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Publication numberUS2922442 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date26 Jan 1960
Filing date4 Nov 1958
Priority date4 Nov 1958
Publication numberUS 2922442 A, US 2922442A, US-A-2922442, US2922442 A, US2922442A
InventorsWebber Clarence Eugene
Original AssigneeNew York Wire Cloth Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Woven screen cloth
US 2922442 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 26, 1960 c. E. WEBBER 2,922,442 WOVEN SCREEN CLOTH Filed NOV. 4, 1958 INVENTOR. CLARENCE Ease/vs WEBBER ATTUENZY United States Patent WOVEN SCREEN CLOTH (Iiarence Eugene Webber, York, Pa, assignor to New York Wire Cloth Company, York,-Pa., a corporation of Delaware Application November 4, 1958, Serial No."771,887

7 Claims. (Cl. 139-425) This invention relates to woven screen fabric commonly referred to as insect screening and, more particu larly, to that type of woven screen fabric in which the weft filaments are separate from each other and are not connected together at the selvage edges of the woven fabric.

For many years, woven screen fabric or insect screening has been woven from metallic wire stock or synthetic resin filaments on a conventional screen fabric loom in which the warp filaments are carried upon a conventional warp beam, While the weft filaments usually are of a predetermined length and wound upon suitable bobbins carried by shuttle means in the loom. As a result of this type of weaving, the weft filaments, at the opposite selvage edges of the woven fabric or cloth are bent at 180 upon themselves to form a partial loop at such selvage edges, whereby the weft filament in the weave is substantially continuous except at those places where it is necessary to replenish the Weft filament when one bobbin becomse exhausted and it is necessary to substitute therefor another bobbin wound with a new supply of weft filament.

When it becomes necessary 'to replace an exhausted bobbin with one having a new supply of weft filament thereon, the loom has to be stopped while the exchange of bobbins takes place and, due to the fact that the bobbin has to be passed through the shed of the weave, it is not possible to supply a large amount of wound weft filament on such bobbins, whereby it becomes necessary at rather frequent intervals to replace exhausted bobbins with filled bobbins having weft filament wound thereon. This is time consuming and as a result thereof, it is only possible for an attendant to oversee the operation of a very limited number of looms such as approximately four looms. Hence, in a large insect screening factory, it is necessary to have a substantial number of attendants overseeing the operation of the looms and a substantial payroll cost is includedin the total cost of manufacturing such screening.

in an effort to reduce the labor cost in manufacturing such wire screening in recent years, looms have been developed which supply the weft filament from spools of substantial size and the looms are so designed that the outer end of the weft filament is projected through the shed of the loom by fingers on the loom and then is 'cut, whereby each successive weft filament is separate from the other weft filaments. Because of the much larger supply of continuous length of weft filament than was available in bobbin-type looms, it is possible to continuously operate the cut weft type looms for periods of three to four hours or more before it becomes necessary to mount a new spool of weft filament in operative position upon the loom. As a result of this, it is possible for a single operator to oversee a substantially greater number of looms than those-described hereinabove which include the use of bobbins. Suitable looms of this newer type 'areillustrated in U.S. Patents Nos. 2,839,090, dated June 17, 1958 and 2,849,029, dated August 26, 1958. The woven insect screening produced by such looms however distance, whereby the selvage edges are rugged and also somewhat resemble in appearance that of the insect screening woven upon conventional bobbin-type looms in that the outer extremities of the weft filament are curved. A typical type of insect screen product produced by looms of this type is illustrated in U.S. Patent No. 2,818,088, dated December 31, 1957. Further, the reentrant tucked ends of the weft filaments increase the stiffness of the selvage edges and render it resistant to transverse crimping or bending.

A very substantial portion of the total volume of insect screening manufactured at present is fabricated into frame structures or the like including metallic or wooden members having longitudinal grooves in which the edges of the insect screening 'or woven fabric are tucked or crimped to secure said edges of the fabric to the frames in lieu of tacking the same thereto for example, as was common practice for many years relative to wooden screen frames.- The tucked wefttype of selvage edge of screen fabric such as illustrated in said Patent No. 2,818,088 does not lend itself too readily to such crimping or bending along longitudinal lines parallel to the edge of the fabric for insertion into such grooves. Hence, it has been found that if the outer cut ends of the weft filaments remain straight, such crimping or bending of the selvage edges will be facilitated but the selvage edges of the screen fabric will unravel unless some means are employed to stabilize the selvage edges and especially the outermost warp filaments, especially while the insect screening is being fabricated with a frame to produce a framed screen panel or unit for example.

It is the principal object of the present invention to provide'woven screen fabric such as insect screening formed with cut weft filaments which are interwoven between conventional warp filaments but the outer ends of the weft filaments have spacing and stabilizing means of a simple nature interwoven therewith and operable to retain the extremities of the cut weft filaments stabilized and evenly spaced, thereby producing a selvage edge which 'is suitable particularly for being folded or crimped into a receiving channel of a frame member for example, as well as for other uses, and such woven screen fabric may be produced upon suitable looms such as those shown in Patents Nos. 2,839,090 and 2,849,029. In the preferred embodiment of woven screen fabric comprising the present invention, it is only essential to utilize a pair of warp-like stabilizing and spacing filaments which are disposed in side-by-side abutting relationship at the terminal edge of the selvage of such fabric, such abutting warp-like filaments engaging the terminal ends of the cut weft filaments with sufiicient tightness to be held thereon during normal fabricating operations for manufacturing screen panels, for example, comprising suitable frame members to which the edges of the woven fabric are secured by crimping or folding the edges of the fabric into elongated channels within the frame members. Such pair of abutting warp li'ke stabilizing filaments also retain the outer ends of the weft filaments in accurately spaced relationship to each other.

It is another object of the invention to provide a selvage edge on woven screen fabric of the type referred to in the foregoing object in which the pair of warp-like filaments at the terminal edge of the selvage are arranged in a half-twist manner between adjacent weft filaments, thereby affording tighter engagement between said warplike filaments and the weft filaments than is possible when such half twis't is not provided.

A further object of the invention ancillary to the foregoing object is to provide the selvage-edge of screen fabric 3 V with an additional pair of warp-like filaments which are interwoven with the outer ends of the weft filaments in parallel relationship to but spaced inwardly from the aforementioned outermost pair of warp-like stabilizing and spacing filaments, whereby both pairs of such warplike filaments function primarily to stabilize the outer ends of the weft filaments and also as spacing means for the outer ends of the weft filaments, one of said pair and preferably the outermost pair of warp-like filaments being provided with a half-twist between adjacent weft filaments, whereby an even more stable selvage edge is produced than when only a single pair of such warp-like filaments are woven into the selvage.

Still another object of the invention is to provide such warp-like stabilizing and spacing filaments with at least a coating of synthetic resin which is capable when heated to a suitable temperature of physically bonding with the outer ends of the cut weft filaments so as to produce an effective securement of such warp-lik filaments with the outer ends of the weft filaments. Y

A still further object of the invention is to provide the selvage edge with additional stabilizing means in the form of a coating of suitableself or heat curing resin or lacquer which covers the short projecting ends of the weft filaments and also bonds thereto and the stabilizing warp-like filaments immediately adjacent the same.

Details of the foregoing objects and of the invention, as well as other objects thereof, are set forth in the following specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawing comprising a part thereof.

In the drawing:

Fig. l is a fragmentary plan view of a small exemplary area of woven screen fabric including one selvage edge thereof and having warp-like stabilizing filaments forming the terminal edge of the selvage of said fabric in accordance with one embodiment of the invention, said warp-like filaments having a half-twist with each other between adjacent weft filaments.

Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary side view of the selvage edge of the fabric shown in Fig. 1 as seen from the line 33 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 4 is a transverse sectional view on the same scale as Fig. 3 as seen on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but illustrating another embodiment of the invention inwhich the pair of warp-like stabilizing and spacing filaments adjacent the terminal edge of the selvage are interwoven with the outer ends of the weft filaments and do not include a half-twist between each weft filament as in the embodiment shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken on the lines 66 of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary side view of the selvage of the-fabric shown in Fig. 5 as seen on the line 7--7 of Fig. 5.

Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view on the same scale as Fig. 7 as seen on the line 88 of Fig. 7. I Fig. 9 is a view similar to Figs. l and 5 but illustrating an embodiment in which two pairs of warp-lik filaments are interwoven with the ends of the weft filaments at the selvage edge, these pairs being respectively of the types shown in Figs. 1 and S.

Fig. 10 is a transverse sectional view taken on the line 10-10 of Fig. 9.

Fig. 11 is a sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of Fig. 3 and showing a coating of lacquer or resin applied to the selvage of the fabric to cover the cut projecting ends of the weft filaments and bond thereto and the warp-like stabilizing filaments.

Referring to the drawing and particularly Fig. 1, the woven screen fabric 10, which is commonly referred to as insect screening, comprises a plurality of-warp filaments 12 which are parallel to each other and evenly 4 spaced, and similarly parallel and evenly spaced weft filaments 14 are interwoven therewith by suitable looms of which those illustrated in U.S. Patents Nos. 2,839,090 and 2,849,029 are exemplary. These looms are of a type which feed the weft filament material from a drum of substantial size and as said filament is extended through the shed of the weave to form successive weft filaments 14, predetermined lengths of said weft filament material are cut from the continuous supply thereof, whereby the selvage edge 16 of the fabric 10 is provided with cut terminal ends 18 on the weft filaments. These ends are substantially straight and project transversely from the warp filaments 12.

The warp and weft filaments 12 and 14 are substantially stiff but bendable into self-retaining shapes and may comprise metallic wire of suitable composition such as steel, copper, bronze, or aluminum. Where such filaments are formed from steel however, it is preferable .that they be coated to render the same resistant to corrosion either before or after weaving by the use of suitable paint or the like, in accordance with customary practice. The present invention however is not to be restricted to woven screen fabric formed from such metallic wire filaments in that the fabric may be formed from filaments of synthetic resin of suitable stiffness and tensil strength. Further, filaments having suitable metallic cores and coated or clad wtih appropriate synthetic resin or resinous lacquers may be used to form the woven fabric.

In order to stabilize the selvage edge 16 of the fabric 10, in accordance with the principles of the present invention, the embodiment illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 includes a pair of warp-like filaments 26 which are interwoven at the outer ends of the weft filaments 14 not only to stabilize the outer ends of the weft filaments but also accurately to space the same even distances apart. To enhance the gripping of the outer ends of the weft filaments 14 by the warp-like filaments it to comprise the selvage edge 16, said warp-like filaments 20 are provided with a half-twist 22 between adjacent weft filaments 14. Such twisting of the warp-like filaments 20 results in the same gripping the outer end portions of the weft filaments very tightly. Further, incident to the weft filaments being beat-up into the shed after said weft filaments successively are inserted into the shed, such beating-up of said filaments is sufilciently hard that it results in a certain amount of indentation of both the warp-like and weft filaments 2t and 14 at the cross-over portions thereof, thereby further enhancing the gripping of the outer ends of the weft filaments by the half-twisted warp-like filaments 20. Such arrangement results in a stable selvage edge 16 which is reasonably rugged and capable of being handled satisfactorily during the fabrication of predetermined sizes of the woven screen fabric with suitable supporting frames by crimping the edges of the fabric into grooves in such frames to form screened panels or the like such as window screens for example.

In the event there is any unevenness in the outer projecting ends of the weft filaments 14 at the selvage edge 16, said selvage edge readily may be trimmed by shearing means to produce an even arrangement of selvage resembling that shown in Fig. 1 wherein the cut ends 18 project only a very slight amount past filaments 20. The details of the construction described hereinabove will result in a reasonably rugged selvage edge 16 even when the weft filaments 14 and warp-like filaments 20 are composed solely of metal. However, the stability of the selvage edge may be enhanced by using warp-like filaments 20 having metallic cores 24 as shown in Fig. 4 which are covered or clad with a substantially even thickness of suitable synthetic resin 26, preferably of a thermoplastic nature of which methyl methacrylate, polyvinylchloride, certain epoxies and polyethylene are representative of satisfactory resins. After the weaving of the warp-like filaments 20 has been effected, the selvage edge of the woven fabric may be subjected to heat sulficient to slightly melt the synthetic resin coating '26 and thereby bond the same to the weft filament 14 as illustrated at 28 in Fig. 3.

Referring to Fig. 5, the woven fabric 10, with the exception of the selvage edge 30 is similar to that shown in Figs. 1 and 2 in that the warp filaments 12 and weft filaments 14 are of the same type as shown in'Figs. 1 and 2 and as described herei'nabove. However, the selvage edge 30 is composed of a pair of warp-like filaments 32 which are disposed in side-by-side abutting relationship and interwoven with the outer ends of the weft filaments 14 adjacent the cut terminal ends 18 thereof. Rather than being provided with a half-twist between adjacent weft filaments 14 however, the embodiment shown in Figs. 5 and 6 comprises merely straight interwoven warplike filaments 32 which, in the simplest form, may be-of uncoated metal wire stock However, when the weft filaments 14 are beat-up sufficiently hard into the shed incident to being woven, a certain amount of indentation of both filaments is effected in the overlapping portions of the Warp-like filaments 32 and weft filaments 14, and the weaving of the warp-like filaments 32 otherwise results' in sufficiently tight engagement thereof With the outer ends of the weft filaments 14 that a reasonably stable selvage edge 30 is produced. The placing of the warp-like filaments 32 in side-by-side abutting relationship also places the same under slightly greater tension than the regular warp filaments 1-2, thereby increasing the gripping thereof with the weft ends. a

In accordance with the principles of the invention, the warp-like filaments 32 also may comprise composite filaments including metallic cores 34 coated or clad with suitable synthetic resin 36 of a preferably thermoplastic nature of which, methyl methacrylate, polyvinyl-chloride, certain epoxies and polyethylene are representative of satisfactory resins, whereby not only is highly frictional engagement thereof with the weft filaments 14 afforded but, upon heat being applied to such coatings, the'same may be melted slightly so as to effect a bonding 38 thereof with the weft filaments 14 as shown in Fig. 7.

In the embodiment shown in Fig. 9, the fabric 10, with the exception of the selvage edge 40 thereof, is similar to the fabric shown in the embodiments illustrated principally in Figs. 1 and 5 in that it comprises interwoven warp filaments 12 and weft filaments 14, the outer ends thereof at the selvage edge 40 being cut and substantially straight as in regard to the outer ends of the weft filaments 14 in the embodiments shown respectively'in Figs. 1 and 5. However, in the embodiment of Fig. 9, a compound stabilizing and spacing arrangement is provided in that the selvage edge 40-comprises not only a pair of warp-like filaments 20 which are provided with a halftwist between each of the weft filaments 14, as in the embodiment shown in Fig. l, but an additional pairo-f warp-like filaments 32 such as comprise the embodiment shown primarily in Fig. 5 also are provided in parallel arrangement with the half-twisted pair of warp-like filaments 20 and spaced inwardly of the terminal edge of the selvage therefrom as shown in Fig. 9, the'warp-like filaments 32 also preferably being spaced similarly from the outermost conventional warp filament 12 nearest the selvage edge 40. In this arrangement, stabilization of the selvage edge 40 superior to either of the preceding embodiments is afforded the Screen fabric, whereby such selvage edge is even more rugged and stable than the selvage edges of the embodiments respectively shown in Figs. 1 and 5, especially during fabrication thereof in grooved screen frame members.

In Fig. 11, an enlarged exemplary cross-sectional view taken on the line 11-11 of Fig. 3 shows an exemplary arrangement of means comprising a coating of suitable self-curing or heat-curable synthetic resin or lacquer which is applied longitudinally along the selvage edge of the fabric and it covers the terminal cut ends 18 of the weft filaments and is bonded thereto as Well as to the warp-like filaments-to which said coating is applied so as to at least partially cover the same and secure the coating firmlyto the terminal edge of the selvage. Such coating may be applied with equal facility to the-terminal selvage edges of the other embodiments. Such coating renders the selvage edge smooth and insures against inquiry to workers and salesmens fingers in handling the screen fabric, as well as further stabilizing the selvage edge.

Whereas the various embodiments have been described above relative to a single selvage edge, it is to be understood that the various embodiments of stabilizing means of the invention are applicable to both selvage edges of screen fabric and in most circumstances normally will be so provided.

From the foregoing, it will be seen that the present invention provides a very simple and relatively inexpensive selvage edge for woven screen fabric which may be woven either from metallic, synthetic resin or coated metallic filaments in which the weft filaments have cut outer ends projecting substantially straight and perpendicularly from the weave of the cloth at the selvage thereof and pairs of warp-like spacing and stabilizing filaments are interwoven with such projecting cut weft filaments in suitable manner to grip the same to afford adequate s'ecurement between such warp-like filaments and the weft filaments so that a durable yet very simple selvage edge is provided either at one or both opposite edgesof the weave of the fabric which readily is capable of being crimped or folded into a groove of a frame member. Although several embodiments of the invention are illustrated, and notwithstanding the fact that they broadly include similar basic concepts of the invention, they nevertheless are not identical in that each provides difierent degrees of stability and thus renders the different embodiments respectively useful in difierent applications of use with other structures.

While the invention has been described and illustrated in its several preferred embodiments, and has included certain details, it should be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the precise details herein illustrated and'described since the same may be carried out in other ways falling within the scope'of the invention as claimed.

I claim:

1. Insect screening and the like woven from relatively stiff filaments capable of being bent and retaining a bent shape and comprising in combination, a plurality of substantially parallel warp filaments, a plurality of separate and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends 'of said weft filaments being substantially straight and projecting transversely from and beyond the outermost warp filament at least at one side edge of the woven fabric, and a .pair of Warp-like filaments at least coated with a bonding compound and positioned at the outer extremity of the side edge of the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of the weft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof and bonded thereto by the resin coating of said warplike filaments to comprise a stable selvage edge of the weave, said warp-like filaments being in side-by-side abutting relationship with each other.

2. Insect screening and the like woven from relatively stiff filaments capable of being bent and retaining a bent shape and comprising in combination, a plurality of substantially parallel Warp filaments, a plurality of separate and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends of said weft filaments being substantially straight and projecting transversely from and beyond the outermost warp filament at least at one side edge of the woven fabric, and a pair of warp-like filaments at least coated with a bonding compound and positioned at the outer extremity of the side edge of the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of the weft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof and bonded thereto by the coating ofjsaid warp-like filaments to com-,

prise the selvage edge of the weave, said warp-like fila- ;m'ents being in side-by-side abutting relationship with .and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends of said weft filaments being substantially straight and projecting transversely from'and beyond the outermost warp filament at least at one side edge of the woven fabric, a first pair of warp-like filaments positioned at the outer extremityof the side' edge of the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of the weft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof, said warp-like filaments being in side-by-side abutting relationship with each other and twisted be tween each successive weft filament, and a second pair of warp-like filaments in side-by-side abutting position and interwoven with said weft filaments in spaced parallel position inwardly from said first pair of warp-like filaments, said pairs of warp-like filaments stabilizing and evenly spacing apart said outer ends of the weft filaments to form a selvage of the weave.

4. The insect screening set forth in claim 3 further characterized by at least one of said pairs of warp-like filaments being coated with bonding compound and bonded to said weft filaments. I a

5. Insect screening and the like woven from relatively stiff filaments capable of being bent and retaining a bent shape and comprising in combination, a plurality of substantially parallel warp filaments, a plurality of separate and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends of said weft filaments being substantially straight and projecting transversely from and beyond the outermost warp filament at least at one side edge of the woven fabric, a first pair of warp-like filaments at least coated with a bonding compound and positioned at the outer extremity of the side edge of the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of the weft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof and bonded thereto by the coating'of said warp-like filaments, said warp-like filaments being in side-by-side abutting relationship with each other and twisted between each successive weft filament, and a second pair of warp-like filaments in side-by-side abutting position 1 and interwoven with said weft filaments in spaced parallel position inwardly from said first pair of warp-like filaments, said pairs of warp-like filaments stabilizing and evenly spacing apart said outer ends of the weft filaments to form a selvage of the weave.

6. Insect screening and the like Woven from relatively stiif filaments capable of being bent and retaining a bent shape and comprising in combination, a plurality of substantially parallel warp filaments, a plurality of separate and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends of-said weft filaments being substantially straight andprojecting transversely from and beyond the outermost warp filament at least atone side edge of the woven fabric, a pair of warp-like filaments positioned at the outer extremity of the side edge of'the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of the weft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof to firmly grip the same and comprise the selvage edge of the weave, said warp-like filaments being in side-byside abutting relationship with each other and stabilizing and evenly spacing apart said outer ends of the weft filaments, and a coating extending longitudinally along and bonded to said warp-like filaments and extending over the outer extremities of said weft filaments, thereby providing a selvage devoid of sharp filament ends and said coating also enhancing the stabilizing-of the selvage by said warp-like filaments.

7. Insect screening and the like woven from relatively stiff filaments capable of being bent and retaining a bent shape and comprising in combination, aplurality of sub:

stantially parallel warp fialments, a plurality of separate and substantially parallel weft filaments of predetermined length woven through said warp filaments transversely thereto, the ends of said weft filamentsbeing substantially straight and projecting transversely from and beyond the outermost warp filament at leastat one side edge of the woven fabric, a pair of warp-like filaments positioned at the outer extremity of the side edge of the weave and interwoven with the projecting ends of theweft filaments immediately adjacent the outer ends thereof to firmly grip the same and comprise the selvage edge of the weave, said warp-like filaments beingin side-by-side abutting' relationship with each other and stabilizing. and evenly spacing apart said outer ends of the weft filaments, and a resin-like coating bonded to said warp-like filaments and extending over the outer extremities of said weft filaments, thereby providing a selvage devoid of sharp filament ends and said coating also enhancing the stabilizing of the selvage by said warp-like filaments.

References Cited in the file of this patent 1 UNITED STATES PATENTS I Germany June 14,

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Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3100616 *12 May 195913 Aug 1963Colorado Fuel & Iron CorpWire cloth
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US4278717 *21 May 197914 Jul 1981Chuo Hatsujo Kabushiki KaishaHeat resistant cushion
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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/193, 139/425.00R, 245/10
International ClassificationD03D25/00
Cooperative ClassificationD03D2700/0155, D03D25/00
European ClassificationD03D25/00