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Publication numberUS20100052183 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/615,518
Publication date4 Mar 2010
Filing date10 Nov 2009
Priority date1 Sep 2005
Also published asUS7622377, US20070045826, WO2007027968A2
Publication number12615518, 615518, US 2010/0052183 A1, US 2010/052183 A1, US 20100052183 A1, US 20100052183A1, US 2010052183 A1, US 2010052183A1, US-A1-20100052183, US-A1-2010052183, US2010/0052183A1, US2010/052183A1, US20100052183 A1, US20100052183A1, US2010052183 A1, US2010052183A1
InventorsTeck Kheng Lee, Andrew Chong Pei Lim
Original AssigneeMicron Technology, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Microfeature workpiece substrates having through-substrate vias, and associated methods of formation
US 20100052183 A1
Abstract
Microfeature workpiece substrates having through-substrate vias, and associated methods of formation are disclosed. A method in accordance with one embodiment for forming a support substrate for carrying microfeature dies includes exposing a support substrate to an electrolyte, with the support substrate having a first side with a first conductive layer, a second side opposite the first side with a second conductive layer, and a conductive path extending through the support substrate from the first conductive layer to the second conductive layer. The method can further include forming a bond pad at a bond site of the first conductive layer by disposing at least one conductive bond pad material at the bond site, wherein disposing the at least one conductive bond pad material can include passing an electrical current between the first and second conductive layers via the conductive path, while the substrate is exposed to the electrolyte.
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Claims(9)
1. A microelectronic system, comprising:
a support substrate configured to carry a microfeature die, the support substrate having a first surface with a first conductive layer having multiple first bond sites, and a second surface facing opposite from the first surface, the second surface having a second conductive layer with multiple second bond sites;
conductive bond pad material positioned at the first bond sites to form first bond pads, the first bond pads being separated from each other by a first average spacing, the bond pad material extending around an edge of the first conductive layer at the first bond sites;
conductive bond pad material positioned at the second bond sites to form second bond pads, the first and second bond pads being electrically coupled with conductive pathways extending through the support substrate, the second bond pads being separated from each other by a second average spacing greater than the first average spacing, the bond pad material having a different arrangement at the second bond sites than at the first bond sites.
2. The system of claim 1 wherein the bond pad material at the second bond sites is spaced apart from an edge of the second conductive layer at the second bond sites.
3. The system of claim 1, further comprising conductive couplers attached to the second bond pad sites.
4. The system of claim 1, further comprising:
a microfeature die carried by the support substrate and electrically coupled to the first bond pads of the support substrate; and
an external device electrically coupled to the second bond pads of the support substrate.
5. The system of claim 1, further comprising a microfeature die carried by the support substrate and electrically coupled to the first bond pads of the support substrate.
6. A microelectronic system, comprising:
a support substrate configured to carry a microfeature die, the support substrate having a first surface with a first conductive layer having multiple first bond sites, and a second surface facing opposite from the first surface, the second surface having a second conductive layer with multiple second bond sites;
conductive bond pad material positioned at the first bond pad sites to form first bond pads, the first bond pads being separated from each other by a first average spacing, the bond pad material extending around an edge of the first conductive layer at the first bond sites;
conductive bond pad material positioned at the second bond pad sites to form second bond pads, the first and second bond pads being electrically coupled with conductive pathways extending through the support substrate, the second bond pads being separated from each other by a second average spacing greater than the first average spacing, the bond pad material being offset laterally from an edge of the of the second conductive layer at the second bond sites;
a first at least generally permanent protective coating positioned adjacent to the first bond pads; and
a second at least generally permanent protective coating positioned on the second surface.
7. The system of claim 6, further comprising conductive couplers attached to the second bond pad sites.
8. The system of claim 6, further comprising:
a microfeature die carried by the support substrate and electrically coupled to the first bond pads of the support substrate; and
an external device electrically coupled to the second bond pads of the support substrate.
9. The system of claim 6, further comprising a microfeature die carried by the support substrate and electrically coupled to the first bond pads of the support substrate.
Description
    CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/218,352, filed Sep. 1, 2005, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,622,377, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0002]
    The present invention is directed generally toward microfeature workpiece substrates having through-substrate vias, and associated methods of formation.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Packaged microelectronic assemblies, such as memory chips and microprocessor chips, typically include a microelectronic die mounted to a substrate (e.g., an interposer board) and encased in a plastic protective covering. The die includes functional features, such as memory cells, processor circuits, and interconnecting circuitry. The die also typically includes die bond pads that are electrically coupled to the functional features. The bond pads are coupled to corresponding first bond pads on the substrate (e.g., with wirebonds), and this connection is protected with the plastic protective covering. The first substrate bond pads can be coupled to second substrate bond pads on an opposite surface of the substrate via pathways that are internal to the substrate. The second bond pads can in turn be connected to external devices, for example, using solder balls. Accordingly, the substrate can have one or more layers of conductive material (e.g., copper) that is etched or otherwise configured to form the first substrate bond pads and the second substrate bond pads.
  • [0004]
    In a typical operation, the substrate bond pads are built up in an electrolytic plating operation using a bus formed from the conductive layers to transmit electrical current to the bond pads. One drawback with the bus is that it can act as an antenna and can accordingly create extraneous signals, which may interfere with the operation of the microelectronic die. Accordingly, several techniques have been developed for forming bond pads on a substrate without requiring that a bus remain in the substrate. While these techniques have met with at least some success, they have also been subject to several drawbacks. These drawbacks can include undercutting the conductive material at the bond pads and/or difficulty in obtaining very fine pitch spacing between adjacent bond pads. As the size of microelectronic dies continues to decrease, and performance demands on the microelectronic dies continues to increase, these drawbacks can in some cases place undesirable design and/or performance limitations on the microelectronic dies.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0005]
    FIGS. 1A-1F illustrate an initial series of steps for forming a substrate without a permanent bus, in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0006]
    FIGS. 2A-2D illustrate subsequent steps for forming the substrate initially shown in FIGS. 1A-1F.
  • [0007]
    FIG. 3 is an enlarged illustration of a portion of a substrate configured in accordance with an embodiment of the invention, shown coupled to a microfeature workpiece and an external device.
  • [0008]
    FIG. 4 illustrates a packaged microelectronic device having a substrate coupled to an external device in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.
  • [0009]
    FIG. 5 illustrates a packaged microelectronic device having a substrate coupled to an external device in accordance with another embodiment of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION A. Introduction
  • [0010]
    Microfeature workpiece substrates having through-substrate vias, and associated methods of formation are described below. In particular aspects, the through-substrate vias can allow the formation of bond pads on one surface without requiring a bus at that surface. Instead, electrical current for forming the bond pads in an electrolytic process can be provided by a conductive path that extends through the via. A method for forming a support substrate for carrying microfeature dies in accordance with one aspect of the invention includes exposing a substrate to an electrolyte, wherein the substrate has a first side with a first conductive layer, a second side opposite the first side with a second conductive layer, and a conductive path extending through the substrate from the first conductive layer to the second conductive layer. The method can further include forming a bond pad at a bond site of the first conductive layer by disposing at least one conductive bond pad material at the bond site. The process of disposing the at least one conductive bond pad material can include passing an electrical current between the first and second conductive layers via the conductive path, while the substrate is exposed to the electrolyte.
  • [0011]
    In further particular aspects, the method can include patterning the first conductive layer to form a bond site, and applying bond pad material to the bond site after patterning the first conductive layer. In still another aspect, the method can include applying an at least generally non-removable protective coating over the first conductive layer, preventing the protective coating from covering the bond site (or removing the protective coating from the bond site) and applying bond pad material to the bond site after applying the protective coating.
  • [0012]
    In yet another aspect, the method can include forming a bond pad at a first bond site of the first conductive layer and at a second bond site of the second conductive layer. This process can further include (a) placing a removable protective coating over the second conductive layer, (b) preventing the removable protective coating from covering the second bond site or removing the protective coating from the second bond site, and (c) applying conductive material to the first and second bond sites simultaneously, after performing processes (a) and (b). The method can still further include (d) removing the removable protective coating from the second conductive layer, and (e) patterning the second conductive layer by removing a portion of the second conductive layer while leaving the second bond site electrically coupled to the first bond site via the conductive path.
  • [0013]
    In still further aspects, the invention can include a microelectronic system comprising a substrate configured to carry a microfeature die, with the substrate having a first surface with a first conductive layer and a second surface facing opposite from the first surface and having a second conductive layer. The first conductive layer can have multiple first bond sites, and the second conductive layer can have multiple second bond sites. The system can further comprise conductive bond pad material positioned at the first bond sites to form first bond pads, with the first bond pads being separated from each other by a first average spacing, and with the bond pad material extending around an edge of the first conductive layer at the first bond sites. Conductive bond pad material can also be positioned at the second bond sites to form second bond pads, with the first and second bond pads being electrically coupled with conductive pathways extending through the substrate. The second bond pads can be separated from each other by a second average spacing greater than the first average spacing. The bond pad material can have a different arrangement at the second bond sites than at the first bond sites. For example, the bond pad material at the second bond site can be spaced apart from an edge of the second conductive layer at the second bond sites.
  • [0014]
    As used herein, the terms “microfeature workpiece” and “workpiece” refer to substrates on and/or in which microelectronic devices are integrally formed. Typical microelectronic devices include microelectronic circuits or components, thin-film recording heads, data storage elements, microfluidic devices and other products. Micromachines and micromechanical devices are included within this definition because they are manufactured using much of the same technology that is used in the fabrication of integrated circuits. The microfeature workpiece can be a semiconductive piece (e.g., doped silicon wafers or gallium arsenide wafers) nonconductive pieces (e.g., various ceramic substrates) or conductive pieces. In some cases, the workpieces are generally round, and in other cases, the workpieces have other shapes, including rectilinear shapes.
  • [0015]
    The term “support substrate” is used generally herein to refer to a support member that carries the microfeature workpiece and provides an interface between the microfeature workpiece and external devices to which the microfeature workpiece may be electrically coupled. Accordingly, the term “support substrate” can include, but is not limited to, interposer boards, printed circuit boards, and/or other structures that can provide physical support and/or electrical connections for the microfeature workpiece and that generally do not include integrated semiconductor features.
  • B. Support Substrates and Associated Methods of Formation
  • [0016]
    FIGS. 1A-2D illustrate a series of process steps that may be performed to produce a support substrate having features in accordance with several embodiments of the invention. Referring first to FIG. 1A, the support substrate 110 can include a core material 113 having a first side or surface 111 a and a second side or surface 111 b facing opposite from the first surface 111 a. A first conductive layer 112 a can be positioned against the first surface 111 a, and a second conductive layer 112 b can be positioned against the second surface 111 b. The substrate 110 can include a printed circuit board, with the core 113 including a ceramic material, and the first and second conductive layers 112 a, 112 b including generally planar layers of copper. In other embodiments, these components can have different compositions and/or arrangements.
  • [0017]
    Referring next to FIG. 1B, a via 114 can be formed to extend through the core 113 and through the first and second conductive layers 112 a, 112 b. As shown in FIG. 1C, the via 114 can be coated with a third conductive layer 112 c to form a conductive path 115 that electrically connects the first conductive layer 112 a and the second conductive layer 112 b. The third conductive layer 112 c can be formed using a conventional combination of electroless and electrolytic plating techniques. For example, an electroless technique can be used to apply a seed layer to the walls of the via 114, and an electrolytic technique can be used to add thickness to the seed layer, forming the overall structure of the third conductive layer 112 c.
  • [0018]
    In FIG. 1D, the first conductive layer 112 a can be patterned to remove the bulk of the first conductive layer 112 a, with the exception of at least one first bond site 130 a located adjacent to the first surface 111 a of the core material 113. For purposes of illustration, only one first bond site 130 a is shown in FIGS. 1D-2D and described in the associated text. However, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the support substrate 110 can include additional first bond sites 130 a at other locations, within and/or transverse to the plane of FIG. 1D. In any of these embodiments, for at least some of the first bond sites 130 a, no electrical connection exists between the first bond site 130 a and other first bond sites located at the first surface 111 a after the patterning process has been completed. In particular, each first bond site 130 a can be electrically independent of other features at the first surface 111 a. Accordingly, the first conductive layer 112 a need not include an electrically conductive bus. Instead, as will be described later, electrical current for carrying out manufacturing processes at the first bond site 130 a can be provided by the second conductive layer 112 b and the conductive path 115.
  • [0019]
    The first bond site 130 a can be formed using any of a variety of conventional patterning techniques. Such techniques can include disposing a layer of photoresist or another protective coating on the first conductive layer 112 a, patterning the photoresist to remove portions of the photoresist over portions of the first conductive layer 112 a that do not correspond to the first bond site 130 a, and then exposing the first conductive layer 112 a to an etchant that removes all or generally all of the first conductive layer 112 a except at the location corresponding to the first bond site 130 a.
  • [0020]
    Referring next to FIG. 1E, a first protective coating 140 a can be disposed over the first surface 111 a and the first conductive layer 112 a, except over the first bond site 130 a. In a particular aspect of this embodiment, the first protective coating 140 a can include a soldermask or other material that remains permanently attached to the support substrate 110 after processing. For example, the first protective coating 140 a can include a soldermask material that is patterned in a manner generally similar to that described above with reference to FIG. 1D, but which is then treated (e.g., by exposure to radiation, heat, or another energy source) to form a generally permanent coating. As used herein, the term “at least generally permanent” refers to a material that remains with the support substrate 110 after processing, and that is not removed (or at least not entirely removed) during the manufacturing process and/or prior to coupling the support substrate 110 to a microfeature die or other device for an end-user.
  • [0021]
    As is also shown in FIG. 1E, the first protective coating 140 a can be applied so that a gap 117 exists between a first conductive layer edge 116 a and the first protective coating 140 a. As described in greater detail below with reference to FIG. 2A, the gap 117 can allow for a more extensive application of bond pad material at the first bond site 130 a.
  • [0022]
    Referring next to FIG. 1F, a second protective coating 140 b can be applied to the second conductive layer 112 b. The second protective coating 140 b can be patterned in a manner generally similar to that described above to expose or keep exposed a second bond site 130 b. Unlike the first protective coating 140 a, however, the second protective coating 140 b can be completely removed during subsequent processing steps. Accordingly, the second protective coating 140 b can include a dry film or other patternable, removable material. For purposes of illustration, the second bond site 130 b is shown more or less directly beneath the first bond site 130 a; however, in many cases, the second bond site 130 b can be positioned further away from the via 114. This can result in larger spacings (e.g., coarser pitch) between adjacent second bond sites 130 b than between adjacent first bond sites 130 a.
  • [0023]
    FIGS. 2A-2D illustrate process steps for providing additional conductive material at the first bond site 130 a and the second bond site 130 b (referred to collectively as bond sites 130). The additional conductive material applied to the bond sites 130 can provide for enhanced electrical connectivity between the bond sites 130 and the structures to which the bond sites are electrically coupled. In the case of the first bond site 130 a, the coupling can be to a microelectronic die that the support substrate 110 carries and is packaged with. In the case of the second bond site 130 b, the connection can be to an external device.
  • [0024]
    Beginning with FIG. 2A, the support substrate 110 can be disposed in an electrolyte 118, and a cathode 119 can be applied to the second conductive layer 112 b. One or more anodes 120 can be positioned in electrical communication with the electrolyte 118 to complete the electrical circuit used for electrolytically applying material to the first bond sites 130. The differences in electrical potential between the anode 120 and cathode 119 provides for the current flow. At this point, the second conductive layer 112 b can be generally continuous over the second surface 111 b of the support substrate 110, with the exception of local discontinuities at the vias 114. Accordingly, the second conductive layer 112 b can provide a highly conductive, low resistance link to the second bond site 130 b. The second conductive layer 112 b can also provide a highly conductive, low resistance link to the first bond site 130 a, via the conductive path 115 formed by the third conductive layer 112 c extending through the via 114.
  • [0025]
    During the electrolytic process, a first bond pad material 131 a can be applied to the first bond site 130 a and can form a first bond pad 137 a. A second bond pad material 131 b can be applied to the second bond site 130 b to form a second bond pad 137 b. The first and second bond pad materials 131 a, 131 b are referred to collectively as bond pad material 131. The bond pad material 131 can include a single constituent or a composite of constituents. For example, in one embodiment, the bond pad material 131 can include both nickel and gold, arranged in layers with a nickel layer 135 placed adjacent to the underlying conductive layer 112 a, 112 b, and with a gold layer 136 positioned against the nickel layer 135. In other embodiments, the bond pad material 131 can include composites of different conductive materials, or a single layer of a homogenous material. In any of these embodiments, the first bond pad material 131 a can at least partially fill the gap 117 between the first protective coating 140 a and the edge 116 of the first conductive layer 112 a. The presence of the gap 117 can allow the first bond pad material 131 a to wrap around the edge 116 a of the first conductive layer 112 a. In particular, the first bond pad material 131 a need not be offset away from the edge 116 a of the first conductive layer 112 a. This feature can be enabled by (a) patterning the first conductive layer 112 a before applying the first bond pad material 131 a, and (b) using a soldermask or similar material for the first protective coating 140 a. As a result, the first bond site 130 a can have a relatively large amount of first bond pad material 131 a accessible for electrical coupling, even though the first bond site 130 a itself may be relatively small to allow for close spacing between adjacent first bond sites 130 a.
  • [0026]
    After the bond pad material 131 has been applied to the bond sites 130, the second protective coating 140 b can be removed from the second conductive layer 112 b. Afterwards, the second conductive layer 112 b can be patterned to remove conductive material other than that located at the second bond site 130 b. Referring now to FIG. 2B, a third protective coating 140 c can be disposed over the second conductive layer 112 b, and can then be patterned to protect the second bond site 130 b and the conductive path 115 through the via 114. Accordingly, the third protective coating 140 c can include a temporary or otherwise removable, patternable material (e.g., a dry film, generally similar to the second protective coating 140 b described above). In a particular aspect of this embodiment, the third protective coating 140 c can extend around an edge 132 of the second bond pad material 131 b to protect the entire volume of the second bond pad material 131 b. As a result, the portion of the second conductive layer 112 b of the second bond site 130 b can be protected from being undercut when adjacent portions of the second conductive layer 112 b are removed.
  • [0027]
    Referring next to FIG. 2C, portions of the second conductive layer 112 b surrounding the second bond site 130 b can be removed (e.g., via an etching process), after which the third protective coating 140 c itself can also be removed. The second bond site 130 b can include an offset 133 between an edge 132 of the second bond pad material 131 b, and an edge 116 b of the second conductive material 112 b. The formation of this offset 133 results from the fact that the third protective coating 140 c was placed around the edge 132 during the process described above with reference to FIG. 2B. This offset 133 can result in a slight increase in the overall size of the second bond site 130 b (particularly in comparison to the first bond site 130 a). However, this increase in size is not expected to create undesirable increases in the spacing between adjacent second bond sites 130 b, because, on the second surface 112 b of the substrate 110, bond site spacing is not as critical. In particular, the second bond sites 130 b are intended to align with corresponding bond pads of external devices, which typically do not have bond pad pitch requirements as stringent as those for microfeature workpieces that are attached to the first bond sites 130 a.
  • [0028]
    In FIG. 2D, a fourth protective coating 140 d is applied to the second surface 111 b to provide for an at least generally permanent covering over the portions of the substrate 110 adjacent to the second bond site 130 b. Accordingly, the fourth protective coating 140 d can include a solder mask material that is either applied to (and then removed from) the second bond site 130 b, or prevented from adhering to the second bond site 130 b with an appropriate removable masking material. The support substrate 110 is now available for coupling to microfeature workpieces, and subsequently to external devices.
  • C. Support Substrates and Associated Installations
  • [0029]
    FIG. 3 is an enlarged, partially schematic illustration of a portion of the substrate 110, coupled to both a microfeature workpiece 150 and an external device 160. In one aspect of this embodiment, the substrate 110 can be coupled to the microfeature workpiece 150 via a first conductive coupler 134 a (e.g., a small solder ball) that extends between the first pad 137 a and a corresponding bond pad 337 a of the microfeature workpiece 150. The substrate 110 can be coupled to the external device 160 with a second conductive coupler 134 b (e.g., a larger solder ball) that extends between the second bond pad 137 b and a corresponding bond pad 337 b of the external device 160. The external device 160 can include a printed circuitboard or other device that is in electrical communication with the microfeature workpiece 150 by virtue of the interposed substrate 110.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 4 is an overall view illustrating the microfeature workpiece 150 positioned on the support substrate 110 and surrounded by an encapsulant 152 to form a packaged microelectronic device 151. This arrangement, typically referred to as a flip chip arrangement, includes a relatively fine pitch between the first bond pads 137 a to accommodate the relatively close spacing of the corresponding bond pads 337 a on the microfeature workpiece 150, and a coarser spacing of the second bond pads 137 b. As discussed above, the second bond pads 137 b typically need not be as closely spaced as the first bond pads 137 a because the pitch requirements of the bond pads 337 b on external device 160 are generally not as stringent as the pitch requirements of the microfeature workpiece 150.
  • [0031]
    In other embodiments, support substrates generally similar to those described above can be used in other arrangements. For example, referring now to FIG. 5, a support substrate 510 can be configured to support a microfeature workpiece 550 in a chip-on-board (COB) arrangement. Accordingly, the microfeature workpiece 550 can be electrically coupled to the support substrate 510 with first conductive couplers 554 a that include wirebonds extending between the first bond pads 137 a of the support substrate 510, and corresponding bond sites 537 a on an upper surface of the microfeature workpiece 550. Second conductive couplers 534 b (which can include solder balls) can extend between the second bond pads 137 b and corresponding bond pads 537 b of the external device 160. An encapsulant 552 can be positioned around the microfeature workpiece 550 and the support substrate 510 to form the packaged microelectronic device 551. In still other embodiments, the support substrate 510 can be configured to support microfeature workpieces in accordance with other configurations and/or arrangements.
  • [0032]
    One feature of embodiments of the support substrates and associated manufacturing methods described above is that the conductive bond pad material 131 a can be applied to the first bond site 130 a without the need for a bus at the first surface of the support substrate 110. Instead, electrical power for applying the first bond pad material 130 a can be provided by applying current to the second conductive layer 112 b and using the conductive path 115 provided by the via 114 to conduct electrical current to the first bond site 130 a. An advantage of this arrangement is that the first bond pad 137 a can be formed without a bus and accordingly, the potentially negative effects associated with a bus (e.g., extraneous signals that may result when the bus acts as an antenna), may be eliminated.
  • [0033]
    Another feature of embodiments of the support substrate described above is that the first bond pad material 131 a can cover not only the outwardly facing surface of the first conductive material 112 a at the first bond site 130 a, but can also cover the adjacent edge 116. An advantage of this arrangement is that it can eliminate or at least reduce the likelihood that subsequent etching processes will undercut the first conductive layer 112 a at the edge 116, by virtue of the protection afforded by the first bond pad material 131 a at this location. As a result, the physical and electrical characteristics of the first bond pad 137 a can be more robust than corresponding bond pads formed by other methods.
  • [0034]
    Another feature of embodiments of the support substrate described above is that the first bond material 131 a is not offset from the edge of the first conductive layer 112 a immediately below (unlike the second bond pad material 130 b, which is offset from the edge of the corresponding second conductive layer 112 b by an offset 133). An advantage of this arrangement is that it can provide for a greater surface area of highly conductive material at the first bond site 130 a than would be available if the first bond pad material 131 a were offset from the underlying first conductive layer 112 a. This can allow the overall size of the first bond site 130 a to be reduced (because the available area at the first bond site 130 a is more effectively utilized) and can accordingly allow adjacent first bond pads 137 a to be spaced more closely together. An advantage of this arrangement is that it can allow for electrical connections (via solder balls or other structures) to corresponding microfeature workpieces that have very fine bond pad pitch spacings.
  • [0035]
    From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, but that various modifications may be made without deviating from the invention. For example, in some embodiments, the bond sites can have arrangements different than those described above. Many of the Figures illustrate features of the disclosed embodiments in a schematic fashion. Accordingly, many of these features may have dimensions and/or relative dimensions that are different than those illustrated in the Figures. Aspects of the invention described in the context of particular embodiments may be combined or eliminated in other embodiments. Further, while advantages associated with certain embodiments of the invention have been described in the context of those embodiments, other embodiments may also exhibit such advantages, and not all embodiments need necessarily exhibit such advantages to fall within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not limited, except as by the appended claims.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification257/773, 257/779, 257/E23.023
International ClassificationH01L23/488
Cooperative ClassificationH01L2224/16225, H01L2924/181, H01L2924/00014, H01L2224/05571, H01L2224/05573, H01L2924/14, H01L24/48, H01L2224/48091, H01L2924/01078, H01L21/486, H01L2224/16237, H01L2224/48228, H01L2924/15311, H01L2924/01079, H01L23/49827, H01L2924/10253, H01L2224/48227
European ClassificationH01L21/48C4E, H01L23/498E