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Publication numberUS20090042513 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/021,076
Publication date12 Feb 2009
Filing date28 Jan 2008
Priority date26 Jan 2007
Also published asUS9094089, US20080205324, US20080211730, US20080238671, US20120105289, US20130250848, US20130277523, US20140099882, US20150288051, US20160210831, US20160321890, WO2008089575A1, WO2008089584A1
Publication number021076, 12021076, US 2009/0042513 A1, US 2009/042513 A1, US 20090042513 A1, US 20090042513A1, US 2009042513 A1, US 2009042513A1, US-A1-20090042513, US-A1-2009042513, US2009/0042513A1, US2009/042513A1, US20090042513 A1, US20090042513A1, US2009042513 A1, US2009042513A1
InventorsCalvin H. Woosnam
Original AssigneeWoosnam Calvin H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Networked Communications System and Segment Addressable Communications Assembly Box, Cable and Controller
US 20090042513 A1
A communication systems providing a fault-tolerant communications path for narrow and broad band communication comprising one or more self-powered satellite units each providing signal information to at least one command console through a segmented cable assembly system in operable communication with a central station that receives signal information from the at least one command console and relays signal information back to the command console wirelessly and via the segmented cable assembly system.
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1. A communication systems providing a fault-tolerant communications path for narrow and broad band communication comprising:
one or more self-powered satellite units each providing signal information to at least one command console through a segmented cable assembly system;
a central station that receives signal information from the at least one command console and relays signal information back to the command console wirelessly and via the segmented cable assembly system.
2. The communication system of claim 1, wherein the segmented cable assembly system is powered by a controller outfitted with a transceiver and an external high gain antenna.
3. The communication system of claim 1, wherein the segmented cable assembly system includes a repeater.
4. The communications system of claim 1, wherein the cable assembly includes a UWB radio and antenna.
5. A cable assembly comprising
one or more fixed length cable segments, each segment linked to a junction box having a repeater system to extend a signal communications range significantly further than 3000 feet.
6. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the each segment includes a metal casing and core bundle wrapped with an aerogel material.
7. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein each segment includes a stress release system, each segment configured for 2600 pounds of longitudinal force.
8 The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein each segment will re-broadcast a signal selected from the group consisting of UWB , WiFi and RF.
9. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the cable assembly has no vertical or horizontal constraints.
10. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein each segment will withstand temperatures in excess of current plenum and riser wiring standards.
11. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the junction box has plug-in circuit board.
12. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the junction box includes a raceway system to drop splice fiber optic channels for direct plug-in to one or more main circuit board media converters.
13. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the junction box includes a thermal cooling system operable with an on-board CPU to prevent overheating and failure.
14. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the junction box includes two DC output voltages of 5 Volt and 12 Volt operable with a UPS system deriving its power from an on board battery.
14. The cable assembly of claim 5, wherein the junction box is controlled by a separate controller.
15. A cable assembly comprising:
one or more fixed length cable segments, each segment capable of withstanding temperatures in excess of current plenum and riser wiring standards, wherein each segment includes a high gauge metal casing and a core bundle wrapped with a heat resistant aerogel material
16. The cable assembly of claim 15, wherein the core bundle includes one or more power conductors, one or more multi-mode fiber-optic data channels, a coaxial cable 40 and a high strength stress cable.
17. A controller comprising:
a transceiver;
an external SMA-type cable connected high gain
18. The controller of claim 17, wherein the transceiver is capable of switching IEEE 802.15.4 to 802.15.3.
19. The controller of claim 17, wherein the signals from the controller penetrate walls.
20. The controller of claim 17, wherein the controller is operable with an antenna router device for transmitting signals to a wireless device.
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit for priority from U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/886,905 filed Jan. 26, 2007, hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • [0002]
    The inventions described relate generally to a networked communications system. More particularly, the inventions herein relate to a fault tolerant intra-communications and inter-communications systems and assemblies thereof.
  • [0003]
    Most, if not all, cable systems used in communications and power industries are designed to comply with a single function, that being either power or communications. And when it comes to different modes of power or communications components have been designed separately and independently; few if any can truly integrated with other components. Connectivity standards of such components are also not designed to withstand damage (e.g., fire or mechanical problems). As such, current systems are unreliable and do not function or remain operational under adverse conditions.
  • [0004]
    The inventions described herein solve many problems associated with current communications systems.
  • [0005]
    Generally, and in one form, is provided a networked communications system for narrow and broad band signal communication, the system operable with a segment addressable communications assembly (SACA) junction box and cable for terrestrial and wireless communication that is fault tolerant.
  • [0006]
    Those skilled in the art will further appreciate the above-noted features and advantages of the invention together with other important aspects thereof upon reading the detailed description that follows in conjunction with the drawings.
  • [0007]
    For more complete understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention, reference is now made to the detailed description of the invention along with the accompanying figures, wherein:
  • [0008]
    FIG. 1A depicts in schematic a networked communications systems and representative transmission pathways as described herein;
  • [0009]
    FIG. 1B depicts a flow chart of representative communications paths as described herein;
  • [0010]
    FIG. 2A depicts in cross-section a schematic of a representative cable assembly as described herein;
  • [0011]
    FIG. 2B depicts a representative fabricated cable assembly as described herein;
  • [0012]
    FIG. 2C depicts a blow-out view of the cable assembly of FIG. 2A;
  • [0013]
    FIG. 3 depicts in schematic form a first view of a SACA cable assembly and junction box;
  • [0014]
    FIG. 4 depicts in schematic form a second view of a SACA cable assembly and junction box;
  • [0015]
    FIG. 5 depicts in schematic form a second view of a SACA cable assembly and junction box
  • [0016]
    FIG. 6 depicts in schematic form a plan view of the exterior of a junction box;
  • [0017]
    FIG. 7 depicts a representation of a typical cable race tray described herein;
  • [0018]
    FIGS. 8A and 8B depict various views of junction box circuitry;
  • [0019]
    FIG. 9 depicts a representative drawing of a controller system case and design;
  • [0020]
    FIG. 10 illustrates by representation a depiction of a communications system and circuitry as described herein;
  • [0021]
    FIG. 11 depicts a representative improved antenna as described herein; and
  • [0022]
    FIG. 12 depicts an image of a media converter described herein.
  • [0023]
    Although making and using various embodiments of the present invention are discussed in detail below, it should be appreciated that the present invention provides many inventive concepts that may be embodied in a wide variety of contexts. The specific aspects and embodiments discussed herein are merely illustrative of ways to make and use the invention, and do not limit the scope of the invention.
  • [0024]
    In the description which follows like parts may be marked throughout the specification and drawing with the same reference numerals, respectively. The drawing figures are not necessarily to scale and certain features may be shown exaggerated in scale or in somewhat generalized or schematic form in the interest of clarity and conciseness.
  • [0025]
    This application is being filed concurrently with co-pending U.S. patent applications, each of which claims the benefit for priority from U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/886,905 filed Jan. 26, 2007, and each describing aspects of the invention described herein, including GIMBALED MOUNT SYSTEM FOR SATELLITES (U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/020,269), NETWORKED COMMUNICATIONS AND EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, and SECURITY ASSEMBLY AND SYSTEM.
  • [0026]
    The communications system as described herein includes an integrated satellite based device capable of broadband digital signaling, the device is also referred to herein as satellite unit (SU). Each SU is able to be in constant alignment with a desired satellite. The satellite dish itself may be round or elliptical and mounted, generally in a vertical orientation, parallel to the horizontal plane. The mount may be a gimbaled mounting system, motorized, and/or self-aligning. Preferably, the satellite is self-powered and self-contained and comprises a dish assembly, a self-stabilizing mount, and a controller section containing a transceiver for wireless communication. A transceiver, as described herein, is operational at variable power levels and wavelengths and compliant with public local area network (LAN) use (e.g., IEEE/ITU 802.15.4) and emergency/military use (e.g., IEEE/ITU 802.15.3). An SU having a transceiver, typically a radio frequency transceiver, is coupled with Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology to re-broadcast information to other receivers.
  • [0027]
    Further included with a system described herein is a custom cable assembly also referred to as a segment addressable communications assembly (herein “SACA”) cable system or a terrestrial link. In one form, a SACA cable system allows one or more SUs to become operable with a command console. A SACA cable system may offer both vertical and horizontal integration of information to a command console.
  • [0028]
    A command console may be located anywhere, preferably in a position considered safe, such as a building, shelter, emergency operation center, disaster coordination center, emergency dispatch center. In another preferred embodiment, the command console is positioned separate and apart from a safe location and while positioned independently is still in operational communication with such safe locations. In the latter design, a command console initiates communication with the safe location via a broadband connection through the SU satellite. A command console also has interconnectivity with any public data or voice network through digital bridging. Thus, a command console may also initiate communication with any public data or voice network via digital bridging.
  • [0029]
    Command console-initiated communication is provided through one or a number of sites, including a central monitor and/or one or more detectors. Control of the SU transceiver is also under the command of the central monitor via software. Thus, the SU provides a fault tolerant broadband satellite link that is also integrated with other components.
  • [0030]
    Each command console offers interconnectivity via a network with one or more SUs (10 as depicted in FIG. 1A). As such, a central monitor 20 connects one or more SUs 10 with one or more receiving units 30, which includes safe locations, homes, offices and other network locations. A central monitor may also be in operable communication with a detector 40. A schematic representation of one representation of a communications system described herein is illustrated in FIG. 1A and described further below. A flow chart of representative communications pathways possible with a communications system described herein is shown in FIG. 1B
  • [0031]
    Detectors include sensors (remote controlled or otherwise and include sensors for, e.g., radiation, chemical, bio-hazard, explosive, seismic, heat, pressure). One or more detectors may be associated with an SU.
  • [0032]
    The communications system described herein is further provided with an electrical power source. Each power source is interfaced at a command center using existing wiring and/or a remote data acquisition system. A power source provides a means for interconnectivity to sensors and/or for relaying other information, such as audible information in the form of alerts or sirens. A robust power supply system with multiple power source supplies provides uninterruptible operation should there be any fault in part of the system or an emergency even in which one or more conventional power sources are negated. A power source may be also be maintained at the central monitor.
  • [0033]
    As described herein, a communications system includes in part or in whole one or a number of SUs at one or a number of locations with command centers and a central monitor. The communications system may act as an alert, warning, control or monitoring system. Information communicated though the communications system may be relayed to one of a number of ports, including computer, landline telephone, cellular phone, PDA, lighting unit, and mechanical system (e.g., via a Web page-enabled manager), as examples.
  • [0034]
    A command console generally includes hardware, its own un-interruptible power supply (UPS) power supply, a routing box, and another transceiver as depicted on the lower right in FIG. 10 as 1010. One or more UPS power each command console. A command console serves as a secondary power source to an SU. Cabling between an SU and the command console is through a SACA cable assembly system 1020, which includes an armored mechanically and thermally protected cable having sectionally addressable access points (shown in FIGS. 2A-2C). In one form, a SACA cable assembly system may be used as a tunable antennae system depending on its location (e.g., within a building having diverse locations). A command console is, therefore, capable of interconnecting with a building and with a pre-wired system.
  • [0035]
    Additionally or as an alternative, further links may be installed in the command console using UWB technology (e.g., IEEE/ITU 802.15.4/UWB). Such added bridge components may be installed at a remote location within an equipped SU to relay signals to the command console, an example is depicted as 1030 in FIG. 10. This prevents additional wiring and offers enhanced reliability to the system.
  • [0036]
    In one communication relay pathway, a central monitor provides information to a command console located in a building that is received from a service provider (e.g., environmental, security, facilities management, utilities). The information is generally received wirelessly and via a direct connection to the equipped building. Again, a schematic and a generalized flow chart of some representative communications pathways as described herein are depicted in FIGS. 1A and 1B, respectively. Services such as private network devices and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) may be supplied wirelessly using the communications systems described herein. An equipped building may also act as a relay station by way of its transceiver to provide broadband re-direct-able connections to other sites equipped to receive the communication. This provides an abundant number of resources for communicating information.
  • [0037]
    Connectivity through a SACA cable relies on a SACA junction box having a repeater system to extend a wireless communications range (e.g., WiFi IEEE/ITU 802.11a/b/g addressable repeater system), as exemplified in FIGS. 3, 5 and 8A. SACA cables serve to address connectivity between an SU and a command console. In addition, SACA cables have output ports at various lengths along the segments for periodic and/or separately addressable sections to re-broadcast a signal (e.g., digital UWB , WiFi, RF) that has been injected by a provided connector at a command console.
  • [0038]
    The SACA cable system is custom constructed in one or more fixed length segments to match requirements of an end installation. For example, 10, 20 100 and 300 foot lengths are obtainable. The cable system may be readily expanded or reduced as needed to enhance fiber optic connectivity. Power management components are determined by end power requirement needs. Cable stress release may be adjusted based on size of internal stress of the member installed. A typical configuration of a cable assembly is for 2600 pounds of longitudinal force. There are no vertical or horizontal structural constraints when using the SACA cable system described herein. Components of the SACA cable system comply with and exceed UL standards, meet and exceed UL Circuit Integrity (CI) compliance requirements and are deemed Fire Hardened Integrity Tested (FHIT).
  • [0039]
    A cross-sectional view of a cable assembly is depicted in FIG. 2A. The exterior casing 10 is of spiral metal construction and generally made of a high gauge steel (e.g., #14) or aluminum. The casing is typically flexible, resistant to high mechanical forces, has an interlocking wrap (e.g., RWS type). Suitable examples include BX or type AC flexible steel cable. Preferably the casing is 1 inch thick and is of the highest gauge metal available for a chosen cable assembly diameter. Standard casings have no coating. As an alternative a coating may be applied to the casing as described further below. The interior includes a core bundle 15 comprising one or number of power conductors 20, multi-mode fiber-optic data channels 30, coaxial cable 40 and high strength stress cable, in a desired combination, all of which are encircled in their entirety with a flexible heat resistant silica aerogel wrap 50. The wrap is suitably reinforced, generally with a non-woven, carbon and/or glass fiber batting. A suitable blanket material may be found with Pyrogel® (Aspen Aerogels, Inc., Northborough, Mass.). Typically, the wrap is applied in a 50% overlapping 6 mm spiral wrap over the entire interior contents. As such, the wrap is continuous and extends uninterrupted over the entire length of each cable segment (as measured from end to end).
  • [0040]
    At each end of a cable segment, core bundle 60 that includes the flexible heat resistant wrap extends further than casing 10 as exemplified in FIG. 2C. At each segment end 65, the casing is clamped with a cable clamp 66, typically installed with a locknut 67 and silicone ring as exemplified in FIG. 3. End clamps are compression fit using non-flammable seating rings on both external mounting threads as wells an approved silicone sealing ring on the cable compression nut fitting. A loose lead extension at each end of the core bundle is typically about 26 inches longer than the casing. The length may vary and is enough to ensure strain-less connection to a terminus box at either end of the cable segment. At an end of each core bundle is a multi-conductor connector 70 (FIG. 2A and inset FIG. 2C; also shown in FIG. 2B). The connector is terminated by a loop that extends about six inches from the end marked as 75. The loop is generally a standard ¼ inch loop 80. Fiber optic channels are terminated with appropriate plugs or other suitable terminations. A suitable plug is exemplified with a Volition™ connector system (3M Corporation, St. Paul, Minn.). The length of a cable segment is defined by the distance from one connector facing side to the other connector facing side.
  • [0041]
    Examples of representative cable assemblies include 20 and 300 foot length segments (SACA-T), a lite 300 foot length cable (SACA-lite) and 20 and 300 foot water proof cables (SACA-W). For SACA-T, the core bundle was linear wrapped with 4 mil thick aerogel. The casing was bare flexible steel clad apical wrapped. The core bundle included 3×2 conductor PNR multi-mode fiber optic cables, an RG-188 AU coaxial high-temperature cable, and 3×10 AWG/19ST B/W/G multi-core power leads. For SACA-lite, the core bundle was linear wrapped with 4 mil thick aerogel. The casing was bare flexible steel clad apical wrapped. The core bundle included 3×2 conductor PNR multi-mode fiber optic cables prepared as a loose laced wrapped bundle, an RG-188 AU coaxial high-temperature (200 degree-rated) cable, 3×10 AWG/19ST B/W/G multi-core 200 degree-rated power leads and a CAT-6 cabling, plenum grade. For SACA-W, the core bundle was linear wrapped with 4 mil thick aerogel. The casing was flexible steel clad apical wrapped with a plastic water proof coting. The core bundle included 3×2 conductor PNR multi-mode fiber optic cables, an RG-188 AU coaxial high-temperature cable and 3×10 AWG/19ST B/W/G multi-core 200 degree-rated power leads.
  • [0042]
    For terminations of leads in each core bundle, the aerogel extended 1 inch minimum beyond the casing end. Leads extending beyond the aerogel wrap were at least 22 inches before proper termination. Power leads had ½ inch bare copper ends. Fiber optic lines were polarization non-reciprocity (PNR) and terminated with male plugs. The coaxial cable was terminated with a male plug. Ethernet cabling was CAT-6 terminated in an RJ-45 connector A fitting.
  • [0043]
    One method for preparing the cable assembly described herein includes applying the casing around the core bundle after the core bundle is assembled. An alternative method is to stuff a prepared core bundle into a desired casing. With either process, mechanical wrapping of the bundle is done with a near zero air gap to the bundle from the inner walls of the fabricated outer casing, while maintaining an industry standard size at the beginning and length of each cable segment. The casing is generally provided in one of a number of fixed industry diameter sizes. Typical coil rings are set for overlapping that creates a minimum of 11 rings per foot, thereby maximizing lateral force protection from entering or damaging the core bundle. Using a standard cable sizes, each core bundle (including the flexible heat resistant wrap) is no larger than 60-70% of the interior diameter of a flexible casing size specification. Optionally, the cable assembly may include providing a water tight or water repellent layer around the perimeter of the outer casing.
  • [0044]
    As described herein, by using a heavier gauge outer casing than is conventionally used and combined with a tighter than normal ring spacing and a steel non-flammable compression fitting for termination, the cable assembly herein is much improved, begin both stronger and more thermally protected than conventional assemblies described by others.
  • [0045]
    Referring now to the core bundle, bundling of each core begins with having specifications being met as provided by the desired number of optical channels as well as desired power handling requirements for an individual cable segment. The choice of components combined with the addition of a longitudinal strain relief system (SRS) determines a primary core bundle size prior to wrapping.
  • [0046]
    The power conducting cable will have an outer protected sheath of thermally enhanced plastic around copper wires. The outer sheath may be thermally enhanced or further coated with such a material, and example of which is Teflon(t (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company), either of which ensures high thermal protection in a heated environment. The number of strands of copper wire is 26 or more, which is higher than a usual lower industry standard of six or seven strands. As such, power conducing cables described herein have a combined current carrying capacity that is about 30% higher than standard multi-strand copper conducts.
  • [0047]
    A coaxial cable for data (wireless) communication is generally in the form of a 50-ohm or 75-ohm coax cable with suitable insulation. An example is an RG-188 A/U standard cable. The cable should handle RF interconnects; however, HF, VHF and UHF may also be useful.
  • [0048]
    A fiber component for data handling is typically in the form of a multi-mode fiber. Use of a multi-mode fiber offers more reliability than a single mode fiber in the event of any thermal and/or mechanical damage to the cable segment. The preferred fiber is a 62.5 or 50.0 micron diameter multi-mode fiber and has a long-chain polyimide coating (housing), which is preferably a fluoropolyimide (e.g., aramid) that offers high resistance to heat and melt. Each fiber has a fiber jacket with an overall dimension at or about 125 microns in diameter. The fibers are inserted in the jacket with or without a silicone buffer tube. The outer jacket is also of thermally enhanced plastic to resist high temperatures and be considered flameproof. The outer jacket ensures that long term cable heating will have a negligible effect on data handling capacity of the fibers.
  • [0049]
    Generally, the fiber component may be single or paired with up to six channels. When possible, fibers are minimized to reduce heat and enhance thermal resistance of the core bundle. The fibers are generally terminated with a raceway tray, as required. In one example, termination of a multi-mode fiber optic pair includes a duplex fiber optic interconnect plug, exemplified by a Volition™ connector system (3M Corporation, St. Paul, Minn.). An interconnect plug is preferred to a fused butt joint as signal loss per connector is reduced. Termination is made with strict compliance to requirements to ensure maximum signal strength and minimal signal loss. A selected plug (or joint) is always compatible with the mating socket or equivalent optical transceiver on the junction box. For example, a Volition™ connector system is mated with a Volition™ socket.
  • [0050]
    When more than 6 fiber channels are required, they are routed within a cable race tray and individually thermally bonded to the next cable section for all pass through connections. Drop point circuits to the junction box site are thermally bonded to pre-manufactured patch cords per specifications, allowing about 26 inches from a cable race tray exit point. An alternate fiber connector when multi-stranded fibers is to provide a dual termination set-up using a splice and then a patch cord to individual channels. Such termination is readily combinable with a SACA junction box described herein.
  • [0051]
    Having a combination of both high power conducting lines and optical fibers for highest and longest broadband transmission, the cable assembly described herein surpasses assemblies described by others. The SACA assembly uses multiple strands, typically three Amerimay wire gauge (AWG) #10 multi-strand wires. Cable ends are 1 inch bare wire, tinned finished.
  • [0052]
    To counter longitudinal force applied to cable assemblies described herein, an SRS system is further provided in each core bundle before wrapping. The SRS system comprises a high strength cable (e.g., 2100-2600 pound test [load] strength, 5×9 or 1×19, 19 strand steel ⅛ to 5/32 inch diameter cable) inserted in the internal core bundle. The SRS cable has a high melt point, which may be at or about or greater than 1800 degrees Fahrenheit. The ends are finished in a loop (FIG. 2A, 2B), looping 6 inches from the clamp fitting facing surface. This provides adequate length to slip over a strain relief stud mounted inside a SACA junction box. With proper anchoring termination aligned to be 6 inches longer than the cable assembly specified length at either ends and fabricated to attach to a mating stud anchoring point in the middle of the side wall of the junction box, the SRS system transfers longitudinal forces whether direct or from lateral displacement of the SACA cable assembly from the cable to the corresponding mounting stud on the junction box (see, e.g., FIG. 3 and FIG. 4). The SRS component within the SACA cable assembly prevents damage from occurring to the wire cables or delicate fiber optic lines and ensures there is no decoupling or stretching of the outer flexible casing.
  • [0053]
    High thermal temperatures associated with fires and the like will regularly damage so-called fire hardened or plenum rated cables because the thermal boundary or protection level in that is in such cables has no relevance to the actual energy level present in a typical carbon-based fire. To overcome fire damage, the final assembly step in core bundling (after assembly of the SRS system) is wrapping the core bundle with a predetermined width band of an aerogel material. Preferably, wrapping is performed by spiral wrapping in a 50% overlapping configuration. Wrapping covers the entire length of the core bundle and occurs prior to applying the reverse-wrapped interlocking casing.
  • [0054]
    An addressable junction box with mating multi-conductor cable plugs act as the junction device for the SACA cable. Details of the SACA junction box are now discussed and depicted in FIGS. 3-5, 8 and 10. In general, the SACA junction box is a multi-function junction box. It serves as a tap out point for signal repeating, it is also a power junction point and link out from one section to a next section. Each segmented length of cable is combined with a repeater (via the junction box) and, thus, the historical maximum application length of 3000 feet is not an issue with the cable assembly described herein. A dual WAN router with wireless connectivity eliminates the need for a separate WiFi router and can be mounted on a mezzanine board.
  • [0055]
    Custom boxes may include one down stream feeder and one or multiple upstream branches. An example would for use with a multi-story structure having multiple sections off a single core. In such a case, each SACA junction box would be typically located about 10-20 feet apart vertically and have branched boxes on each floor of the structure, in which each box in a horizontal distance would be about 500 feet or more apart. Similarly, a set-up may be provided in subterranean or enclosed environment (e.g., mined locations, subway, caves, tunnels, as examples).
  • [0056]
    Housing for a SACA junction box is depicted in FIG. 6, and is generally made of a heavy gauge metal and water tight box thermally protected from outside heat by having all walls lined with a non-conductive layer using a water repellent material, such as an aerogel. The metal is preferably #14 gauge, as a minimum, and preferably steel. Generally, the box is of standard size (e.g., 12 inch by 12 inch by 6 inch deep) with an empty weight of about 15-35 lbs. The front cover is hinged and lockable with either a keyless screw lock or a keyed secure tumbler tube lock. A raised removable mounting plate (e.g., 11 inches by 11 inches) is pre-mounted to the back of the box for easier mounting of a main circuit board and generally has at least one insulation layer of a suitable material, such as an aerogel. The removal mounting plate is generally made of a hardened metal, such as steel. The insulation layer is sized to the box (e.g., 12 inch×12 inch×6 mm) and placed in the interior of the box between the back plate and the raised removable mounting plate. Holes may be prepared in the insulation layer to align with the mounting stud positions located on the back exterior of the junction box.
  • [0057]
    Mounting of the circuit board is typically performed using non-thermal conducting mounts (e.g., ⅜ inch nylon stand-offs). The main circuit board as shown in FIG. 7 is fastened to the stand-off mounts on the removable mounting plate by either of two methods. In a first method, screws are used, typically ¼″×#40 screws. This method is preferred if the main circuit board is the only component inside the SACA junction box. In an alternative method, stand-off extenders (e.g., nylon #40) with a threaded screw end (to fasten down the main circuit board) and a threaded compatible socket end are used. This method is preferred when accepting and attaching a second board, referred to herein as a mezzanine board.
  • [0058]
    A mezzanine board, when provided with the junction box system, is either a single board or a dual stacked board. For dual stacking, the upper board is separated from the lower board by about an inch using stand-offs generally made of nylon; only the lower board is screw fastened into place. Separation by way of a stand-off extension between boards ensures uniform separation and adequate clearance from the junction box front cover when closed.
  • [0059]
    The mezzanine board supports a multi-fiber mini cable race system when multiple fiber channels are bundled in a SACA cable assembly segment beyond the conventional standard configuration. The mini cable race system as exemplified in FIG. 7 allows for direct thermal splicing of unused fiber channels within the current configuration into a passive pass-through mode. Incoming cables are thus allowed to enter on one side of the mini cable race system and spiral in; outgoing cables entering on a second side spiral in and meet their equivalent channel in the center section at which point there is thermal splicing. The mini cable race system allows selected channels (typically 3 maximum) to be drop spliced onto jumper patch cables with pre-mounted male plugs suitable for direct plug-in to the main circuit board media converters. Re-amplification of one or more of the selected channels is thereby accomplished, allowing limitless lengths of the SACA cable assembly system to be created, well beyond the conventional length for multi-mode optical fibers.
  • [0060]
    The same mezzanine board or an additional one may be used to support a thermal cooling system that may optionally be included in the junction box. The thermal cooling system is a liquid cooling system used to exhaust thermal buildup caused by internal components or by heat arising from an external source, such as a fire. The thermal cooling system depicted in FIG. 4 uses one or a number of sensor thermal couples 41 attached to hot chips and cooling tubes 42 inserted into the coupled cable segments (incoming and outgoing). An on-board CPU monitors temperature within the box and is activated at a pre-determined temperature. The CPU is coupled to directional valves that are activated at the pre-determined temperature to allow fluid flow. The system includes a pump 43, reservoir 44, thermal pickup links 45 mounted on the main circuit board, a flow coupler 46 and a flow valve solenoid 47. Electronics for the pump and valve portions are typically located on the mezzanine board. Connecting tubes 48 in the system carrying cooling fluid are generally soft flexible tubing, such as silicon tubing. The thermal cooling system transfers heat smartly outside the box rather than allow it to buildup and damage internal electronics within the junction box.
  • [0061]
    Referring now to the main circuit board a representative circuit diagram is depicted in FIG. 8A. The board is a collection of plug-in modules and a carrier mother board for signal and power distribution as shown in FIG. 3. Modules include a power supply module 32 and processor module 34 that is customized for each junction box depending on desired selections. As plug-ins, the modules offer easy access for replacement and/or upgrades, particularly on location. Additional components of a junction box may include router 36 previously described and optional UWB radio 38 and/or antenna 39.
  • [0062]
    Power leads from the incoming and outgoing cable segments are fused to the power block on the main circuit board. Power at 110 Volts is tapped off and routed to the step down DC power supply module. A polarized header type connector in the same area as the AC input for the mother board allows for connection to an on board UPS that is connected to a storage cell mounted against the outer wall of the junction box. A base 5 Volt power is run to any of the attached modules from the power supply module, there is also signal in and out pathways provided to interconnect the modules eliminating the need for any loose patch cords for module to module connections. Status circuits from each module are routed back to the processor module for fault and operations monitoring and control.
  • [0063]
    The junction box mother board power supply module 81 provides two DC output voltages of 5 Volt and 12 Volt and the input supply circuit is designed as a UPS system 82 deriving its power from an on board battery 83 (e.g., lithium polymer cell, rechargeable when desired) as back-up when either AC power 84 is no longer available (see FIG. 8B, lower left). Routing of DC supply voltage is through lands on the junction box mother board. The on board battery is designed to provide the contents of the junction box with sufficient power for 4 continuous hours of full operation or 12 standby hours. The battery is typically held against the side wall of the inside of the junction box accessed by removable clips.
  • [0064]
    The on board processor includes a separate controller system (herein “CS” identified as 85 in FIG. 8B lower left) that comprises a microprocessor circuitry and a downloadable and updateable program and operating system for directing and/or monitoring operations within the junction box. The controller system does not depend on an operator for on-board processor operations and provides status as well as alerts with respect to the junction box. The CS is depicted in one embodiment as FIG. 8 and is a software configurable device that prioritizes a series of alternatives should the primary objective (path) become unavailable, thereby it ensures that the communication system described herein is fault tolerant and continuous for both normal operations and for emergency communication.
  • [0065]
    The CS is a self contained self powered device, having its own integral UPS and an additional conventional 110 Volts AC power source; it is not dependent on a main supply of power to remain operational. It has a reverse destination powered sharing capability. It carries its own battery backup system when there is a power outage. The battery backup system expands the current or wattage handling capability of the DC to AC conversion system; during non-emergency periods, the battery back-up system maintains the normal operating power and is fully charged.
  • [0066]
    The CS cabinet depicted in FIG. 9 is approximately 24 inch deep by 44 inch wide by 12 high of stainless steel construction with a right angle hinged top and front locking side as the opening cover to the cabinet. Alternate arrangements are equally suitable. The heavy gauge cabinet (preferably stainless steel) is to withstand corrosion in any environment and to provide maximum mechanical protection to the internal contents. Its interior is outfitted with an insulation layer, the material made of aerogel. The cabinet is securely grounded to a building power supply ground circuit. The cabinet is kept off surface without requiring physical means for securing it. Two front to back right-angled runners are welded to the bottom of the cabinet.
  • [0067]
    The metal foldings depicted in FIG. 9 and subsequent welding means the cabinet is a secure vessel for protecting the internal contents. A right angle folded top lid is edge folded and water seal matched with the lower portion of the cabinet. A tubular type cam lock provides a secure locking of the folded top lid to the lower bottom portion.
  • [0068]
    The CS being is tamper resistant with multiple sensors mounted on and within the cabinet to sense any unauthorized tampering. Attempts at moving the cabinet or opening will trigger an output signal from the CS. A similar system is in place for the SACA cables and junction box which are also continuity monitored.
  • [0069]
    The CS also acts as a head end controller for a satellite dish (e.g., SU); it may use KU band equipment or KA band equipment. Line loss from a satellite low noise block (LNB) converters to a controller modem is minimized by mounting the controller modem within a CS cabinet (e.g., adjacent to or under the satellite dish). The coaxial signal and power leads are long enough for impedance matching and to facilitate easy relocation of the satellite dish (e.g., SU) to maintain clear site angle to the respective satellites that the dish is assigned to. In addition, an optional dual LNB and LNA triage unit may be included with the CS for automated swap out if there is component failure.
  • [0070]
    Satellite communications into the CS system are maintained regardless of terrestrial power problems because the dish components are powered by the onboard UPS-supported CS cabinet. The CS also includes a smart controller that automates orbital satellite location and communication which includes a self-aligning software package provided by a suitable provider (e.g., Phase Array Antenna by AIL EDO Industries). The CS system interfaces with either a gimbaled mount system disclosed in co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/020,269 or with a motorized dish assembly similar. Control of the gimbaled mount system or other motorized assembly is through CS, mounted within the cabinet as depicted in FIG. 8B. Data connection from the controller/modem to the multi-port switch/VPN router is powered by the UPS system. Thus, as described, is a fault tolerant communications system not dependent on terrestrial services for operation.
  • [0071]
    Operation of the CS system are handled by a computer such as one positioned as a command console (see FIG. 10) using a scripting language and remote access management made possible by a specially authorized remote terminal. For uniformity, a SACA junction box circuit board is used in the command console and a SACA junction box circuit board is used as a sending terminus in the CS.
  • [0072]
    The CS onboard VPN router is cross connected via a connection, such as that provided by an Ethernet 10/100 Mb/s Cat: 5e connection, to the head end of the SACA cable exemplified in FIG. 8B through on-board junction box mother board media converters. The VPN router has multiple output ports that may be configured to capture data traffic on a specific Virtual Private Network (VPN) channels or ports and is able to dedicate such traffic to a specific Ethernet port. Specific data traffic may then be directed through an Ethernet patch line to an appropriate/designated fiber channel media converter. The dedicated VPN then becomes privatized over a channel B or channel C fiber and subsequently delivers the routed destination, terminating eventually in one or more media converters where it is translated back to electrical Ethernet feed and begins its programmed use.
  • [0073]
    The use of optical regenerating media converters within the SACA system combined with the fiber optic transport provided by the cable assembly means data traffic originating with either a SU or another source (e.g., microwave digital radio link) and managed by the CS system may be relayed to near infinite distances as defined by the SACA cable assembly and junction boxes. As such, the CS connects to the SACA cable assembly through fiber optics and power circuits and subsequently through a self generated solicitation system comprising of a DHCP server within the CS that solicits each connected junction box as each cable segment comes online. The system as described provides a single secure network and does not require authorization from a Building Area Network (BAN).
  • [0074]
    CS uses the mother board from the junction box for media conversion and hence data transporting, as well as being a primary power source. The CS will typically require a dedicated 110 Volts AC power source with a minimum delivered current of 30 Amperes at the power distribution panel terminating point. The 30 Ampere power source is the primary power source for the CS and SACA cable assembly.
  • [0075]
    The router described previously is preferably an addressable dual WAN router and is combined with an addressable microprocessor circuit. The combination provide status of the health and functionality at each junction box which is relayed to a CS main processor. Any alert is relayed immediately by the CS to a central monitor.
  • [0076]
    Each CS cabinet is also outfitted with a transceiver and an external SMA-type cable connected high gain antenna (e.g., a UWB parabolic high gain fractal antenna) as depicted in FIG. 11. The transceiver is provided with a capability of switching from International Telephone Union standards and IEEE standard 802.15.4 restricted power to a higher power 802.15.3 restricted standard (i.e., one limited within the U.S. under FCC rulings to military and emergency communications use only). The increase in power and subsequent range of the UWB (UWB ) signal allows the dispersion range with wall penetrating capability to reach approximately three miles, such as when a governmental authority declares an emergency.
  • [0077]
    A WiFi ITU/IEEE 802.11a/b/g antenna router device may optionally be attached to an output port on one or more junction boxes. Placement is such that their operation is maximized. With the added router device, a CS may receive communications and route them through the cable assembly and junction box (either via channels A, B or C) to a specific WiFi or WiMAX device. For example, law enforcement information may be relayed through the CS to a breakout point where the high-gain long range WiFi or WiMAX antennas are positioned to securely send a signal to a nearby emergency vehicle or station or individual capable of picking up the communication.
  • [0078]
    A cable raceway termination as previously described is also installed in the CS cabinet for entry of fiber optic cables from the SACA cable assembly into the cabinet (e.g., typically mounted as a mezzanine board above the SACA junction box main motherboard). Not all fiber channels need to be cross connected to communications sources at this point, some may bypass and be routed straight through the junction box, thereby maintaining segment to segment functionality of the SACA system.
  • [0079]
    As described herein, the CS system also incorporates keyless encryption of both incoming and outgoing data readily available from one or more providers. Encryption helps ensure the secure transport of agnostic data over the entire communications system. Encryption is typically set to security level of Category 5, which has also been referred to as Orange Book level B1 standard.
  • [0080]
    The CS may be used with multiple communications channels enabling simultaneous performance one or more end purposes. In one example, CS is used to regulate emergency and/or remote access signals through satellite while simultaneously regulating microwave relayed broadband internet access running from roof top to roof top and also delivering communications signal (via the SACA system) to numerous end-users within one or more buildings. Such flexibility to make broadband transport available to multiple and different end users earns the system described herein as the ultimate agnostic transport layer.
  • [0081]
    Referring back to the junction box, the processor as previously described may be incorporated prior to or after installation at a field location. The processor is thus a replaceable module that plugs into the junction box main mother board. Power and signal routing are shared as well as distributed on the main mother board. Simple logic as well as complex functions may be programmed into the junction box processor; status of the box may be monitored by a WEB enabled interface allowing full graphical status monitoring of all junction box functions.
  • [0082]
    Each junction box has the ability to distribute three channels (see FIG. 8A). Channel A is primarily for emergency communications and security purposes and has been designed with fault tolerance and a backup wireless connection circuit. Channel B is an in-house data channel, typically used to distribute broadband services. Channel B traffic may also include display screens, sensor camera input, and data entry equipment, as examples. When channel B includes display information, an additional component may be added to the junction box for wireless broadband connectivity from a currently addressed junction box to a dedicated display screen (e.g., digital, plasma, HD, LCD) using a wireless UWB dedicated DATA module as shown in FIG. 5.
  • [0083]
    When broadband wireless delivery is needed from a junction box to a remote delivery site, such as large screen display, a channel B media converter may be directed to a Mercury™ data delivery module, which includes UWB 802.15.4 data delivery complying with UWB technology and restricted to ITU/FCC 802.15.4 (provided by TZero Corporation). As an example, high-speed broadband data is targeted or addressed to a discreet TCPIP addressed UWB 802.15.4 module capable of transmitting up to 800 megabytes per second over a distance of up to 80 meters (250 ft).
  • [0084]
    Junction box channel C is left open to the extent that signals transmitted along any number SACA cable segments must enter a media converter and exit a media converter therefore a standardized format of 10/100 Mb/s is required unless a segment to segment conversion is done to an alternate data rate or format.
  • [0085]
    The junction box when equipped with one or more mezzanine boards may support both an incoming 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet optical feed as well as an outgoing alternate data format converter, thereby leaving the remainder of the contiguous sections available for (alternate) usage.
  • [0086]
    The junction box uses optical media converters of an improved design (depicted in FIG. 8A; exemplified in FIG. 12) to convert incoming and outgoing fiber optic signals to conventional TCPIP copper signals. The onboard media converters also facilitate third party and/or external attachments to the junction box thereby providing an agnostic transport system over a common wiring facility. Junction box media converters are standardized at 10/100 Mb/s TCP/IP data feed terminating in RJ-45 standard connectors as defined by the IEEE and ITU. Junction box media converters may be upgraded, changed or added to alter the primary data format from 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet to Asynchronous Transfer Mode, or any other fiber compatible transport methodology. The only controlling factor is that the starting point of the segment and the end delivery point as well as every channel C junction point between the starting point and the end delivery point must be the same data transmission format. Access points between the starting point and end delivery point may allow entry for sharing access to channel C data.
  • [0087]
    In the example of wired TCPIP signal, the signal in channel A is first routed to a dual port wireless A/G router. Simultaneously link and data indicator circuits are displayed on status LED lamps (for visual indication of function) and routed to the junction box processor. The junction box media converters are monitored by the junction box processor, constantly ensuring proper link activity on all communications channels. Failure of a link indicator signifies the on board processor to instruct alternative backup circuits to maintain connectivity with its assigned connections.
  • [0088]
    A junction box circuit protection system allows the on board junction box processor to reassign fiber optic cable communications to an alternate path through an onboard UWB or a WiFi wireless device should the cable fail. The box is also designed to simultaneously send an alert message to the CS and command console. For example, should data traffic on channel A (primary channel) fail, UWB signals come into play. For operation, a dual port wireless router switch (e.g., A/B/G protocol 10/100 speed router switch) is incorporated onto the main mother board of the junction box. The dual port feature allows for a primary path WAN side to be connected to the pass through fiber optic channel A. A secondary WAN port is also routed electrically to the data side of the UWB radio. Failure at any time of the higher speed primary WAN channel causes the router to automatically switch data to the UWB radio. The onboard WiFi circuit in the router may be directed as a traffic port for channel A information such as remote wireless sensors or wireless camera inputs.
  • [0089]
    Just as the SACA cable may bundled with a multi-fiber cable, so will the junction box be equipped with multi-fiber handling capacity. When needed, this is performed by installing the appropriate Mezzanine board with cable race and splice tray handling. Drop channels to a maximum of 3 must be broken out in the splice tray and properly terminated (e.g., to patch cables) for access to the onboard media converters on the main motherboard. The same fiber channel (and number) coming into a media converter must also exit and rejoin the multi-fiber cable to maintain a contiguous delivery system.
  • [0090]
    Channel A traffic flowing through a normal fiber optic channel in the cable segment is directed by the channel A media converter to the dual port router onboard each junction box. Software (up loadable firmware) will route traffic first to a primary link fiber channel, only falling back to the secondary port when data cannot flow on the primary circuit. The operating firmware allows a secondary TCP/IP addressing to be assigned to the secondary port so a second access port to router and corresponding fiber transport layer are established. The dual port router has both four+one ports of 10/100 Mb/s Ethernet and supports up to 254 wireless addresses with WEP and WPA authentication and MAC address security.
  • [0091]
    The secondary WAN port is connected to the data input side of an on board transceiver module which shares features with a dual port router allows the secondary WAN port to become an addressable LAN port, thereby providing dual functionality to the transceiver. As long as the primary WAN Port is active and not experiencing any data flow problems, then the transceiver attached to the secondary WAN Port becomes a bi-static or mono-static radar device.
  • [0092]
    An addition plug-in card on the junction box is an EWT transmitter, as shown in FIG. 5, referred to a Mercury Transceiver. The card plugs into a mating connector located inside the junction box. The EWT unit relays specific information addressed to it, as WiFi or UWB transmissions at a pre-selectable power level. At low power setting or normal operation, the UWB transmission complies with FCC and IEEE/ITU 802.15.4 standards for in building use. The addressing capability of the junction box allows for individual power levels to be adjusted at the output port and the EWT facilitates not only a corresponding change frequency bandwidth but is also capable of ramping up its power output, which is controlled by an automatic gain control (AGC) or power stepping circuit.
  • [0093]
    Another feature of the EWT plug-in device is an optional antenna diversity module that may be added. The antenna module supports up to four antennas for each junction box location. In one form, the EWT extension is four UWB transmitters plugging into a common addressable feed point on the junction box. In this case only the digital Ethernet type signal and power is fed through the parallel interface to drive up to four UWB transmission modules, each with their own position sensing fractal antenna unit or high gain directional antenna (depicted in FIG. 5). Such an application is preferably used for large horizontal structures. Those of skill in the art will understand that the plug-in device may be deployed every 4 to 10 floors, depending upon the type of RF communication being used. For longer distances in non FCC compliant areas, a high gain directional parabolic fractal antenna may be used to maximize distance and signal strength. This type of antenna has proven to increase range at low power and high power settings from 50 and 100 feet normal respectively, to 500 and 1000 feet outdoors.
  • [0094]
    As described herein, controlled manufacturing steps and pre-selected features together provide the communications system described herein with both mechanical and thermal protection to not only survive physical challenges but to also offer a system with continuous power and communication, particularly to first responders. Within a single communications assembly, the system described herein will transmit unlimited amounts of information using multiple types of operations that are fault tolerant and secure.
  • [0095]
    Data handling capabilities have been expanded with the system described herein. By combining fiber optics, the quantity of data has increased exponentially and the communication range has been extended well beyond the 300 foot limit previously encountered with systems relying on copper. Radio frequency additions extend the reach to wireless devices a distance away from a distribution point.
  • [0096]
    Modular lengths or segments of cable may be extended to unlimited lengths. Through the use of standardized cable fittings for both outer cable attachments as well as individual power and transmission lines within the cable, the capabilities of this system are extended and incorporate a plug and play method to commercial wiring. Cable segments remain independently addressable and controllable in view of the versatile junction box. In addition, having a fiber optic repeater and converter for each optical channel, any data circuit may easily be accessed with standard Ethernet plug fitting, making the use, servicing and adoption of the entire system easy and cost efficient.
  • [0097]
    Independent management processor systems within each junction box as described herein not only supply the health status of each junction box but also control the distribution and functioning of auxiliary operations with the scope of the junction box. The onboard UPS processor circuit manages security, communications, functionality and self health of the junction box and is coordinated with an external controller device. Pre-programmed processes and updates, managed remotely, are performed continuously on each junction box to ensure performance.
  • [0098]
    The improved multifunctional motherboard design with plug-in modules as described herein facilitates functionality and servicing of each junction box once installed. The improved design is also suited to support multiple fiber optic channel routings as well as multiple radio frequency transmission channels.
  • [0099]
    The junction box herein includes a unique wireless data communications that may penetrate obstructions such as walls or debris may also be used for extreme broadband transmission applications and yet further, upon command, be used with a tagged or tag-less tracking system. Hence, the junction box herein is a fully programmable device for both normal broadband communications, human tagged and tag-less tracking device and supplies emergency first responder type communication in a time of disaster. In addition, the junctions box includes a unique and intelligent cooling method that reduces internal heat and expel the heat from the box, thereby alleviating damage to the electronics.
  • [0100]
    The junction box terminates a cable conducting segment (optical and electrical components) and providing connectivity as well as mating to the next cable segment in the system. As described previously, optical connectors are chosen to reduce space requirements as well as signal loss. The junction box junctions each power sections of the SACA assembly system while tapping off 110 volts as required and may convert power to a low voltage DC for use with additional components, such as an optical amplifiers, address decoder, router, RF linear components, and the like. Hence, a junction box is capable of amplifying (optically and linearly), digital routing and decoding.
  • [0101]
    According to one or more embodiments, a SACA system includes serial transmission cables linking two separate control points, such as a SU and a corresponding command console, while also allowing segmented sections of the cable at fixed and predefined intervals to be used for retransmission through RP or digital signals sent to third party (non-directly associated) devices.
  • [0102]
    A SACA system comprises a power conduit and a reference ground system, along with one or more connectivity routes between a SU and a command console. Optical signal connectivity in the system prevents line loss and/or length limitations associated with TCP/IP (e.g., over conventional CAT-5 or CAT-6 wired cabled connections). A secondary signal buss (repeater) periodically connects with an addressable junction box that, in turn, may interconnect to one or more external devices for the purpose of retransmitting data or bridging a gap when one occurs between two associated SACA junction boxes.
  • [0103]
    The repeater periodically regenerates signals to ensure that they reach their intended destination(s). With a SACA communication system described herein, information in any form is repeated and carried on to a central monitor communications system and also transmitted to one or more local positions. In an example, an emergency communication is relayed not only to the central monitor but also to local emergency personnel having RF equipment. With this system, problems such as those experienced in recent disasters will not occur.
  • [0104]
    More specifically, with the system described an analog RF signals that is normally inhibited by physical structures is introduced through the cable assembly to a command console from antenna output of any portable wireless communicator. By removing the antenna from a handheld device and connecting the cable assembly described herein, a RF signal is injected into the cable assembly and through software control is accessible from the command console, and is periodically repeated at multiple junction box points. Addressable coaxial switches, along with a linear amplifier, facilitate analog RF processing within the SACA junction box. Linear amplifiers within the junction box device not only repeat and pass along information to the next serial junction box, but also connect information to a local antenna when one is attached to the junction box so that the signal radiates from the antenna.
  • [0105]
    While specific alternatives to steps of the invention have been described herein, additional alternatives not specifically disclosed but known in the art are intended to fall within the scope of the invention. Thus, it is understood that other applications of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art upon reading the described embodiment and after consideration of the appended claims and drawing.
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U.S. Classification455/68, 455/522, 307/147, 455/73
International ClassificationH02G5/06, H04B1/00, H04B1/38
Cooperative ClassificationG08B13/1966, H01Q1/125, G08B13/19636, H04B7/1851, H04H20/59, H04H20/61, H04H40/90, H04H20/02, H01Q1/005, F16F15/121, F16M13/022, H04W28/04, H05K7/2039, H04B1/38, H01B11/22, H01B7/17, H05K7/1015
European ClassificationH04H20/02, H04H20/61
Legal Events
5 Nov 2008ASAssignment
Effective date: 20081105