|Publication number||US2621145 A|
|Publication date||9 Dec 1952|
|Filing date||17 Aug 1949|
|Priority date||17 Aug 1949|
|Publication number||US 2621145 A, US 2621145A, US-A-2621145, US2621145 A, US2621145A|
|Inventors||Sano Machteld E|
|Original Assignee||Sano Machteld E|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (119), Classifications (12)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec. 9, 1952 M. E. sANo 2,621,145
BONE MAT COMPOSITIONS Filed Aug. 17, 1949 FGzl- TNESSES l INVENTOR.-
A TTORN E YS Patenied Dec. 9, 1952 UNITED STATES 'TENT OFFICE BONE MAT COMPSITIONS Machteld E. Sano, Philadelphia, Pa.
Application August 17, 1949, Serial No'. 110,743
Claims. (Cl. 167-84) This invention relates to the eld of bone surgery and is directed particularly to the provision of a flexible strip comprising particles of bone held together by a fibrin network and sufficiently flexible to permitthe formation of a rolled strip.
In the eld of bone surgery it is frequently required to replace sections of bone or fragments thereof. The physiological replacement of large pieces of bone or fragments in the human or animal body requires time and in certain unfavorable instances will not take place. In order to bridge the gap and to thus facilitate the process of regrowth, the surgeon introduces a piece of bone which he may obtain from a bone bank or which he may remove from a healthy bone of the patient. Specially treated animal bones have also been used in this way. In any of these three instances the process is time consuming. One of the objections to the use of bone grafts of this kind is the accurate cutting and fitting which is time consuming. A further diiiiculty in the methods heretofore employed has been in readily obtaining bone grafts of the desired shapes and lengths.
The purpose of the present invention ls to provide a composition of bone particles which will promote the assimilation of the bone by the host and which can be readily obtained and which will be easy to use. To further this object, the present invention provides a flexible mat comprising, in combination, a multiplicity of bone particles enmeshed in a brin network, the entire composition being adapted for use in certain fields of bone surgery in place of the bone grafts heretofore used.
A preferred process for preparing the composition which is the subject of the present invention is described hereinafter in detail, reference being had to the accompanying drawings in which Fig. I1 is a plan view of a portion of iiexible strip comprising bone particles enmeshed in a brin network on a cellophane carrier;
Fig. 2 is a cross section taken through the lines II-II of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view showing the flexible strip of Fig. 1 in roll form and;
Fig. 4 is a semi-schematic plan view greatly enlarged of a portion of a flexible strip comprising bone dust particles enmeshed in a fibrin network.
In the drawings a multiplicity of bone particles I are shown enmeshed in a fibrin network 2. The bone mat thus formed is supported by a carrier strip 3 comprising a thin exible plas- .tic material such as cellophane. In preparing the bone particles l, pieces of bone, including the cortex, are obtained under sterile conditions from animals but preferably from humans, and these bones are ground by means of a bone grinder. The sizes of` bone particles may vary from bone dust where the particle size is of the order of T16 mm. to particles which may be 4 mm. in diameter or more. It is preferable, however, to providebone particles of 'substantially the same size for a given bone mat composition. I have found it advantageous to provide bone particles of the following sizes:
-1% mm., or bone dust 1-'2 mm. in diameter 2-'4 jmm. in diameter This provides a selectionin making up a given quantity of the bone mat composition of the present invention;
A sterile flexible strip made of a plastic material such as cellophane or the like, is placed in a sterile container or on a sterile' glass plate. This strip for convenience may be about 5 cm. wide. The previously prepared bone particles are then sprinkled on the sterile strip in a thin layer leaving an unsprinkled edge free of bone particles from 2-3 mm. from each side and end of the flexible carrier strip. The container or glass plate is then Vshaken gently to provide an even layer. Citrated or heparinized plasma, either human or animal, is then sprayed or drippedl on the thin layer of bone particles in sufficient quantity to wet the entire surface. Thisvwill vary according to the size of the bone particles but will be approximately l/2 cc. of plasma per 2 square cm. of bone particle layer. The plasma should be sterile and not over 24 hours should elapse between the time of its collection and the time of its use.
Following the application of plasma, thromboplastin containing 500 units per cc. or more is sprayed over the bone and plasma layer, it being sufficient to use 1/4 cc. of thromboplastin per 2 square cm. of surface. The treated layer with its mixture of plasma and thromboplastin is next gently pressed with the fleshy part of the foreiinger or a small rubber cushion and the edges of the strip are gently patted inwards. The sterile container or glass plate is gently tilted for about 5 minutes to let the excess iiuid drain and the drained layer is then gently pressed as in the previous pressing step. The bone mat thus formed supported by the cello- 3 phane carrier strip may now be rolled upon itself, placed in a sterile tin container and sealed air-tight or it may be stored in a glass container and sealed air-tight.
The procedure outlined above for preparing the bone mat composition of the present invention is applicable particularly in the case where human plasma is used. In the event that animal plasma is used, best results are obtained if the steps involving spraying with plasma and then with thromboplastin are repeated. It is also possible to form a thicker layer of bone mat by repeating the entire process a number of times and then building up a succession of layers.
The addition of the thromboplastin to the plasma, which contains brinogen, results in the formation of a brin network which enmeshesy the bone particles and holds them together thus forming a bone mat.
It will be apparent that the exible plastic carrier strip serves to support the bone. particle layer during the treatment with plasma and thromboplastin and permits rolling so that the strip canbe effectively stored. The bone mat comprising bone particles enmeshed in a brin network can be removed from the carrier strip by a roll-off operation as shown in Fig. 3 of the drawings.
The nal bone mat composition ofthe present invention may b e looked upon as the bone particle-brin network layer and it is possible to store this layer either flat or rolled. For convenience it is desirable to store the bone mat layer rolled and with the carrier strip. affixed. At the time of ultimate use the bone particle-nbrin mat is removed from the carrier strip.
In using the composition of the present invention in bone surgery, the surgeon merely unrolls the slightly humid bone mat and removes it from the plastic carrier strip. A strip of bonemat prepared with 1-2'mm.` bone(particles` which is 5 cm.
wide and V10 cm. long can be rolled withoutthe plastic carrier strip into a bone roll 5 cm. long and 11/2 to 2 om: in diameter whiehrmay be used in ways which will be apparent to the skilled surgeon.
In addition to being much easier to useand less time consuming, the bonematof the present invention encourages:v a morel rapid regrowth of bone bythe body as compared to the ratel of regrowth where the usualbone grarftpmethod is used.
In describing the present invention a specific preferred example has been given. However, it will be understood thatv various modications may be employed withoutdepartingfrom the spirit of the present invention as set forth inthe appended claims. Likewise if prepared on a large scale certain modications will suggest themselves as being applicable to mass production methods.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A bone roll for use in bone surgery in promoting regrowth of bone comprising a rolled flexible strip consisting of a multiplicity of unboiled particles of ground whole bone enmeshed in a fibrin network and held together thereby.
2. A iiexible strip for use in bone surgery in promoting regrowth of bone comprising a multiplicity of unboiled particles of ground whole bone enmeshed in fibrin in the form of a bone particlebrin network and a thin, flexible carrier strip support for said network.
3. The invention of claim 2 further characterized by the fact that the carrier strip consists of a sterile strip of cellophane.
4. A bone roll for use in bone surgery in promoting regrowth of bone comprising a rolled flexible strip consisting of a multiplicity of unboiled particles of ground whole bone held together by a fibrin network and supported on a thin, ilexible carrier strip.
5. A flexible mat which can be rolled into any desired length, thickness and shape for use in bone surgery in promoting. regrowth` of bone comprising a strip consisting of a multiplicity of unboiled particles ofy ground whole boneenmeshed in a fibrin network and held together thereby.
MACHTELD E. SANO;
The following references arel of record in the file ofthis patent:
UNITED=STATES PA'IEN'IS Number Name Date 2,241,868. Reimann May 13, 1941 2,398,077 Smith Apr. 9, 1946 2,433,299 Seegers Dec. 23, 1947 2,485,791 Tucker Oct. 25, 1949 2,492,458 Bering. Dec. 27, 1949 2,517,772 Doub Aug. 8, 1950 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country` Date 18,601 Great Britain -.A. D. 1897 474,093 Germany Mar. 26, 1929 OTHER REFERENCES Drug and Cosmetic Industry, May 1937, page 727, Stimulating Bone Growth.
Blaine, Experimental Observations Annals of Surgery, January 1947, pagesf102 to 106, 108 to 114, especially at page 108.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2241868 *||2 Nov 1938||13 May 1941||Hall Lab Inc||Method of processing blood|
|US2398077 *||29 Apr 1940||9 Apr 1946||Parke Davis & Co||Blood coagulating product and method of obtaining same|
|US2433299 *||22 Jan 1944||23 Dec 1947||Parke Davis & Co||Blood coagulant and method of preserving same|
|US2485791 *||10 Jun 1948||25 Oct 1949||Tucker Jr Eli Jordan||Bone bank and method of preserving bones for transplantation|
|US2492458 *||8 Dec 1944||27 Dec 1949||Jr Edgar A Bering||Fibrin foam|
|US2517772 *||11 May 1945||8 Aug 1950||Parke Davis & Co||Neutralized oxidized cellulose products|
|DE474093C *||30 Jul 1927||26 Mar 1929||Heyl & Co||Verfahren zur Herstellung blutstillender und wundheilender Verbaende und Pflaster|
|GB189718601A *||Title not available|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2690198 *||18 Jan 1950||28 Sep 1954||Anderson Roger||Saw tooth cutter for dividing bone for orthopedic operations|
|US2721555 *||3 Dec 1952||25 Oct 1955||Jenney John A||Dermatome|
|US3022783 *||10 Aug 1960||27 Feb 1962||Method of preserving tissue such|
|US3126884 *||30 Mar 1961||31 Mar 1964||Method of preserving animal tissue|
|US4186448 *||21 Nov 1977||5 Feb 1980||Brekke John H||Device and method for treating and healing a newly created bone void|
|US4430760 *||18 Dec 1981||14 Feb 1984||Collagen Corporation||Nonstress-bearing implantable bone prosthesis|
|US4553272 *||26 Feb 1981||19 Nov 1985||University Of Pittsburgh||Regeneration of living tissues by growth of isolated cells in porous implant and product thereof|
|US4743229 *||29 Sep 1986||10 May 1988||Collagen Corporation||Collagen/mineral mixing device and method|
|US4789663 *||5 Jul 1985||6 Dec 1988||Collagen Corporation||Methods of bone repair using collagen|
|US5000746 *||11 Aug 1988||19 Mar 1991||Friedrichsfeld Gmbh Keramik- Und Kunststoffwerke||Wound covering having connected discrete elements|
|US5356630 *||7 May 1993||18 Oct 1994||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Delivery system for controlled release of bioactive factors|
|US5403317 *||12 Oct 1993||4 Apr 1995||Bonutti; Peter M.||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US5545409 *||5 Apr 1994||13 Aug 1996||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Delivery system for controlled release of bioactive factors|
|US5577517 *||9 Dec 1994||26 Nov 1996||Bonutti; Peter M.||Method of grafting human tissue particles|
|US5629009 *||7 Aug 1996||13 May 1997||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Delivery system for controlled release of bioactive factors|
|US5694951 *||9 Aug 1996||9 Dec 1997||Bonutti; Peter M.||Method for tissue removal and transplantation|
|US5769897 *||28 Feb 1994||23 Jun 1998||Haerle; Anton||Synthetic bone|
|US5935131 *||11 Apr 1997||10 Aug 1999||Bonutti; Peter M.||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US5935594 *||6 Apr 1998||10 Aug 1999||Thm Biomedical, Inc.||Process and device for treating and healing a tissue deficiency|
|US5944721 *||8 Dec 1997||31 Aug 1999||Huebner; Randall J.||Method for repairing fractured bone|
|US5981825 *||13 May 1994||9 Nov 1999||Thm Biomedical, Inc.||Device and methods for in vivo culturing of diverse tissue cells|
|US6030635 *||27 Feb 1998||29 Feb 2000||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Malleable paste for filling bone defects|
|US6045555 *||10 Dec 1997||4 Apr 2000||Osteonics Corp.||Bone graft delivery system and method|
|US6120539 *||1 May 1997||19 Sep 2000||C. R. Bard Inc.||Prosthetic repair fabric|
|US6142998 *||3 Jan 2000||7 Nov 2000||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Bone graft delivery surgical instruments|
|US6174313||1 Jun 1999||16 Jan 2001||Peter M. Bonutti||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US6258124||10 May 1999||10 Jul 2001||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Prosthetic repair fabric|
|US6264701||7 Dec 1998||24 Jul 2001||Kensey Nash Corporation||Device and methods for in vivo culturing of diverse tissue cells|
|US6270530||9 Jun 2000||7 Aug 2001||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Prosthetic repair fabric|
|US6309395||25 Apr 2000||30 Oct 2001||Howmedica Osteonics Corp.||Bone graft delivery surgical instruments|
|US6326018||7 Oct 1999||4 Dec 2001||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Flexible sheet of demineralized bone|
|US6437018||29 Feb 2000||20 Aug 2002||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Malleable paste with high molecular weight buffered carrier for filling bone defects|
|US6468289||14 Jan 2000||22 Oct 2002||Peter M. Bonutti||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US6497650||28 Jul 2000||24 Dec 2002||C. R. Bard, Inc.||Hernia prosthesis|
|US6543455||11 Jan 2002||8 Apr 2003||Peter M. Bonutti||Cell harvesting method|
|US6592531||3 Sep 2002||15 Jul 2003||Bonutti 2003 Trust-A||Surgical instrument positioning system|
|US6607534||29 Jan 2002||19 Aug 2003||Peter M. Bonutti||Tissue engagement method|
|US6630000||19 Nov 1999||7 Oct 2003||Bonutti 2003 Trust-A||Method of using body tissue|
|US6632247||22 Mar 2001||14 Oct 2003||Synthes (Usa)||Implants formed of coupled bone|
|US6638309 *||1 Jun 2001||28 Oct 2003||Bonutti 2003 Trust A||Method of using body tissue|
|US6652532||4 Dec 2001||25 Nov 2003||Bonutti 2003 Trust A||Tissue repair method|
|US6652595||9 Jan 1998||25 Nov 2003||Davol Inc.||Method of repairing inguinal hernias|
|US6702856||11 Dec 2001||9 Mar 2004||The Bonutti 2003 Trust A||Method of using Tissue|
|US6719803||3 Sep 2002||13 Apr 2004||Bonutti 2003 Trust-A||Method for forming and implanting a grafting material containing tissue|
|US6736853||19 Oct 2001||18 May 2004||The Bonutti 2003 Trust A||Method of using tissue cage|
|US6776800||13 Aug 2001||17 Aug 2004||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Implants formed with demineralized bone|
|US6776938||21 Feb 2003||17 Aug 2004||Bonutti 2003 Trust-A||Method for forming implant containing tissue|
|US6790213||7 Jan 2002||14 Sep 2004||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis|
|US6835198||5 Dec 2001||28 Dec 2004||The Bonutti 2003 Trust A||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US6855169||13 Aug 2001||15 Feb 2005||Synthes (Usa)||Demineralized bone-derived implants|
|US6860904||24 Oct 2002||1 Mar 2005||Bonutti 2003 Trust-A||Method for tissue grafting|
|US6905517||24 Oct 2002||14 Jun 2005||Bonutti Ip, Llp||Tissue grafting material|
|US6986788||9 Apr 2001||17 Jan 2006||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Intervertebral allograft spacer|
|US6989029||21 Feb 2003||24 Jan 2006||Bonutti Ip, Llc||Tissue cage|
|US6990982||12 Mar 2003||31 Jan 2006||Bonutti Ip, Llc||Method for harvesting and processing cells from tissue fragments|
|US6998135||14 May 2001||14 Feb 2006||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Demineralized corticocancellous bone sheet|
|US7070557||4 Mar 2004||4 Jul 2006||Marctec, Llc||Tissue graft material and method of making|
|US7087087||14 Oct 2003||8 Aug 2006||Boyer Ii Michael L||Implants formed of coupled bone|
|US7115146||22 Mar 2001||3 Oct 2006||Boyer Ii Michael L||Multipiece implants formed of bone material|
|US7134437||22 Mar 2002||14 Nov 2006||Bonutti Ip, Llc||Method for utilizing human tissue|
|US7156804||2 Dec 2002||2 Jan 2007||Davol, Inc.||Hernia prosthesis|
|US7226482||1 Sep 2004||5 Jun 2007||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Multipiece allograft implant|
|US7232464||19 Aug 2004||19 Jun 2007||Synthes (Usa)||Intervertebral implant|
|US7235079||18 Nov 2004||26 Jun 2007||Acumed Llc||Composite bone fasteners|
|US7300465||10 Jun 2005||27 Nov 2007||Synthes (U.S.A.)||Intervertebral allograft spacer|
|US7404819||14 Sep 2000||29 Jul 2008||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis|
|US7462200||23 Nov 2005||9 Dec 2008||Marctec, Llc||Method for tissue grafting|
|US7601173||7 May 2007||13 Oct 2009||Synthes Usa, Llc||Multipiece allograft implant|
|US7608113||24 Nov 2003||27 Oct 2009||Synthes Usa, Llc||Demineralized bone implants|
|US7618456||17 Nov 2009||Synthes Usa, Llc||Intervertebral implant|
|US7727283||4 Mar 2004||1 Jun 2010||P Tech, Llc.||Tissue stabilizing implant method|
|US7753963 *||8 Sep 2008||13 Jul 2010||Synthes Usa, Llc||Demineralized bone-derived implants|
|US7824420||26 May 2004||2 Nov 2010||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis|
|US7846207||8 Aug 2005||7 Dec 2010||Synthes Usa, Llc||Intervertebral implant|
|US7862616||29 Apr 2009||4 Jan 2011||Synthes Usa, Llc||Intervertebral implant|
|US7896880||1 Mar 2011||P Tech, Llc||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US8043377||2 Sep 2006||25 Oct 2011||Osprey Biomedical, Inc.||Implantable intervertebral fusion device|
|US8182545||10 Jul 2008||22 May 2012||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis|
|US8480757||28 Aug 2006||9 Jul 2013||Zimmer, Inc.||Implants and methods for repair, replacement and treatment of disease|
|US8497121||23 Mar 2012||30 Jul 2013||Zimmer Orthobiologics, Inc.||Method of obtaining viable small tissue particles and use for tissue repair|
|US8518433||15 Dec 2011||27 Aug 2013||Zimmer, Inc.||Method of treating an osteochondral defect|
|US8524268||15 Dec 2011||3 Sep 2013||Zimmer, Inc.||Cadaveric allogenic human juvenile cartilage implant|
|US8540774||5 Nov 2008||24 Sep 2013||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Low profile intervertebral implant|
|US8652507||22 Dec 2010||18 Feb 2014||Zimmer, Inc.||Juvenile cartilage composition|
|US8709085||28 Oct 2011||29 Apr 2014||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Intervertebral implant|
|US8715354||28 Oct 2011||6 May 2014||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Intervertebral implant|
|US8747439||10 Jul 2006||10 Jun 2014||P Tech, Llc||Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element|
|US8764831||15 Dec 2010||1 Jul 2014||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Intervertebral implant|
|US8765165||23 Aug 2010||1 Jul 2014||Zimmer, Inc.||Particulate cartilage system|
|US8784863||22 Dec 2010||22 Jul 2014||Zimmer, Inc.||Particulate cadaveric allogenic cartilage system|
|US8808329||3 Apr 2012||19 Aug 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body|
|US8814902||31 Jul 2006||26 Aug 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Method of securing body tissue|
|US8834914||22 Dec 2010||16 Sep 2014||Zimmer, Inc.||Treatment methods using a particulate cadaveric allogenic juvenile cartilage particles|
|US8845687||17 Sep 2013||30 Sep 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Anchor for securing a suture|
|US8845699||6 Mar 2012||30 Sep 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Method of securing tissue|
|US9005295||27 Aug 2012||14 Apr 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, LLC||Low profile intervertebral implant|
|US9039775||7 Jun 2013||26 May 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Spinal fixation plates|
|US9072586||2 Oct 2009||7 Jul 2015||C.R. Bard, Inc.||Implantable prosthesis|
|US9138318||15 Dec 2011||22 Sep 2015||Zimmer, Inc.||Apparatus for forming an implant|
|US9192419||6 Nov 2009||24 Nov 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Zero-profile interbody spacer and coupled plate assembly|
|US9220604||21 Dec 2011||29 Dec 2015||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Intervertebral implants, systems, and methods of use|
|US9241809||14 Feb 2013||26 Jan 2016||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Intervertebral implants, systems, and methods of use|
|US9320549||30 Apr 2015||26 Apr 2016||DePuy Synthes Products, Inc.||Spinal fixation plates|
|US20010008979 *||1 Mar 2001||19 Jul 2001||Bonutti Peter M.||Tissue press and system|
|US20020055755 *||15 Nov 2001||9 May 2002||Bonutti Peter M.||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US20020099401 *||22 Mar 2002||25 Jul 2002||Bonutti Petel M.||Apparatus and method for tissue removal|
|US20030050708 *||24 Oct 2002||13 Mar 2003||Bonutti Peter M.||Tissue grafting material|
|US20040107003 *||24 Nov 2003||3 Jun 2004||Synthes (Usa)||Demineralized bone implants|
|US20050131548 *||31 Jan 2005||16 Jun 2005||Synthes||Demineralized bone-derived implants|
|US20050192600 *||24 Feb 2005||1 Sep 2005||Enrico Nicolo||Inguinal hernia repair prosthetic|
|US20090005882 *||8 Sep 2008||1 Jan 2009||Boyer Iii Michael L||Demineralized bone-derived implants|
|US20090269388 *||4 Jun 2009||29 Oct 2009||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Allograft bone composition having a gelatin binder|
|US20100322994 *||23 Aug 2010||23 Dec 2010||Isto Technologies, Inc.||Particulate cartilage system|
|USRE38522 *||28 Feb 2002||25 May 2004||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Malleable paste for filling bone defects|
|USRE39587||12 May 2004||24 Apr 2007||Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation||Malleable paste for filling bone defects|
|EP0070328A1 *||21 Jul 1981||26 Jan 1983||Theurer, Karl Eugen, Prof.Dr.med.||Use of egg membranes and umbilical cord in unmodified or modified form|
|EP1701672A2 *||20 Dec 2004||20 Sep 2006||Osteotech, Inc.,||Tissue-derived mesh for orthopedic regeneration|
|EP1701672A4 *||20 Dec 2004||27 Apr 2011||Osteotech Inc||Tissue-derived mesh for orthopedic regeneration|
|WO2000040177A1 *||18 Dec 1999||13 Jul 2000||Lifenet||Composite bone graft, method of making and using same|
|U.S. Classification||424/423, 206/412, 128/898, 623/23.61, 424/549, 206/438|
|International Classification||A61K35/32, A61B17/58|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B17/58, A61K35/32|
|European Classification||A61K35/32, A61B17/58|