US 2385577 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 25, 1945. E. J. JACOB 2,385,577
FABRIC Filed May 30, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. BY J E. .J. JACOB Sept. 25, 1945.
FABRIC Filed May 30, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. BY i g'g E. J. JACOB Sept. 25, 1945.
FABRIC Filed May 30, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Sept. 25, 1945 FABRIC Ezekiel J. Jacob, Brooklyn, N. Y., minor to Benjamln Liebowltz, New York, N. Y.
' Application May 31), 1944, Serial No. 538,018
The present application is a continuation in part of my copending United States patent application, Serial No. 424,016, filed on December 22, 1941. This United States patent application 424,016 is a continuation in part of my prior United States patent application 394,895 filed May 23, 1941. This latter application is a continuation in part of my United States patent application 330,504, filed April 19, 1940.
My present invention relates to woven fabrics.
It is an object of this invention to provide in a heat-resistant woven fabric means adapted to diffuse the heat to which it is exposed throughout the entire fabric thereby diminishing the likelihood of the fabric being destroyed, e. g., by fusing of the glass or similar fibres of which the fabric is made.
A further object of my invention consists in incorporating in a heat-resistant woven fabric means adapted to convey heat from one part of this fabric to another.
Still a further object of my invention consists in providing a heat-protecting non-combustible woven fabric which is also adapted to be used for heating purposes.
Another object of my invention consists of a new non-combustible heat-resistant woven fabric in which heating elements are incorporated in such a manner that any danger of burning by touching of the heated fabric is avoided.
Still another object of my invention consists of a new electrically-heated woven fabric adapted to be used for various purposes, as for instance, for electrical hot pads, heated garments, aviator costumes, heated blankets, heated rugs and other heating means for rooms.
With the above objects in view, my present invention mainly consists of a woven fabric made from non-combustible fibres i. e. filaments of ductile metals and of non-combustible electrically insulating fibres i. e. filaments of glass or similar substances. Naturally it is possible to combine with the non-combustible ductile metal and glass filaments also other non-combustible electrically insulating filaments. Thus, for instance, my new woven fabric may also be made from fibres i. e. filaments of ductile metals as nickel or Nichrome, of glass, and of asbestos in combination.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of my invention, the new fabric is woven of filaments of ductile metals and glass. The filaments of ductile metals, 1. e. fine metallic electrically conductive wires, are preferably interwoven with the heat-resistant electrically insulating glass filaments and form part of the woven fabric itself.
I have found that by incorporating fine metallic wires into a woven fabric made of fine heatresistant electrically insulating glass filaments which simultaneously are also of relatively low heat conductivity, I am able to reduce the tendency of these glass filaments of relatively low heat conductivity to burn out when locally exposed to a temperature appreciably above that which the fabric can otherwise withstand. The reason therefore is that the fine metallic wires incorporated in the heat-resistant glass fabric are of relatively high heat conductivity and distribute the heat over a greater surface, thereby reducing the temperature at the over-exposed region. Thus the heat-resistant electrically insulating glass or similar filaments are protected from being melted or otherwise damaged.
Glass filaments are especially well-adapted for the purpose of this invention: Glass is heatresistant and electrically insulating and can readily be drawn into extremely fine filaments. It is of particular advantage that yarns made of such filaments can be woven into fabrics. As an example of a specific embodiment, yarns which are very satisfactory for the present purposes may be made by twisting together approximately one hundred glass filaments, each of which has. a diameter of the order of magnitude of a few tenthousandths of an inch: 2. number, e. g.. six of the resulting yarns may be plied or twisted together to form the final yarn 01' which the desired fabric may be made.
These glass filaments, or the yarns made thereof, form the main part of the new fabric. Incorporated therein are the heat-resistant filaments of relatively high electric conductivity.
I propose to use noncombustible fibres of ductile metals as, for instance, fine metallic wires as such filaments. Suitable metals for these wires are, e. g., nickel, Nichrome, chromium-nickel alloys, iron-nickel alloys and other metals having suitable electrical and thermal conductivity and preferably high resistance to oxidation at elevated temperature.
I have found that for certain purposes these metallic wires should preferably have a diameter of about .002 to .005 inch and be properly distributed throughout the heat-resistant electrically insulating filaments for the purpose in view.
The incorporated wires are also of importance as they mechanically strengthen the structure of the new fabric. By increasing the mechanical strength of the fabric, it retains its shape more easily; furthermore the wires when incorporated in an appropriate manner in a woven fabric,
for instance a woven tubing. hinder the fabric from unravelling. This function of the wire is also useful in the course of production of the fabric.
In the accompanying diagrammatic drawings I show preferred embodiments of my invention from which the same will be more clearly understood.
In these drawings:
Figure l is a cross section of a double ply fabric with wires between the two plies arranged in accordance with the present invention;
Figure 2 is a cross section of a double ply fabric with the wires arranged in one of the p es:
Figure 8 is a cross section of a single ply fabric with the wires spaced from each other and one surface of the fabric;
Figure 4 is a modification of the fabric shown in Figure 2 in cross section;
Figure 5 is a rear view of the fabric shown in Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a rear view of the fabric shown in Figure 3:
Figure 7 is a rear view of another embodiment of a fabric according to my present invention;
Figure 8 is a top view of a woven fabric with thin metallic wires serving as spaced fillings;
Figure 9 is a view of a heating arrangement using one of the fabrics shown in Figures 1 to 8; and
Figure 10 is still another heating arrangement similar to the one shown in Figure 9, and
Fig. 11 is a cross section of a double ply fabric with wires arranged between the two fabric plies and in one of the same, in accordance with the present invention.
The new woven fabrics shown in the figures consist of yarns of fine glass filaments interwoven with thin metallic wires, having each preferably a diameter of .002 to .005 inch. In experiments carried out by me, I have used nickel wire having a diameter of about .003 inch and having an electric resistance of about fifty-one ohms per foot; I also tried using Nlchrome wire having the same diameter and a resistance of about two hundred and thirty ohms per foot. I found that when I incorporated about twenty feet of such wire into a woven fabric made of glass yarn and connected the ends of the wire with a source of electric current, these wires were heated to a sub-glow temperature adapted for heating w mses. Various modifications of incorporating the wires into a woven fabric are shown in the fi r Thus, for instance, the fabric shown in Figure 1 consists of two interwoven plies II and I2. Each of these plies is woven of glass filament yarns and during weaving these plies are connected by glass filament yarns I! so as to form a double ply fabric. The thin metallic wires II are arranged between the two insulating plies Ii and if of glass filament yarns and thus spaced from both outer surfaces of the fabric; of course they are also spaced from each other, as shown in the drawings.
The fabric shown in Figure 2 consists also of two fabric plies ii and i2 interwoven in the same way as the fabric shown in Figure 1. The only difference is that the thin metallic wires l-l form spaced fillings or warp threads of one of the fabric plies, namely ply it. Thus, these wires are spaced from each other and from the outer face of fabric ply ii.
The fabric shown in Fig. 11 consists also of assasrv two fabric plies ii and II interwoven in the same wasthefabricsshowninl'igalalldl In this embodiment. thin metallic wires are incorporated between the two fabric plies II and i2 and in the fabric ply 12 itself. The wires il form spaced fillings of the fabric ply II and the wires it are arranged between the plies ii and I2 spaced from each other as shown.
The fabric shown in Figures 3 and 6 consists of one ply woven in one direction of glass filament yarns II and in the other direction of glass filament yarns i1 and. spaced thin metallic wires II. In order to space the wires also from one face of the fabric, at least some of the class filament yarns i8 form loops is concealing the wires I0 and preventing unintentional touching of the same. Thus, this fabric is also woven according to my present invention, namely the thin preferabw uncovered, metallic wires ii are spaced not only from each other but also from one face of the fabric.
Figures 4 and 5 show a modification of the fabric shown in Figure 1. The fabric shown in this figure consists also of two woven fabric plies II and if. The only difference is that the thin preferably uncovered metallic wires 20 incorporated in one fabric ply do not form the fillings or warp threads but that they are only added to the insulating fillings or warp threads 2i consisting of glass filaments.
In the embodiment shown in Figure '7, the fabric is woven in both directions of glass filament yarns 22 and 23 respectively. Each of the yarns 23 is combined with a thin metallic wire 2 in such a manner as to space these wires from each other and prevent contact between the same. Furthermore, these wires 24 are arranged spaced from one of the faces of the fabric. This can be attained by weaving the fabric in one of the ways described above.
The woven fabric shown in Figure 8 comprises warp thread 25 of glass filament yam. The fillings 2B of this fabric consist of glass filament yarns while the fillings 21 consist of thin metallic wires spaced apart from each other. If required, these thin metallic wires may also be spaced in accordance with the present invention from one or both faces of the finished fabric by weaving the fabric as shown in one of the Figures 1 to 6 inclusive.
Figures 9 and 10 show heating devices making use of" the woven fabric shown in one of the above described figures.
The heating device shown in Figure 9 consists of a woven heating fabric 28 made of glass Yarn 29 and a fine metallic wire 30 incorporated in the fabric in the manner described above. This wire is connected at its ends 3! and 32 with circuit 33 which also includes the source of electric current 34. Due to its electric resistance, the wire 30 is heated by the electric current passing through it.
In Figure 10, a heating device is shown in which the heating wire portions 35 are parallelly connected to the source of electric current 36 by means of electrically conductive thin metallic wires 31 and 30. These thin metallic wires are arranged in longitudinal direction of the fabric along the edges thereof, preferably serving as warp threads and interwoven with the glass filament yarn I0 forming the base of the fabric.
In both embodiments, shown in Figures 9 and 10, it is of importance that consecutive portions of the heating wire, for instance those wire portions which are parallel to each other, be inasaas'rv sulated from each other in order to avoid short circuits; for this purpose, the wires are interwoven with the glass or other electrically insulating non-combustible filaments in such a manner that at least some of these insulating filaments are arranged between consecutive parallel wires, insulating the same from each other. Of course, as mentioned above, the wires which are preferably uninsulated should be arranged in the electrically insulating fabric spaced from at least one of the surfaces of the same, preferably as shown in one of the Figures 1 to 4.
Fabrics of the above described type may be used for various heating purposes as for instance, for electrical heating pads, heated garments such as aviators costumes, heated blankets, heating rugs and other heating means for rooms.
This fabric may also be used for heat insulating purposes as for instance, for fireplace screens and fireplace linings and the like.
It should, however, be stressed that it is also possible to use one and the same fabric for both purposes. Thus, for instance, it is possible to use a fireplace screen consisting of a fabric of the above-described type alternately as heat insulating means in usual manner, or as heating device; in the latter case it is only necessary to connect the ends of the wire or wires incorporated in the fabric of the screen with a source of electric current.
It should be stressed that I have found glass yarn especially adapted for the purposes of the present invention.
The specific embodiments shown and described above are merely illustrative.
What I claim as my invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A multi-ply fabric composed of at least two fabric plies consisting each of non-combustible electrically insulating fine filaments and of fine metallic wires incorporated in one of said fabric plies spaced apart from each other.
2. A multi-ply fabric composed of at least two fabric plies consisting each of glass filament yarn and of parallel thin metallic wires incorporated in one of said fabric plies spaced apart from each other.
3. A woven double-ply fabric composed of glass filament yarn and of thin uncovered metallic wires incorporated in one fabric ply and between the two fabric plies of said double-ply fabric spaced apart from each other.
4. A woven double-ply fabric composed of two interwoven plies of glass filament yarns woven in consecutive fillings and of thin metallic uncovered wires incorporated spaced from each other in at least a part of the fillings of one of said woven piles and between said plies spaced from the outer surface of the other ply of said woven double-ply fabric.
5. A woven single ply fabric composed of glass filament yarns, of uncovered thin metallic wires arranged spaced from each other and forming at least part of the fillings of said single ply fabric, and ofthin metallic wires incorporated in the warp of said single ply fabric along the longitudinal edges of the same and electrically connected with at least part of said uncovered thin metallic wires forming fillings of said single ply fabric.
6. A woven single ply fabric composed of noncombustible electrically insulating fine filaments, thin metallic wires incorporated in fillings of said single ply fabric spaced from each other, and thin metallic wires in the warp of said single ply fabric along the edges of the same electrically connected with at least part of said single ply thin metallic wires incorporated in the fillings of said fabric.
7. A woven single ply fabric composed of glass filament yarns, uncovered thin metallic wires forming at least part of the fillings of said single ply fabric, and uncovered thin metallic wires forming warp threads of said single ply fabric along the longitudinal edges of the same and being electrically connected with at least some of said uncovered thin metallic wires forming at least some of the fillings of said single ply fabric.
8. A woven multiply fabric composed of noncombustible electrically insulating filaments and of thin metallic wires incorporated in one fabric ply and between the fabric piles of said multiply fabric spaced apart from each other.
9. A woven double ply fabric composed of two interwoven piles of non-combustible electrically insulating filaments woven in consecutive fillings and of thin metallic wires incorporated spaced from each other in at least a part of said filling in one of said woven plies and between said plies spaced from the outer surface of the other ply of said woven double ply fabric.
10. A woven fabric comprising glass filaments, thin uncovered metallic wire forming a. plurality of spaced wire fillings of said fabric. and thin metallic conductors arranged along the longitudinal edges of said fabric electrically connected to at least part of said spaced wire fillings near the bent ends thereof.
11. A longitudinal woven piece of fabric comprising in combination non-combustible electrically insulating filaments, a thin metallic wire forming a plurality of wire fillings of said fabric being spaced from each other, said wire having along the longitudinal edges of said fabric at least substantially U-shaped bent wire portions between the single fillings formed by said wire, and thin metallic conductors arranged along said longitudinal fabric edges electrically connected to each leg of said U-shaped bent wire portions of said thin metallic wire, thus each of said U shaped bent wire portions being connected twice to each of said thin metallic conductors.
m J. JACOB.
cznmxcnm OF CORRECTION. Patent No. 2,585,571. September 25, 1915.
EZBKIBL J. JACOB- It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction u follows: Page 3, sec-- ond column, line 15, claim 6, etrikve out the words "single p11"; and ineert the same after "said" in line 16, same claim; and that the said. Lettere Patent should be read with this correction therein that the some my conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 29th day or January, A. n. l9h6.
Leslie Frazer (Seal) First Assistant Commissioner of Patents.