US 2241169 A
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y 1941- o. YOKES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 8, 1937 3 Shee ts--Sheet l .INVENTOR BY @fi'ogya-fm glow flh flaz ATTORNEY May 6, 1941. o. YOKES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec. 8, 1937 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR 3am fl-fie ATTORNEY May 6, 1941. o. YOKES 2,241,169
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INVENTOR ATTORNEY Patented May 6, 1941 UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Otto Yokes, Detroit, Micln Application December a, 1937, Serial N8. 178,703
The object of my invention is to provide a novel method of constructing buildings which will require less skilled labor, will eliminate forms, preparatory and temporary structures, and which will reduce to a minimum field fabrication.
A further object of my invention is to provide a new building block construction and reinforcing structure by means of which a building may be erected which has less weight for a given strength, improved heat and sound insulating qualities, minimum cost, and maximum utility and flexibility of design.
Still a further object of my invention is to provide a building block construction which will require less time to assemble than any other construction, known to applicant.
Still a further object of my invention is to provide a block construction especially adapted for self supporting floor constructions. The light weight of my blocks and greater proportional strength of the structure makes it especially suitable for constructing multiple story buildings where the weight of the structure forms the principal load to be carried. It will be readily understood that a slight reduction in weight of a floor construction in such buildings will materially reduce the size and weight of the supporting walls required. As the height of the building is increased my construction becomes of greater advantage.
Still a further object of my invention is to provide a building block formed of relatively light weight fibrous material which is combined with reinforcing material. to produce a resultant comparatively monolithic structure similar in some respects to reinforced concrete, but having none of the disadvantages present in such construction.
A principle disadvantage of concrete is its excessive weight, taxing 75% of the strength of a building to carry its own weight. As mentioned, this becomes extremely objectionable in multiple story buildings. This objection is here overcome by using a fibrous material in place of concrete, which has only one sixth the weight of concrete.
A further disadvantage of concrete is that it has high heat and sound conductivity, requiring applied insulation for heat, sound and vibration. This disadvantage is overcome by the inherent non-conductive nature of the fibrous material.
Still a further disadvantage of concrete, when poured in floors, is that it must be fabricated under adverse and uncertain conditions requiring vigilant field inspection and laboratory tests during construction. This disadvantage is here eliminated by, pre-fabrication of standardized units in shops under laboratory conditions and with precisionmachinery, requiring only proper assembling on the job. Elaborate temporary supporting structures and forms which require much material and labor and which do not become a part of the finished building are dispensed with in my building construction.
My invention does not relate to the method of manufacturing or forming my fibrous building block, nor to. the specific material from which the block is formed. Such materials are readily available under the trade names of Celotex, Insulite, Masonite, Thermax, etc. These materials, while not identical, are all similar in that they are extremely light in weight, have excellent heat insulating values, are workable like wood, can be rendered vermin-proof, water-proof and fireproof by chemical treatment, make an excellent base for plaster finish, take any kind of paint or stain, in fact they have all the desirable features I .for a building material except that they have very little structural strength. They compress under pressure and are, therefore, useless as a load bearing structural material.
Specifically, the object of my invention is to make possible the use of these synthetic materials for load carrying structures by a method of binding and a system of reinforcing.
With' these and other objects in view, my invention consists in the arrangement and construction of my improved building material, together with the novel steps employed in my method of fabricating, as described in this specification, claimed in my claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of my improved building block, which block is made of a synthetic or fibrous material. This block is used for both wall and floor structures.
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a steel reinforcing unit made of sheet steel. This unit is imbedded between parallel courses of blocks Figure 1 and answers the purpose of joists or beams in floor structures and as lateral column supports in wall structures.
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a steel charinel frame for binding an assembled structure together.
Figure 4 is a side view of a tubular steel casing which co-acts with the reinforcing unit shown in Figure 2. This casing servesas a column when used in wall structures and as a header when used in floor structures.
Figure 5 shows a tie rod used as a tensionmemher in my improved construction.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of an iron base or cap which is fitted to both ends of the tubular casing shown in Figure 4, when same is used as a column in wall structures.
Figure 7 is a perspective view showing a broken away portion of an assembled wall and floor construction, and
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view taken through one side wall and adjacent floors. I Before describing my specific construction, it may be well to mention that the engineering principle of this invention comprises a system of building construction wherein the basic structure, exclusive of exterior veneer, architectural treatment or interior finish, consists of precast units of a light synthetic material assembled without mortar or cement in conjunction with interdependent units of steel reinforcing and structurally confining and mechanically compressing the assembled structure into a monolithic mass and permanently sealing or locking it in this condition. The theory of design is based upon the'well known engineering theory of fiexure where a load bearing structural member developes various stresses, namely, compression, tension and shear. In this system these stresses are all born by the reinforcing steel relieving the base structure of all but secondary and minor stresses such as are developed in diagonal stiflening and lateral deflection. Bond between the light base material and the reinforcing steel is obtained by a mechanical method of anchoring or keying.
Whilethe engineering principle of this system (reinforced fiber construction) is similar to reinforced concrete construction, it differs in several important respects. In reinforced concrete the compressive stresses are resisted by the base material, namely concrete, while in this system the base material is relieved of such compressive stresses by the-introduction of steel. inforced concrete, bond between the base material and the reinforcing steel is dependent upon adhesion, while in this system it is entirely mechanical. The primary difference in the mechanical principle is that reinforced concrete is a system of fabrication in the field while my improved reinforced fiber construction is a prefabricated system.
Also in re- My improved block is formed in standardized units made of a light synthetic fibrous material, having dove-tail joints that will interlock Without mortar or cement so as to form a self supporting wall or fioor slab, and which can be erected without the aid of forms or supports. .My improved block is provided with openings therein to receive steel reinforcing casings which function as steel columns in wall structures and provide conduits for electric wiring and other mechanical equipment.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, I have used the reference numeral I to indicate a floor slab which is constructed according to my invention, Numeral 2 designates walls, also constructed according to my invention, which walls extend upwardly from the floor slab l. Numeral 3 designates a foundation wall which is preferably formed from concrete, brick or other foundation materials. Numeral 4 has been used to designate my improved fiber block, as shown in Figure 1. While numeral 5 has been used to designate a reinforcing unit, as shown in Figure 2. Numeral 6 designates a tubular steel casing, shown'in Figure 4, and numeral I designates tie rods, shown in Figure 5.
My improved block construction 4 is of rectangular shape and is formed with tongues l6 which extend both upwardly and downwardly from each corner of the top and bottom faces of the block. The tongues 18 interlock with grooves I'l formed in the intermediate portion of each block to provide a dove-tailed locking joint. It will be apparent from the drawings that also allow the insertion of steel reinforcing casings through the wall or fioor after the blocks are assembled. It will be noted from Figure 1 that both the top and bottom faces of each block 4 are provided with longitudinal grooves l9 extending therealong. Each groove is formed just inside the base of the tongues [6 so as to straddle the openings I8 and are used for inserting steel reinforcements therein and also for providing conduits for electrical wiring and the like.
Referring to Figure 2 I have shown the steel reinforcing unit 5 which is adapted to be placed between each row of blocks in the fioor slab con struction and between every third to fourth row of blocks in the vertical wall construction. It will be apparent that the purpose of the reinforcing member 5 is to give lateral stability to the block assembly and as such stability is paramount in floor construction, it is desirable to use these reinforcing units between each row of blocks. However, in most wall constructions the lateral load is not high, so that a reduced number of the reinforcing units may be used.
The reinforcing unit 5, as shown in Figure 2, comprises a sheet steel strip which is adapted to be imbedded between parallel courses of blocks 4. This reinforcing unit serves the purpose of joists in fioor structures and as lateral column supports in wall structures. The unit 5 is formed from a fiat sheet of steel having its edges rolled over a pair of steel reinforcing bars 20, which bars may be welded into the edges of the sheet if desired, to form a bead 2! which corresponds laterally with grooves I9 in the blocks 4. The projecting ends of the bars 20 are bent in the shape of hooks [3, which serve to anchor the unit at the ends. It will be noted that each reinforcing member 5 is provided with a plurality of openings 22 longitudinally spaced therealong so as to be aligned with openings l8 in the blocks 4. Flanges 23, formed of the material of the sheet, extend a short distance from one side of the reinforcing member. The flanges 23 are adapted to fit into the openings l8 and thereby prevent relative lateral displacement of the blocks when the same are being used in a wall construction, and serve to transfer vertical loads on the blocks to the reinforcing members 5 when used in a floor construction.
Referring to Figure 3, I have used the reference numeral 9 to designate a structural steel channel member which forms the bottom plate for a wall structure built fromblocks 4. The channel 9 is provided with openings}! spaced therealong corresponding to the longitudinal spacing ofthe opening 22 in the reinforcing member 5. The openings iii are adapted to receive the ends of the tie rods 1. Numeral l designates a channel, identical to channel 9, but which is used to form the top of the wall.
In constructing a building from any improved blocks the foundation walls 3 are first provided and then the first floor slab is laid or constructed on the top of the foundation. The floor slab may be installed in place or it may be prefabricated and laid in position, as desired. In forming the floor slab in place, a channel 9 is laid on edge along the top end wall of the foundation wall 3. A row of blocks is then built up on one of the reinforcing units 5 with the flanges 29 inserted into the openings l9 to hold the blocks in position. The row of blocks and member 5 are then placed in position as a unit between the flanges of the channel 9 with the ends of the member 5 resting upon the side walls of foundation 3. Successive units are then assembled and placed in position in the same manner until the entire floor space is covered. A second channel 9 is then placed over the last row of blocks and tie bars I are then inserted through one or more of the openings IS in the channels. Nuts H are then screwed down to draw the blocks together. The amount that the floor is compressed is predetermined from the amount that an individual fiber block will compress without danger of rupturing. The floor is built up to the required dimensions plus the distance needed for compression and then bolted and compressed to the dimensions required.
The bent over ends l3 of the bars 20 and the threaded ends of the rod 1 are imbedded in the respective sides of a reinforced concrete belt 8, which is poured in place. The ends l3 are hooked around a pair of spaced reinforcing bars I l which are imbedded in the concrete belt 8 to thus give greater holding power for the ends of the joists. It is believed preferable in this type of construction to first lay the fioor and then lay a base from channels 9 upon which the wall structure is built. This should be done before the concrete belt 8 is poured.
Where the span of the floor is exceptionally long, it is desirable to insert one or more steel casings 6 through the aligned openings I8 in the blocks. These casings are preferably inserted only in the portion of the floor which is subject to extreme stresses, so that very rarely are more than three or four of the casings required.
It will be noted in the wall construction that the casings ii serve as a load bearing column. The position of these columns in the wall is predetermined according to the design of the building. They may be equally spaced along the wall through every fourth or fifth row of openings l9,
or they may be concentrated at certain points to support upper floor partitions, or the like. Where such columns are required, I have provided a bearing plate 28 having an upwardly extending flange 30 formed thereon, which plates are adapted to be laid in the channel 9 before the blocks are laid in place. A row of blocks is then laid between the upwardly extending flanges of the channel 9 and a second or third row placed thereon. A reinforcing unit 5 is then laid in position on topof the top row and several more rows of blocks are laid in place. More reinforcing members may be used if required. After the wall has been laid to the desired height, the tubular casings O are pushed down through the openings II in the aligned blocks and reinforcing members 5. Another member 29 is then placed on top of each of the casings 6 and a top channel member I. laid inverted over the top edges of the wall. Tiebolts I are then inserted through the casings 9 and, if only a few of the casings are required, they are inserted through other of the aligned vertical openings [9 in the blocks. tightly together. After the wall, as above described, has been constructed, the reinforced belt I is poured to form a rigid supporting frame for the fioor and a solid base for the wall construction,
The second fioor, which in Figures 7 and 8 is given the reference numeral 21, is laid up in the same manner as the first fioor, previously described, and then a channel [2, identical to channel 9 is laid upon the top of the second fiocr. The channels 10 and 9 are then tied together by suitable tie bolts.
It will be noted from Figure 8 that the first floor section is shown with the blocks extending in one direction while the second floor section is shown with the blocks extending in the other direction. This is done for the purpose of illustration only, as the blocks of the respective floors may extend in either direction, as desired by the floor plan.
It will, of course, be apparent that the construction shown herein does not form the finished wall construction and that an exterior veneer 24, preferably formed of brick, tile, sheet steel or other material, is provided. Also, an interior wall of plaster or the like 25 is usually desired for the interior of the building. A finish floor 26 is also preferably laid upon the floor slab i.
My improved construction is especially suitable for use in commercial buildings such as stores, apartments, oflice buildings and the like because in these installations the added cost of I these blocks over concrete blocks is more than offset by the reduction in wallsection and supporting structure necessary to carry the superimposed load.
Among the many advantages arising from the use of my improved construction, it may be well to mention that the entire construction may be fabricated in a shop if desired and then carried to the desired location and erected in position. The reduced weight of my fibrous block construction makes this possible.
Still further, due to the inherent heat and sound insulating value of fibrous blocks, heat and sound insulation which is now being installed as extra material is dispensed with, thereby lessening the cost of my improved construction.
Some changes may be made in the arrangement, construction and combination of the various parts of my improved construction without departing from the spirit of my invention, and it is my intention to cover by my claims such changes as may reasonably be included within the scope thereof.
I claim as my invention:
1. A building construction consisting of an assembly of precast, interlocking, fibrous units of rectangular shape assembled to form a fiat slab structure, a rigid belt formed around said slab structure there being prefabricated steel reinforcing members interposed between rows of said units, said members extending continuously from one side of said belt to the other side with the The channels are then drawn down.
ends of said members being imbedded in said belt, for the purpose described.
2. A building construction consisting of an assembly of precast, interlocking fibrous units of rectangular shape to form a flat slab structure, there being prefabricated steel reinforcing members interposed between rows of said fibrous units; said steel reinforcing units consisting of flatstrip members, transversely extending tubular steel members intersecting said flat members at right angle thereto, said tubular members being inserted through openings provided through said fibrous units and corresponding openings in said fiat reinforcing members; said assembled structure being flanked on two opposing borders by steel channels, steel tie rods extending longitudinally through said openings in said fibrous units and through corresponding openings in said channels; said tie rods having nuts thereon for drawing the entire said assembled structure into a compressed compact mass, said assembled structure being framed around its outer border with a poured concrete belt which imbeds the projecting ends of said reinforcing members and said tie rods.
3. In a building construction composed mainly of non-bearing resilient blocks, reinforcing means for said blocks consisting of flat elongated steel members arranged in parallel relationship, said members being intersected by tubular steel members arranged in parallel relationship at right angles to said elongated. members, said tubular members being inserted transversely through holesprovided therefor in said flat members, and a plurality of steel rods arranged in parallel relationship to said tubular members; said rods being inserted transversely through holes provided therefor in said flat members, and said rods having threads at both ends thereof which engage nuts for tightening and binding said blocks and elongated members together,
4. Inbuilding construction, means for reinforcing a bearing wall composed of a non-bearing resilient material comprising tubular steel casings inserted vertically through openings provided therefor in said non-bearing material, the intermediate portions of said casings being support ed against lateral deflection by steel reinforcements; said reinforcements consisting of flat elongated members interposed and imbedded between horizontal courses of said non-bearing material, and steel tie rods extending longitudinally through said tubular casings, said tie rods engaging nuts at their ends which tighten and bind said assembled material and reinforcements together.
5. A precast interlocking block of rectangular shape for building construction composed of fibrous material, said block having dove-tail joining surfaces consisting of projecting tongues a1- ternated with grooves to provide an interlock ing connection for joining said block with other similar blocks, said block having a plurality of openings extending transversely therethrough from said joining surfaces, which openings are adapted to receive structural reinforcing tubular members, and said block having longitudinally extending grooves located along said joining surfaces for the purpose of engaging and retaining correspondingly contoured reinforcements imbedded between successive courses of said blocks when assembled into a building structure.
6. A prefabricated, steel reinforcing unit for building construction consisting of an elongated sheet-steel member having each of its edges rolled into a bead around a reinforcing rod, said beads and rods being welded together, and said elongated member having annular flanges projecting from one side thereof which are adapted to enter corresponding holes in other structural units.
7. In a building construction, rectangularshaped building blocks formed of resilient material, said blocks having two longitudinal adjoining faces each provided with projecting dovetails at each corner thereof which interlock with a plurality of dovetails on adjacent blocks to form a slab, each of said blocks having a pair of openings extending therethrough from one of said adjoining faces to said other face, said openings being spaced one quarter the length of said block from each end thereof, tie rods extending through said openings, and rigid plate members disposed on opposite edges of said blocks, said tie rods compressing said plates against said blocks to form a relatively rigid structure.
8. A building structure consisting of a plurality of uniformly moulded blocks made of compressible fibrous material, said blocks being arranged in rows, longitudinal steel reinforcing members placed between parallel rows of said blocks, steel plate members disposed along the outer edges of said rows, tie rods extending internally through said blocks and plate members whereby said plate members and blocks are pressed together, and a concrete belt formed around the outer edges of said assembled compressed structure, the projecting ends of said tie rods being permanently sealed in said belt, for the purpose described.
9. A building construction consisting of an assembly of precast, interlocking fibrous -blocks of rectangular shape, assembled to form a slab structure, a concrete belt formed around said slab, pie-fabricated steel reinforcing members interposed between rows of said blocks, said members extending continuously the length of said rows with the ends of said members embedded in said belt, and tie rods extending continuously through said slab at right angles to said reinforcing members, said tie rods compressing said rows of blocks against each other, for the pur pose described.
10. A building structure consisting of a plurality of molded blocks made of compressible fibrous material, said blocks being arranged in rows, rigid plate members disposed along the outer edges of the two outer rows of said blocks, a plurality of tie-rods extending internally through said blocks and plate members at spaced intervals therealong, said tie-rods being tensioned against said plate members so as to compress said rows of blocks together, and a concrete belt formed around the outer edges of said assembled compressed structure, the projecting ends of said tie-rods being permanently sealed in said belt, for the purpose described.
11. A building construction comprising, a plurality of uniformly molded blocks made of resilient fibrous material, said blocks being assembled in parallel courses interlocking with each other, a plurality of flat reinforcing units extending continuously the length of said rows, said reinforcing units each consisting of a sheet steel web with steel reinforcing bars at both edges and said reinforcing units being interposed between the parallel courses of said blocks, steel tie rods extending internally through said blocks and reinforcing units at right angles to said reinforcing so as to compress said blocks against said reinforcing units, and a concrete belt formed around said assembled compressed structure, the pro- ,iecting ends of said reinforcing units and tie rods being permanently sealed in said belt.
'12. A building construction consisting of an assembly of precast, interlocking, fibrous units of rectangular shape assembled to form a flat slab structure, a rigid belt formed around said slab structure, there being pre-fabricated steel reinforcing members interposed between rows of said units, said members extending continuously from one side of said belt to the other side thereof with the ends of said members being embedded in said belt, and tie rods extending transversely through openings in said fibrous unit and steel reinforcing members, said tie rods being tensioned to clamp said units against said reinforcing members, for the purpose described.
13. A building construction consisting of an assembly of precast, interlocking fibrous units of rectangular shape assembled to form a fiat slab structure, there being pre-fabricated steel reinforcing members interposed between rows of said fibrous units, said steel reinforcing units consisting .of fiat strip members and transversely extending tubular steel members intersecting said flat members at right angles thereto, said tubular members being inserted through openings provided through said fibrous units and corresponding openings in said flat reinforcing members, and said tubular steel members extending in a vertical position and serving as columns with said fiat elongated members extending in a horizontal direction and serving as lateral column supports, said assembled structure being flanked on its top and bottom borders by steel channels, steel tie rods extending vertically through openings in said fibrous units and through corresponding openings in said channels, said tie rods having nuts thereon for drawing the entire assembled structure into a compressed compact mass, for forming a wall construction.
14. In a building construction, rectangular shaped building blocks formed of resilient material, said blocks each having two longitudinally adjoining faces which are each provided with projecting dovetails at each comer thereof which interlock with a plurality of dovetails in adjacent blocks to form a flat slab, each of said blocks having a pair of openings extending therethrough from one of said adjoining faces to the other of said faces, said openings being spaced one quarter the length of the block from each end thereof, for the purpose described.
15. In a building construction, rectangular shaped blocks formed of resilient material, said blocks each having two fiat bearing faces which extend the length of each block, each of said faces having dovetails projecting outwardly from each corner thereof which interlock with the dovetails in adjacent blocks to form a fiat slab structure.
16. In a building construction, rectangular shaped blocks formed of resilient material, said blocks each having two fiat bearing faces which extend the length of each block, each of said faces having dovetails projecting outwardly from each corner thereof which interlock with the dovetails in adjacent blocks to form a flat slab structure, each of said blocks having a pair of openings extending therethrough from one of .I
said bearing faces to the other, said openings being spaced one quarter the length of the block from each end thereof, for the purpose described.
17. A buildingstructure consisting of a pmrality of uniformly moulded blocks made of comfibrous material, said blocks being arranged in rows, longitudinally extending steel reinforcing members inserted between adjacent rows of said blocks, the edges of said reinforcing members being shaped to form tension and compression members, respectively, and the intermediate portions of said reinforcing members having openings therein with laterally extending flanges projecting from the periphery of each opening into correspondingly shaped openings in said blocks, steel plated members disposed along the outer edges of said rows, tie rods extending internally through said plate members, and blocks and reinforcing members which compress said blocks against said reinforcing members to laterally support the edges of said reinforcing members.