Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20080102193 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/969,708
Publication date1 May 2008
Filing date4 Jan 2008
Priority date31 May 2001
Also published asUS6743462, US7335391, US20040180132, US20040182312
Publication number11969708, 969708, US 2008/0102193 A1, US 2008/102193 A1, US 20080102193 A1, US 20080102193A1, US 2008102193 A1, US 2008102193A1, US-A1-20080102193, US-A1-2008102193, US2008/0102193A1, US2008/102193A1, US20080102193 A1, US20080102193A1, US2008102193 A1, US2008102193A1
InventorsStephen Pacetti
Original AssigneePacetti Stephen D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method For Coating Implantable Devices
US 20080102193 A1
Abstract
A method of forming a coating for an implantable medical device, such as a stent, is provided which includes applying a composition to the device in an environment having a selected pressure.
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(10)
1. A method of forming a coating for an implantable medical device, comprising
inserting the device into a chamber;
adjusting the pressure of the chamber to a pressure greater than ambient pressure;
followed by applying a composition comprising a solvent to the implantable device while the device is disposed in an environment having the pressure at greater than ambient pressure, wherein the pressure and temperature in the chamber are always less than the critical pressure and temperature of the solvent during the adjustment of the pressure and during the coating of the device.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the composition comprises a polymer dissolved in the solvent and optionally a therapeutic substance added thereto.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the therapeutic substance is
an antiproliferative antineoplastic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, antifibrin, antithrombin, antimitotic, antioxidant, or a combination of these; or
an antibiotic combined with an antiproliferative antineoplastic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, antifibrin, antithrombin, antimitotic, antioxidant, or a combination of these.
4. The method of claim 2 wherein the solvent comprises a compound selected from chloroform, acetone, water, buffered saline, dimethylsulfoxide, propylene glycol methyl ether, isopropyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, dimethylformamide, dimethyl acetamide, benzene, toluene, xylene, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, decalin, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butanol, diacetone alcohol, benzyl alcohol, acetone, 2-butanone, cyclohexanone, dioxane, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, formamide, and their combinations.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the act of applying comprises spraying the composition on the implantable device.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the implantable device is a stent and the act of applying comprises spraying the composition while rotating the stent about the longitudinal axis of the stent.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein the implantable device is a stent and the act of applying comprises spraying the composition while moving the stent in a linear direction along the longitudinal axis of the stent.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the composition includes a therapeutic substance and wherein the temperature of the chamber is adjusted to a temperature that does not adversely affect the therapeutic substance.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein the composition comprises a polymer dissolved in the solvent.
10. A method of forming a coating for an implantable medical device, comprising
i) inserting the device into a chamber;
ii) adjusting the pressure of the chamber to a pressure greater than ambient pressure;
iii) followed by applying a composition comprising a solvent to the implantable device while the device is disposed in an environment having the pressure at greater than ambient pressure, wherein the pressure and temperature in the chamber are in a range of values such that the solvent evaporates during the formation of the coating on the device.
Description
  • [0001]
    This application is a Continuation from U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/792,551, filed Dec. 5, 2003, which is a Divisional Application from U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/872,816, filed on 31 May 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,743,462, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated by reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for coating implantable devices such as stents.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Stents act as scaffoldings, functioning to physically hold open and, if desired, to expand the wall of the passageway. Typically stents are capable of being compressed, so that they can be inserted through small cavities via catheters, and then expanded to a larger diameter once they are at the desired location. Mechanical intervention via stents has reduced the rate of restenosis; restenosis, however, is still a significant clinical problem. Accordingly, stents have been modified to perform not only as a mechanical scaffolding, but also to provide biological therapy.
  • [0004]
    Biological therapy can be achieved by medicating the stents. Medicated stents provide for the local administration of a therapeutic substance at the diseased site. In order to provide an efficacious concentration to the treated site, systemic administration of such medication often produces adverse or toxic side effects for the patient. Local delivery is a preferred method of treatment in that smaller total levels of medication are administered in comparison to systemic dosages, but are concentrated at a specific site. Local delivery thus produces fewer side effects and achieves more favorable results.
  • [0005]
    A common method of medicating a stent is by depositing a polymeric coating, impregnated with the therapeutic substance, on the surface of the stent. A polymer dissolved in a solvent is applied to the stent. A therapeutic substance can be dissolved or dispersed in the composition. The solvent is allowed to evaporate to form the coating. The application of the composition can be performed by spraying the composition on the stent or immersing the stent in the composition.
  • [0006]
    The solvents employed with the composition can be categorized as having a high vapor pressure or low vapor pressure. Non-volatile solvents evaporate very slowly from the composition causing coating defects such as inconsistency in the coating thickness and formation of “cob webs” or “pool webs” between the stent struts. A solution to this problem is to coat the stent at elevated temperatures to increase the evaporation rate of the solvent. However, not all drugs are stable at elevated temperatures. Volatile solvents have the tendency to evaporate very quickly from the composition resulting in a coating which has a powdered consistency and adheres poorly to the surface of the stent. Accordingly, what is needed is an apparatus and process for coating stents that does not suffer from the aforementioned drawbacks.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0007]
    In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a method of forming a coating for an implantable medical device, such as a stent, is provided. The method comprises applying a composition to the stent in an environment having a pressure other than ambient pressure. For compositions including a non-volatile solvent, the pressure can be less that 760 torr; for compositions including a volatile solvent, the pressure can be greater than 760 torr. The composition can include a polymer, such as an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer dissolved in a solvent, such as dimethylacetamide. Optionally, a therapeutic substance can be added to the composition, such as actinomycin D, paclitaxel, docetaxel, or rapamycin. In accordance to one embodiment, the composition can be applied by spraying the composition on the stent. During the act of applying, the stent can be rotated and/or moved in a linear direction along the longitudinal axis of the stent. The stent can be a radially expandable stent, such as a balloon expandable or self-expandable type.
  • [0008]
    In accordance with another aspect of the invention, a method of forming a coating for a stent is provided, comprising positioning a stent in a chamber; applying a fluid to the stent; and adjusting the pressure of the chamber to increase or decrease the evaporation rate of the fluid.
  • [0009]
    In accordance with another aspect of the invention, an apparatus for coating implantable medical devices such as stents is provided. The apparatus includes a chamber for housing a stent and a pressure controller for adjusting the pressure of the chamber during the coating process to a pressure below or above 760 torr. In one embodiment, an applicator can be provided for spraying a composition at the stent. A support assembly holds the stents in the chamber and can be connected to a motor for providing rotational and/or translational motion to the stent. A temperature controller can also be provided for adjusting the temperature of the chamber.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURE
  • [0010]
    FIG. 1 illustrate a pressure chamber for forming a coating on a stent.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS Embodiments of the Pressure Chamber
  • [0011]
    Referring to FIG. 1, there is illustrated a pressure chamber 10 defining a workspace 12 for depositing a composition on a stent 14 for forming a coating. A chamber opening (number omitted) can be provided for allowing a user to gain access into workspace 12. A hatch 16 can be placed over the chamber opening for tightly sealing the opening during the deposition process. The size of workspace 12 needs to be large enough so as to enclose a support assembly 18, such as a mandrel, for adequately supporting stent 14 during the coating process. Workspace 12 can be large enough so as to support any suitable number of support assemblies 18 and stents 14.
  • [0012]
    In one embodiment, support assembly 18 can be connected to a first motor assembly 20A for rotation of support assembly 18 along the central, longitudinal axis x of stent 14. A second motor assembly 20B can be additionally provided for translational movement of support assembly 18 in a linear direction, back and forth, along a railing 22. The rotational and translational motion of stent 14 during the application of the composition can result in a more uniform deposition of the coating.
  • [0013]
    An applicator 24, such as a spray valve, penetrates through the wall of pressure chamber 10 and is positioned in the vicinity of stent 14. Commercial applicators are available from Spray Systems Co., EFD International Inc., and Badger Air-Brush Co., one specific model of which is the EFD 780S spray device with VALVEMATE 7040 control system. To avoid spray rate alterations due to the pressure difference, applicator 24 can be placed entirely within pressure chamber 10. The nose of applicator 24 can be positioned at any suitable distance away from stent 14, for example at about 1 cm to about 10 cm. An operator should be capable of adjusting the distance depending on the particular circumstances of the deposition process. Applicator 24 is capable of applying the composition at a pressure of, for example, about 10 torr to about 1000 torr. In accordance with an alternative embodiment, support element 18 can be in a vertical position and applicator 24 spraying in a horizontal direction.
  • [0014]
    A pressure controller such as a pump 26 is in fluid communication with workspace 12 so as to create pressures below or above 760 torr (1 atm) in pressure chamber 10. In one embodiment, a cold trap 28 can be provided for preventing the solvent or condensation from penetrating into pump 26 should pump 26 be used to create a vacuum in pressure chamber 10. A filter 30, such as a mist filter, can also be provided to prevent droplets of coating composition from possibly reaching and damaging pump 26. Other components of pressure chamber 10 can include a throttle valve 32 for opening and closing the communication line to pump 26, a baratron vacuum gauge 34 for measuring the pressure in workspace 12 independent of the type and composition of the solvent vapor, and an absorbent 36 for capturing the bulk of the composition over-spray. Gas, such as air, can be pumped or bled into pressure chamber 10 for creating a convection flow inside pressure chamber 10, to actively scavenge the solvent vapor from workspace 12 and out through pump 26 so as to prevent solvent vapor build-up. A diffuser 38 can be used to diffuse or “spread out” the flow of gas so as to minimize disturbance of the spraying process. A bleed valve 40 can be used for adjusting the flow rate of gas through diffuser 38. In addition to rapidly removing the solvent vapor from pressure chamber 10, bleed valve 40 can also be used to control the chamber pressure by working in concert with throttle valve 32.
  • [0015]
    Pressure chamber 10 can also be connected to a heating and/or cooling source 44 so as to control the temperature of workspace 12. A cooler deposition environment, such as temperatures of less than 50° C. may be preferred depending on the chemical stability of the therapeutic substance and the type solvent used. In lieu of providing and external heating source, an internal component, such as heating and/or cooling coils, can be provided.
  • Method of Applying the Composition
  • [0016]
    To form a coating on a surface of stent 14, the surface of stent 14 should be clean and free from contaminants that may be introduced during manufacturing. However, the surface of stent 14 requires no particular surface treatment to retain the applied coating. Stent 14 is mounted on mandrel 18 and the composition is sprayed via applicator 24 at a pressure of, for example between 10 to 1000 torr. During the spraying of the composition, stent can be rotated at about 1 to about 120 rotations per minute. Stent 14 can also be moved in a linear direction at speed of about 1 to about 20 cm/sec. The temperature of chamber 10 should be maintained at a temperature that does not adversely affect the therapeutic substance or the coating process—for example at about 20° C. to about 50° C.
  • [0017]
    For a solvent having a low vapor pressure (e.g., below 30 torr at the temperature of application), or in other words non-volatile substances, the solvent evaporates very slowly from the composition, leading to irregularities in the coating thickness and “cob webs” or “pool webs” between the stent struts. Accordingly, compositions have been applied in short bursts, interrupted by the drying of the composition between each application step to minimize coating defects. Reducing the pressure of chamber 10 below ambient pressure during the coating process allows the solvent to evaporate more rapidly. Rapid evaporation of the solvent allows the composition to be applied continuously for depositing a coating of a suitable thickness or weight while minimizing coating defects such as “pool webs.” The pressure employed in pressure camber 10 depends on the type of solvent employed. Table 1 is an exemplary list of non-volatile solvents and the suitable range of pressure which can be used in the process of the present invention:
    TABLE 1
    Exemplary Pressure Ranges
    Solvent torr @ 20° C.
    Dimethylsulfoxide 0.8-<760
    Dimethlacetamide 0.9-<760
    Dimethylformamide 5.4-<760
  • [0018]
    For a solvent having a high vapor pressure (e.g., above 30 torr at the temperature of application), or in other words volatile solvents, the solvent evaporates extremely rapidly from the composition, leading to difficulties in the application of the composition to the stent. Application of such compositions often lead to coatings having powdered consistency and poor adhesion of the coating to the surface of the stent. Increasing the pressure in pressure chamber 10 above ambient pressure causes the solvent to evaporate more slowly leading to a coating with a smoother surface, more uniform composition, and better adhesion. Table 2 is an exemplary list of volatile solvents and the suitable range of pressure which can be used in the process of the present invention:
    TABLE 2
    Exemplary Pressure Ranges
    Solvent torr @ 20° C.
    Toluene >760-2000
    n-propanol >760-3400
    Acetone >760-9000
  • The Composition
  • [0019]
    The embodiments of the composition can be prepared by conventional methods wherein all components are combined, then blended. More particularly, in accordance to one embodiment, a predetermined amount of a polymer or combination of polymers can be added to a predetermined amount of a solvent or a combination of solvents. If necessary, heating, stirring and/or mixing can be employed to effect dissolution of the polymer(s) into the solvent(s)—for example in an 80° C. water bath for two hours. A therapeutic substance can be also added to the composition. The therapeutic substance should be in true solution or saturated in the blended composition. If the therapeutic substance is not completely soluble in the composition, operations including mixing, stirring, and/or agitation can be employed to effect homogeneity of the residues. The therapeutic substance may be added so that dispersion is in fine particles. The mixing of the therapeutic substance can be conducted at ambient pressure and at room temperature.
  • [0020]
    The polymer or combination of polymers chosen must be biocompatible and minimize irritation to the vessel wall when the device is implanted. The polymer may be either a biostable or a bioabsorbable polymer. Bioabsorbable polymers that could be used include poly(hydroxyvalerate), poly(L-lactic acid), polycaprolactone, poly(lactide-co-glycolide), poly(hydroxybutyrate), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate), polydioxanone, polyorthoester, polyanhydride, poly(glycolic acid), poly(D,L-lactic acid), poly(glycolic acid-co-trimethylene carbonate), polyphosphoester, polyphosphoester urethane, poly(amino acids), cyanoacrylates, poly(trimethylene carbonate), poly(iminocarbonate), copoly(ether-esters) (e.g. PEO/PLA), polyalkylene oxalates, polyphosphazenes and biomolecules such as fibrin, fibrinogen, cellulose, starch, collagen and hyaluronic acid. Also, biostable polymers with a relatively low chronic tissue response such as polyurethanes, silicones, and polyesters could be used. Other polymers include polyolefins, polyisobutylene and ethylene-alphaolefin copolymers; acrylic polymers and copolymers; vinyl halide polymers and copolymers, such as polyvinyl chloride; polyvinyl ethers, such as polyvinyl methyl ether; polyvinylidene halides, such as polyvinylidene fluoride and polyvinylidene chloride; polyacrylonitrile; polyvinyl ketones; polyvinyl aromatics, such as polystyrene; polyvinyl esters, such as polyvinyl acetate; copolymers of vinyl monomers with each other and olefins, such as ethylene-methyl methacrylate copolymers, acrylonitrile-styrene copolymers, ABS resins, and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers; polyamides, such as Nylon 66 and polycaprolactam; alkyd resins; polycarbonates; polyoxymethylenes; polyimides; polyethers; epoxy resins; polyurethanes; rayon; rayon-triacetate; cellulose, cellulose acetate; cellulose butyrate; cellulose acetate butyrate; cellophane; cellulose nitrate; cellulose propionate; cellulose ethers; and carboxymethyl cellulose. Ethylene vinyl alcohol is functionally a very suitable choice of polymer. The copolymer possesses good adhesive qualities to the surface of a stent, particularly stainless steel surfaces, and has illustrated the ability to expand with a stent without any significant detachment of the copolymer from the surface of the stent. The copolymer, moreover, allows for good control capabilities over the release rate of the therapeutic substance.
  • [0021]
    Representative examples of solvents include chloroform, acetone, water (buffered saline), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol methyl ether (PM,) iso-propylalcohol (IPA), n-propylalcohol, methanol, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl acetamide (DMAC), benzene, toluene, xylene, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, decalin, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, isobutyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butanol, diacetone alcohol, benzyl alcohol, acetone, 2-butanone, cyclohexanone, dioxane, methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, tetrachloro ethylene, tetrachloro ethane, chlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, formamide, and combination there of. The solvent should be capable of placing the selected polymer into dissolution at the selected concentration and should not adversely react with the therapeutic substance.
  • [0022]
    The therapeutic substance can include any agent capable of exerting a therapeutic or prophylactic effect in the practice of the present invention such as inhibition of migration and/or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The agent can also be for enhancing wound healing in a vascular site and improving the structural and elastic properties of the vascular site. Examples of agents include antiproliferative substances as well as antineoplastic, antiinflammatory, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, antifibrin, antithrombin, antimitotic, antibiotic, antioxidant, and combinations thereof. One suitable example of an antiproliferative substance includes actinomycin D—synonyms of which include dactinomycin, actinomycin IV, actinomycin I1, actinomycin X1, and actinomycin C1. Examples of suitable antineoplastics include paclitaxel and docetaxel. Examples of suitable antiplatelets, anticoagulants, antifibrins, and antithrombins include sodium heparin, low molecular weight heparin, hirudin, argatroban, forskolin, vapiprost, prostacyclin and prostacyclin analogs, dextran, D-phe-pro-arg-chloromethylketone (synthetic antithrombin), dipyridamole, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet membrane receptor antagonist, recombinant hirudin, thrombin inhibitor (available from Biogen), and 7E-3BŪ (an antiplatelet drug from Centocore). Examples of suitable antimitotic agents include methotrexate, azathioprine, vincristine, vinblastine, fluorouracil, adriamycin, and mutamycin. Examples of suitable cytostatic or antiproliferative agents include angiopeptin (a somatostatin analog from Ibsen), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as CAPTOPRIL (available from Squibb), CILAZAPRIL (available from Hoffman-LaRoche), or LISINOPRIL (available from Merck); calcium channel blockers (such as Nifedipine), colchicine, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) antagonists, fish oil (omega 3-fatty acid), histamine antagonist, LOVASTATIN (an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, a cholesterol lowering drug from Merck), monoclonal antibodies (such as PDGF receptors), nitroprusside, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, prostaglandin inhibitor (available form Glazo), Seramin (a PDGF antagonist), serotonin blockers, steroids, thioprotease inhibitors, triazolopyrimidine (a PDGF antagonist), and nitric oxide. Other therapeutic substances or agents which may be appropriate include alpha-interferon, genetically engineered epithelial cells, rapamycin, and dexamethasone.
  • [0023]
    The dosage or concentration of the active agent required to produce a favorable therapeutic effect should be less than the level at which the active agent produces toxic effects and greater than the level at which non-therapeutic results are obtained. The dosage or concentration of the active agent required to inhibit the desired cellular activity of the vascular region can depend upon factors such as the particular circumstances of the patient; the nature of the trauma; the nature of the therapy desired; the time over which the ingredient administered resides at the vascular site; and if other therapeutic agents are employed, the nature and type of the substance or combination of substances. Therapeutic effective dosages can be determined empirically, for example by infusing vessels from suitable animal model systems and using immunohistochemical, fluorescent or electron microscopy methods to detect the agent and its effects, or by conducting suitable in vitro studies. Standard pharmacological test procedures to determine dosages are understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.
  • [0024]
    Stent is broadly intended to include self-expandable stents, balloon-expandable stents, and stent-grafts. One of ordinary skill in the art, however, understands that other medical devices on which a polymer can be coated can be used with the practice of the present invention, such as grafts (e.g., aortic grafts), endocardial leads, valves, and alike. The underlying structure of the device can be virtually any design. Stents are typically defined by tubular body having a plurality of bands or cylindrical elements interconnected by connecting elements. The device can be made of a metallic material or an alloy such as, but not limited to, cobalt chromium alloy (ELGILOY), stainless steel (316L), “MP35N,” “MP20N,” ELASTINITE (Nitinol), tantalum, nickel-titanium alloy, platinum-iridium alloy, gold, magnesium, or combinations thereof. “MP35N” and “MP20N” are trade names for alloys of cobalt, nickel, chromium and molybdenum available from standard Press Steel Co., Jenkintown, Pa. “MP35N” consists of 35% cobalt, 35% nickel, 20% chromium, and 10% molybdenum. “MP20N” consists of 50% cobalt, 20% nickel, 20% chromium, and 10% molybdenum. Devices made from bioabsorbable or biostable polymers could also be used with the blended composition.
  • [0025]
    While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that changes and modifications can be made without departing from the embodiments this invention in its broader aspects and, therefore, the appended claims are to encompass within their scope all such changes and modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the embodiments this invention.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4011388 *28 Oct 19758 Mar 1977E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And CompanyProcess for preparing emulsions by polymerization of aqueous monomer-polymer dispersions
US4329383 *21 Jul 198011 May 1982Nippon Zeon Co., Ltd.Non-thrombogenic material comprising substrate which has been reacted with heparin
US4733665 *7 Nov 198529 Mar 1988Expandable Grafts PartnershipExpandable intraluminal graft, and method and apparatus for implanting an expandable intraluminal graft
US4800882 *13 Mar 198731 Jan 1989Cook IncorporatedEndovascular stent and delivery system
US4941870 *30 Dec 198817 Jul 1990Ube-Nitto Kasei Co., Ltd.Method for manufacturing a synthetic vascular prosthesis
US5112457 *23 Jul 199012 May 1992Case Western Reserve UniversityProcess for producing hydroxylated plasma-polymerized films and the use of the films for enhancing the compatiblity of biomedical implants
US5292516 *8 Nov 19918 Mar 1994Mediventures, Inc.Body cavity drug delivery with thermoreversible gels containing polyoxyalkylene copolymers
US5298260 *9 Jun 199229 Mar 1994Mediventures, Inc.Topical drug delivery with polyoxyalkylene polymer thermoreversible gels adjustable for pH and osmolality
US5300295 *13 Sep 19915 Apr 1994Mediventures, Inc.Ophthalmic drug delivery with thermoreversible polyoxyalkylene gels adjustable for pH
US5306501 *8 Nov 199126 Apr 1994Mediventures, Inc.Drug delivery by injection with thermoreversible gels containing polyoxyalkylene copolymers
US5328471 *4 Aug 199312 Jul 1994Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.Method and apparatus for treatment of focal disease in hollow tubular organs and other tissue lumens
US5330768 *5 Jul 199119 Jul 1994Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyControlled drug delivery using polymer/pluronic blends
US5358740 *11 Jan 199425 Oct 1994Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMethod for low pressure spin coating and low pressure spin coating apparatus
US5380299 *30 Aug 199310 Jan 1995Med Institute, Inc.Thrombolytic treated intravascular medical device
US5417981 *28 Apr 199323 May 1995Terumo Kabushiki KaishaThermoplastic polymer composition and medical devices made of the same
US5447724 *15 Nov 19935 Sep 1995Harbor Medical Devices, Inc.Medical device polymer
US5455040 *19 Nov 19923 Oct 1995Case Western Reserve UniversityAnticoagulant plasma polymer-modified substrate
US5462990 *5 Oct 199331 Oct 1995Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystemMultifunctional organic polymers
US5569463 *7 Jun 199529 Oct 1996Harbor Medical Devices, Inc.Medical device polymer
US5605696 *30 Mar 199525 Feb 1997Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Drug loaded polymeric material and method of manufacture
US5609629 *7 Jun 199511 Mar 1997Med Institute, Inc.Coated implantable medical device
US5624411 *7 Jun 199529 Apr 1997Medtronic, Inc.Intravascular stent and method
US5628730 *18 Jul 199413 May 1997Cortrak Medical, Inc.Phoretic balloon catheter with hydrogel coating
US5643580 *17 Oct 19941 Jul 1997Surface Genesis, Inc.Biocompatible coating, medical device using the same and methods
US5649977 *22 Sep 199422 Jul 1997Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Metal reinforced polymer stent
US5658995 *27 Nov 199519 Aug 1997Rutgers, The State UniversityCopolymers of tyrosine-based polycarbonate and poly(alkylene oxide)
US5667767 *27 Jul 199516 Sep 1997Micro Therapeutics, Inc.Compositions for use in embolizing blood vessels
US5670558 *6 Jul 199523 Sep 1997Terumo Kabushiki KaishaMedical instruments that exhibit surface lubricity when wetted
US5716981 *7 Jun 199510 Feb 1998Angiogenesis Technologies, Inc.Anti-angiogenic compositions and methods of use
US5735897 *2 Jan 19977 Apr 1998Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Intravascular stent pump
US5746998 *8 Aug 19965 May 1998The General Hospital CorporationTargeted co-polymers for radiographic imaging
US5756553 *13 Jul 199526 May 1998Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc.Medical material and process for producing the same
US5776184 *9 Oct 19967 Jul 1998Medtronic, Inc.Intravasoular stent and method
US5788979 *10 Feb 19974 Aug 1998Inflow Dynamics Inc.Biodegradable coating with inhibitory properties for application to biocompatible materials
US5800392 *8 May 19961 Sep 1998Emed CorporationMicroporous catheter
US5858746 *25 Jan 199512 Jan 1999Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystemGels for encapsulation of biological materials
US5865814 *6 Aug 19972 Feb 1999Medtronic, Inc.Blood contacting medical device and method
US5869127 *18 Jun 19979 Feb 1999Boston Scientific CorporationMethod of providing a substrate with a bio-active/biocompatible coating
US5873904 *24 Feb 199723 Feb 1999Cook IncorporatedSilver implantable medical device
US5876433 *29 May 19962 Mar 1999Ethicon, Inc.Stent and method of varying amounts of heparin coated thereon to control treatment
US5877224 *28 Jul 19952 Mar 1999Rutgers, The State University Of New JerseyPolymeric drug formulations
US5897911 *11 Aug 199727 Apr 1999Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Polymer-coated stent structure
US5925720 *18 Apr 199620 Jul 1999Kazunori KataokaHeterotelechelic block copolymers and process for producing the same
US5955509 *23 Apr 199721 Sep 1999Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystempH dependent polymer micelles
US6010530 *18 Feb 19984 Jan 2000Boston Scientific Technology, Inc.Self-expanding endoluminal prosthesis
US6015541 *3 Nov 199718 Jan 2000Micro Therapeutics, Inc.Radioactive embolizing compositions
US6033582 *16 Jan 19987 Mar 2000Etex CorporationSurface modification of medical implants
US6042875 *2 Mar 199928 Mar 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Drug-releasing coatings for medical devices
US6051576 *29 Jan 199718 Apr 2000University Of Kentucky Research FoundationMeans to achieve sustained release of synergistic drugs by conjugation
US6051648 *13 Jan 199918 Apr 2000Cohesion Technologies, Inc.Crosslinked polymer compositions and methods for their use
US6056993 *17 Apr 19982 May 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Porous protheses and methods for making the same wherein the protheses are formed by spraying water soluble and water insoluble fibers onto a rotating mandrel
US6060451 *20 Mar 19959 May 2000The National Research Council Of CanadaThrombin inhibitors based on the amino acid sequence of hirudin
US6060518 *16 Aug 19969 May 2000Supratek Pharma Inc.Polymer compositions for chemotherapy and methods of treatment using the same
US6080488 *24 Mar 199827 Jun 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Process for preparation of slippery, tenaciously adhering, hydrophilic polyurethane hydrogel coating, coated polymer and metal substrate materials, and coated medical devices
US6096070 *16 May 19961 Aug 2000Med Institute Inc.Coated implantable medical device
US6099562 *22 Dec 19978 Aug 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Drug coating with topcoat
US6110188 *9 Mar 199829 Aug 2000Corvascular, Inc.Anastomosis method
US6110483 *23 Jun 199729 Aug 2000Sts Biopolymers, Inc.Adherent, flexible hydrogel and medicated coatings
US6113629 *1 May 19985 Sep 2000Micrus CorporationHydrogel for the therapeutic treatment of aneurysms
US6120536 *13 Jun 199619 Sep 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Medical devices with long term non-thrombogenic coatings
US6120904 *24 May 199919 Sep 2000Schneider (Usa) Inc.Medical device coated with interpenetrating network of hydrogel polymers
US6121027 *15 Aug 199719 Sep 2000Surmodics, Inc.Polybifunctional reagent having a polymeric backbone and photoreactive moieties and bioactive groups
US6203551 *4 Oct 199920 Mar 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Chamber for applying therapeutic substances to an implant device
US6231600 *26 May 199915 May 2001Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Stents with hybrid coating for medical devices
US6240616 *15 Apr 19975 Jun 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method of manufacturing a medicated porous metal prosthesis
US6245753 *27 Apr 199912 Jun 2001Mediplex Corporation, KoreaAmphiphilic polysaccharide derivatives
US6248398 *22 May 199619 Jun 2001Applied Materials, Inc.Coater having a controllable pressurized process chamber for semiconductor processing
US6251136 *8 Dec 199926 Jun 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method of layering a three-coated stent using pharmacological and polymeric agents
US6254632 *28 Sep 20003 Jul 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Implantable medical device having protruding surface structures for drug delivery and cover attachment
US6258121 *2 Jul 199910 Jul 2001Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Stent coating
US6283947 *13 Jul 19994 Sep 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Local drug delivery injection catheter
US6283949 *27 Dec 19994 Sep 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Refillable implantable drug delivery pump
US6284305 *18 May 20004 Sep 2001Schneider (Usa) Inc.Drug coating with topcoat
US6287628 *3 Sep 199911 Sep 2001Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Porous prosthesis and a method of depositing substances into the pores
US6335029 *3 Dec 19981 Jan 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Polymeric coatings for controlled delivery of active agents
US6346110 *3 Jan 200112 Feb 2002Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Chamber for applying therapeutic substances to an implantable device
US6358556 *23 Jan 199819 Mar 2002Boston Scientific CorporationDrug release stent coating
US6368658 *17 Apr 20009 Apr 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Coating medical devices using air suspension
US6379381 *3 Sep 199930 Apr 2002Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Porous prosthesis and a method of depositing substances into the pores
US6395326 *31 May 200028 May 2002Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Apparatus and method for depositing a coating onto a surface of a prosthesis
US6407009 *12 Nov 199818 Jun 2002Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.Methods of manufacture of uniform spin-on films
US6419692 *3 Feb 199916 Jul 2002Scimed Life Systems, Inc.Surface protection method for stents and balloon catheters for drug delivery
US6451373 *4 Aug 200017 Sep 2002Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method of forming a therapeutic coating onto a surface of an implantable prosthesis
US6503556 *28 Dec 20007 Jan 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Methods of forming a coating for a prosthesis
US6503954 *21 Jul 20007 Jan 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Biocompatible carrier containing actinomycin D and a method of forming the same
US6506437 *17 Oct 200014 Jan 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Methods of coating an implantable device having depots formed in a surface thereof
US6527801 *13 Apr 20004 Mar 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Biodegradable drug delivery material for stent
US6527863 *29 Jun 20014 Mar 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Support device for a stent and a method of using the same to coat a stent
US6540776 *28 Dec 20001 Apr 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Sheath for a prosthesis and methods of forming the same
US6544223 *5 Jan 20018 Apr 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Balloon catheter for delivering therapeutic agents
US6544543 *27 Dec 20008 Apr 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Periodic constriction of vessels to treat ischemic tissue
US6544582 *5 Jan 20018 Apr 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method and apparatus for coating an implantable device
US6555157 *25 Jul 200029 Apr 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method for coating an implantable device and system for performing the method
US6558733 *26 Oct 20006 May 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method for etching a micropatterned microdepot prosthesis
US6565659 *28 Jun 200120 May 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Stent mounting assembly and a method of using the same to coat a stent
US6572644 *27 Jun 20013 Jun 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Stent mounting device and a method of using the same to coat a stent
US6585765 *29 Jun 20001 Jul 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Implantable device having substances impregnated therein and a method of impregnating the same
US6585926 *31 Aug 20001 Jul 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Method of manufacturing a porous balloon
US6605154 *31 May 200112 Aug 2003Advanced Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.Stent mounting device
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
WO2009158046A1 *5 Mar 200930 Dec 2009The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisPolymer composite formulations from poly(vinylidine fluoride) (pvdf) and cyanoacrylates (ca) and methods for use in large-area applications
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/2.1
International ClassificationB05D1/02, B05D3/04, B05B15/12, B05B13/02, A61L33/04
Cooperative ClassificationA61L31/16, B05D3/0493, B05D1/02, B05B15/12, B05D3/0486, B05B13/0235, A61L31/10, A61L2300/00
European ClassificationB05B13/02B2, B05B15/12, B05D1/02, A61L31/16, A61L31/10