose hand changes in position in connection with the description of one type, it should be understood from the outset that the term pictorial does not necessarily refer to a picture in the sense of being a work of art, but instead refers to any type of display, whether the same be in the form of wording, a true artistic creation, or any other type of image. It should further be under stood that the present invention is concerned with providing pictorial parallax panoramagram units, whether they be of the true three-dimensional form or changeable picture form described above, or some modification thereof.
Pictorial parallax panoramagrams, or as they are sometimes called Stereograms or 3-D units, generally comprise a lineated image layer having a lineated screen disposed thereover. The lineated image layer comprises 3,241,429 Patented Mar. 22, 1966 a plurality of panels, each of substantially equal width. In a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit which creates the optical illusion or sensory perception of a changing picture, adjacent panels of the image layer often contain a portion of an image taken from the same point of view but at a different time. Thus, if one desired to produce such a unit creating the illusion of a mans hand being raised, then adjacent panels of the image layer would essentially comprise integrated parts of two pictures which dilfer by the position of the hand as viewed from the same point of view-i.e., there would be a time difference in the respective image portions. Adjacent panels can be portions of separate pictures adapted to be sequentially displayed but the basic arrangement is essentially the same.
On the other hand, if a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit of the type adapted to create a three-dimensional effect per se was being produced, then adjacent panels of the image layer would carry image portions of the same picture, but spaced points in any panel on any given axis parallel to the width of the panels would represent a point on the object being displayed as seen from different relative points of view.
As set forth hereinbelow, various suggestions have heretofore been made with respect to the manner in which image layers of either of the types described above can be manufactured. Regardless of the type of image layer, and the manner in which it is made, in the ultimate unit observed by the viewer there is disposed over the image layer an optical screen. The optical screen, in general use, may be of the type which comprises alternate opaque and transparent sections, or it may be of the type incorporating a plurality of adjacent and transparent lens elements. When either type of screen is disposed over the image layer, the lineations thereon are aligned as required for the particular unit, with the lineations on the image layer. In the event the image layer is of the changeable picture type, then as the unit is rotated relative to the eyes of the viewer, the screen focuses the light reflected by the unit and received by the eyes from different groups of lineated panels on the image layer. One group of panels shows the image in one position, whereas another group of panels shows the image in another position. Of course, there may be several groups of lineated panels on the image layer, in which event various positions would be observed by the viewer as the unit is rotated relative to the users eyes.
In the ultimate unit, when the lineated screen is disposed over a 3-D image layer incorporating panels presenting the image from different points of view, then one panel of the layer is disposed under each lenticle in the screen, and the users right and left eyes see portions of the ultimate image separated in perspective. The brain unconciously recognizes these portions as belonging together. The two continuous images or portions are fused into a single sensory image, and the observer receives the illusion of depth and hence a three-dimensional impression of the composite picture under observation.
While all pictorial parallax panoramagram units appear to fall into the aforesaid groups, and while the operating principles and characteristics of such panoramagram units conform with the preceding discussion, from the standpoint of physical characteristics, and from the standpoint of production techniques, the various forms of pictorial parallax panoramagram units can be further differentiated. For example, it has previously been suggested to provide pictorial parallax panoramagrams wherein the self-sustaining thick lineated screen is directly affixed to the image layer. Still further, it has been suggested to provide such units wherein the image layer is chemically developed in contact with the screen itself, as opposed to being formed separately and attached thereto. Even further, it has been previously suggested to provide pictorial parallax panoramagrams wherein the image layer is initially formed, and a thin coating or film is thereafter applied thereover and embossed to form a screen.
Thus, a distinction can first be made between what may be deemed thick screen units and what may be deemed thin screen units. Still further, a distinction may be made between those units wherein the image layer is formed separately and adhesively secured to the lenticular screen, those units wherein the image layer is formed from a chemically reactive photographic emulsion directly applied to the lenticular screen, and those units wherein the ultimate unit is formed from a coating or film applied over a formed image layer.
Bearing these further distinctions in mind, the position of the instant invention in the art can be better understood. As explained more fully below, the invention is concerned with providing a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit of the type having a lenticulated screen comprising a plurality of parallel lens elements, all of which are trans parent. Further, the invention is concerned with providing such a unit wherein the screen is formed as a flexible layer having an image-carrying base thereunder, or as a flexible film having an image layer directly affixed thereto. In other words, the present invention is not concerned with providing an ultimate pictorial parallax panoramagram unit incorporating a lineated screen having alternate transparent and opaque sections, nor is it concerned with providing a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit of the type incorporating an image base which is secured by adhesive to a separate lineated screen.
The significance of the aforesaid ditferentiations be comes apparent with an understanding of the production techniques which are involved in fabrication of the different types of units. Consider first, for example, a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit which comprises an image or base layer which is secured by means of a separate adhesive to a separate lineating screen. As explained above, it is imperative that the lineations of the screen be aligned with the lineations or panels of the image layer. Thus, with this type of screen unit, the adhesive must be applied in such a manner as to permit subsequent adjustment of the screen relative to the image layer, or otherwise, an exact alignment cannot normally be maintained. Other workers in the field have recognized this problem, and it is generally appreciated that the alignment problem presents difiiculties in fabrication of a unit of the type here in question, and results in individual unit assembly, as opposed to permitting mass production techniques.
A still further problem with the separate screen type unit results from the variations in temperature conditions and humidity conditions which affect the screen differently than the image layer due to the dilferential in relative expansion and/or contraction. When not formed simultaneously, the differential in temperature and humidity coefficients between the lenticular screen and the image layer cause misalignment, and resulting blurring of the image being viewed. Moreover, when adhesive is used and a fixing of the image layer to the screen is provided to prevent dimensional instability, problems are encountered in applying the adhesive so that the same extends uniformly between the base of the lenticular screen and the image layer. Still further, the screen of a separately formed unit must be self-sustaining and comparatively thick.
While certain of the above problems are eliminated in instances where the image layer is produced from a chemically reactive emulsion on the back of the lenticular screen, still other problems in this instance are faced. First, photographic techniques must be used, and the type of screen which can be employed is limited by virtue of the chemical treatment which must be given to the emulsion to develop the same. Secondly, individual treatment of the emulsified layers is required, and persons trained particularly in photographic processes must handle the operation. Still further, in connection with the emulsion type method, mass production of stereograms representative of a single stereographic subject is practically impossible inasmuch as the time factor involved in exposing the light sensitive emulsion and in developing the same, drying the developed emulsion, etc., is prohibitive. In addition, and still further, in this instance, unless a semitransparent stereogram is desired, it is ordinarily necessary to perform an additional operation of applying to the developed film on the rear side of the lenticulated screen an opaque backing sheet of some sort to lend sharpness of detail to the desired image.
With an appreciation for the disadvantages inherent in fabricating pictorial parallax panoramagram units from separate lineating screens having adhesively secured thereto an image layer, and in fabricating pictorial parallax panoramagram units from lenticular screens carrying a chemically reactable emulsion on the rear thereof, attention can be directed to the third previously suggested process. This previously suggested process, in its basic aspects, provides for applying a heat softenable layer of plastic over a previously formed image layer, and then subsequently applying pressure to the plastic layer so as to directly afiix the same to the image layer. The pressure-applying operation is carried out with an embossing roller which serves to form the heat softenable plastic into a plurality of adjacent lens elements or lenticles.
Pursuant to one phase of the third method, a comparatively thick and self-sustaining, non-flexible sheet of plastic is passed between a plurality of softening rolls, in serpentine fashion, and then placed into over-lying relation with an image layer. Thereafter, the softened sheet is embossed and pressed on the image layer to form the final pictorial parallax panoramagram unit. In accordance with a second embodiment of this particular type of method, a continuous image-carrying base strip is fed under an operating roller system where a continuous web of sheet plastic is brought into contact thereover. In subsequent stages of the operation, the continuous plastic web is heat softened and formed into a plurality of adjacent elongate lenticles thereby providing the lenticular screen of the ultimate unit. In still different a technique contemplated in accordance with this third method, the suggestion has been advanced that the unit be formed by coating a fiowable plastic directly on to an image-carrying base web, and thereafter forming the coating into a lenticular-type screen with an embossing roller.
The first and last of the embodiments of the third method discussed above have been disregarded by the main proponent thereof in later patent art, and emphasis has been placed by him on the second embodiment wherein a continuous web of plastic film is utilized. The reasons underlying the disregard of the embodiment which contemplates use of sheets which are fed through a serpentine heating arrangement has undoubtedly resulted from certain inherent disadvantages therein. For example, with this technique, the sheet itself must be self-sustaining initially, and the quantity of material used is necessarily substantial. In other words, this particular technique requires a thick screen if any degree of success is to be achieved, and a screen which is definitely not flexible.
The third embodiment discussed in the immediately preceding paragraphs which contemplates direct coating has apparently been disregarded for somewhat more subtle reasons. In particular, alignment problems in the ultimate unit would necessarily result from following the process suggested due to the fact that a continuous web of image-carrying base material must be maintained under tension, and some irregularities will necessarily result. Moreover, with the technique previously suggested, there would undoubtedly be bleeding of the plastic into the base layer or allergies therewith and destruction of "the image itself. Still further, a continuous web technique as suggested does not lend itself to the production of magazine covers, greeting cards, or the like. These are but three of the problems faced with the prior art continuous coating suggestions, but they are exemplary of the practical deficiencies involved.
As stated, the proponents of the third technique discussed above recognized the disadvantages of the first and third embodiments, and emphasized the practicability of utilizing a continuous web of plastic material which was brought into contact with an image-carrying base layer, and then embossed to provide a lenticular screen. While this phase of the third technique appeared to be the most practical according to the prior literature, operation in accordance with this embodiment also presents serious problems. First, when using a web plastic material, tension must be maintained thereon, and the uniformity in thickness thereof varies under the tension. Thus, in a subsequent embossing operation, there is non-uniformity in thickness, and uniformity in the lenticles formed cannot be assured.
Secondly, obtaining a plastic in sheet form which possesses the desirable physical characteristics both optically and adhesively presents a serious problem, and results in substantial expense. Still further, in accordance with this type of operation, the base web is maintained under tension, and there are accordingly variations therein, which result in mis-alignment.
Thus, as should be apparent from the foregoing discussion, While various suggestions have been heretofore made with respect to the product of pictorial parallax panoramagram units, there remains a need for such a unit which can be inexpensively produced in accordance with mass production techniques so as to be available for widespread use in various forms. Still further, there remains a need for a method of commercially producing pictorial parallax panoramagram units and a need for apparatus for carrying out such methods. Additionally, regardless of the prior suggestions, there exists a need for a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit which is flexible in nature so as to be applicable to the cover of magazines, the face of greeting cards, various forms of advertisements, and the like, which unit affords the required optical clarity, the required illusion characteristics, and in addition, which is durable in shipment and use.
The present invention is specifically directed to satisfying the aforesaid needs, and has as its principal object the provision of a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit (a) which can be fabricated from a minimum of material; (b) which is durable in shipment and use; (c) which possesses the desired optical characteristics; (d) which is flexible in nature and applicable to varying forms of display; and most important (e) which can be formed in accordance with mass production techniques at rapid rates and yet possess the aforesaid desired characteristics.
Consistent with the foregoing primary general object of the present invention, a still further primary object hereof is to provide methods of fabricating pictorial parallax panora-magrams possessing the aforesaid features, which methods are practical in nature. Additionally, a still further primary object of the primary invention is to provide apparatus for carrying out such methods to produce pictorial panoramagrams in accordance herewith.
SPECIFIC PRODUCT OBJECTS In connection with the basic product provided hereby, the invention has certain specific objects, including the following: (a) The provision of a flexible thin screen pictorial parallax panoramagram uniti.e., the provision of such a panoramagram unit incorporating a lenticular screen having a thickness of less than .025 inch; (b) the provision of such a panoramagram unit which affords clarity in vision and sufiicient abrasion resistance to permit the use of the unit on greeting cards, magazines, or
the like; (c) the provision of such panoramagram unit which comprises a base-image carrying layer formed of a suitable base material such as paper, and -asuperimposed lenticular screen layer formed of a suitable plastic which does not require a plasticizer for formation thereof, and which affords flexibility; (d) the provision of a panoramagram unit as prescribed in subparagraph (c) which incorporates a plastic layer formed from an inexpensive plastic, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, or the like; (e) the provision of a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit as prescribed in subparagraphs (a) and (b), which unit comprises a flexible plastic, lenticular screen and an image layer printed directly thereon; (f) the provision of a unit as prescribed in subparagraph (e) which is formed from various types of plastics, preferably possessing particular characteristics; and (g) the provision of a unit conforming with all of the preceding objects which can be formed in varying sizes to accommodate differing displays in differing environments.
The foregoing specific objects of the present invention with respect to the product provided hereby are applicable to a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit incorporating a lenticular screen without regard to the shape of the lenticles. More specifically, it has been assumed hereinabove that a lenticular screen is provided, and attention has not been directed to the particular form of curvature or shape of the individual lenticular lens elements. This is because the more basic aspects of the product provided hereby do not concern lens shape per se. Instead, the more basic aspects relate to the product regardless of the shape or form of lenticle incorporated in the screen thereof.
However, from the standpoint of producing a quality product, it is desirable under certain circumstances to utilize lenticular screens having prescribed configurations and lens shapes. More specifically, it is desirable to provide a lens which is corrected for spherical aberration, and it is also desirable to provide a screen incorporating lenses so positioned as to present a clear image regardless of the angle from which the pictorial parallax panoramagram is viewed. The advantages of correcting for spherical aberration have previously been recognized with respect to lenticular screens having substantial thickness, and/ or lenses of varying type. To incorporate these advantages in a thin screen unit conforming with the preceding objects, however, is an important objective of the instant invention. Similarly, a further important object hereof is to provide a lens wherein a substantially wider viewing angle than that existent with a conventional lenticular screen is achieved. Again, however, it is to be understood that while these aspects are important, the basic embodiments of the invention center about the provision of a flexible thin screen pictorial parallax panoramagram conforming with the previously discussed objects, regardless of the particular lens shape, spacing, or form.
SPECIFIC METHOD OBJECTS As noted above, one of the most important objects of the present invention is to provide practical and commercial methods of producing the products provided hereby. In this connection, specific objects of the invention according to the preferred embodiments include the following: (a) The provision of a method of forming flexible, thin screen pictorial parallax panoramagram units, which method provides for applying a coating directly to an image carrying layer, and then embossing the coating to form the same into a lenticulated optical screen; (b) to provide such a method wherein the coating is applied as a fluid fiowable viscous material, and wherein such material is subsequently set to afford permanency in formation, and flexibility in use without affecting the characteristics of the image carrying layer; (c) to provide such a method wherein the coating is free of any plasticizer so as to eliminate allergy or bleeding problems or the like when applied to the base layer; (d) to provide in such a method temperature control steps which afford proper coating viscosity and proper setting temperatures for mass production operation; (e) to provide in such a method steps affording application of the coating in a controlled thickness whereby to insure uniformity in the ultimate screen, and the utilization of a minimum of material; (f) to provide such a method wherein the plastic material is applied in time sequence to the movement of the image carrying base, and wherein the image carrying base of any one unit is part of a sheet having a plurality of images thereon; (g) to provide as an alternate in such a method the steps of applying the plastic in discrete ribbon-like form and subsequently smoothing the same into the ultimate formation; (h) to provide such a basic method wherein separate sheets of convenient handling size are automatically sequentially processed and coated with a suitable plastic which is formed into a lenticular screen thereover as aforesaid; (i) to provide such a method wherein the necessary alignment is obtained between the embossed screen formed over the image carrying layer, and the image carrying layer; (j) to provide such a method wherein the alignment is achieved by means initially printed on the base layer itself; (k) to provide such a method wherein a controlled gripping operation insures the proper alignments; (l) to provide such a method which enables the utilization of standard photographic equipment for making the lineated image carried by the image base layer, and which at the same time, permits forming the lineated image to present a true three-dimensional illusion, or to present a changeable picture illusion whether in black and white or color; (m) to provide such a method which can be carried out with easily fabricated. equipment; and, (n) to provide such a method which is practical from the commercial standpoint, and insures quality production over extended periods of time.
Specific method objects of the present invention with respect to a preferred modification hereof, include the following: (a) The provision of a basic method of forming a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit including a plastic, lenticular screen having an image layer directly printed thereon; (b) the provision of a basic method of forming a flexible lenticular screen adapted to receive a printed image directly on the rear face thereof; (c) the provision of a method as prescribed in subparagraph (b) which incorporates extrusion and forming steps adapted to be carried out with easily fabricated equipment; and (d) the provision of an overall method conforming with subparagraph (a) which utilizes the steps of subparagraph (a) with suitably modified, but generally conventional printing techniques.
SPECIFIC APPARATUS OBJECTS Although the basic product and basic method aspects of the instant invention have been treated hereinabove and emphasized with particularity, it is to be understood that certain objects of the invention lie in the provision of apparatus adapted to carry out the methods so as to produce the products hereof. Thus, with respect to the preferred embodiment of the apparatus, specific objects of the invention include the following: (a) The provision of an automatic apparatus adapted to perform the method steps of the preferred embodiment hereof outlined hereinabove; (b) the provision of such an apparatus which includes means for automatically timing a sequential processing operation in accordance with the method of the preferred embodiment hereof; (c) the provision of such an apparatus which is applicable to the formation of lenticular screen pictorial parallax panoramagram units, as well as to general coating techniques; (d) the provision of such an apparatus wherein the base layer being coated is passed about rollers for purposes of having the coating applied thereto; (e) the provision of such an apparatus wherein the base layer is positively gripped in relation to each of the rollers handling the same whereby to permit exact alignment of the base layer with the particular operation or roller past which the base layer is traveling; (f) the provision of such an apparatus which permits the utilization of a vacuum type pick-up feed of base layer sheets; (g) the provision of such an apparatus which incorporates a grooved embossing roller for purposes of forming the applied coating into a lenticular screen; (h) the provision of such an apparatus which includes a reservoir for holding and heating plastic to be applied to the base layer, and means for opening and closing the reservoir in timed relation to the movement of a base layer traveling thereunder; (i) the provision of such an apparatus which alternatively provides for a deposition of the plastic material in ribbon-like form and of uniform thickness; (j) the provision of such a basic apparatus which permits adjustment in the thickness of the coating being applied; (k) the provision of such an apparatus which includes means cooperating with the roller means thereof to insure uniformity in coating, as well as uniformity in formation of the coating into a lenticular screen; (1) the provision of such an apparatus which is adapted to handle separate sheets of material, without wasting coating material thereon; (m) the provision of such an apparatus which is free of string-type remanent deposits; (n) the provision of such an apparatus which can be manufactured with available equipment; and (o) the provision of such an apparatus which can be operated over extended periods of time for commercial production, and without shutdown.
With respect to the preferred modified embodiment hereof wherein a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit is formed with the image layer directly printed on the plastic, lenticular screen, specific apparatus objects hereof include the following: (a) The provision of an apparatus including, in combination, extruding means adapted to extrude a thin layer of flexible material, and forming means adapted to receive such layer and form a series of adjacent lens elements in one face thereof while simultaneously setting the plastic in its final dimensionally stable form and providing a guide edge thereon; and (b) the provision of apparatus which permits direct printing of an image layer on the unformed or rear face of the formed plastic layer in optical illusion creating alignment and registry with the lens elements formed in the opposite face of the plastic layer.
THE BASIC INVENTION In accordance with the basic aspects hereof, a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit comprises a flexible optical display. The display includes a lenticulated image layer and a lenticular screen having a base face and a lenticulated forward face. The image layer is fixed in direct contact with the base face of the screen, and in alignment with the lenticles defined by the forward face thereof. Preferably, the focal point of the lenticles of the screen lie at least substantially in the plane of the image layer-i.e., at a point which affords the best optical clarity with a planar rear face adjacent the image layer. The screen has a maximum thickness of between .005 and .025 inch.
In accordance with the preferred'embodiment hereof, the pictorial parallax panoramagram unit is a laminated structure consisting of a plastic, lenticular screen and an originally separate base layer, e.g., paper, fixed to the rear face of the screen. In accordance with the preferred modification hereof, the panoramagram unit consits of a plastic, lenticular screen having the image layer printed directly on the rear face thereof.
In accordance with the preferred embodiment hereof, the unit is manufactured by applying a flowable coating of the plastic, preferably a polymer of an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon, in a viscous state onto a lineated image lafer preferably in sheet form, and thereafter embossing the coating into the form of lenticles properly aligned with the lineations on the image layer. The plastic is preferably such that it has a melt temperature of between 275 and 350 F., and a coating vicosity of between 10 and 200 poises. Moreover, the chill temperature of such plastic is such that it permits the application of the plastic and subsequent forming thereof, while at the same time allowing for setting as the plastic is engaged by a forming embossing-type roller. Preferably, the embossing roller is chilled to properly set the plastic, but after setting the plastic, maintains its fiexible characteristics, and affords a screen having a flexibility of between 0.1 and 2.0 1O psi.
The apparatus for producing a unit in accordance with the aforesaid preferred embodiment includes a series of rollers adapted to carry out the method steps, as well as a controllable reservoir for depositing the plastic on the image layer as the image layer passes thereunder. Preferably, the apparatus also includes sequentially operated gripping means and a vacuum type pick-up feed. Additionally, the preferred form of apparatus includes gear-operated timing means to insure proper sequential operation.
In producing the unit of the preferred modification hereof, a plastic, having specific properties, is extruded as a thin layer and then formed and set as a lenticular screen having a lenticular forward face and a guide edge(s). Thereafter, an image is directly printed on the rear face of the screen in illusion-creating optical registry with the lenticles formed in the forward face thereof. The apparatus for producing this form of product, as suggested above, includes extrusion means, forming means and printing means.
The above basic aspects of the preferred embodiment hereof and preferred modification hereof, as well as other important features of the invention, will be better comprehended, and the invention as a whole will be better understood, when consideration is given to the following detailed description thereof. Such description refers to the annexed drawings, presenting preferred and illustrative embodiments of the invention.
In the drawings:
FIGURE 1 is a fragmental enlarged perspective view of a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment hereof;
FIGURE 2 is a fragmental and schematic end view of the unit shown in FIGURE 1;
FIGURE 3 is an enlarged schematic sectional view of a unit such as shown in FIGURE 1, but adapted specifically to create a two-position changeable picture illusion;
FIGURE 4 is an enlarged schematic sectional view, similar to FIGURE 3, but presenting a modified unit adapted to create a multiple-position changeable picture illusion;
FIGURE 5 is an enlarged schematic fragmental end view of a unit adapted to create a changeable picture illusion, and shows the viewing disposition of this type unit relative to a viewers eyes;
FIGURE 6 is an enlarged schematic fragmental end view of a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit such as shown in FIGURE 1, but adapted to create a true threedimensional illusion, and shows the viewing disposition of this type urrit relative to a viewers eyes;
FIGURE 7 is an enlarged fragmental schematic view of a unit such as shown in FIGURE 6.
FIGURE 8 is anenlarged fragmental schematic view of a unit as shown in FIGURE 1, and presents dimensional features of importance in the invention;
FIGURE 9 is an enlarged schematic fragmental view of an image layer adapted to be incorporated in a unit such as shown in FIGURE 1, FIGURE 9 illustrating the panel make-up of such layer;
FIGURE 10 is a reduced pan view of a sheet carrying a plurality of image sections thereon, each of which sections is adapted to form the image layer of one final panoramagram unit;
FIGURE 11 is a schematic side view of a preferred processing assembly provided hereby and operating in 10 accordance with the preferred method hereof t6 coat an image-carrying base layer with a plastic coating and form such coating into a lenticular screen in situ on the base layer;
FIGURE 12 is a reduced schematic elevational view of a sheet carrying a plurality of image sections thereon and a coating thereover being embossed to form final panoramagram units;
FIGURE 13 is an enlarged fragmental schematic side view of the front portion of a modified form of lenticle which can be provided on a lenticular screen constructed in accordance herewith; and FIGURE 13(a) is an enlarged fragmental schematic side view of the rear portion of such modified lenticle;
FIGURE 14 is an enlarged fragmental plan view of a lenticular screen provided in accordance with the modification of FIGURES 13 and 13(a);
FIGURE 15 is an enlarged fragmental sectional view of a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit constructed in accordance herewith and incorporating the modified lenticle construction of FIGURES l3 and 13(a);
FIGURE 16 is an enlarged schematic side view of a further modified form of lenticle which can be incorporated in a pictorial parallax panoramagram unit con structed in accordance herewith;
FIGURE 17 is an enlarged fragmental plan view of a lenticular screen provided in accordance with the modification of FIGURE 16;
FIGURE 18 is an enlarged fragmental sectional view of a panoramagram unit constructed in accordance herewith and incorporating a lenticular screen as shown in FIGURE 17;
FIGURE 19 is a schematic side view of a modified assembly adapted to coat image-carrying base layers with a plastic coating in accordance with a modified method hereof, and form such coating in situ into a lenticular screen in optical registry with the image carried on such base layer, all in accordance with a modified method hereof;
FIGURE 20 is a schematic side view of a further modified assembly adapted to coat image-carrying base layers with a plastic coating in accordance with a further modified method hereof and form such coating in situ into a lenticular screen in optical registry with the image carried on such base layer;
FIGURE 21 is a schematic side view of a still further modified assembly adapted to coat image-carrying base layers with a plastic coating in accordance with a still further modified method hereof, and form such coating in situ into a lenticulated screen in optical registry with the image carried on such base layer;
FIGURE 22 is an enlarged fragmental transverse sectional view of a coating plate adapted to be used on the periphery of a coating roller incorporated in the assemblies of FIGURES 19 and 21;
FIGURE 23 is a fragmental enlarged front plan view of a portion of the plate shown in FIGURE 22;
FIGURE 24 is a schematic side view presenting in some detail structural aspects of devices to be used in and with the assembly of FIGURE 11 to selectively control' the coating operation performed thereby;
FIGURE 25 is a perspective view of a preferred form of plastic discharge coating means incorporated in the system of FIGURE 24;
FIGURE 26 is a transverse sectional view of the coating means shown in FIGURE 25;
FIGURE 27 is a fragmental elevational view of the preferred modified product hereof;
FIGURE 28 is an enlarged fragmental sectional view of the panoramagr'am unit shown in FIGURE 27, FIG- URE 28 presenting an exaggeration of the image layer for purposes of explanation;
FIGURE 29 is a fragmental perspective view of an assembly adapted to form sheet stock for use in making
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2279825 *||24 Jul 1940||14 Apr 1942||Kaszab Nicholas T||Stereoscopic picture with aplanat focusing element|
|US2351034 *||3 Aug 1940||13 Jun 1944||Optical system composed of|
|US2361347 *||1 Sep 1942||24 Oct 1944||Brown Leo H||Stereoscopic picture and method of making the same|
|US2446771 *||31 Dec 1946||10 Aug 1948||Boston Woven Hose & Rubber Com||Method of imparting surface effects to thermoplastic sheets|
|US2522812 *||7 Dec 1945||19 Sep 1950||Reliephographie Soc Pour L Exp||Composite photographic picture with reflecting back|
|US2562077 *||29 Aug 1947||24 Jul 1951||Winnek Douglas F||Composite stereography|
|US2581614 *||27 May 1948||8 Jan 1952||Duratube & Wire Ltd||Apparatus for the manufacture of patterned thermoplastic strip material|
|US2771388 *||18 Jun 1953||20 Nov 1956||Union Carbide & Carbon Corp||Method of laminating layers of thermoplastic foil|
|US2788051 *||2 Jan 1953||9 Apr 1957||Honeycomb Structures Company I||Apparatus for applying a coating to sheet material|
|US2923196 *||5 Feb 1958||2 Feb 1960||Voigtlaender Ag||Photographic view finder|
|US2974566 *||15 Nov 1957||14 Mar 1961||Hurley Screen Company Inc||Multi-section motion picture projection screen|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3419408 *||8 Dec 1965||31 Dec 1968||Eastman Kodak Co||Photographic viewing screen prepared from a lenticulated polyester film|
|US3458614 *||3 Mar 1967||29 Jul 1969||Knoll Ernst||Method for the manufacture of molded composite relief sheets|
|US3462226 *||6 Oct 1966||19 Aug 1969||Eastman Kodak Co||Preregistration and layout of three-dimensional prints|
|US3498864 *||22 Jan 1968||3 Mar 1970||Burroughs Corp||Method of producing a fiber optical article by molding and laminating|
|US3504059 *||12 Oct 1965||31 Mar 1970||Gen Electric||Method and apparatus for making three dimensional pictures|
|US3508920 *||18 Apr 1967||28 Apr 1970||Gen Electric||Three-dimensional pictures and method of making|
|US3522046 *||18 Apr 1967||28 Jul 1970||Gen Electric||Three-dimensional color pictures and method of making|
|US3534164 *||18 Apr 1967||13 Oct 1970||Gen Electric||Method and apparatus for producing 3d pictures utilizing a scanning electron beam|
|US3548045 *||17 Oct 1969||15 Dec 1970||Nemonic Data Systems Inc||Method of making a striated support for filaments|
|US3584130 *||29 Oct 1969||8 Jun 1971||Nemonic Data Systems Inc||Substrate for mounting filaments in close-spaced parallel array|
|US3607340 *||6 Apr 1970||21 Sep 1971||Eastman Kodak Co||Apparatus and method for spot-coating sheet and web materials|
|US3613539 *||26 Jul 1968||19 Oct 1971||Dudley Leslie Peter||Integral photography|
|US3848980 *||27 Jul 1973||19 Nov 1974||Polaroid Corp||Projector apparatus and system employing unique screen|
|US3948709 *||27 Aug 1973||6 Apr 1976||Oji Yuka Goseishi Kabushiki Kaisha||Process and apparatus for producing extrusion-laminated films|
|US4085731 *||10 Mar 1976||25 Apr 1978||Richard Lloyd Weir||Solar energy conversion system|
|US4120562 *||12 Apr 1976||17 Oct 1978||Dimensional Development Corporation||Stereoscopic picture|
|US4124291 *||3 Dec 1976||7 Nov 1978||Dimensional Development Corp.||Control of depth of field in three dimensional photography|
|US4414316 *||5 Sep 1980||8 Nov 1983||Rexham Corporation||Composite lenticular screen sheet|
|US4870768 *||11 Feb 1988||3 Oct 1989||Watt James A||Moving picture device|
|US4892336 *||18 Mar 1987||9 Jan 1990||Gao Gesellschaft Fuer Automation Und Organisation Mbh||Antifalsification document having a security thread embedded therein and a method for producing the same|
|US5034982 *||3 Jan 1989||23 Jul 1991||Dittler Brothers, Inc.||Lenticular security screen production method|
|US5266995 *||12 Aug 1992||30 Nov 1993||Quad/Tech, Inc.||Method for forming a graphic image web|
|US5303370 *||13 Nov 1992||12 Apr 1994||Score Group, Inc.||Anti-counterfeiting process using lenticular optics and color masking|
|US5303525 *||21 Sep 1992||19 Apr 1994||University Of Arkanas||Siding or roofing exterior panels for controlled solar heating|
|US5330799 *||15 Sep 1992||19 Jul 1994||The Phscologram Venture, Inc.||Press polymerization of lenticular images|
|US5362351 *||9 Jul 1993||8 Nov 1994||Karszes William M||Method of making lenticular plastics and products therefrom|
|US5457515 *||11 Jan 1994||10 Oct 1995||Quad/Tech, Inc.||Method for forming a graphic image web|
|US5461495 *||2 Mar 1994||24 Oct 1995||Applied Physics Research, L.P.||Apparatus for providing autostereoscopic and dynamic images and method of manufacturing same|
|US5519794 *||1 Apr 1994||21 May 1996||Rotaventure L.L.C.||Computer-generated autostereography method and apparatus|
|US5554432 *||2 Mar 1994||10 Sep 1996||The Phscologram Venture, Inc.||Press polymerization of lenticular images|
|US5870233 *||4 Mar 1997||9 Feb 1999||Roehm Gmbh Chemische Fabrik||Process for manufacture of fresnel lenses|
|US5958178 *||2 Dec 1996||28 Sep 1999||Billhoefer Maschinenfabrik Gmbh||Visual lamination with thermoplastic adhesives|
|US6071110 *||11 Sep 1997||6 Jun 2000||Mikkelsen; Oeystein||Polishing roll and method for making same|
|US6074192 *||11 Sep 1997||13 Jun 2000||Mikkelsen; Oeystein||Lenticular pattern forming roll and method for making the roll|
|US6495214||24 Apr 1998||17 Dec 2002||Emtec Magnetics Gmbh||Method of producing a film or a layer with a surface structure on both sides|
|US6995914 *||19 Feb 2004||7 Feb 2006||Conley Kenneth E||Method of producing a sheet having lenticular lens in pre-selected areas|
|US7002748 *||19 Feb 2004||21 Feb 2006||Conley Kenneth E||Method of producing a package from a sheet having lenticular lens in pre-selected areas|
|US7040227 *||1 Oct 2003||9 May 2006||E Innovations, Inc.||Stamping devices and methods|
|US7165959||9 Sep 2003||23 Jan 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned webs in registration|
|US7224529||9 Sep 2003||29 May 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Microreplicated article|
|US7417798||11 May 2007||26 Aug 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Microreplicated article|
|US7444932||6 Mar 2006||4 Nov 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for making microreplicated article|
|US7767273||6 Mar 2006||3 Aug 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned web in registration|
|US7804649||9 Mar 2005||28 Sep 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Microreplicated achromatic lens|
|US7889196 *||22 Oct 2009||15 Feb 2011||Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha||3-dimensional image creating apparatus, 3-dimensional image reproducing apparatus, 3-dimensional image processing apparatus, 3-dimensional image processing program and recording medium recorded with the program|
|US7931841||6 Mar 2006||26 Apr 2011||3M Innovative Properties Company||Microreplicated article|
|US8009360||31 Oct 2007||30 Aug 2011||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to lie above a given plane|
|US8057715 *||28 Aug 2008||15 Nov 2011||Reflexite Corporation||Method for making an optical device and system for privacy or contrast enhancement|
|US8077393 *||31 Oct 2007||13 Dec 2011||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to transform into another image|
|US8111462||31 Oct 2007||7 Feb 2012||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system|
|US8120855||29 Jun 2007||21 Feb 2012||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system for a security device|
|US8144399||22 Dec 2008||27 Mar 2012||Visual Physics, Llc||Image presentation and micro-optic security system|
|US8205995||7 Aug 2008||26 Jun 2012||Reflexite Corporation||Optical device and system for privacy or contrast enhancement and methods of use thereof|
|US8254030 *||31 Oct 2007||28 Aug 2012||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to lie below a given plane|
|US8284492||11 May 2007||9 Oct 2012||Crane & Co., Inc.||Micro-optic film structure that alone or together with a security document or label projects images spatially coordinated with static images and/or other projected images|
|US8310760||11 Mar 2011||13 Nov 2012||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to lie above a given plane|
|US8472118||13 May 2009||25 Jun 2013||Franck Guigan||Printed optical members|
|US8514492||15 Oct 2008||20 Aug 2013||Ovd Kinegram Ag||Multilayer body and method for producing a multilayer body|
|US8547524||21 Mar 2007||1 Oct 2013||Lau Consulting, Inc.||Active mask variable data integral imaging system and method|
|US8740599||16 Jul 2010||3 Jun 2014||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned web in registration|
|US8755101||19 Dec 2008||17 Jun 2014||Rolling Optics Ab||Method of producing a microstructured product|
|US8755121||27 Jan 2012||17 Jun 2014||Crane & Co., Inc.||Laser marked device|
|US8773763||12 Aug 2010||8 Jul 2014||Visual Physics, Llc||Tamper indicating optical security device|
|US8840235||6 Jun 2011||23 Sep 2014||Luxexcel Holding Bv.||Print head, upgrade kit for a conventional inkjet printer, inkjet printer and method for printing optical structures|
|US8848971||19 Jul 2010||30 Sep 2014||Arjowiggins Security||Parallax effect security element|
|US8867134||22 Jun 2010||21 Oct 2014||Visual Physics, Llc||Optical system demonstrating improved resistance to optically degrading external effects|
|US8968629||6 May 2014||3 Mar 2015||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned web in registration|
|US8982231||19 Jul 2010||17 Mar 2015||Arjowiggins Security||Parallax effect security element|
|US20050052750 *||9 Sep 2003||10 Mar 2005||King Vincent W.||Microreplicated article|
|US20050207031 *||9 Mar 2005||22 Sep 2005||Eckhardt Stephen K||Microreplicated achromatic lens|
|US20050231809 *||9 Mar 2005||20 Oct 2005||Carlson Daniel H||Microreplicated polarizing article|
|US20060209428 *||6 Mar 2006||21 Sep 2006||Dobbs James N||Microreplicated article with moire reducing surface|
|US20060210714 *||6 Mar 2006||21 Sep 2006||Huizinga John S||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned web in registration|
|US20060210770 *||6 Mar 2006||21 Sep 2006||Nelson John C||Microreplicated article with defect-reducing surface|
|US20060236877 *||6 Mar 2006||26 Oct 2006||Strand John T||Apparatus and method for making microreplicated article|
|US20060251803 *||6 Mar 2006||9 Nov 2006||Huizinga John S||Microreplicated article|
|US20070141249 *||21 Dec 2006||21 Jun 2007||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned webs in registration|
|US20070151468 *||6 Mar 2006||5 Jul 2007||Strand John T||Apparatus and method for making microreplicated article|
|US20070211347 *||11 May 2007||13 Sep 2007||3M Innovation Properties Company||Microreplicated article|
|US20070273143 *||11 May 2007||29 Nov 2007||Crane Timothy T||Micro-optic film structure that alone or together with a security document or label projects images spatially coordinated with static images and/or other projected images|
|US20080036196 *||29 Jun 2007||14 Feb 2008||Nanoventions, Inc.||Micro-optic security and image presentation system for a security device|
|US20080131667 *||10 Oct 2007||5 Jun 2008||3M Innovative Properties Company||Microreplicated article|
|US20080165423 *||31 Oct 2007||10 Jul 2008||Nanoventions Holdings, Llc||Micro-Optic Security And Image Presentation System Presenting A Synthetically Magnified Image That Appears To Lie Above A Given Plane|
|US20080212192 *||31 Oct 2007||4 Sep 2008||Nanoventions Holdings, Llc||Micro-Optic Security And Image Presentation System|
|US20080212193 *||31 Oct 2007||4 Sep 2008||Nanoventions Holdings, Llc||Micro-Optic Security And Image Presentation System Presenting A Synthetically Magnified Image That Appears To Lie Below A Given Plane|
|US20090021840 *||31 Oct 2007||22 Jan 2009||Nanoventions Holdings, Llc||Micro-Optic Security And Image Presentation System Presenting A Synthetically Magnified Image That Appears To Transform Into Another Image|
|US20090122412 *||22 Dec 2008||14 May 2009||Nanoventions Holdings, Llc||Image Presentation and Micro-Optic Security System|
|US20090202800 *||20 Apr 2009||13 Aug 2009||Min-San Huang||Article With Color Variable Patterns|
|US20090207389 *||21 Mar 2007||20 Aug 2009||Roberts David E||Active mask variable data integral imaging system and method|
|US20090267246 *||29 Oct 2009||Conley Kenneth E||Method and apparatus for manufacturing lenticular plastics by casting|
|US20100033827 *||7 Aug 2008||11 Feb 2010||Reflexite Corporation||Optical device and system for privacy or contrast enhancement and methods of use thereof|
|US20100039499 *||18 Feb 2010||Toshio Nomura||3-dimensional image creating apparatus, 3-dimensional image reproducing apparatus, 3-dimensional image processing apparatus, 3-dimensional image processing program and recording medium recorded with the program|
|US20100051176 *||28 Aug 2008||4 Mar 2010||Reflexite Corporation||Method for making an optical device and system for privacy or contrast enhancement|
|US20100285231 *||16 Jul 2010||11 Nov 2010||3M Innovative Properties Company||Apparatus and method for producing two-sided patterned web in registration|
|US20100290121 *||15 Oct 2008||18 Nov 2010||Ovd Kinegram Ag||Multilayer Body and Method for Producing a Multilayer Body|
|US20100308571 *||9 Dec 2010||Visual Physics, Llc||Optical system demonstrating improved resistance to optically degrading external effects|
|US20110019283 *||12 Aug 2010||27 Jan 2011||Visual Physics, Llc||Tamper indicating optical security device|
|US20110116152 *||13 May 2009||19 May 2011||Franck Guigan||Printed Optical Members|
|US20110188124 *||4 Aug 2011||Satoshi Yanagita||Method for manufacturing image print sheet, image print sheet and printing apparatus|
|US20110209328 *||1 Sep 2011||Visual Physics, Llc||Micro-optic security and image presentation system presenting a synthetically magnified image that appears to lie above a given plane|
|US20150290922 *||6 Nov 2013||15 Oct 2015||Rolling Optics Ab||Printing tool for production of synthetic image devices and a method of manufacturing such a tool|
|USRE35029 *||3 May 1994||29 Aug 1995||The Phscologram Venture, Inc.||Computer-generated autostereography method and apparatus|
|CN101932976B||19 Dec 2008||5 Dec 2012||若邻光学公司||Method of producing a microstructured product|
|EP0047632A1 *||2 Sep 1981||17 Mar 1982||Rexham Corporation||Thermoset relief patterned sheet|
|EP0238043A2 *||17 Mar 1987||23 Sep 1987||GAO Gesellschaft für Automation und Organisation mbH||Security document incoporating a security thread|
|EP0490412A2 *||17 Mar 1987||17 Jun 1992||GAO Gesellschaft für Automation und Organisation mbH||Process for the working of foils in exact register|
|EP0659531A1 *||17 Dec 1994||28 Jun 1995||Röhm GmbH||Process for extrusion of plastic plates and Fresnel lenses produced therefrom|
|EP1695121A2 *||22 Nov 2004||30 Aug 2006||Nanoventions, Inc.||Micro-optic security and image presentation system|
|WO1993013929A1 *||15 Jan 1993||22 Jul 1993||William M Karszes||Method of making lenticular plastics and products therefrom|
|WO2009085004A1 *||19 Dec 2008||9 Jul 2009||Rolling Optics Ab||Method of producing a microstructured product|
|WO2009147353A2 *||13 May 2009||10 Dec 2009||Franck Guigan||Printed optical members|
|WO2011007342A1||19 Jul 2010||20 Jan 2011||Arjowiggins Security||Parallax effect security element|
|WO2011007343A1||19 Jul 2010||20 Jan 2011||Arjowiggins Security||Parallax effect security element|
|WO2011007344A1||19 Jul 2010||20 Jan 2011||Arjowiggins Security||Parallax effect security element|
|WO2011051904A1||28 Oct 2010||5 May 2011||Arjowiggins Security||Security element comprising a substrate bearing an optical structure and a reference pattern, and associated method|
|WO2011051905A1||28 Oct 2010||5 May 2011||Arjowiggins Security||Security element comprising an adhesive and a substrate bearing an optical structure, and associated method|
|WO2015107032A1 *||13 Jan 2015||23 Jul 2015||Bericap Gmbh & Co. Kg||Plastic closure having tamper-proof surface|
|U.S. Classification||359/620, 264/1.9, 359/462, 264/284, 427/162, 427/278, 156/244.25, 264/408, 264/1.6, 156/242, 428/29, 264/129, 359/893|
|International Classification||G03C9/08, G03B21/06, B29D11/00, G03B35/24, G03B21/32|
|Cooperative Classification||G03B21/06, G03B35/24, B29D11/00278, G03B21/32|
|European Classification||G03B21/32, B29D11/00C6, G03B35/24, G03B21/06|