US 3089492 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 14, 1963 N. OWENS 3,089,492
WET SURGICAL DRESSING Filed May 11, 1961 INVENT OR NEAL OWENS United States Patent Gt Filed May 11, 1961, Ser. No. 109,457 6 Claims. (Cl. 128-268) The present invention relates to improvements in surgical dressings of the wet or closed type adapted for application to burns and other surface wounds.
A principal object of the invention is to provide a surgical dressing which has a contact layer for burns, surface wounds, granulating areas, or donor sites where skin grafts have been removed, of very finely woven material which is relatively frictionless so as to avoid any irritaiton of the wound but which also has a porosity suflicient to permit drainage. The particular wound contact layer as contemplated by the invention is formed from smooth threads Woven in a critical manner so that the interstices defined by the threads are small enough to prevent capillary penetration or invasion through the interstices and adherence of the dressing to the granulation tissue or capillary ends of the wound but which are sufficiently large to allow for the drainage of fluid from the wound or the application of treating fluid through the interstices to the wound.
Another object of the invention is to provide a composite surgical dressing having an outer layer of gauze or other absorbent material for receiving fluid and means such as a pack of Dakin tubes positioned between the inner and outer layers for distributing a wound treating fluid such as saline solution or oxygen throughout the body of the dressing.
Still another object of the invention is at provide surgical dressings of the foregoing character which are shaped to conform to the anatomic contours of the human body and which are of relatively large surface area so that a maximum area of the body can be covered with a minimum number of dressings.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein a preferred embodiment of the principles of the invention has been selected for exemplification.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a plan view of the inner or wound contact side of a combination surgical dressing constructed in accordance with the invention and contoured for application to either the front or the back of the upper portion of a human body;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the outer side of the dressing shown in FIG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is an elevational view showing the dressing applied to the front upper portion of a body, a fragment thereof being partially in rolled back section to show the fluid distributing tube pack which forms a part of the dressing.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, wherein like numerals refer to like parts, the dressing as indicated in its entirety at comprises an inner wound contact layer 12 and an outer layer 14 of gauze or other absorption material secured together at their peripheral edges in any suitable manner but preferably by lapping extended edges of the sheet 12 over the adjacent edges of the gauze layer 14 and then stitching or adhering, as shown. Fluid distributing means such as a pack of Dakin tubes 16 is positioned intermediate the body portions of the layers 12 and 14 and secured at any desired position therein by stitching indicated at 17. A supply tube 18 for the Dakin tubes 16 passes outwardly through an open ing provided in the dressing for connection to any convenient source of liquid treating fluid such as saline solution or oxygen, not shown.
While the particular dressing shown at 10 is contoured for application to either the front or the back upper portion of a human body, it is to be understood that dressings similarly embodying the invention may be appropriately contoured for application to any other portion of the body such as an arm or a leg, for example.
The wound contact layer 12 is a fine weave of very smooth threads, such as silk, rayon, nylon or other synthetic material, which presents an extremely low coeflicient of friction to avoid any irritation of the wound as the result of frictional contact. Desirably, the threads are devoid of any loose or trailing fibers. The size of the threads from which the material 10 is woven is preferably of 30 denier, the number of the threads, warp and weft, is approximately 114 by 114 per square inch and the thickness of the woven cloth is approximately .0020. The interstices formed by the woven threads are approximately 9 microns in width or diameter or slightly smaller. Such a fabric material layer meets the requirements of the invention that capillary penetration or invasion through the interstices of the fabric 12 is prevented but drainage of fluid through the interstices is permitted.
The outer layer 14 may be of any conventional gauze or other similar material, its weave or other construction being of no particular importance because the layer contributes merely a moisture absorbing function.
The Dakin tubes 16 which represent the fluid distributing means are apertured at selected intervals along their lengths for the distribution of fluid throughout the body portion of the dressing for the application of fluid to the wound, it being apparent that such treating fluid passes inwardly through the interstices of the layer 12 just as the drainage of exudate from the wound passes outwardly through these interstices.
Desirably, the wet dressing of the present invention is protected from any contaminating surfaces and, to this end, when the dressing is in use, it is preferably wrapped by a layer of moisture impervious material such as plastic film 20 and an outer layer of ordinary bandage material 22, such as shown in FIG. 3. However, when it is desired to have air penetration to the wound for any reason the outer wrappings 20 and 22 may be omitted.
The importance of the wet dressing is related to large surface, contaminated wounds which are usually covered with debris and partial sloughs in association with excessive secretions and drainage. Because of the nature of these wounds it behooves the surgeon to afford adequate drainage otherwise these secretions will partially dry and seal the surrounding surface and the wound to cause puddling of the drainage with subsequent maceration. One sure way to insure adequate drainage is to keep the dressing moist so that drying and sealing do not occur. In this manner drainage is insured and puddling and maceration are avoided.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that the composite wet surgical dressings provided by the present invention prevent capillary penetration or invasion into the wound contact portion of the dressing so that newly formed tubular blood vessels are not torn as frequently occurs when coarser dressing have interstices of larger micron size are removed from a wound and they permit adequate drainage from the wound into the dressing as well as the applictaion of treating fluid from the dressing into the wound. The present dressings also avoid injurious friction which frequently develops between dressings and wounds when a coarse material is used in immediate contact with a wound and they further possess the various other herein mentioned advantages.
It is to be understood that the present invention is not confined to the precise construction as herein illustrated and described but embraces all such modifications thereof 3 which may come within the scope of the following claims.
1. A wet surgical dressing which comprises, an inner wound contact layer formed of smooth threads of approximately 30 denier finely woven with approximately 114 by 114 threads per square inch to form interstices between adjacent threads, the said interstices not exceeding approximately 9 microns in width, an outer layer of absorbent material connected to said inner layer and fluid distributing means disposed between said inner and outer layers.
2. The dressing of claim 1 wherein the fluid distributing means is a pack of apertured tubes.
3. The dressing of claim 1 wherein the peripheral edges of the inner layer are extended relative to the peripheral edges of the outer layer and are lapped over the adjacent peripheral edges of the outer layer securing the layers together.
4. A wet surgical dressing which comprises an inner wound contact layer formed of finely woven smooth threads having interstices between adjacent threads small enough to prevent capillary penetration but large enough to permit drainage of fluid, an outer layer of absorbent material connected to said inner layer and a pack of apertured tubes disposed between said inner and outer layers for distributing fluid therebetween.
5. The dressing of claim 4 wherein the interstices are approximately 9 microns in width.
6. A wet surgical dressing which comprises an inner wound contact layer formed of finely woven smooth threads having interstices between adjacent threads small enough to prevent capillary penetration but large enough to permit drainage of fluid, an outer layer of absorbent material and fluid distributing means disposed between said inner and outer layers, the peripheral edges of said inner layer being extended relative to the peripheral edges of the outer layer and lapped over the adjacent peripheral edges of the outer layer securing the layers together.
References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,477,403 Brady July 26, 1949