US 3178075 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 13, 1965 G. M. RIEDL ETAL 3,178,075
PRESSURIZED CONTAINER Filed Maron 19, 1964 2 sheets-sheet 1 1li Il |v Milly@ I M SBI-olv K, FREEDE A TTORNE V5 April 13 1965 G. M. RIEDL ETAL PRESSURIZED CONTAINER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 19, 1964 INVENTORS! Gfagse M. Raam, Eu :s M Ren/Ea BY SOLO" R.F4?Eo&
ATTORNEYS United States Patent O 3,178,975 PRESSURIZED CNTAlNER vGeorge M. Riedl, 13S xiord Drive, Tenaily, NJ.; Eliis M. Reyner, 1 Horizon Road, Fort ieee, NJ.; and Soient Robert Freeda, 41 Woodward Ave, Clifton, NJ.
Filed Mar. i9, 1964,Ser. No.-353,tl45 it? Claims. (Cl. Z22- 3955) The present invention relates to iluid dispensing means and deals more particularly with apparatus for dispensing flowable material from a container by means of gaseous ressure.
lt is conventional practice to package under pressure a wide variety of fluid materials which may vary in consistency from free iiowing liquids to creams and viscous pastos. Materials contemplated include dental cream, cologne water, Syrups, shaving cream, mayonnaise, whippcd cream, and paste. Usually the package is pressurized by adding to the material a propellant, which may be a liquefied or compressed gas, to .provide the necessary force to expel the material or product from the package or container. However, these pressurized or aerosol containers have certain disadvantages. For example, such containers are charged with a gas under a pressure of about to 60 lbs-gauge pressure. As the contents thereof are used by the opening of the valve associated with such containers, there results a gradual diminution of the gaseous pressure. As a result, when the user thereof comes to dispensing the last of the contents of the container, there is insufficient gaseous pressure to expel the contents satisfactorily even after vigorous shaldng of the container. It this is compensated for by placing the contents under greater initial gaseous pressure, there is the possibility that the pressurized container may explode.
Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to provide a pressurized container or can for dispensing apaste-like or liquid material of such construction as to deliver the material under relatively constant pressure regardless of the amount of material left in the container.
A Vfurther object of the invention is to provide a pressurized container for dispensing pasty and liquid materials which container will expel even the residual contents thereof without the necessity of shaking the container on the part of the user.
A further object ofthe invention is to provide a pressurized container for dispensing pasty and liquid materials which container will expel even the residual contents thereof due to the in situ generation of gas by chemical or mechanical means within the container concomitantly with the expulsion of the materials therefrom.
A further object of the invention is to provide a pressurized container for dispensing ilowable materials, whether solids such as powders, or liquids of varying viscosity, of such construction that the propellant torce for expelling the material from the container remains substantially contsant so as to insure the delivery of all of the material from the container.
A yfurther object of this invention is to provide a low cost ,pressurized container for dispensing .iluid materials of varying viscosity in which the more expensive type of tiuorocarbon propellant is replaced by carbon dioxide or any other inexpensive gas.
A further object of this invention is to provide a pressurized container for dispensing tluid materials of varying viscosity by a self-inflicting iexible bag which eiects the complete expulsion of the materials from the container.
Aiurther object of this invention is to provide a pressurized container for dispensing liowable materials which container will eliminate the problem of incompatibility between products and propellants when in contact with the valve and the container or with each other.
3,l78,t Patented Apr. 13, 1965 ICC Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the description which follows.
According to one embodiment the present invention contemplates using a plastic bag VWithin a portion of a conventional pressurized or aerosol `container having a valve. The ilowable material under gaseous pressure is located in a portion of the container around the bag. Positioned within the bag is a carbon dioxide generator which forms carbon dioxide as the material is expelled from the container by opening the valve. Due to this in situ generation of gas every time .the valve is opened, there is always suiiicient gas pressure present to expel the entire contents of the container.
The precise nature of the present invention will become evident from the following specication and the accompanying drawings in which:
FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view of a pressurized container constructed according to the present invention and showing the container in condition yfor operation;
FIG. 2 is a View partly in section and partly in perspective of the container of FG. 1 except slightly reduced in size showing the change in the contour ofthe plastic'bag after the valve has been opened so as to eect a discharge of the material therefrom;
FlG. 3 is a schematic vertical sectional view of a modied construction;
FIG. 4 is a vertical sectional View of another Vmodified construction;
FiG. 5 is a vertical sectional view of a further modified construction; and
PEG. 6 is a vertical sectional view of a still further modiiied construction.
The illustrative embodiment of FIG. 1 comprises a cylindrical container 1t) having a cap 14 and a bottom 12. Cap i4 has a threaded neck 15 with inwardly v.projecting flanges i7 and a centrally disposed valve seat i3. A cover 2l having a central opening 23 therethrough threadedly engages neck 1S. Mounted within a `bore 20 defined by opening 23, ilanges 17 and valve seat i8 is a valve lo resiliently mounted by means of a springr 24 which cooperates with ange 2%. Valve lo has a 'stem 22 with openings 19 in the lower end thereof. The stem 22 projects upwardly through 'the bore 20 ot the valve seat l and is secured to a knob or actuator 28. This knob has a lateralduct 30 and a-central duc-t 32. The lateral duct 30 extends from the outside of the knob 28 to the central duct 32 which is in alignment with the bore 2). vConnected to Vthe valve seat i8 of the cap 14 is a perforated dip tube 34 that extends -into that partei the container which contains the dow-able product P to -'be dispensed. The bore 2011s in communication with `tube 34 by means of openings 19 when knob 'Z3 vis depressed. The dip tube can be of variaible length and Aalso perforated. Positioned along the sideof Vthe-container .are one or more Siphon or conductor tubes 38 whic'lifcanbe of varying lengths and which prevent the product from bei-ng sealed ott-due to the receptacle or bag 4t) expanding as will be explained hereinafter.
It will be noted that the bag 4t) envelops Va gas generator 42 ixedly mounted on an insulating plastic layer i3 positioned on the bottom l2 of container llt). The gas generator comprises a lower chamber "34 containing av liquid acid material such as an aqueous Vsolution Aof citric acid, Passing vertically upward through'chanrber t4 'is an open tube 46 having a valve t8 and valvefseat 50 at its lower end and opening 52 in its upper end. Mounted on container 44 `is a smaller receptacle 54 which contains a salt, such as sodium bicarbonate, capable of liberating carbon dioxide when brought in contact with an acid. An annular opening 56 is provided in receptacle 54.
To prepare the container itl for market, the gas generator unit 42 with its enveloping bag 40, which is usually a plastic material like polyethylene, is mounted on the bottom of container 10. The product, for example, cologne, to be dispensed is then loaded into the container under a pressure of 40480 p.s.i. gauge of nitrogen or carbon dioxide. This pressure'will in turn not only collapse bag 40 but cause the air therein to be compressed. In addition, one or more siphon tubes 38 are positioned along the Vwall of the container 10. The cap 14 and its associated valve 16 are then sealed into the top of the container. To dispense the material, the user depresses the knob 28 opening the valve 16. Due to the liquid cologne being under gaseous pressure, depressing the knob 28 causes the contents to be propelled from the container through tube 34, openings 19, bore 20, central duct 32 and lateral duct 30. Simultaneously, due to the ejec- .tion of some of theproduct, the pressure within bag 4@ will be greater than the pressure on the outside thereof such that there will be a pressure difference on container 44 so that the acid will rise in tube 46, pass through openings 52, and contact the sodium bicarbonate in receptacle 54 thereby liberating carbon dioxide which will expand bag 40 and force the product out through valve 16 whenever knob 28 is depressed or in the open position. FIG. 2illustrates the position the bag 41B will take after the pressure container has been in use.
The role of the perforated Siphon tube 38 now becomes apparent. Since it is possible that the bag 40 may seal off some of the product as the bag expands during use-of the pressure container, the presence of one or more siphon tubes provides communication between areas which may become sealed off due to the expanding bag 40. As more and more of the product is dispensed from the container 10, the bag will continue to expand so as to iill completely the container and effect a complete expulsion of the product therefrom due to the continuing in situ generation and liberation of carbon dioxide.
The amount of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate which Will be necessary can readily be calculated from the following equation:
Thus, approximately 1.9 grams of sodium bicarbonate when reacted with 1.5 grams of anhydrous citric acid Will generate about 1 gram of carbon dioxide or about 550 cc. at 70 C. under one atmosphere pressure. According, the amount of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate to be employed will depend on the size and pressure of the container.
The use of a valve 50 in the tube 46 is in the event the container is tipped upside down. In that case, the valve 50 will be held in valve seat 48 and the acid will be prevented from contacting the bicarbonate and thereby prevent an excess liberation of carbon dioxide.
The plastic layer 13 can be dispensed with if there lis no problem with respect to storing the containers at low temperatures where freezing of the water solution of acid might occur. Under such circumstances, the container 44 could be attached, as by soldering, directly to the bottom 12. Similarly, valve 50 can be eliminated from tube 46 if there is no likelihood of the container being inverted. Y
It will also be evident to those skilled in the art that the gas generator and its enveloping receptacle and bag can be constructed in the manner shown in FIG. 3 wherein a dispenser 110 with a valve 116 and a knob 128 similar to that shown in FIG. 1 is employed. The dispenser 110 is iirst filled with the product P', such as mayonnaise, except for suii'icient space to crimp on a bottom 114 which hasv attached thereto a coiled plastic bag 140 having an inner zone I of coils 141 lined with a substance S, such as NaHCO3, capable of liberating CO2 when in contact with an acid. The bag terminates in a tube 142 with a valve 143 therein mounted in the bottom 114.1
The outer zone O of coils 141 of the bag is then charged Cil iunder a pressure of about 50 p.s.i. gauge with an aqueous solution of preferably a weak acid. It is to be understood that the plastic bag can be disposed in the form of a number of contacting angular folds instead of rolled up in the coils as shown in FIG. 3.
When knob or actuator 128 is depressed, the product is .forced out by the expansion of bag 1453 which is under an internal pressure of about 50 p.s.i. gauge. However, as the bag expands, it will also unfold permitting the acid solution to contact the substance P so as to give off additional C92 and thereby maintain the pressure relatively constant although the volume of the bag increases in size as the bag unfolds.
In FIG. 4 there is shown a modication in which the tube 46 with its valve 48 and valve seat 5t) are replaced by a curved capillary tube 46' with its opening reaching the center of chamber 44 corresponding to chamber 44 of PEG. 1. Such a construction will also prevent the iiow of a liquid from the chamber 44 in the event the pressurized container is inverted.
The examples shown in FIGS. 1 through 4 above can be described as pressurized containers of the present invention wherein the gaseous pressure within the containers is maintained substantially undiminished by means of a chemical gas generator. However, it is to be understood the gas can be generated in situ by a so-called mechanical gas generator. As representative of this modiiication, reference is made to FIG. 5 wherein 16' is a container similar to FIG. 1 having a bottom 12', cap 14', valve 16', dip tube 34', and product P corresponding to similar elements of container 10 of FIG. l. However, the corresponding gas reservoir or generator 42 is of the mechanical type. This container has two one-way valves, an inlet valve 151D and an outlet valve 154. The inlet valve 151i` consists of a short length of tubing 151 with a small hole 152 on the side thereof covered by a band of rubber 153. Similarly, the outlet valve 154 consists of a short length of tubing 155 with a small hole 156 on the side thereof covered by a band of rubber 157.
The present pressurized container 10 is prepared for the market lby positioning the mechanical gas generator 42 therein. The product is poured in to the level shown in FIG. 5, the air is purged and the valve is crimped on. Then a gas, such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide, is forced through the valve 16 under a pressure of about 100 p.1s.i.g. The gas will then bubble up through the liquid P to reach the inlet valve 151. It will then flow into the gas generator or reservoir 42', which is of an adequate size, through the inlet valve 151 until the pressure in the generator rises to about 100 p.s.i.g. The operation of the inlet valve 151 `is such that the flow of gas therethrough and subsequently through hole 152 pushes the band of rubber 153 away and allows the gas to enter the generator. However, this iiow of gas cannot reverse itself since this would press the rubber band 153 towards the tubing Vin the present instance where the tubing 151 is Within the lgenerator 42. The operation of outlet valve 154 is somewhat similar in that the pressure of the gas from the reservoir 42 plus the decrease in external pressure as the product P' is expelled fromV the container 10 will cause the rubber band 157 to expand and permit flow of the gas out through hole 156. Thus when the valve 16' is actuated, the product P will be forcedl from the container 10' lso that the gaseous pressure on the product I which is outside the generator 42 will be reduced.V This lowering of pressure will create a pressure unbalance such that a fresh supply of gas Will iiow from the generator 42 through scribed above, will push against flexible bag 40 whichr in turn will exert a pressure against surrounding product P and cause its expulsion through valve 16' of container much in the same manner as shown in FIGS. l and 2 above. VIn the FIG. 6 modification, it will be noted that the inlet valve 150 is Aof sufficient length so as to project from the bag 40.
From the foregoing ldescription it will be apparent that there has been devised an inexpensive yet ethcient pressurized container in which the relatively cheap carbon dioxide -is used as the propellant toeliect a complete expulsion of the product from the container by chemical means.
Moreover it is evident that the container need not be pressurized under high pressures so as to make certain there will be adequate pressure available for the expulsion of the last of the product. With the present invention, there is a continuous and relatively constant gas pressure developed due to the fact that as the product is used, more carbon dioxide is liberated to maintain the original gas pressure due to the interaction of the acid with 'the bicarbonate.
In addition, the pressurized can of the present invention is admirably suited to the dispensing of Whipped cream and related products which-cannot be under too great a ygaseous pressure, otherwise the desired flutiiness of the product, as it is expelled from the container, is not obtained.
.it will also be evident to those skilled in the art that there .has been devised a pressurizing unit consisting of a exible bag 49 and a gas generator d2 Within said bag which can be inserted in a conventional pressurized can which `contains a material, such as mayonnaise, under gaseous pressure. AB y Yincorporating the pressurizing unit of the present invention, one is assured of a cotninuous liberation of carbon dioxide during the use of the container whereby the last remaining portion of material is expelled from the can.
Various modifications will be apparent to those skilled in the art. For example, other acids, solid or liquid, and other chemicals can be employed if desired. Similarly, the source of the gas be a solid or liquid. With foodstulis, the relatively harmless organic acids, such as citric and tartaric acid, can be effectively used. Where foodstuffs are not involved, some of the `stronger inorganic acids such as sulfuric and hydrochloric will be found suitable. ln addition, it Will .fbe evident to those skilled in the art that other valve or actuator means can be employed to release the product from the container (see U.S. Patent No. 2,671,578).
Although only the bag is indicated as made of a flexible plastic like polyethylene and rubber, for certain purposes the entire container might be made of plastic instead oi metal. In general, the bag can be made of any convenient impervious flexible material including metallic foils, plastics, and specially treated fabrics. in addition, one or more siphon tubes can be used with the FIG. 3 or FIG. 6 modication.
While the generator is shown positioned within an expandable bag (FIG. l), it will be evident to those skilled in the art that the product could be placed in a collapsible bag connected to the valve 16 by means of tube 34 (see U.S. Patent No. 2,671,578) and the generator positioned outside thereof Within the container 10. Moreover, two or more units can be positioned within a Vsingle container so that two or more products could be expelled from the same container iti through a common valve or separate valves (see US. Patent No. 2,947,449).
While the illustrative embodiments of the invention have been described hereinbefore with particularity, it will be understood that various other modifications will be apparent to and can readily be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. Accordingly, it is not intended that the scope of the claims appended hereto be limited to the description set forth herein but rather than the claims be construed as encompassing all the features and patentable novelty which reside in the present invention including all features which would be Atreated as `equivalents thereof by those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains.
What we claim is:
l. Apparatus for dispensing liowablematerials of varying viscosity comprising a container .having a .bottom and a cap with an opening therein, a manually operable valve positioned in said opening, a manually movable knob secured to said valve for moving the valve .to an open position, said lknob having a discharge duct therein, a tube connected to said duct and lextending down into said container, a portion of said container adapted for holding the ilowable materials which are under gaseous pressure, a chemical gas generator positioned in a second portion of said container and means associated With said generator responsive to a decrease in external pressure on said generator whereby gas is chemically liberated from said generator when the valve is in an open position 'to effect a substantially .constant continuing pressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof.
2. Apparatus for dispensing llowable materials of varying viscosity comprising a container ehaving a bottom and a cap with an opening therein, a manually operable valve positioned in said opening, a lmanually movable actuator secured to said valve for moving the val-ve to an open position, said actuator having a discharge duct therein, a tube connected to said duct and extending down into said container, a portion of said container adapted for holding the owable materials which are under pressure, a -gas generator positioned in a second portion -of said container, and a exible bag enveloping said generator such that when the valve is -in open position, the generator begins to produce a gas gradually and regularly so as to maintain the pressure Within the bag undiminished regardless of its expansion and in turn effects a further pressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof.
3. Apparatus for dispensing iiowable materials of varying viscosity, comprising a. container having a bottom and a cap with an opening therein, a manually operable valve positioned in said opening, a manually movable actuator secured to said valve for moving the valve to an open position, said actuator having a discharge duct therein, a tube connected to said duct and extending down into said container, a portion of said container adapted for holding the tlowable materials which are under pressure, a gas generator located in a second portion of said container, at least one Siphon tube connecting said portions, and a flexible bag enveloping said generator such that when the valve is in open position, the generator begins to produce a gas gradually and regularly as to maintain the pressure within the bag undiminished regardless of its expansion and in turn elfects a further pressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof.
4. Apparatus for dispensing dov/able materials of varying viscosity comprising a container having a bottom and an opening ata cap end thereof, a manually operable valve positioned in said opening, a manually movable actuator secured to said valve for moving the valve to an open position, said actuator having a discharge duct therein, a tube connected to said duct and extending down into said container, a pressurized portion of said container adapted for holding the llowable materials to be expelled, a gas generator positioned in a second portion of said container, said generator having a chamber containing a first chemical and a receptacle containing a second chemical which upon reacting with the first chemical is a source of gas, a means connecting said chamber and receptacle, and a liexible bag enveloping said generator such that when the valve is in open position the lirst chemical, due to a pressure unbalance, is caused to flow into said receptacle so as to contact the second chemical therein and liberate a gas which successively replenishes the pressure Within the bag and in turn maintains gaseous pressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof.
" 5. In a pressurized container theI improvement consisting of a pressurizing unit comprising a gasV generator positioned within a bag which is subjected -to an external above atmospheric gaseous pressure, said generator having a chamber containing a rst liquid chemical and a receptacle containing a second chemical which upon reacting with the rst chemical is a source of gas, a tube connecting said chamber and receptacle, and said liquid chemical owing into said receptacle when the external pressure on the bag diminishes whereby the chemicals contact one another and liberate a gas which causes the bag to expand.
6. A pressurizing unit for containers consisting of a flexible plastic bag under external pressure and a gas generator positioned Within the bag, said generator having (1) a chamber containing a liquid chemical and (2) a receptacle containing a second chemical which upon reacting with the rst chemical is a source of gas, a tube connecting said chamber and receptacle, such that the liquid ilows into said receptacle when the external gaseous pressure on the bag diminishes so as to contact the second chemical therein and liberate a gas whereby the plastic bag expands. 7. The improvement of claim 5 wherein the means connecting said chamber and receptacle contains a check means to prevent the liquid chemical from contacting the second chemical in the event the container is inverted.
8. The apparatus of claim 4 wherein there is an insulating layer overlying the bottom of the container.
9. Apparatus for dispensing iowable materials of varying viscosity comprising a container having a bottom and a cap with an opening therein, a manually operable valve positioned in said opening, a manually movable knob secured to said valve for moving the valve to an open position, said knob having a discharge duct therein, a portion of said container adapted for holding the flowable materials which are under gaseous pressure, a chemical gas generator positioned in a second portion of said container and means associated with said generator responsive to a decrease in external pressure on said generator whereby gas is chemically liberated from said generator when the valve is in an open position to effect a substantially constant continuingpressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof.
10. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the chemical gas generator is a coiled bag under above atmospheric gaseous internal pressure and containing chemical reagents capable of reacting with each other to liberate a gas in response to the decrease in external pressure whereby the bag is caused to unfold and thereby exert the substantially constant continuing pressure against the materials so as to facilitate the expulsion thereof from the container.
References Cited bythe Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS 524,377 8/94 Carr 169-32 1,469,501 10/23 Dollin 169-32 1,832,817 11/31 Pearsons 169-32 2,381,749 8/45 Hull et al. 169-32 2,815,152 12/57 Mills Z22-386.5 2,995,278 8/61 Clapp 222-394 3,053,422 9/62 Tenison et al. 222-399 3,127,059 3/64 Lawrence et al. 222-52 X LOUIS I. DEMBO, Primary Examiner.