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Publication numberUS2837160 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date3 Jun 1958
Filing date20 Aug 1956
Priority date20 Aug 1956
Publication numberUS 2837160 A, US 2837160A, US-A-2837160, US2837160 A, US2837160A
InventorsRobert M Vera, Jr Albert B Everly
Original AssigneeRobert M Vera, Jr Albert B Everly
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Downspout mitering tool
US 2837160 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 3, 1958 R. M. VERA ErAL DOWNSPOUT MITERING TOOL Filed Aug. 20, 1956 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 f/GLS IN VEN TOR. ROBERT M. VERA fLBERT a EVERLV JR {IMLR United States Patent DOWNSPOUT MITERING TOOL Robert M. Vera and Albert B. Everly, Jr., Salinas, Calif. Application August 20, 1956, Serial No. 685,130 9 Claims. (c1. 164-50) The present invention relates to a miter cutter, and pertains more particularly to a mechanism for cutting out an angular portion of a rectangular, box-section sheet metal pipe, so as to allow the two portions of the pipe on opposite sides of the cut to be bent to a required angle relative to each'other.

In the past, numerous mechanisms have been developed for cutting miters in sheet metal of various kinds, and even for making miter cuts in the side walls of channel members. However, since it is impractical to put a portion of a die inside a long section of downspout of rectangular cross sectional shape, the cutting of miters in downspouts has generally been performed by hand.

The present invention contemplates the provision of mechanism for cutting notches in two sides of a sheet metal pipe of rectangular cross sectional shape, and removing a wall portion between the divergent ends of the notches.

The invention also provides a simple machine for cutting a miter in a downspout or other rectangular pipe at a single operative stroke.

A further object of the invention is to provide improved and simplified means for holding a downspout, and for making a miter cut in the downspout.

These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, consisting of two sheets, wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a downspout mitering machine embodying the invention as it appears when mounted on a support and at the completion of an operati've stroke, a short length of downspout being shown in the machine. I

Fig. 2 is an enlarged end elevational view of the machine shown in Fig. 1 at the upper or beginning end of an operative stroke thereof, portions being broken away and adownspout retaining member being shown in solid lines in downspout retaining position and in-broken lines in downspout releasing position.

Fig. 3 is a perspective view of a fixed angle mitering knife which may be substituted for the variable angle knife of'Figs. 1 and 2 Fig. 4 is a bottom elevational view of the fixed angle knife of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken along line 5-5 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along line 6-6 of Fig. 2

Fig. 7- is .a length of downspout having two miter cuts made therein, the downspout being preparatory to soldering atone'of the miter cuts therein.

Briefly, the form of the invention illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 6 comprises a downspout mitering machine A, with amale piercing and mitering die 10 mounted on an upper-*plate 11 secured to the lower end of a slidable 11 and the piercing die 10 mounted thereon are moved downwardly, being guided by upright, parallel guide posts 14 atfixed to a base plate 15 and makes a miter cut 16 (Fig. 7) in a box -section downspout B positioned on the base plate 15. As the ram 12 moves downwardly, the piercing die 10 makes an initial, piercing, miter cut 17 (Fig. 7) in the unsupported top wall 18 of the downspout B, and continued downward movement of the ram next advances the upper piercing die 10 into shearing engagement with a pair of vertical die edges 2% and 21 of a lower die assembly 23. This shearing actionmakes a parallel double cut 24 (Fig. 7) in the upright rear wall 25 of the downspout, the upper ends of these parallel cuts 24 being continuous with the divergent ends of the top miter cut 17. Finally, as the ram reaches the lower portion of its stroke, the piercing die 10 advances into shearing engagement with a pair of angularly disposed horizontal die edges 27 (Fig. 5) for making a miter cut 28 in the downspout lower wall 29.

Referring to the drawings in greater detail, the illustrative embodiment A of the invention employs a conventional die block assembly C of a type commonly employed in punch-press work for holding the dies 10 and 23. The die block assembly C consists of the base plate 15, upright, parallel guide posts 14, and upper plate 11 slidably mounted for accurately guided movement on the guide posts. The base plate 15 has a pair of usual holddownnotche's 30 therein, by which it may be sesured firmly to a suitable support D by conventional die screws 31 (Fig. l).

The upper plate 11 is secured to the lower end of the ram 12 which is mounted for vertical slidable movement in a head portion 32 of a standard 33, fixedly mounted on the base plate 15. A toothed rack 34 is formed in the rearward side of the ram 12, and a pinion 35, journaled in the head portion 32, is in mesh with the rack 34. The operating lever 13 is secured to rotation coaxially with the pinion 35.

The upper piercing die 10 (Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 6) com prises two simillar, but reversed, angularly adjustable die members 37 and 38. Each of the upper die members '37 and 38 has a segmental support portion 39 and 40, re spectively, with interfitted, overlapping hinge portions 41 and 42 (Figs. 2 and 6). A pivot screw 43 is fitted into registering holes in the overlapping hinge portions 41 and 42, and is screwed into a threaded hole provided therefor in the upper plate 11.

Conventional die screws 44 and 45 (Fig. 6) are mounted in arcuate slots 47 and 48 cut in the segmental plate portions 37 and 38, respectively, concentric with the axis of the pivot screw 43. The heads of the screws 44 and 45 overlie the sides ofthe arcuate holes 47 and 48, and, together with the pivot screw 43, may be screwed tightly into the upper die plate 10 to securely hold the upper die members 37 and 38 in angularly adjusted condition.

A pair of downwardly extending piercing die blades 49 and 50 are formed integrally along the inner edges of the segmental portions 37 and 38, and these blades are notched out at 51 and 52, respectively (Figs. 1 and 2) to clear the pivot screw 43. The forward edges 49a and 50a of the blade portions 49. and 50 below the notches 51 and 52, are stragiht, and these blades are tapered forwardly to their forward edges 49a and 50a, which are thin, and are co-axial with the pivot screw 43 (Figs. 2 and 4) so as to form substantially a single, common edge as shown in Fig. 6, and terminate at their lower ends in a common point 53 (Fig. 2). The bottom sides 49b and 50b (Fig.

6) of the two blade portions 49 and 50 slope upwardly and rearwardly from their common point 53 (Fig. 2) and also slope upwardly and inwardly from their straight, sharpened, outer shearing edges 57 (Figs. 2 and 6).

The lower die assembly 23 comprises a pair of similar but reversed, upright shearing blade assemblies 58 and 59, having the upright shearing edges 20 and 21, respectively, thereon. These lower upright shearing blade assemblies 58 and 59 are securely attached in adjusted position to the base plate 15 by clamps 68, which, in turn, are secured to the base plate by usual die screws 61. Since the blade assemblies 58 and 59 are similar, but reversed, the blade 58 only will be described in detail, corresponding parts of the blade 59 being designated by the same numerals with the prime added thereto.

The blade assembly 58 comprises a blade support member 62 having a horizontal base portion 64, seated on the base plate 15, and an upright portion 65 formed integrally therewith. A shearing blade 67, of suitable die steel, is suitably hardened and ground to form the upright shearing edge 20. The blade 67 is secured by screws 68 to the forward face of the upright blade support portion 65.

A pair of similar, but opposite, bottom shearing blades 70 and 71 of suitable die steel are of segmental shape, and are flush-mounted in a recess 72 provided therefor in the base plate 15. A triangular opening 73 is provided in the base plate 15 (Figand is bounded by the radially extending dotted lines 77 and 78 and the partly solid and partly dotted line 79. This opening 73 provides operating clearance for the piercing die upon the completion of each full downward stroke of the operating lever 13, and also provides an opening through which may drop the piece of scrap (not shown) removed by each mitering operation. The segmental lower blades 78 and 71 are hardened, sharpened along their inner edges 27, and relieved on their under sides in a customary manner to have shearing engagement with the lower cutting edges 49b and 50b of the piercing die 10.

Die screws 80 are screwed into the base plate with their shanks (Fig. 5) riding in arcuate slots 81 in the cutting blades 70 and 71, and their heads flush mounted in recesses 82 surrounding the slots 81.

For urging the rear wall of a downspout B to be mitered firmly against the vertical cutting blades 67 and 67a as shown in Figs. 1 and '2, a swing-out positioning member 83 is hingedly mounted at 84 on the base plate 15. The positioning member 83 swings between its downspout retaining position shown in solid lines in Fig. 2,

to'its downspout releasing position shown in broken lines in Fig. 2.

The downspout positioning member 83 has a fiat lower face 85 for flush support on the base plate '15, and has an upright, rear, downspout engaging face 87 at right angles to the lower face 85. The upright face 87, when in its solid line position of Fig. 2, is spaced forwardly'of the vertical path of piercing point 53 of the piercing die 10 by approximately the thickness of the front wall88 of a downspout B to be mitered.

A hold-down tongue 89 preferably is provided on the under side at each end of the downspout positioning member 83 to extend inwardly beneath a downspout B when the mechanism A is in operating position as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. A notch 90 is provided in the base plate 15 to receive each tongue 89 flush therein and thus to allow proper seating of the downspout onthe base plate. In setting up the mechanism A for use, if it is desired to change the cutting angle from that of a previous setting, the screws 44 and (Fig. 4) and the pivot screw 43 for the upper piercing die blades are loosened slightly and the blades 37 and 38 are adjusted to define a desired mitering angle. After the piercing die blades 37 and 38 have been so adjusted, the screws 43, 44 and 45 are retightened to secure the blades in such adjusted condition.' .The lower clamp screws 61 and for the lower upright blade assemblies 58 and 59, and the lower horizontal blades 70 and 71, respectively, then are loosened, and all four of these lower blades are moved laterally outwardly, if required, to insure their clearing the piercing die 10 when it is lowered.

The piercing die 10 then is lowered to its lowermost position as shown in Fig. l, but without any downspout in the mechanism, after which the lower die blades 58, 59-, 70 and 71 are moved inwardly so that their shearing edges are in full, shearing contact with the outer faces of the piercing die blades 37 and 38. The lower blades 37, 38, 70 and 71 then are secured in such adjusted position by securely tightening their respective screws 61 and 80. The machine A is then ready to use.

For mitering' a downspout B, the operating lever 13 is raised to elevate the ram 12 and the upper die 10 thereon to their upper limits of movement. The downspout positioning member 83 is then swung upwardly slightly from its solid line position of Fig. 2. A downspout B then is inserted between the rear face 87 of the positioning member 83 and the upright lower shearing blades 67 and 67a. The downspout B then is manually pushed downwardly, so that it engages the projecting tongues 89 and thereby forces the positioning member 83 to.swing downwardly to its solid line position of Fig. 2. This action wedges the downspout firmly between the positioning member 83 and the upright shearing blades 67 and 67a ready for mitering.

A full downward stroke of the operating lever 13 then turns the pinion 35 and moves the ram 12 and the piercing die 10 thereon forcibly downwardly. The piercing point 53 first penetrates the top wall 18 of the downspout just rearwardly of the downspout front wall 88, and the sharpened lower edges 57 of the blades 37a and 38 cut a V-shaped portion (not shown) from the, unsupported top wall of the downspout, thereby making a miter cut 17 therein as shown in Fig. 7.

The upwardly and rearwardly sloping lower cutting edges 57 of the piercing die then exert a cam-like action on the downspout rear wall25, urging it rearwardly and shearing it along the two parallel lines 24 between the lower sloping cutting edges 57 of the piercing die 10 and the vertical edges 20 and 21 of the upright lower blades 37 and 38. A

As the piercing point 53 reaches the downspout lower wall 29 it pierces this bottom wall, and the lower edges 57 of the piercing die exert a cam-like shearing action along the sharpened inner edges 27 ofthe segmental lower shearing blades 70 and 71 thereby forming the miter cut 28 in the downspout lower Wall 29. The bottom cut 28 is completed simultaneously with the completion of the two parallel shearing cuts 24 of the rear wall 25, and the piece of scrap metal (not shown) removed in making the miter cut 16 (Fig. 7) drops down through the triangular scrap opening 73 in the base plate 15.

The downspout then can be bent to the position 91 (Fig. 7) closing the edges of the miter cut, after which the cut, adjoining edges may be soldered together in a usual manner to complete the bend in the downspout.

' While it is desirable for some shops and on some jobs to have a downspout miter cutter in which the miter angle may be adjusted, as in the mechanism shown in Figs. 1, 2, 5 and 6, in other instances it may be desirable to have only a single angle of miter cut available, and to bend all downspouts to the same angle. A generally suitable miter angle is one slightly less than Such a bend insures against having any strictly horizontal runs when bending the downspout laterally from the vertical, so that all parts of the downspout will then drain properly. In such case a single, non-adjustable upper piercing die 92 (Figs. 3 and 4), which is much simpler and less costly than the adjustable upper die 10 may be provided with fixedly mounted cutting blades 93 and 94 diverging at a required miter angle. Y

The same lower die assembly 23 as that used with the adjustable upper die 10 may be used. If preferred, however. a fixed lower die, not shown,' may be used with age-ems the fixed upper die 92. *Sincethe manner of making and using such a fixed lower die for use withthe' fixed upper or piercing die 92 of Figs. 3 and 4 would be Obvious to one skilled in the art and familiar with the construction and operation of the mechanism ofthe present invention, its details are omitted from the prese'nts'pecification.

The invention provides a simple device for mitering downspouts and other pipes of sheet material and of generally rectangular cross sectional shape, and one which permits the mitering of such a pipe with a single, easy stroke of the mechanism. This operation greatly facili tates and improves the mitering of the downspouts, and other rectangular pipes, either in the shop, or, ifdesired, on a mitering device mounted on a truck or temporary bench if it is desired ;to take the machine to the .job.

While we have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and one modified form thereof, it will-be understood however, that other changes and modifications may be made in the details thereof without departing from the scope of the :invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Having thus describedthe invention, what we claim as new and desire to protect by Letters Patent is defined in the following claims.

We claim:

1. A downspout miter cutter comprising an upper piercing die and a lower die, first die means on the lower die having a pair of angularly divergent, intersecting, inwardly facing cutting edges thereon, second die means on the lower die having a pair of inwardly facing, parallel cutting edges thereon each of which perpendicularly intersects one of the divergent cutting edges of said first lower die means a predetermined distance from the point of intersection of the latter, a pipe retaining member extending parallel to the plane defined by the parallel cutting edges and closely beyond the intersection of the divergent cutting edges on the first die means for retaining a rectangular pipe of predetermined width upon the first die means and between the retaining member and the second die means, a pair of intersecting cutting edges on the piercing die disposed in planes defining an angle similar to that defined by the divergent cutting edges of the first die means, the cutting edges of the piercing die sloping upwardly away from their point of intersection, and guided actuating means for moving the dies from open condition with the cutting edges of the upper die on the opposite side from the first die means on the lower die of a pipe retained by the retaining member, to shut condition along a path parallel to the perpendicular cutting edges of the lower die, whereby the piercing die makes an initial V-shaped cut in the unsupported wall of such pipe adjacent thereto, followed by the making of contiguous parallel shear cuts along the parallel edges of the lower die and a final contiguous V-shaped cut in the wall or such pipe upon the first die means of the lower die, thereby to make a miter cut in such pipe.

2. A downspout miter cutter comprising a piercing die, a pair of angularly diverging, cutting, shearing edges thereon, a second die having a pair of angularly diverging shearing edges thereon for shearing engagement with the edegs of the piercing dies, the edges of the piercing die sloping away from the second die from a common point of intersection to provide a piercing point, means i for moving the dies along a straight path from open condition with the dies on opposite sides of a rectangular downspout pipe inserted in a cutter to shut condition with the diverging shearing edges of the piercing die inserted between the diverging shearing edges of the second die, a pair of parallel shearing edges on the second die parallel to the path of die movement, each parallel edge intersecting one of the diverging shearing edges on the second die, means for clamping a rectangular pipe to be mitered between the first and second dies in their open over the diverging edges of the second die, the piercing die being mounted to fit in close, shearing relation between the parallel shearing edges of the second die on a movement of the dies from open to shut condition, whereby the piercing die makes an initial V-sha'ped cut in the unsupported wall of such pipe adjacent thereto,

followed by the making of contiguous parallel shear cuts along the parallel edges of the lower die on a final contiguous V-shaped cut in the wall of such pipe upon the first die means of the lower die, thereby to make a miter cut in such pipe.

3. A downspout miter cutter comprising a piercing die, a pair of angularly diverging, cutting, shearing edges thereon, means for adjusting the angle of divergence between said edges, a second die having a pair of angularly diverging shearing edges thereon for shearing engagement with the edges of the piercing die, means for adjusting the angle of divergence between the shearing edges of the second die, the edges of the piercing die sloping away from the second die from a common point of intersection to provide a piercing point, means for moving the dies from open to shut condition along a straight path, a pair of parallel shearing edges on the second die parallel to the path of die movement, means for adjusting the separation between the parallel edges of the second die to position each parallel edge in intersecting relation with one of the diverging shearing edges on the second die, means for clamping a rectangular pipe to be mitered against the parallel shearing edges, and over the diverging shearing edges of the second die, the piercing die being mounted to fit in close, shearing relation between the shearing edges of the second die on a movement of the dies from open to shut condition, thereby to make a miter cut in a pipe clamped against the parallel shearing edges.

4. An arrangement according to claim 3 wherein the edegs of the piercing die are on a pair of blades pivoted for adjustment about an axis parallel to the path of die movement and passing through the point of intersection of the edges of the piercing die.

5. An arrangement according to claim 3 wherein the pipe clamping means is a member hingedly connected to the second die for swinging movement from operative condition to a position clear of a pipe positioned against the parallel shearing edges, and a holding tongue on the lower side of the clamping member for engagement by a pipe clamped thereby.

6. A downspout miter cutter comprising a piercing die and a second die, means for moving the two dies relatively along a straight path from open to shut condition, the dies being separated in their open condition by a distance greater than the width of a rectangular pipe to be mitered thereby, a pair of blades on the piercing die the edges of said blades nearest the second die in the open condition of the dies being straight, beveled outwardly and sharpened to cutting, shearing edges, said edges intersecting at .a point and sloping away from the second die from their point of intersection to form a piercing point, means for angularly adjusting said blades condition and against the parallel shearing edges and about the intersection of their cutting, shearing edges as a pivot, a pair of shearing edge portions on the second die angularly spaced apart to receive the piercing die in shearing relation therebetween, parallel shearing edge portions on the second die extending parallel to the path of relative die movement, one from each angularly diverging edge portion of the second die toward the piercing die in the open condition of the dies, and means for retaining a rectangular pipe with one wall thereof contacting the parallel edge portions of the second die, and with the pipe wall opposite thereto clear of the path of the point of the piercing die, whereby, when the dies are moved from open to shut condition, the piercing die pierces and severs an angular portion from the wall of such rectangular pipe nearest the piercing die in the open condition of the dies, and thereafter shears a strip from the wall of such pipe between the parallel edge-portions of the second die, and shears a second, opposite, angular portion from the wall of the pipe opposite that first engaged by the piercingpoint by shearing engagement of the cutting, shearing edges of the piercing die with the angularly diverging edge portions of the second die.

7. An arrangement according to claim 6 wherein the diverging blades of the piercing die and the angularly spaced shearing edge portions of the second die are angularly adjustable about a common axis passing through the piercing point of the piercing die and parallel to the path of relative die movement, and means for adjusting the lateral separation between the parallel shearing edge portions.

8. A downspout miter cutter comprising a piercing die and a second die, the second die having an opening therein of a size to receive the piercing die, a pair of angularly diverging, intersecting, inwardly facing shearing edge portions on the second die on opposite sides of the opening therein, a pair of inwardly facing, parallel shearing edges on the second die which perpendicularly intersect the divergent shearing edge portions thereon a predetermined distance from the point of intersection of the latter, means for retaining a rectangular pipe of predetermined width on the second die with one side of the pipe overlying the divergent cutting edge portions thereon and a second side of the pipe held against the parallel shearing edge portions, a pair of intersecting, cutting, shearing edges on the piercing die disposed in planes defining an angle similar to that defined by the divergent cutting edges of the second die and mounted to fit in close, shearing relation therebetween, the cutting, shearing edges of the piercing die sloping away from the second die in the open condition of the dies from their point of intersection to provide a piercing point, and guided actuating means for relatively moving the dies along a path parallel to the perpendicular cutting edges of the lower die, from open condition with the piercing die on the opposite side of a pipe clamped in the cutter from the opening in the second die, to shut condition with the piercing die inserted in such opening, whereby the lib parallelshearing edges of the lower die, and a final con- .tiguous V-shaped cut inthe wall of suchpipe upon the angularly diverging shearing edge portions of the second die thereby to make a miter cut in a pipe held by the retaining means. i i

9. A downspout miter cutter comprising a piercing die and a second die, a pipe support on the second die with an opening therein of a size to receive the piercing die, a pair of inwardly facing, parallel shearing edges on the second die, means for retaining 'a rectangular sheet metal pipe of predetermined size with'one wall of such pipe onsaid support and asecond adjoining wall of the pipe held against the parallel shearing edge portions, a pair of intersecting, cutting, shearing edges on the piercing die disposed in planes perpendicular to said supporting surface and defining an angle of a desired miter cut, the cutting, shearing edges of the piercing die being positioned for shearing co-operation with said parallel shearing edge portions and sloping away from said support in the open condition of the dies from their point of intersection to provide a piercing point, and guided actuating means for relatively moving the dies along a path parallel to the parallel shearing edge portions from open condition wherein the piercing die is on the opposite side of a pipe retained by said retaining means from said support to shut condition wherein the piercing die is inserted in the opening in the support, during which movement the piercing die makes an initial V-shaped cut in the un supported wall of such pipe nearest thereto, then, in cooperation with the parallel shearing edges, it makes contiguous parallel shear cuts in the pipe wall along the latter shearing edges, and finally makes a contiguous V-shaped cut in the wall of such pipe resting on such support, thereby completing a miter cut in such pipe.

References Cited in the file of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,922,751 Thiermann Aug. 15, 1933 2,613,740 Drain Oct; 14, 1952

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US1922751 *16 May 193115 Aug 1933Emil Thiermann JohannMachine tool
US2613740 *13 Aug 194714 Oct 1952Walter E Selck And CoMitering tool
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3065657 *16 Apr 195627 Nov 1962Thomas H ThompsonSheet metal tubing cutter
US3097684 *14 Jan 196016 Jul 1963Le Tarte Company IncMethod of forming a closed corner in a hollow rectilinear metal workpiece
US3227025 *2 Oct 19634 Jan 1966Paul E MacmillanMitering tool
US3521515 *27 Nov 196721 Jul 1970Trufast Products IncAdjustable knife apparatus
US3910093 *15 Mar 19737 Oct 1975Zmc IncConnection of downspouts to rain gutters
US3958482 *15 Apr 197525 May 1976Nordisk Kartro AktiebolagMachine for cutting material
US4411183 *28 Sep 198225 Oct 1983Auer Mark JApparatus for cutting pie-shaped openings in fiberboard duct
US4787283 *26 Mar 198729 Nov 1988Foster Larry LMetal stud and channel cornering die
US4875274 *19 May 198824 Oct 1989Foster Larry LMethod of cutting metal stud and bending and securing same to form angel member
US5943933 *23 Jul 199731 Aug 1999Evans; MurrayFor cutting a notch of a workpiece
US6675686 *7 Jun 200213 Jan 2004Dan-List A/S MaskinfabrikApparatus for production of a bar notch
DE3905788A1 *24 Feb 198930 Aug 1990Sanko Ind LtdSchneidwerkzeug zum erleichterten biegen von hohlem rohrmaterial
DE3912460A1 *15 Apr 198926 Oct 1989S I M A S V S R LCutting machine with adjustable cutting angle
EP0083678A1 *13 Jan 198220 Jul 1983F.I.M. s.r.l.Notcher
EP1839789A1 *15 Mar 20073 Oct 2007Lenhardt Maschinenbau GmbHSeparating device for notching a plastic sheet to manufacture a frame-shaped spacer for insulation glass
EP1932602A1 *23 Nov 200718 Jun 2008Witzenmann GmbHMethod and pre-processed pipe for manufacturing a pipe with a bend or a traverse curve
Classifications
U.S. Classification83/556, 83/636, 83/917, 83/641, 83/692
International ClassificationB23D21/02, E04F21/00
Cooperative ClassificationB23D21/02, E04F21/0069, Y10S83/917
European ClassificationB23D21/02, E04F21/00P