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Publication numberUS20080192839 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/674,093
Publication date14 Aug 2008
Filing date12 Feb 2007
Priority date12 Feb 2007
Also published asCN101606390A, CN101606390B, EP2123043A2, EP2123043A4, US8769591, WO2008100725A2, WO2008100725A3
Publication number11674093, 674093, US 2008/0192839 A1, US 2008/192839 A1, US 20080192839 A1, US 20080192839A1, US 2008192839 A1, US 2008192839A1, US-A1-20080192839, US-A1-2008192839, US2008/0192839A1, US2008/192839A1, US20080192839 A1, US20080192839A1, US2008192839 A1, US2008192839A1
InventorsJoshua Bernard Gahm, David R. Oran, Kapil Sharma
Original AssigneeCisco Technology, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fast channel change on a bandwidth constrained network
US 20080192839 A1
Abstract
In one embodiment, a buffering server transfers a dynamic burst transfer of data encoded using an inter-coded compression technique. The dynamic burst transfer is timed so that an initial transfer rate is reduced to a remaining transfer rate at the same time or before a decoding endpoint joins a corresponding data stream. The decoding endpoint merges the video stream and the dynamic burst transfer to decode and quickly reconstruct a displayable video frame.
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Claims(20)
1. A method, comprising:
sending a burst transfer to a remote endpoint, the burst transfer including data extracted from a video stream and the burst transfer formatted for combining with the video stream at the remote endpoint to reconstruct a video frame on the remote endpoint;
wherein the burst transfer includes an initial transfer rate and a reduced subsequent transfer rate beginning at a transition instant.
2. The method of claim 1 further comprising:
identifying a bandwidth capability of a link used to send the burst transfer to the remote endpoint;
identifying a transfer rate of the video stream; and
selecting the initial transfer rate based on the bandwidth capability of the link and the transfer rate of the video stream.
3. The method of claim 1 further comprising:
determining a request time for the remote endpoint to send a request to join the video stream; and
sending a message to the remote endpoint to identify the determined request time to the remote endpoint and for causing the remote endpoint to send the request for receiving the video stream at the determined request time.
4. The method of claim 3 wherein the request time is determined based on a bandwidth capability of a link used to send the burst transfer to the remote endpoint and a transfer rate of the video stream.
5. The method of claim 4 further comprising:
identifying data containing a latest occurring sequence number for transfer using the burst transfer; and
determining a duration of the burst transfer, the duration based on an time delay range for the remote endpoint to receive the video stream after sending the request to join the video stream.
6. The method of claim 5 wherein data having the latest occurring sequence number is transmitted before other burst-transferred data having earlier occurring sequence numbers.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the transition instant is selected to occur no later than a time that the remote endpoint joins the video stream after sending a request to join the video stream.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the video stream is transferred from a same transmitting source of the burst transfer to the remote endpoint.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the video stream is encoded using Motion Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) encoding and the burst transfer includes I frame information for combining with other information transferred to the remote endpoint using the video stream.
10. The method of claim 1 further comprising
identifying a sequence number difference between the video stream and a position of a preceding start of an intra-coded frame; and
determining a time for completing the reduced subsequent transfer rate based on the sequence number difference.
11. An apparatus, comprising:
one or more processors; and
a memory coupled to the processors comprising instructions executable by the processors, the processors operable when executing the instructions to:
send a dynamic burst request to a remote network device;
receive back a dynamic burst transfer that initially uses a first average transfer rate and then transitions to a second reduced average transfer rate at a predetermined transition time;
send a join request to join a video stream; and
combine the video stream and the dynamic burst transfer to output a continuous sequence of image frames for display on a display device.
12. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the join request is sent at a predetermined time that is determined by the remote network device.
13. The apparatus of claim 11, the processors further operable to combine intra-coded frame data included in the burst transfer with other data transferred over the video stream for locally reconstructing a displayable video frame.
14. The apparatus of claim 11 wherein the join request is sent to the remote network device.
15. A system comprising:
means for decoding a data stream using reconstruction data provided by a burst transfer; and
means for sending the burst transfer to an endpoint using a dynamic transfer rate that is reduced at a transition time.
16. The system of claim 15, further comprising:
means for identifying an earliest response time for the endpoint to receive the data stream after sending a request to join the data stream;
means for identifying a latest response time for the endpoint to receive the data stream after sending the join request;
means for determining a request time using the identified earliest response time and the identified latest response time; and
means for sending the request to join the data stream at the determined request time.
17. The system of claim 15 further comprising means for reducing the dynamic burst transfer to a predetermined rate that is determined based on a transfer rate of the data stream and a bandwidth capability of a link for the endpoint to receive the data stream.
18. The system of claim 17 wherein the rate reduction is configured to occur no later than a time that the endpoint joins the data stream.
19. The system of claim 15 wherein the dynamic transfer rate includes both an initial transfer rate that is greater than a transfer rate of the data stream but less than or equal to a bandwidth capability of a link that couples the endpoint to a network and a remaining transfer rate that, when combined with the set transfer rate of the data stream, does not exceed the bandwidth capability of the link.
20. The system of claim 15 wherein the transition time occurs a calculated amount of time later than a beginning time of the burst transfer, the calculated amount affecting when the endpoint sends a request to join the data stream.
Description
    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of networking.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    A network device receiving a video stream that is encoded using an inter-coded compression technique generally experiences a delay between the time of joining the video stream and the time a displayable video frame can be locally reconstructed. This delay results from the fact that the inter-coded frames (for example P and B frames in the case of Motion Pictures Experts Group 2 (MPEG-2) encoding) cannot be used to reconstruct a displayable video frame until the first intra-coded frame (for example an I frame in the case of MPEG-2 encoding) has been received.
  • [0003]
    Accordingly, when a set-top box joins an inter-coded video stream in response to a user requesting a channel change or powering on the set-top box, the set-top box begins receiving compressed frame data. The set-top box must then wait to reconstruct a displayable video frame until the first intra-coded frame is available. Partial solutions to this reconstruction delay exist, but these solutions generally require a great deal of bandwidth availability on the entire network path extending from the source of the video stream to the set-top box. The disclosure that follows solves this and other problems.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0004]
    FIG. 1 illustrates an example system for allowing a decoding endpoint to quickly output a displayable video frame upon joining a video stream.
  • [0005]
    FIG. 2 illustrates an example of the buffering server illustrated in FIG. 1.
  • [0006]
    FIG. 3 illustrates an example of the dynamic burst transfer sent by the buffering server in FIG. 2.
  • [0007]
    FIG. 4 illustrates an example method for using the buffering server illustrated in FIG. 2.
  • DESCRIPTION OF EXAMPLE EMBODIMENTS Overview
  • [0008]
    In one embodiment, a buffering server transfers a dynamic burst transfer of data encoded using an inter-coded compression technique. The dynamic burst transfer is timed so that an initial transfer rate is reduced to a remaining transfer rate at the same time or before a decoding endpointjoins a corresponding data stream. The decoding endpoint merges the video stream and the dynamic burst transfer to decode and quickly reconstruct a displayable video frame.
  • Description
  • [0009]
    Several preferred examples of the present application will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings. Various other examples of the invention are also possible and practical. This application may be exemplified in many different forms and should not be construed as being limited to the examples set forth herein.
  • [0010]
    The figures listed above illustrate preferred examples of the application and the operation of such examples. In the figures, the size of the boxes is not intended to represent the size of the various physical components. Where the same element appears in multiple figures, the same reference numeral is used to denote the element in all of the figures where it appears. When two elements operate differently, different reference numerals are used regardless of whether the two elements are the same class of network device.
  • [0011]
    Only those parts of the various units are shown and described which are necessary to convey an understanding of the examples to those skilled in the art. Those parts and elements not shown are conventional and known in the art.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 1 illustrates an example system for allowing a decoding endpoint to quickly output a displayable video frame upon joining a video stream.
  • [0013]
    Referring to FIG. 1, the system 100 includes a network 102 that provides video content to a decoding endpoint such as a set-top box 108 or other network device over a link 107 such as a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL). The video source 104 multicasts a video stream 103 or other data stream to a plurality of decoding endpoints, e.g. thousands of decoding endpoints (not shown), coupled to the network 102. The video stream 103 includes packets or other data having sequence numbers usable by the endpoints to place the received data into its original order and to suppress duplicates. Each of the plurality of endpoints including the set-top box 108 joins the video stream 103 by sending a join request. Joining the video stream 103 may occur responsively to a user changing a channel or turning on the set-top box 108.
  • [0014]
    The set-top box 108 sends a request for a burst transfer to a buffering server 105 that receives and stores the video stream 103. The buffering server 105 includes software 109 for transferring back to the requesting set-top box 108 a dynamic burst transfer 106 containing data originating from the video stream 103 that is also received on the buffering server 105. The dynamic burst transfer 106 is configured by the software 109 to allow the set-top box 108 to reconstruct a displayable frame with minimal delay while allowing the set-top box 108 to merge the dynamic burst transfer 106 with the video stream 103 after the set-top box 108 has joined the stream.
  • [0015]
    The dynamic burst transfer 106 begins at the start of an intra-coded frame, usable by the set-top box 108 to quickly reconstruct a displayable frame upon joining the video stream 103 sent from the video source 104. The amount of bandwidth used by the dynamic burst transfer 106 varies over time to prevent over-saturation of the link 107 due to the extra bandwidth of the burst, and when the video stream 103 is received in parallel over the same link 107. Accordingly, the set-top box 108 is able to quickly output a continuous sequence of frames starting with a complete intra-coded frame received when joining the video stream 103.
  • [0016]
    In the present example the video source 104 and buffering server 105 are shown as separate devices; however, in other examples a single device may provide both the video stream 103 and the dynamic burst transfer 106. Although the present example shows the set-top box 108 for receiving the video stream, other examples include any network device receiving any type of data stream that is encoded using inter-coding or any similar technique that uses earlier transferred frames to reconstruct a displayable frame.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 2 illustrates an example of the buffering server illustrated in FIG. 1.
  • [0018]
    The set-top box 108 receives a request 101 to join a video stream, which may occur when a user changes a channel or turns on the set-top box 108. In response to receiving the request 101 to join the video stream, the set-top box 108 sends a dynamic burst request 11 to the buffering server 105 that buffers the video stream.
  • [0019]
    The dynamic burst request 11 is received by the buffering server 105, which in the present example receives the corresponding video stream from a separate device (in other examples the functions of the buffering server 105 may be integrated into a device that also originates the video stream). The software 109 generates parameters 19 for a dynamic burst transfer based on characteristics of both the video stream and a link, such as a DSL link, connecting the set-top box 108 to the network.
  • [0020]
    The first average burst transfer rate 30 represents a transfer rate for sending an initial burst transfer 12. The parameters 19 also include a sequence number N of a latest occurring packet or other segment of information to be included in the initial burst transfer 12 and the transition instant X for starting a reduced rate burst transfer 14. The second average burst transfer rate 31 represents a reduced transfer rate for sending the burst transfer 14, and the parameters 19 also include the sequence number Z for the latest occurring packet to be included in the reduced rate burst transfer 14.
  • [0021]
    As stated previously, the software 109 uses the characteristics of both the DSL link and the video stream to generate the parameters 19 for sending the initial burst transfer 12 and the reduced rate burst transfer 14. The characteristics of the DSL link and the video stream may be automatically observed by the server 105 or manually provided using the input 10. The method used by the software 109 for generating the parameters 19 is discussed in greater detail with respect to FIG. 3, and as will be shown in FIG. 3 preferably takes into account other variables besides the characteristics of the DSL link and the video stream.
  • [0022]
    Still referring to FIG. 2, the set-top box 108 receives back the initial burst transfer 12 sent in response to the dynamic burst request 11. The first average transfer rate 30 is selected to consume more than an amount of bandwidth used for the rate of the video stream and less than the entire bandwidth available on the DSL link. In the present example, the first average transfer rate 30 consumes a constant amount of bandwidth, but in other examples the actual transfer rate may not be strictly constant provided that the average rate over this interval is at least the rate of the video stream and does not exceed the rate of the link.
  • [0023]
    The set-top box 108 sends a join request 13 to the network for joining the video stream. The join request 13 is sent at time T, which is preferably calculated based on the characteristics of the link and the video stream and may be calculated by the buffering server 105 or any other network device. The preferred method for calculating the time T is described in greater detail with respect to FIG. 3. In the present example, the calculated time T is provided to the set-top box 108 for coordinating the sending of the join request 13 with the rate reduction of the burst and the later cessation of the burst.
  • [0024]
    Still referring to FIG. 2, at the same time or shortly after the sending of the join request 13, the initial burst transfer 12 ends with sequence number N and a reduced rate burst transfer 14 using the second average transfer rate 31 is received. In other words, the transition instant X for the rate change is occurs no later than the earliest time at which the join request 13 could cause data from the video stream to begin to appear on the link. This feature avoids over-saturating the link. The reduced rate burst transfer 14 continues to supply the intra-coded frame and other data, except at a rate low enough to avoid saturating the link if the video stream packets arrive a bit too soon. The second average transfer rate 31 is selected such that, when combined with the rate of the video stream, less than the entire bandwidth of the DSL link is consumed. The preferred method for selecting the second average transfer rate 31 to prevent over-saturation and under-run is discussed in greater detail with reference to FIG. 3.
  • [0025]
    Still referring to FIG. 2, the set-top box 108 subsequently joins the multicast video stream 15. The video stream and the reduced rate burst transfer 14 together consume no more than all the bandwidth available on the link and therefore data loss is prevented. At this join time, the set-top box 108 has been provided with a complete intra-coded frame and thus is able to reconstruct a displayable frame by merging burst-transferred data with the data included in the video stream. In other words, the set-top box 108 does not experience a delay caused by waiting to receive the first intra-coded frame on the video stream.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 3 illustrates an example of the dynamic burst transfer sent by the buffering server in FIG. 2.
  • [0027]
    Referring to FIG. 3, a dynamic burst transfer 29 is shown with respect to a time axis 24 and a sequence number axis 25. Also shown is the line 38 representing an upper bound of the sequence numbers being processed by the decoder at the set-top box as a function of time, which is an amount H of sequence numbers behind the video stream rate 39. The first period 40 occurs when the initial burst transfer 12 (FIG. 2) is used to burst transfer packets of these sequence numbers faster than they are decoded by the set-top box. The second period 41 occurs while the reduced rate burst transfer 14 (FIG. 2) is used to burst transfer packets of these sequence numbers more slowly than the decode rate. The rate of the burst transfer 29 is reduced at the transition instant X. At the transition instant X, the sequence number N is the latest occurring sequence number received at set-top box.
  • [0028]
    The video stream is transferred at a rate R, which is reflected by the slope of the video stream rate 39 and the slope of the decoding output rate 38. During the first period 40, the first average transfer rate 30 (FIG. 2) of the dynamic burst transfer 29 is preferably selected to consume more than an amount of bandwidth used for the rate R and less than the entire bandwidth available on the link, which is equal to the sum of the rate R and the product of the rate R and a fractional amount of excess bandwidth E. The second average transfer rate 31 (FIG. 2) is preferably selected to consume no greater than the product of the rate R and the fractional amount of excess bandwidth E.
  • [0029]
    At all times between time zero and time C, the distance between lines 38 and 29 corresponds to the amount, in sequence numbers, of packets or other data stored in a buffer on the set-top box 108. As shown in the graph, during the first period 40 the amount of packets stored in the buffer increases. Conversely, during the second period 41 the buffer starts to empty. The packets in the buffer are completely consumed when the burst transfer 29 completes.
  • [0030]
    The time T for sending the join request depends on a delay range representing time passing between the time T and the actual time that the set-top box joins the video stream. The minimum response time is an amount J. To account for a very responsive network, J may be set to zero. The maximum join response time is an amount J′. Both the amounts J and J′ should also be considered when calculating the time T for sending the join request to prevent under-runs and output gaps from occurring when the burst transfer 29 completes.
  • [0031]
    When the actual join time does not occur until the latest time T+J′, the video stream only provides packets or other data segments having sequence numbers greater than Z. Therefore, sequence numbers N through Z should be provided by the burst transfer. The graph shows that the duration and rate of the burst transfer 29 is selected such that the latest occurring sequence number transferred using the burst transfer is sequence number Z. In other words, at time C, the set-top box has consumed all of the cache and seamlessly starts decoding the video stream. No pause attributable to waiting for the first intra-coded frame is required; this data has been received by the time the set-top box joins the stream.
  • [0032]
    Several properties can be extracted from the above description and FIG. 3. The first period 40 of the burst transfer 29 is set at a rate greater than R, but less than (1+E)R. The second period 40 of the burst transfer 29 is set at a rate no greater than ER at a time occurring no later than time T plus the amount J. The time T for sending the join request is chosen so that the set-top box accumulates a buffer backlog sufficient to prevent under-run even when the video stream is not actually received until the time T plus J′.
  • [0033]
    An equation for determining the time T for sending the join request is shown below:
  • [0000]
    T = ( 1 - E ) E J - J E + H ( 1 - E ) RE
  • [0034]
    The calculated time T for sending the join request is dependent on network parameters. For example, the amount J is the minimum amount of time passing between sending the join request and actually joining the video stream and is dependent on network/server responsiveness. The amount J′ is the maximum delay time and may also be related to network/server responsiveness.
  • [0035]
    The time T for sending the join request also depends on the characteristics of the video stream and the link used to transfer the stream. For example, the rate R is the transfer rate used for the video stream. The fraction E is a fraction amount of excess bandwidth available on the link after accommodation for the rate R of the video stream. For example, when the link is capable of transmitting one hundred and twenty percent and the bandwidth used by the rate R, then E is equal to 0.2 When the link is capable of 2*R, then E is equal to 1. The amount H is a sequence number difference between the video stream and a position of a preceding start of an intra-coded frame.
  • [0036]
    Example equations are also provided for configuring the shape and content of the preferred burst transfer. These following equations are preferably used by the buffering server for determining parameters of the burst transfer. One equation shows a method for identifying the time C (which also indicates burst transfer duration), the time for completing the burst transfer:
  • [0000]
    C = ( J - J ) R + H ER
  • [0037]
    Another equation shows a preferable method for determining the latest occurring sequence number N to be transferred using the first average transfer rate:
  • [0000]
    N = ( 1 + E ) ( 1 - E ) E R ( J - J + H R )
  • [0038]
    And yet another equation shows a preferable method for determining the latest occurring sequence number Z transferred using the second average transfer rate:
  • [0000]
    Z = ( J - J ) R + H E
  • [0039]
    The calculation of T and the determination of other characteristics of the burst transfer may be performed by the set-top box, the buffering server or any other entity provided with the necessary inputs. Embodiments of the invention are not limited to where these calculations are performed or how the results of the calculations are distributed to the set-top box and the buffering server. Furthermore, in some applications the knowledge of H, J, J′, E and R may be distributed and not known to the entity that is to perform the calculation of T and the characteristics of the burst transfer. Both the transferring of the input parameters to the entity performing the calculations and the distribution of the results to the set-top box and the buffering server can be accomplished using an appropriate protocol.
  • [0040]
    Although the above examples are described wherein the buffering server receives the video stream and then re-sends already transmitted data, the methods described above work equally well when the buffering server provides data not yet transmitted on the video stream. In other words, the burst transfer may include either “past” data or “future” data with respect to what data is included on the multicast video stream at any given time. The future data is typically sent when the buffering server is the same device that originates the data stream.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 4 illustrates an example method for using the buffering server illustrated in FIG. 2.
  • [0042]
    In block 401, the buffering server 105 receives a dynamic burst request from a network device that will be accessing a data stream that is encoded using an inter-coded compression technique or other compression technique that involves using historical data during decoding. The buffering server observes or identifies characteristics of the data stream to be accessed and a link that corresponds to the network device in block 402.
  • [0043]
    In block 403, the buffering server 105 uses the characteristics of the data stream and the link to determine an initial transfer rate and a remaining transfer rate. In block 404, the buffering server 105 identifies a transition instant for transitioning from the initial transfer rate to the remaining transfer rate. In block 405, the buffering server identifies a time for the network device to send a join request (which is provided to the network device), which is in part based on a delay range for receiving the video steam after sending the join request.
  • [0044]
    In block 406, the buffering server 105 sends an initial burst transfer back to the network device that sent the request. In block 407, at the transition time the buffering server 105 begins sending the remaining burst transfer to the network device. The network device is thus able to merge the received video stream with the burst-transferred data to quickly decode and reconstruct displayable frames without a delay caused by waiting for an intra-coded frame.
  • [0045]
    The above methods for facilitating frame reconstruction without a delay caused by waiting for an intra-coded frame can be used in conjunction with the repair schemes for “fast stream join” disclosed in patent application Ser. No. 11/561,237, which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • [0046]
    For ease of illustration, the above examples describe data that is transferred in order based on sequence numbers or other reordering indications. However, data need not actually be sent in order. For example, when the latest occurring data to be transmitted using a burst transfer contains sequence number Z, this data may actually be transmitted before other data having earlier occurring sequence numbers. Such a transmission may have certain optimizations over an in-order transmission. Regardless, the above methods are equally usable with both systems that transfer data out of order and systems that transfer data in order.
  • [0047]
    The above examples are described for cases where the video stream is being sent at a constant rate, reflected as a constant rate of increase of sequence numbers as a function of time. In other examples, the video stream may not be sent at a constant rate. In these cases, equations different from the above example equations may be used to calculate the first average transfer rate, the second average transfer rate and the transition time. Also, in these other examples in which the video stream is not being sent at a constant rate, the actual transfer rate during the first transfer period and the second transfer period might not be constant, but might instead vary of the first and second transfer intervals.
  • [0048]
    The above examples function best in networks having negligible and constant transfer delays. *The assumption of zero transfer delay is made for ease of explanation. Network jitter and other network anomalies may require adaptations to the above described formulas and methods. For example, high jitter may be compensated by intentionally overestimating J′, or determining the transition instant X and then causing an actual transition instant to occur slightly later. Other such adaptations may be made to the above equations and methods, as would be recognized by one of ordinary skill in the art.
  • [0049]
    The above examples are described with respect to a set-top box decoding a video stream. In other examples, the methods described above may applied to another network device decoding a video stream such as a High Definition TeleVision (HDTV) decoder, a personal computer, an IP phone, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a cell phone, a smart phone, etc.
  • [0050]
    Several preferred examples have been described above with reference to the accompanying drawings. Various other examples of the invention are also possible and practical. The system may be exemplified in many different forms and should not be construed as being limited to the examples set forth above.
  • [0051]
    Only those parts of the various units are shown and described which are necessary to convey an understanding of the examples to those skilled in the art. Those parts and elements not shown are conventional and known in the art.
  • [0052]
    The system described above can use dedicated processor systems, micro controllers, programmable logic devices, or microprocessors that perform some or all of the operations. Some of the operations described above may be implemented in software and other operations may be implemented in hardware.
  • [0053]
    For the sake of convenience, the operations are described as various interconnected functional blocks or distinct software modules. This is not necessary, however, and there may be cases where these functional blocks or modules are equivalently aggregated into a single logic device, program or operation with unclear boundaries. In any event, the functional blocks and software modules or features of the flexible interface can be implemented by themselves, or in combination with other operations in either hardware or software.
  • [0054]
    Having described and illustrated the principles of the invention in a preferred embodiment thereof, it should be apparent that the invention may be modified in arrangement and detail without departing from such principles. I claim all modifications and variation coming within the spirit and scope of the following claims.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification375/240.26, 375/E07.17, 375/E07.02, 348/E05.003, 375/E07.211, 725/120, 375/E07.134, 375/E07.173
International ClassificationH04N5/50
Cooperative ClassificationH04N21/6405, H04N19/164, H04N21/2402, H04N21/23418, H04N19/188, H04N21/6408, H04N21/23805, H04N21/238, H04N19/61, H04N19/159, H04N21/4384, H04N19/115
European ClassificationH04N21/238P, H04N21/234D, H04N21/6405, H04N21/438T1, H04N21/6408, H04N21/24D, H04N21/238, H04N19/00A3P, H04N7/50, H04N7/26A6S2, H04N7/26A6W, H04N7/26A4E
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
12 Feb 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GAHM, JOSHUA BERNARD;ORAN, DAVID R.;SHARMA, KAPIL;REEL/FRAME:018882/0407;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070208 TO 20070212
Owner name: CISCO TECHNOLOGY, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GAHM, JOSHUA BERNARD;ORAN, DAVID R.;SHARMA, KAPIL;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070208 TO 20070212;REEL/FRAME:018882/0407