US 2942327 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jima 2s, 1960 w. A. conm 2,942,327
COATED FABRIC Filed Aug. 15, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
M//Y/iam Cor/'y BYWL 9L @www HTTQNEYS June 28, 1960 w. A. coRRY 2,942,327
l coA'rED FABRIC Filed Aug. 15, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Will/'am A. Corry ATTORNEYS United States coArEn FABRIC` William A. Corry, Toledo, Ohio, assignor to The Landers Corporation, Toledo, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Fired Aug. 1s, 1951, ser. No. 618,215
1o claims. (cl. zs-sm can withstand repeated flexings, .for example as in service conditions when the coated fabric is used as upholstery. Materials .having ysufficiently good bonding between a flexible .film and the Lfabric to .be `suited for upholstery use haveheretofore been coated cotton fabrics. lt has also been suggested (see U.S. Patent 2,619,705) that a fabric composed of generally parallel or untwisted continuous .filament yarns yas both warp and woof yarns can be coated witha'iiexible synthetic resinous film. In certain respects, .andin Aparticular `with regard to abrasion resistance, a material made -by applying a flexible, synthetic resinous film to such a. fabric is substantially superior to a similarly coated cotton fabric material. However, flexible films, usually vinyl films, 4adhere poorlyl to such fabrics. As a consequence itfis necessary either to apply a prime coating to the fabric, and then the desired flexible film to the prime coated fabric, or to apply a desired flexible synthetic resinous film to each side of the fabric which will strikelthrough the fabric and adhere to itself to get adherence which is satisfactory for any use. Further, the resulting coated continuous filament yarn fabric is one wherein the coating adheres so vpoorly to the fabric thatit is .-unsuited for v'upholstery use. So `far" as is known, no synthetic yarn fabric having either warp or woof yarns made up of a' plurality of untwisted monofilaments was produced prior to the instant invention which had suicient adhesion between the film and the fabric to be suitable for upholstery use.
The `present invention is based upon the discovery of an article comprising a Woven fabric composed of twisted staple fiber yarns and either warp or Woof yarns which are `generally parallel continuous filaments, and a flexible syntheic-resinons @lm adhered to at leastA one surface of the fabric. The generally parallel, continuousfilaments in the warp or woof yarns have either no twist or a very low twist generally in the Vrange of 1/2 to 31/2 turns per inch. By virtue of novel cooperation between the fabric and the film coating, Such article combines, for the first time, extremely `high abrasion resistance, and sufiicient bond strength between the fabric and the -film to suit the finished fabric for upholstery use. Y
It is, therefore, an object of the invention to provide an improved coated fabric.
It is a further object of the invention to provide an article which is a woven fabric composed of warp and woof yarns, one of which is a twisted staple fiber yarn, either natural or synthetic, such as spun nylon, regenerated cellulose or cotton, while the other is a high tensile strength yarnmade' up .of a plurality of generally parallel or untwisted continuous filaments, and a iiexible, synthetic resinous film adhered to at least Vone surface of the fabric.v
n Ver@ v ing, 'tightly bonded to the fabric l1.
2,942,327 Paiented June 28, 1960 Other objects and advantages will be .apparent vfrom the description which follows, reference being had :to Ithe accompanying drawings, in which- Fig. 1 is a plan view to a greatly enlarged scale -sho ing a coated fabric according to the invention, with the coating broken away in a part of the view to show dctails of the fabric weave. l
Fig. 2 is a sectional view along the line v2 2 of Fig. l showing further 4details of structure in the fabric.
Fig. 3 is a view in section along the line 3`3 of Fig.' l showing still further details of the structure of the fabric.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a sandwich structure constituting a preferred specific coated fabric according to the invention, to a greatly enlarged scale, parts thereof being broken away to show details of the structure.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view along the line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged plan view of still lanother sandwich structure according to the invention, with parts broken away to show details of the structure'.
Referring now in more detail to the drawings, a coated fabric accordingA to the invention is indicated generally at 10 in Fig. l. The coated fabric 10 comprises a base fabric indicated generally at 11 and a coating 12 adhered to one surface thereof. The fabric 11 is made up of fiat continuous filament parallel fiber yarns, some Yof which are designated 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17, and twisted staple yarns, some of which are designated 18, 19, 20 andV 21.
The weave of the fabric 11 is a two over, one `under pattern with respect to the twisted staple yarns, in both directions. For example, the twisted staple yarn 18 passes over the continuous filament yarns 13 and 14, vunder the continuous filament yarn v15, and over the continuous 'filament yarns 16 and 17. The continuous filament yarn 13 passes under the twisted staple yarn 18, .over the twisted staple yarn 19, and under the yarns 20 and 21. The continuous filament yarn 14 passes under the staple yarns 1S and 19, over the staple yarn 20, and under the staple yarn 21, Whilethe continuous filament yarn V15 passes over the staple yarn 18, under the twisted staple yarns 19 and 20, and over the `staple yarn 21. A similar pattern continues throughout the fragment ofthe fabric llshown in Fig. l, and, indeed, throughout an entire fabric .of 'this type. These relationships are also represented in Figs. 2 and 3.
The film 12 can be any of many known materials suitable for use in the production of coated` fabrics, its specific identity constituting no part of the instant invention. in general, such film is usually, in, actual practice, a vinyl film, and most frequently a stabilized, plasticized and pigmented polyvinyl chloride or vinyl chloride copolymer. A typical `formulation for such a vinyl material is given in the example hereof.
The film f2 can be applied to the fabric 11 in any of the usual ways employed to produce a coated fabric. For example, a suitably plasticized, stabilized and pigmented polyvinyl chloride composition can be 'heated to a temperature at which it is plastic, formed into a sheet by means of a pair of cooperating rolls, associated with a correspondingly sized sheet of the fabric lll, with a surface of the fabric positioned adjacenta surface of the polyvinyl chloride sheet, and this assembly passed be,i tween suitably heated cooperating rolls so that the polyvinyl chloride is again converted to a plastic condition and compressed against a. surface of the fabric 11 and is, after passing between the cooperating rolls and coollf desired, `the exposed surface of the film 12 can vbe calendered, embossed, printed, top coated, or otherwise decorated .to provide any desired surface pattern.
The continuous filament yarns 13, 14,Y 15, :16 and 17 can be made up of a desired number of any suitable-type of filaments, so long as the filaments are disposed in generally parallel or untwisted relationships within the yarns. For example, regenerated cellulose, nylon, polyester, polyamide, or the like filaments can be employed. Regenerated cellulose filaments are usually preferred because of their ready availability and low cost. When regenerated cellulose filaments are employed in these yarns; high tenacity filaments are most desirable, Le., filaments having a tenacity of at least 2.5 grams per denier, as frequently employed in producing tire cord. The' twisted staple fiber yarns 18, 19, 20 and '21 can be conventional yarns as frequently employed in producing fabrics intended 'for coating,l and can be ofl any desired denier.
vIn the art of water repellent fabrics, a sandwich or lamellar structure comprising outer lamella of fabric adhered together by a vflexible sheet of natural or synthetic rubber, or o f a synthetic resinous material, is ex- ,cellent for many uses. For example, such a structure can be used as a top for a so-called convertible automobile, and is ideal from many standpoints. The flexible sheet material reinforces the fabrics, so that the structure is not easily damaged; the iiexible sheet material is protectedagainst'the direct action of sunlight and the elements by the exterior fabrics; and any desired color combinations can be provided by suitable combinations of interior and exterior fabrics. Such lamellar structures rather readily can be made completely water-proof. o
A difhcultywith such lamellar structures, which has heretofore been insurmountable, has involved surface 4imperfections and grease and tar spots in twisted cotton or other natural ber yarns from which the fabrics have been woven. Imperfections, grease and tar spots invariablymar the surfaces of such fabrics, and make lamellar structures produced therefrom aesthetically unacceptable, and millitate against their use. Fabrics have also been suggested where warp and woof yarns are Ycomposed of a bundle of substantially parallel or untwisted continuous filaments. Such fabrics are substantially free of surface imperfections, and would, therefore, be completely satisfactory aesthetically in lamellar structures of the type previously discussed, but can be bonded only with diculty, and only with low bond strength, to a exible film or sheet material. In fact, the bond strength in such cases is so low that the resulting product will not withstand repeated cxing to which a top of a socalled convertible automobile is subjected.
A specific aspect of the instant invention is based upon the discovery of a new sandwich or lamellar structure which comprises a particular fabric in a particular spatial relationship with a second fabric, which can be the same or different, and a flexible sheet material disposed between the two fabrics and adhered to adjacent surfaces of each. Such a sandwich or lamellar structure is indicated generally at 22 in Figs. 4 and 5. The lamellar structure 22 is composed of an upper fabric layer 23, an intermediate flexible sheet or film 24, and a lower fabric layer 25. 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 and 38, which are composed of generally parallel or untwisted regenerated cellulose or other filaments, as discussed above, and twisted cotton or other staple fiber yarns 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52 and 53. The Weave pattern of the upper or exposed surface of the fabric 23 is four over and one under with respect to the continuous filament yarns 26 through 38. It follows that the weave pattern of the underside of the fabric 23, which is adjacent and bonded to the iiexible film 24 is one under and four over with respect to the twisted cotton or other staple fiber yarns 39 through 53. The major visible portion of the upper surface of the fabric '23 is made up of regenerated cellulose or other continuous filament yarns, so that 'imperfection and grease or tar spots in the twisted cotton or other fibers are not visible in the sandwich structure 22. The underside of the fabric 22 is pre- The fabric layer 23 includes yarns 26, 27, 28,V
dominantly twisted staple fiber yarns, for example cotton, so that the bond strength between the fabric and the flexible sheet or film 24 is excellent. The fabric layer 25 can be identical with the layer 23, in which case the predominantly twisted staple fiber yarn surface should be disposed toward the flexible sheet or film 24, and well bonded thereto, or the layer 25 can be another fabric which adheres well to the film 24. The presence of surface imperfections in the fabric 25, or grease or tar spots, is relatively unimportant, since this layer is, in ordinary practice, dyed in a plain color or patterned to match or contrast with the interior furnishings of an automobile.
While other fabrics having twisted staple fiber warp or Woof yarns, and Woof or warp yarns, as the case may be, composed of bundles of substantially parallel or untwisted filaments, can be employed in producing the sandwich structure of Figs. 4 and 5, f abricshaving thc particular weave patternrepresented have been found to give an optimum combination of aesthetic and physical propertes required for the suggested use. The particular Weave shown gives a tightly woven fabric which is, in itself, water repellent to a substantialextent, with mum exposure, in the sandwich structure, of twisted cotton or other staple fiber' yarns, and maximum bond strength. A l
Refeiring now to Fig. 6, ai'nodified lamellar structure according to the'invention'is -indicated generally at 5 4. The lamellar structure 54v comprises a comparatively heavy flexible ilm 55, a fabric indicated generally at 56 which is adhered to Vthe underside of the film 55, and also to the upper side of a comparatively light film 57. The films 55 and 57 can be of any of the materials previously discussed, but should be flexible and elastomeric. The fabric 56 has 62 warp yarns per inch, which vare cotton 12s singles, woven Ain pairs. The Woof or fill yarns are 100 denier, 34 filament nylon, with a low twist of about one turn per inch, and occur approximately 53 per inch. The weave pattern can be described as a three up, one down, broken twill. The warp yarns are numbered 58 through 91, inclusive, while the woof or fill yarns are numbered 92 through 109,V inclusive. 'The woof yarn V92, for example, passes under a pair of warp yarns 58 and 59, over a pair of warp yarns 60 and 61, and then under three pairs of warp yarns 62 and 63, 64 and 65, and 66 and 67, before again passing vover a pair of warp yarns 68 and 69. The entire weave pattern will be apparent from the representation -in Fig 6. The lamellar structure S4, as can be seen from the following example, has excellent physical properties. Both exposed surfaces thereof are composed of a flexible elastomerio sheet material, so that it can be easily cleaned. It is admirably suited for use as a top for a so-called convertible automobile and also for other similar uses.
The following example, in which parts are given by weight, is presented solely for the purpose of further illustrating and disclosing the invention, and is lin no way to be construed as a limitation thereon.
Example A coated fabric according to the invention was produced according'to the following procedure;
A fabric composed of 15s twisted cotton yarns and 300 denier regeneratedl cellulose continuous filament yarns, in the weave pattern shown in Figs. l, 2 Aand 3 hereof, and discussed in connection therewith, Was coated with a flexible polyvinyl chloride composition. In the specific fabric employed, the twisted cotton yarns were spaced approximately per inch, and the continuous filament yarns were spaced approximately 50 per inch. The polyvinyl chloride composition was composed of parts of a polyvinyl chloride which is commercially available under the trade designation Vinylite, 63 parts of diethylhexyl phthalate as a plasticizer, three parts of a cadmium 4and barium-Soap asa stabilizer, and 30 Partg of vtitanium. dioxide as :a pigment. The polyvinyl chloride composition was .blended to uniformityin a mixer-.1in
which the Vcomposition was heated to about 3209 `F. The
uniform composition was then fed to a two roll mill and formed into a sheet having a thickness of about 0.25 inch, and corresponding in width with the identified fabric. The polyvinyl' chloride film and the fabric 'were brought into juxtaposition and passed between a pair of cooperating rolls heated to about 330 F. `to soften the film and compress it against and bond it to the fabric. A coated fabric was removed from this last-mentioned pair Iof cooperating rolls, and, after cooling, ywas subjected to Athe action of a calendering roll which acted directly upon .the polyvinyl chloride surface. The resulting coated fab- .ric had axgauge of 0.022 inch, the gauge of the .cloth being 0.015 inch, and the Agauge of the polyvinyl chloride `film being 0.07 inch. The weight of the applied coating was 8:8 ounces per square yard. The tensile strength of the coated fabric 'was 169 pounds per inch in one `yarn direction Vand 1 62 pounds per inch in the other yarn preceding paragraph was repeated except that 1.14 cot-Y ton twill was used instead of the identified fabric, an article was produced having a finished gauge of 0.029 inch, the gauge of the cloth being 0.024 inch and the gauge of the applied film being 0.009 inch. The Weight of coating applied was 9.5 ounces per square yard. The tensile strength of the article was 144 pounds per iuch in one yarn direction and 169 pounds per inch in the other yarn direction; the tear strength in pounds was 6.0 in one yarn ldirection and 9.7 in the other; and the abrasion resistance was only 350 cycles to failure.
The procedure described above could not be employed to apply a coating to a fabric having both warpI and Woof yarns composed of generally parallel or untwisted regenerated cellulose continuous filaments. When the procedure was modified either by bringing a sheet of the indicated polyvinyl chloride composition into juxtaposition'with each surfaceof such fabric, or by first applying to the fabric a suitable preliminary coating of a priming or anchoring material, and then bonding the indicated polyvinyl chloride sheet to the priming or anchoring coating, a coated fabric was produced, but one which had insufficient bond strength to withstand repeated flexing, as is involved when such a material is used as an upholstery. In addition, most priming or anchoring coatings that have been used to improve the bond strength in such a coated fabric have been found adversely to affect sunlight aging and discoloration proporties of the material.
The procedure described above has also been modified to produce the sandwich structure shown in Figs. 4 and 5. ln this case, a film of a suitably compounded copolymer of polyisobutylene and butadiene was interposed between the fabric 23 and a cotton twill, and the resulting structure was passed through a mill composed of two rolls heated to a temperature of about 150 F., sufficient to bond the film to each of the fabrics.
A similar procedure has also been employed to produce the sandwich structure of Fig. 6. Two films of the vinyl chloride composition identified in the first paragraph of this example were produced; the fabric 56 was interposed between these films, and the resulting structure was passed through a two-troll mill heated to about 330 F., suflicient to bond each of the films to the fabric. The coating 55 had a weight of 11.5 ounces per square yard, and an adhesion to the fabric of 4.9 pounds per inch. The coating 57 had a weight of 3.4 ounces per square yard, and an vadhesion/to ,the fabric ef 8.5 pounds per inch. The sandwich `or lamellar structure )itself had tensile and l,tear strengths in one direction of 167 and 5.3 poundsper inch, respectively, and in the other direction of 149 and '5.'8 pounds per inch, respectively.`
It will be apparent that various changes and modifications can vbe made from the specific details of the invention discussed herein and shown in the attacheddrawngs without departing from the spirit and scope of .the attached claims. For example, while the specific weave patterns shown and discussed are especially advantageous in that they provide, when assembled into a coated fabric, excellent physical properties for any given gauge, vother weave patterns can also 'be employed. The essential vfeature of va fabric yaccording to the invention is that either the warp or Woof yarns are composed of a plurality of ,generally vparallel continuous filaments, lpreferably of comparatively high tenacity, while the other yarns, waipor Woof as the case may be, are of a twisted staple ber type with cotton beingthe preferred natural fiber. Other changes and modifications will be apparent to one skilled in-the art.
What I claim is:
1. An .article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and Woof, one of which is made up of a plurality of high tensile strength continuous filaments in generally parallel arrangement and the other of which is made up of twisted staple fiber yarns, and a flexible film comprising polyvinyl chloride adhered to at least one surface of said fabric.
2. An article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and Woof, one of which is made up of a plurality of high tensile strength continuous filaments in generally parallel arrangement and the other of which is made up of twisted staple fiber yarns, and a flexible, synthetic resinous film adhered .to at least one surface of said fabric.
3. An article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and woof, one of which is made up of a plurality of high tensile strength continuous filaments in generally parallel arrangement and the other of which is made up of twisted staple Aliber yarns, a second woven fabric comprising twisted staple fiber yarns, and a flexible elastomeric film bonding .the said two fabrics into a lamellar structure.
4. An article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and Woof yarns, said warp and Woof yarns being different, and one being twisted staple fiber yarns, while the other lare high tensile strength yarns made up of 'a plurality of generally parallel continuous filaments, a second woven fabric comprising twisted staple fiber yarns, and a flexible, synthetic resinous film bonding the said two fabrics into a lamellar structure.
5. An article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and woof yarns, said warp and Woof yarns being different, and one being twisted staple fiber yarns, while the other are high tensile strength yarns made up of a plurality of generally parallel continuous laments, and a flexible, elastomeric, synthetic resinous film bonded to each of the major surfaces of said fabric.
`6. An article comprising a woven fabric composed of warp and woof ya-rns, said warp and Woof yarns being different, and one being twisted staple fiber yarns, while the other are high tensile strength yarns made -up of a plurality of generally parallel continuous filaments, and a flexible, vinyl chloride film bonded to each of the major surfaces of said fabric.
7. An article comprising a fabric composed of warp and Woof, one of which is made up of a plurality of high tensile strength, continuous filaments in generally parallel arrangement, and the other of which is made up of a yarn of twisted staple fibers, said twisted staple fiber yarn being Woven in a pattern of at least two over, one under with respect to the continuous filaments, and a synthetic resinous Ifilm adhered to at least that side of the fabric on which said yarn predominates.
8. 7An article comprising Aa fabric composed 'of warp and Woof, one of which is madeupof aplurality of synthetic filaments, and the other ofiwhich is made up of a yarn of natural bers, said natural ber yarn being woven in a pattern of at least two over, one, under iwithrespect to the synthetic filaments, and a synthetic resinous lm adhered to lat least that side of the fabric on which said yarn predominates. Y
9. lAn article comprising a fabric composed Vof warp and Woof, one of which is made .up of a plurality of high tensile strength continuous filaments in generally parallel arrangement, and the other of which is made up of a yarn of twisted staple bers, said warp and Woof vbeing arranged in a woven pattern such that the warp predominates on one side of the fabric and the Woof predominates on the other side of the fabric, and a synthetic resinous film adhered -to at least thatvside of the fabric on which said twisted staple fiber yarn predominates. v Y Y 10. An article comprising a fabric composed of warp and Woof, one of which is made up of a plurality of synthetic filaments, and the other of which is ma'de up of a yarn of natural fibers, said fabric being woven in a pattern such that the warp predominates on one side of the fabric and the Woof predominates on the other side of the fabric, and a synthetic resinous lrn adhered to at least that side of the fabric on which the natural'ber yarn predominates.
References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS