US 2899692 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A118 18, 1959 w. s.'F1NKEN 2,899,692
EvAcuATroN LITTER WnLTE/Q S. F/A/KEN BMLSLM A ORNEY Aug. 18, 1959 w. s@ FINKEN EvAcUA'rIoN LITTER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 13. 1955 D D .4 .1. s a .a
INVENTOR l WALTER S. F/N/(EN TT RNEY Patented Aug. 18, 1959 EVACUATION LITTER Walter S. Finken, Brooklyn, NX., assigner to Gentex Corporation, New York, N.Y., a corporation of Delaware Application July 13, 1955, Serial No. 521,724
3 Claims. (Cl. 5--82) My invention relates to an evacuation litter and more particularly to an improved evacuation litter for carrying a patient in comfort with a high degree of safety.
In carrying nonambulatory patients in litters, as when evacuating patients in an aircraft or the like, it is irnportant that the patients be carried in safety. The patients should be so carried that little likelihood of injury exists as a result of sudden shocks applied to the carrying litter. For example, one requirement is that the patient carried on a litter be restrained against movement resulting from high accelerations or decelerations of the craft transporting the litter and patient. A carrying litter which meets this requirement should, in addition to restraining the patient with safety, permit ready access to any part of the patients body by a medical attendant. The restraint of the patient should be accomplished without unduly stressing any part of his body. Further, the litter should be as comfortable as is possible consistent with safety. In the event it becomes necessary to evacuate the patient together with the litter, means should be provided for conveying the patient and litter safely to the ground. Further, in the event evacuation takes place over water, means should be provided for floating the patient and litter until a rescue party reaches the patient. It is desirable that a safety litter may be employed -With a standard pole litter and with existing aircraft installations.
I have invented an evacuation litter by means of which injured personnel may be transported in comfort vvith a high degree of safety. My litter restrains a carried patient against movement under the influence of high accelerations or decelerations Without injury. My litter permits ready access by a medical attendant to any part of the patients body. I provide my litter with means for conveying the patient and litter safely to the ground in the event emergency evacuation becomes necessary. I have also provided my litter with means for the flotation of my litter and a patient carried thereby in the event they are deplaned over Water in an emergency.
One object of my invention is to provide an evacuation litter for conveying injured personnel in comfort with a high degree of safety.
Another object of my invention is to provide an evacuation litter for restraining a patient against movement owing to high aecelerations or decelerations without injury.
A further object of my invention is to provide a safe and comfortable evacuation litter which permits ready access to any part of the patients body by a medical attendant.
A still further object of my invention is to provide an evacuation litter which may be employed with a standard pole litter and which may be used with existing aircraft installations.
Yet another object of my invention is to provide an evacuation litter which permits deplaning of a patient over land or Water with safety.
A still further object of my invention is to provide an sizes of personnel.
Other and further objects of my invention will appear from the following description.
In general, my invention contemplates the provision of an evacuation litter including a pair of hollow poles carrying the litter fabric apron to 'which I secure a fabric envelope to be wrapped about the patients body. I provide the fabric envelope With releasable means for holding the patient in position on the litter in comfort. This holding means restrains the patients body against movement under the force of acceleration or deceleration and reduces danger or injury. I provide my litter with means for supporting the patient and litter from a parachute and with means for oating the litter in the event the patient is deplaned over Water.
In the accompanying drawings which form part of the instant specification and which are to be read in conjunction therewith and in which like reference numerals are used to indicate like parts in the various views:
Figure 1 is a plan view of my evacuation litter in condition to receive a patient.
Figure 2 is a plan View of my evacuation litter showing the disposition of a patient o-n the litter with the restraining means partly secured.
Figure 3 is a side elevation of my evacuation litter with a patient in position on the litter and with the fabric envelope secured around the patients body.
Figure 4 is a plan view of my evacuation litter showing the means for closing the fabric envelope and the means for securing the envelope to the litter;
Figure 5 is a sectional view of my evacuation litter, taken along the line 5 5 of Figure l, showing the means for floating the litter.
More particularly referring now to Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings, my evacuation litter includes a standard litter, indicated generally by `the reference character 10, including a pair of hollow carrying poles 12 and 14. Any suitable means known to the art secures the litter fabric apron 16 to poles 12 and 14 to prevent shifting of the apron 16 with respect to the poles.
My evacuation litter includes a fabric envelope 18 formed of any suitable lightweight and strong material such as nylon fabric or the like. As can 'be seen by reference to Figures l, 2 and 4, I form the enveiope 18 with a pair of folds 20 and 22 in which I fix respective rolWs of' spaced grommets 24 and 26. Grommets 24 and 26 admit respective lashings 28 and 30 which secure the envelope 18 to the poles 12 and 14. In securing envelope 18 to the poles lashings 28 and 30 pass through suitable openings (not shown) formed in apron 16. F`he lashings 2S and 3i) may be tied, or secured in any other convenient manner, to hold the envelope 18 on the poles.
I form respective slots 32 and 34 -in envelope 18.
hese slots 32 and 34 extend from the edges of the en velope to points slightly inboard of poles 12 and 14 to divide the portions of envelope 18 extending outwardly from the sides of the litter into respective pairs of flaps 36 and 38 and 40 and 42.
I dispose a plurality of rows of spaced grommets 44 across envelope 18 between aps 38 and 42. I place the rows at predetermined locations along the length of envelope 13. A cord 46 or the like passing through the grommets 44 of one row and through grommets 48 secures a pouch 50 to envelope 18. As can best be seen by reference to Figure 2, pouch 50 is so formed that it provides a convenient and comfortable retaining means for the feet of a patient carried on the litter. The position of pouch 50 along the length of envelope 18 may be adjusted by using different rows of the grommets 44.
I secure a pair of respective shoulder straps 52 and 3 54 to envelope 13 by respective rows of stitching 56 and 58. A row of stitching 60 secures a crotch strap 62 to the envelope 18. The relative disposition of shoulder straps 52 and 54, crotch strap 62 and pouch 50 is such that patients of various heights can be accommodated on my evacuation litter in a manner which will be explained hereinafter.
As can best be seen by reference to Figures 2 and 3, a patient is placed on the litter with his feet disposed lin pouch Si). When this has been accomplished shoulder straps 52 and 54 are passed over the respective shoulders of the wearer and crotch strap 62 is passed between his legs. Lacing 64 or the like provides a means for securing straps 52 and 54 to strap 62. I thread lacing or cord 64 through grommets 66 in straps 52 and 54 and through grommets 63 in strap 62. It will be appreciated that lacing 64 forms a means for adjusting the snugness of t of shoulder straps S2 and 54 and crotch strap 62 to the wearers body. In addition, lacing 64 provides a means by which patients having torsos of various lengths may be accommodated on my evacuation litter. If desired, a reinforced opening '75l may be provided in envelope 18 and in apron 16 to permit the patient to relieve himself without having to remove the patient from the litter.
After cord 64 has been tied to secure straps 52, 54, and 62 together and the feet of the patient are disposed in pouch 50, aps 36, 38, 40, and 42 are closed over the patients body. As can best be seen by reference to Figures l and 4, l provide each of the aps 36, 38, 4t), and 42 with a plurality of spaced, elongated grommets 72 along its edges. I hem the edge of each of the laps 36, 38, 40, and 42 to form respective passageways 74 below grommets 72. ln order to secure aps 38 and 42 to each other, I pass a cord 76 through passageways 74 in the aps and draw loops 78 of cord 76 through each of the grommets 72. l secure a lacing drawstring Si) to the lowest of the loops 78 in ap 42, as viewed in Figure 4, and alternately pass the string 80 through the loops 78 in the respective aps 38 and 42 and secure string Si? to the highest of the loops 78 in ap 38, as viewed in Figure 4. I pass a cord 82 through the passageways 74 in each of the flaps 36 and 46 and draw loops 84 of cord 82 through grommets 72. A lacing drawstring 86 passing through loops 84 pulls llaps 36 and 4l) together. It will be appreciated that lacing drawstrings S and 86 alford a means for drawing flaps 36 and 40 and 38 and 42 together over their entire length.
Straps 88 and 9i?, secured to flap 40 by any convenient means, such as stitching or the like, are adapted to pass through respective buckles 92 and 94 carried by straps 96 and 9S secured to ap 36 by means such as stitching. Straps 8S, 90, 96 and 98 provide an auxiliary means for holding aps 36 and 40 over the patients body. A strap 100 carried by flap 42 is adapted to pass through a buckle 102 carried by a strap 164 fastened to flap 3S by means, such as stitching or the like, to provide an auxiliary means for holding flaps 3S and 42 over the patients body.
lf desired, I secure auxiliary aps 1136 and 1138 to flaps 4G and 42 by means such as stitching. These auxiliary flaps 166 and 108 are shorter than flaps 40 and 42 and may be secured to flaps 36 and 38 in the same manner as are liaps 4@ and 42 to accommodate a patient having a smaller girth than can conveniently be accommodated by flaps 4l? and 42.
I provide my evacuation litter with means for floating the litter and patient in the event it becomes necessary to deplane them over water. As can best be seen by reference to Figures 3, 4 and 5, I secure an inilatable bag 11'?? to envelope 1S by any convenient means and extend the bag over a portion of the area of tlaps 36 and 4l). Compressed air or gas flask 112 provides a means for inflating bag 110 when a release means of any type known to the art (not shown) comes Iinto contact with the water or is operated manually.
I pass respective lengths of webbing 114 and 116 through the bores in tubular poles 12 and 14 and anchor the respective lengths at one end by ttings 113 and 120. I secure respective shackles 122 and 124 to the other ends of webbings 114 and 116. Shackles 122 and 124 support the yoke 126 of a parachute. Yoke 126 carries an automatic release device 128 of a type known to the art which detaches the parachute shroud lines 131i in a manner known to the art when they are relieved of the weight of the litter and patient upon reaching the earth. As can be seen by reference to Figure 3, I secure the parachute pack 132 to the underside of the litter by means of frangible cords 134 which are broken in a manner known to the art by hand or by a static line when the litter and patient are jettisoned from an aircraft.
In use of my evacuation litter, in order to secure a patient to the litter he is placed on the open litter shown in Figure l, with his feet disposed in pouch St). Shoulder straps 52 and 54 and crotch strap 62 are passed over the patients body and secured `to each other by lacings 64 in the manner shown in Figure 2. As is shown in Figure 4, after the straps have been secured, aps 36 and 38 and 40 and 42 are passed over the patients body and secured to each other by cords 76 and 82 and draw-strings 80 and 86. Straps 88 and 96, 9i) and 98, and 1M and 164 are fastened together securely to hold the patient 0n the litter. ln the event it becomes necessary to jettison the patient and litter, cords 134 are broken and the patient and litter are suspended from parachute shroud lines until they reach the ground or water. As soon as the patient and litter have landed, automatic release device 123 releases the parachute shroud lines in a manner known to the art. lr" the patient and litter have landed on water, compressed air from ask 112 inflates bag 110. As can be seen by reference to Figure 5, bag 11i? has a greater cross-sectional area at its ends than at its middle, with the result that the patient and litter are floated with the patients face up.
It is to be noted that my litter provides ready access to any part of the patients body without entirely releasing the patient from the litter. For example, if access to any part of the patients body above his waist is desired, flaps 36 and 4@ may be opened independently of flaps 38 and 42. if access to a part of the patients body below the waist is desired, flaps 38 and 42 may be opened independently of flaps 36 and 4?. Even with all the aps 36, 4t), 38 and 42 open, the patient is still securely retained on the litter by shoulder straps 52 and 54, crotch strap 62 and foot pouch 5t?. My litter retains the patient in position on the litter under the force of high acceleration or deceleration without injury.
lt will be seen that I have accomplished the objects of my invention. I have provided an improved evacuation litter which supports a patient on a litter in comfort and without danger of injury under the action of high acceleration or deceleration. My litter permits ready access to any part of the patients body. I provide my litter with means for parachuting the patient safely to the earth in the event it becomes necessary to jettison the patient and litter from an aircraft. l provide means for floating the patient and litter in the event they are jettisoned or deplaned over water.
it will be understood that certain features and subcombinations are of utility and may be employed without reference to other features and subcombinations. This is contemplated by and is within the scope of my claims. 1t is further obvious that various changes may be made in details within the scope of my claims Without departing from the spiritof my invention. It is therefore to be understood that my invention is not to be limited to the specific details shown and described.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. An evacuation litter for transporting a patient including a litter having an apron and having means for carrying the apron, an envelope formed with pairs of flaps adapted to be folded over the patient, means for securing said envelope to said apron, means for retaining a patient in position in said envelope, means for individually closing said pairs of aps Iover the patient, said pairs of flaps being adapted to be individually opened to permit access to predetermined parts of the patients body, a pair of auxiliary aps carried by the respective aps of one pair of said envelope flaps, said auxiliary flaps being shorter than the envelope flaps with which they are associated and means for closing said auxiliary aps over said envelope aps carrying the auxiliary flaps to accommodate a patient of smaller size than the size of the patient accommodated by said envelope ilaps carrying said auxiliary flans.
2. An evacuation litter for transporting a patient including in combination a litter having an apron and a pair of rigid tubular poles for carrying the apron, a parachute harness, respective lengths of webbing passing through said poles, means for securing one end of each of said lengths of webbing to said harness and respective means carried by the other ends of said lengths of webbing for retaining said lengths of webbing in said poles whereby said poles are placed under compression when a force is exerted on said harness.
3. An evacuation litter for transporting a patient including in combination a litter having an apron and having means for carrying the apron, an inflatable bag, means for securing said bag to said apron, said bag having a central portion and end portions of greater cross-sectional area than said central portion and means for securing said end portions over the front of a patient on said litter to cause said patient to be floated face up.
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