US 2231995 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1941- A. A. GLIDDEN ETAL 2,231,995
SURFACE COVERING Filed Dec. 21, 1936 [/VVE/V 7095 AL FRED A. GL/DDE/V D. GARDNER Patented Feb. 18, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE SURFACE COVERING Alfred A. Glidden, Watertown, and Joseph D.
Gardner, Quincy, Mass, assignors to Hood Rubber Company, Inc., Watertown, Mass, a corporation of Delaware This invention relates to surface coverings for caskets and other structures.
Surface-covering fabrics for caskets heretofore have had the objection that when glued to the casket theglue has penetrated through the fabric and has marred the appearance of the outer surface thereof. Cotton napp'ed fabrics have been particularly susceptible to this difficulty, and even where felt has been used the glue has leaked ,0 through thin portions of the felt.
As most caskets have ornate and irregular outer surfaces it is necessary to work the suface-covering material around sharp corners and into recesses many of which have reversed-curve designs [5 and other intricate formations requiring that the material be capable of considerable distortion in order that it may be conformed to the contour of the casket surface. In many places it is necessary to stretch the material with the result that when the material resists such stretching the adhesion of the material to the casket surface is weakened at these places.
The chief objects of this invention are to provide an improved covering for caskets and other structures, to provide for preventing penetration of glue through the covering, to provide a coverin that may be easily conformed to an intricately irregular surface and be permanently held in such form by adhesion, to provide pliability and stretch- 0 ability of the covering without excessive elasticity, to provide good insulating protection for the casket body, to provide for attractiveness of the surface, to provide a flocked surface covering with the flocked surface attractively maintained, and to provide for economy of materials.
These and further objects will be apparent from the following description, reference-being had to the accompanying drawing in which:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, with parts broken away and sectioned, of casket covering material constructed according to and embodying the invention in its preferred form. v
Fig; 2 is a cross-section of a portion of a casket wall showing the material adhered to the surface thereof.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view, with parts broken away and sectioned, of a lower corner of the covered casket.
Referring to Fig. 1, the improved covering material is first prepared in sheet form. Accordin to the preferred embodiment of the invention the sheet material comprises a stretchable base layer IO, preferably of loosely woven, light weight fabric composed of soft twisted yarns and having a nap II on the bottom surface thereof to facilitate the adhesion of glue or other adhesive thereto for adhering the material to the casket surface. Upon the base layer I0 is adhered a layer II of nonresilient rubber composition, preferably totally unvulcanized and containing no sulphur or other vulcanizing ingredients, so that it will retain its pliable and stretchable properties without acquiring material resilience. The layer 12 of unvulcanized rubber includes among its advantages the fact that glue, when applied to adhere the 10 composite material to the casket surface, will not penetrate through the material, even when the glue is in a hot liquid state, and the unvulcanized rubber layer has the advantage also that it'is readily manipulated to conform the material to 1 intricate irregularities in the casket surface, and also that it is readily workable under cold as well as warm temperatures. The layer llalso constitutes an insulating layer and protects the wood or other material of the casket body from moisture 20 and other deteriorating influences after the casket has been put in the ground. If desired, the rubber of layer l2 may contain fibers or other comminuted material serving to increase rather than decrease the non-resilient character of the rubber 25 compound, but such materials are not essential.
Upon the layer I! of unvulcanized rubber is applied a layer l3'of cement or other adhesive material, and upon this is deposited a layer ll of surfacing material, preferably flock, which is held 30 in place by the adhesive layer I3. For the surface I any suitable fibers may be used such, for example, as cotton fibers, rayon fibers, silk fibers or any other suitable animal or vegetable or other fibers, and the fibers may be dyed to give the desired color. Preferably the compositesheet is now, passed through smooth heated rollers to embed the fibers more firmly in the adhesive layer, l3 and to improve the adhesion of the several layers. Preferably also the material has a surface deposit l5 of lacquer, paint or other ornamenting material, which may be applied by the use of a printing roller. This deposit is applied in the form of fine lines or other suitable design, leaving a considerable surface area of the flock exposed. Lacquer is preferred for this deposit because in addition to its attractiveness, it serves well as a binding material for the flock and as a protection therefor. If desired, the flocked surface may be ornamented also by embossing.
The composite sheet material is now applied to the surface of a casket body I8, which may be of wood, composition, metal or other suitable material, and the covering is adhered thereto as by means of a layer ll of glue or other suitable ad- F hesive or bonding material. In Fig. 3 the composite sheet material is shown as applied to a lower corner of a casket, the composite material being designated generally by the numeral I8. In 5 order to conform the composite sheet material to the irregular surface of the casket, including its numerous crevices and projections, the material is worked with suitable tools and is locally stretched or otherwise deformed to conform to the surface. Any lumps of glue or other material that may cause bumps in the sheet material are reduced by pounding with hammers or mallets, and owing to the pliability and cushioning qualities of the material this may be done without adversely affecting the surface appearance, the flock being locally brushed after the pounding to restore its suede-like appearance. If the lacquer becomes objectionably dented in spots it may be removed by rubbing with a wet-cloth and the nap of the flocked material may be raised to present an even appearance.
In addition to providing an attractive suedelike surface, the layer M of flock has the advantage that it permits considerable yielding of the layer It for conformance with the casket surface without objectionably affecting the surface appearance, the individually embedded fibers making possible an evensurface appearance of the distorted material. The maintenance of an even surface appearance of the flock is assisted by the lacquer film l5, especially when it is applied in fine, closely spaced lines or in other closely spaced zones, the zones of lacquer serving toprotect the flock from rubbing fingers or other objects by bridging them and thereby protecting the flock, and by using a lacquer of the same color as the flock, the surface appearance may be made virtually the same as the uncoated fiock, except on very close inspection.
40 The fabric base layer H), which may be woven as in the preferred embodiment or of knitted or any other suitable construction, provides reinforcement against rupture of the composite material while permitting adequate distortion or 5 stretchability of the material. The nap ll affords a good grip with the glue and assists in taking up and getting rid of the moisture of the glue and entrapped air.
The unvulcanized rubber composition layer I2 50 is readily flexed, stretched and. otherwise distorted along with the other layers of the cornposite sheet into conformation with the irregularity of the casket surface, and it assumes the worked shape. permanently without taking on strains such as to weaken objectionably the adhesion to the casket body. The unvulcanized rubber composition of layer 12 may be raw rubber composition that has not been subjected to any vulcanizing treatment, or it may be unvulcanized rubber composition made by plasticizing Vulcanized rubber by a suitable reclaiming process, so as to be stretchable but not materially elastic. In some cases where the casket to be covered is of such plain form as to require little or no stretching of the covering to conform it to the surface,.the rubber composition of the layer l2 may be vulcanized to a degree according to the elasticity permitted, but for casket surfaces requiring considerable stretching of the covering to conform it to the surface, the unvulcanized rubber composition is best suited. While unvulcanized rubber composition is preferred for the layer 12, because of its desirable properties, in-
cluding plasticity without excessive elasticity, its
stiffness against undesirable flow, and its waterproof character, other plastic materials having these properties in suitable degree may be used.
The invention is especially useful for covering ornate caskets of various types, including burial caskets and jewel caskets, and it is applicable also to the surface covering of many other structures, such as trunks, suit cases, cartons and other containers, and for boxes or chests for such articles as silverware it has the advantage that the rubber contains no sulphur to tarnish the silver.
Variations may be made without departing from the invention as it is defined in the following claim.
Decorative and protective composite sheet covering material for caskets and other structures, said material comprising a stretchable base layer, a stretchable, substantially non-elastic layer of plastic material comprising unvulcanizable rubber composition and a stretchable surface layer of ornamenting material, said layers being integrally united to provide a composite sheet material that is" stretchable and substantially ALFRED A. GLIDDEN. JOSEPH D. GARDNER.