|Publication number||US20050095944 A1|
|Application number||US 10/979,214|
|Publication date||5 May 2005|
|Filing date||3 Nov 2004|
|Priority date||27 Oct 2000|
|Also published as||CN1675667A, EP1535268A2, EP1535268A4, US6822626, US20040175854, WO2004015660A2, WO2004015660A3|
|Publication number||10979214, 979214, US 2005/0095944 A1, US 2005/095944 A1, US 20050095944 A1, US 20050095944A1, US 2005095944 A1, US 2005095944A1, US-A1-20050095944, US-A1-2005095944, US2005/0095944A1, US2005/095944A1, US20050095944 A1, US20050095944A1, US2005095944 A1, US2005095944A1|
|Inventors||E. George, N. Wyeth, Albert Green, Adam Drobot|
|Original Assignee||Science Applications International Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Referenced by (19), Classifications (28), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/697,358 entitled “A Micro-Component for Use in a Light-Emitting Panel,” filed Oct. 27, 2000, and claims priority to that parent application's filing date. Also referenced hereby are the following applications which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties, and the filing dates thereof to which priority is also claimed: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/697,344 entitled “A Light-Emitting Panel and a Method for Making,” filed Oct. 27, 2000; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/697,498 entitled “A Method for Testing a Light-Emitting Panel and the Components Therein,” filed Oct. 27, 2000; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/697,345 entitled “A Method and System for Energizing a Micro-Component in a Light-Emitting Panel,” filed Oct. 27, 2000; U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/697,346 entitled “A Socket for Use in a Light-Emitting Panel,” filed Oct. 27, 2000; U.S. patent application Ser. No. (Attorney Docket No. SAIC0029-CIP2) entitled “Use of Printing and Other Technology for Micro-Component Placement,” filed concurrently herewith; U.S. patent application Ser. No. (Attorney Docket No. SAIC0029-CIP1) entitled “Liquid Manufacturing Processes for Panel Layer Fabrication,” filed concurrently herewith; U.S. patent application Ser. No. (Attorney Docket No. SAIC0025-CIP) entitled “Method for On-Line Testing of a Light-Emitting Panel,” filed concurrently herewith; and U.S. patent application Ser. No. (Attorney Docket No. SAIC0026-CIP) entitled “Method and Apparatus for Addressing Micro-Components in a Plasma Display Panel,” filed concurrently herewith.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a light-emitting panel and methods of fabricating the same. The present invention further relates to a micro-component for use in a light-emitting panel.
2. Description of Related Art
In a typical plasma display, a gas or mixture of gases is enclosed between orthogonally crossed and spaced conductors. The crossed conductors define a matrix of cross over points, arranged as an array of miniature picture elements (pixels), which provide light. At any given pixel, the orthogonally crossed and spaced conductors function as opposed plates of a capacitor, with the enclosed gas serving as a dielectric. When a sufficiently large voltage is applied, the gas at the pixel breaks down creating free electrons that are drawn to the positive conductor and positively charged gas ions that are drawn to the negatively charged conductor. These free electrons and positively charged gas ions collide with other gas atoms causing an avalanche effect creating still more free electrons and positively charged ions, thereby creating plasma. The voltage level at which this plasma-forming discharge occurs is called the write voltage.
Upon application of a write voltage, the gas at the pixel ionizes and emits light only briefly as free charges formed by the ionization migrate to the insulating dielectric walls of the cell where these charges produce an opposing voltage to the applied voltage and thereby eventually extinguish the discharge. Once a pixel has been written, a continuous sequence of light emissions can be produced by an alternating sustain voltage. The amplitude of the sustain waveform can be less than the amplitude of the write voltage, because the wall charges that remain from the preceding write or sustain operation produce a voltage that adds to the voltage of the succeeding sustain waveform applied in the reverse polarity to produce the ionizing voltage. Mathematically, the idea can be set out as Vs=Vw−Vwall, where Vs is the sustain voltage, Vw is the write voltage, and Vwall is the wall voltage. Accordingly, a previously unwritten (or erased) pixel cannot be ionized by the sustain waveform alone. An erase operation can be thought of as a write operation that proceeds only far enough to allow the previously charged cell walls to discharge; it is similar to the write operation except for timing and amplitude.
Typically, there are two different arrangements of conductors that are used to perform the write, erase, and sustain operations. The one common element throughout the arrangements is that the sustain and the address electrodes are spaced apart with the plasma-forming gas in between. Thus, at least one of the address or sustain electrodes may be located partially within the path the radiation travels, when the plasma-forming gas ionizes, as it exits the plasma display. Consequently, transparent or semi-transparent conductive materials must be used, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), so that the electrodes do not interfere with the displayed image from the plasma display. Using ITO, however, has several disadvantages, for example, ITO is expensive and adds significant cost to the manufacturing process and ultimately the final plasma display.
The first arrangement uses two orthogonally crossed conductors, one addressing conductor and one sustaining conductor. In a gas panel of this type, the sustain waveform is applied across all the addressing conductors and sustain conductors so that the gas panel maintains a previously written pattern of light emitting pixels. For a conventional write operation, a suitable write voltage pulse is added to the sustain voltage waveform so that the combination of the write pulse and the sustain pulse produces ionization. In order to write an individual pixel independently, each of the addressing and sustain conductors has an individual selection circuit. Thus, applying a sustain waveform across all the addressing and sustain conductors, but applying a write pulse across only one addressing and one sustain conductor will produce a write operation in only the one pixel at the intersection of the selected addressing and sustain conductors.
The second arrangement uses three conductors. In panels of this type, called coplanar sustaining panels, each pixel is formed at the intersection of three conductors, one addressing conductor and two parallel sustaining conductors. In this arrangement, the addressing conductor orthogonally crosses the two parallel sustaining conductors. With this type of panel, the sustain function is performed between the two parallel sustaining conductors and the addressing is done by the generation of discharges between the addressing conductor and one of the two parallel sustaining conductors.
The sustaining conductors are of two types, addressing-sustaining conductors and solely sustaining conductors. The function of the addressing-sustaining conductors is twofold: to achieve a sustaining discharge in cooperation with the solely sustaining conductors; and to fulfill an addressing role. Consequently, the addressing-sustaining conductors are individually selectable so that an addressing waveform may be applied to any one or more addressing-sustaining conductors. The solely sustaining conductors, on the other hand, are typically connected in such a way that a sustaining waveform can be simultaneously applied to all of the solely sustaining conductors so that they can be carried to the same potential in the same instant.
Numerous types of plasma panel display devices have been constructed with a variety of methods for enclosing a plasma-forming gas between sets of electrodes. In one type of plasma display panel, parallel plates of glass with wire electrodes on the surfaces thereof are spaced uniformly apart and sealed together at the outer edges with the plasma-forming gas filling the cavity formed between the parallel plates. Although widely used, this type of open display structure has various disadvantages. The sealing of the outer edges of the parallel plates, the pumping down to vacuum, the baking out under vacuum, and the introduction of the plasma-forming gas are both expensive and time-consuming processes, resulting in a costly end product. In addition, it is particularly difficult to achieve a good seal at the sites where the electrodes are fed through the ends of the parallel plates. This can result in gas leakage and a shortened product lifecycle. Another disadvantage is that individual pixels are not segregated within the parallel plates. As a result, gas ionization activity in a selected pixel during a write operation may spill over to adjacent pixels, thereby raising the undesirable prospect of possibly igniting adjacent pixels without a write pulse being applied. Even if adjacent pixels are not ignited, the ionization activity can change the turn-on and turn-off characteristics of the nearby pixels.
In another type of known plasma display, individual pixels are mechanically isolated either by forming trenches in one of the parallel plates or by adding a perforated insulating layer sandwiched between the parallel plates. These mechanically isolated pixels, however, are not completely enclosed or isolated from one another because there is a need for the free passage of the plasma-forming gas between the pixels to assure uniform gas pressure throughout the panel. While this type of display structure decreases spill over, spill over is still possible because the pixels are not in total physical isolation from one another. In addition, in this type of display panel it is difficult to properly align the electrodes and the gas chambers, which may cause pixels to misfire. As with the open display structure, it is also difficult to get a good seal at the plate edges. Furthermore, it is expensive and time consuming to pump down to vacuum, bake out under vacuum, introduce the plasma producing gas and seal the outer edges of the parallel plates.
In yet another type of known plasma display, individual pixels are also mechanically isolated between parallel plates. In this type of display, the plasma-forming gas is contained in transparent spheres formed of a closed transparent shell. Various methods have been used to contain the gas filled spheres between the parallel plates. In one method, spheres of varying sizes are tightly bunched and randomly distributed throughout a single layer, and sandwiched between the parallel plates. In a second method, spheres are embedded in a sheet of transparent dielectric material and that material is then sandwiched between the parallel plates. In a third method, a perforated sheet of electrically nonconductive material is sandwiched between the parallel plates with the gas filled spheres distributed in the perforations.
While each of the types of displays discussed above are based on different design concepts, the manufacturing approach used in their fabrication is generally the same. Conventionally, a batch fabrication process is used to manufacture these types of plasma panels. As is well known in the art, in a batch process individual component parts are fabricated separately, often in different facilities and by different manufacturers, and then brought together for final assembly where individual plasma panels are created one at a time. Batch processing has numerous shortcomings, such as, for example, the length of time necessary to produce a finished product. Long cycle times increase product cost and are undesirable for numerous additional reasons known in the art. For example, a sizeable quantity of substandard, defective, or useless fully or partially completed plasma panels may be produced during the period between detection of a defect or failure in one of the components and an effective correction of the defect or failure.
This is especially true of the first two types of displays discussed above; the first having no mechanical isolation of individual pixels, and the second with individual pixels mechanically isolated either by trenches formed in one parallel plate or by a perforated insulating layer sandwiched between two parallel plates. Due to the fact that plasma-forming gas is not isolated at the individual pixel/subpixel level, the fabrication process precludes the majority of individual component parts from being tested until the final display is assembled. Consequently, the display can only be tested after the two parallel plates are sealed together and the plasma-forming gas is filled inside the cavity between the two plates. If post production testing shows that any number of potential problems have occurred, (e.g. poor luminescence or no luminescence at specific pixels/subpixels) the entire display is discarded.
Preferred embodiments of the present invention provide a light-emitting panel that may be used as a large-area radiation source, for energy modulation, for particle detection and as a flat-panel display. Gas-plasma panels are preferred for these applications due to their unique characteristics.
In one basic form, the light-emitting panel may be used as a large area radiation source. By configuring the light-emitting panel to emit ultraviolet (UV) light, the panel has application for curing paint or other coatings, and for sterilization. With the addition of one or more phosphor coatings to convert the UV light to visible white light, the panel also has application as an illumination source.
In addition, the light-emitting panel may be used as a plasma-switched phase array by configuring the panel in at least one embodiment in a microwave transmission mode. The panel is configured in such a way that during ionization the plasma-forming gas creates a localized index of refraction change for the microwaves (although other electromagnetic wavelengths would work). The microwave beam from the panel can then be steered or directed in any desirable pattern by introducing at a localized area a phase shift and/or directing the microwaves out of a specific aperture in the panel
Additionally, the light-emitting panel may be used for particle/photon detection. In this embodiment, the light-emitting panel is subjected to a potential that is just slightly below the write voltage required for ionization. When the device is subjected to outside energy at a specific position or location in the panel, that additional energy causes the plasma-forming gas in the specific area to ionize, thereby providing a means of detecting outside energy.
Further, the light-emitting panel may be used in flat-panel displays. These displays can be manufactured very thin and lightweight, when compared to similar sized cathode ray tube (CRTs), making them ideally suited for home, office, theaters and billboards. In addition, these displays can be manufactured in large sizes and with sufficient resolution to accommodate high-definition television (HDTV). Gas-plasma panels do not suffer from electromagnetic distortions and are, therefore, suitable for applications strongly affected by magnetic fields, such as military applications, radar systems, railway stations and other underground systems.
According to a general embodiment of the present invention, a light-emitting panel is made from two substrates, wherein one of the substrates includes a plurality of sockets and wherein at least two electrodes are disposed. At least partially disposed in each socket is a micro-component, although more than one micro-component may be disposed therein. Each micro-component includes a shell at least partially filled with a gas or gas mixture capable of ionization. When a large enough voltage is applied across the micro-component the gas or gas mixture ionizes forming plasma and emitting radiation.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the micro-component is configured to emit ultra-violet (UV) light, which may be converted to visible light by at least partially coating each micro-component with phosphor. To obtain an improvement in the discharge characteristics, each micro-component may be at least partially coated with a secondary emission enhancement material.
In another embodiment, each micro-component is at least partially coated with a reflective material. An index matching material is disposed so as to be in contact with at least a portion of the reflective material. The combination of the index matching material and the reflective material permits a predetermined wavelength of light to be emitted from each micro-component at the point of contact between the index matching material and the reflective material.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a micro-component for use in a light-emitting panel. A shell at least partially filled with at least one plasma-forming gas provides the basic micro-component structure. The shell may be doped or ion implanted with a conductive material, a material that provides secondary emission enhancement, and/or a material that converts UV light to visible light. The micro-components will be made as a sphere, cylinder or any other shape. The size and shape will be determined in accordance with the desired resolution for the display panel to be assembled. Typical sizes are about hundreds of microns independent of shape.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention is to provide a method of making a micro-component. In one embodiment, the method is part of a continuous process, where a shell is at least partially formed in the presence of at least one plasma-forming gas, such that when formed, the shell is filled with the plasma-forming gas or gas mixture.
In another embodiment, the micro-component is made by affixing a first substrate to a second substrate in the presence of at least one plasma-forming gas. In this method, either the first and/or the second substrate contains a plurality of cavities so that when the first substrate is affixed to the second substrate the plurality of cavities are filled with the plasma-forming gas or gas mixture. In a preferred embodiment, a first substrate is advanced through a first roller assembly, which includes a roller with a plurality of nodules and a roller with a plurality of depressions. Both the plurality of nodules and the plurality of depressions are in registration with each other so that when the first substrate passes through the first roller assembly, the first substrate has a plurality of cavities formed therein. A second substrate is advanced through a second roller assembly and then affixed to the first substrate in the presence of at least one gas so that when the two substrates are affixed the cavities are filled with the gas or gas mixture. In an alternate preferred embodiment, the second roller assembly includes a roller with a plurality of nodules and a roller with a plurality of depressions so that when the second substrate passes through the second roller assembly, the second substrate also has a plurality of cavities formed therein. In either of these embodiments, at least one electrode may be sandwiched between the first and second substrates prior to the substrates being affixed.
In another embodiment, at least one substrate is thermally treated in the presence of a least one plasma-forming gas so as to form shells filled with the plasma-forming gas or gas-mixture.
In a specific aspect, the micro-components, whether sphere, capillary or other shape are coated with a frequency converting coating. Phosphor is an example of such a coating. More specifically, the coating converts electromagnetic radiation generated in the plasma in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and converts it to the visible red, blue or green region of the spectrum.
Alternatives include putting a drop of the frequency converting material in a socket into which the micro-component is placed, or the micro-component itself can be doped with a material such as a rare earth that is a frequency converter. Examples of materials include barium fluoride or the like, yttrium aluminum garnet, or gadolinium gallium garnet. The plasma gases in the micro-component can include xenon chloride, argon chloride, etc., namely the rare gas halides.
In another aspect, the micro-components are tested as they are manufactured. The micro-components are optionally scanned for certain physical characteristics or defects, for example, in an optical field detecting shape such as sphericity and size as they drop through a tower. A micro-component displacement device can be used to remove those that are bad. At a subsequent layer, as they drop the micro-components are subjected to electron beam excitation, microwave or RF field, for example, to excite the gas. Another physical characteristic or defect is tested, such as if a certain luminous output is achieved, and if achieved, it is preliminarily accepted. Those for which a desired luminous output is not achieved are discarded, for example, through the use of a second micro-component displacement device.
In yet still another aspect, the micro-components are preconditioned by being excited for a predetermined period of time. Examples include taking the micro-components that passed the initial test, placing them in a container and exciting them, for example, for 5 to 10 hours. Alternatively, they can be placed between large parallel electrodes. After the batch run, they are dropped through a tower as they are excited, output detected and the ones that do not excite are knocked out of the stream.
Other features, advantages, and embodiments of the invention are set forth in part in the description that follows, and in part, will be obvious from this description, or may be learned from the practice of the invention.
The foregoing and other features and advantages of this invention will become more apparent by reference to the following detailed description of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
As embodied and broadly described herein, the preferred embodiments of the present invention are directed to a novel light-emitting panel. In particular, the preferred embodiments are directed to a micro-component capable of being used in the light-emitting panel and at least partially disposed in at least one socket.
The first substrate 10 includes a plurality of sockets 30. A cavity 55 formed within and/or on the first substrate 10 provides the basic socket 30 structure. The cavity 55 may be any shape and size. As depicted in
At least partially disposed in each socket 30 is at least one micro-component 40. Multiple micro-components may be disposed in a socket to provide increased luminosity and enhanced radiation transport efficiency. In a color light-emitting panel according to one embodiment of the present invention, a single socket supports three micro-components configured to emit red, green, and blue light, respectively. The micro-components 40 may be of any shape, including, but not limited to, spherical, cylindrical, and aspherical. In addition, it is contemplated that a micro-component 40 includes a micro-component placed or formed inside another structure, such as placing a spherical micro-component inside a cylindrical-shaped structure. In a color light-emitting panel according to an embodiment of the present invention, each cylindrical-shaped structure holds micro-components configured to emit a single color of visible light or multiple colors arranged red, green, blue, or in some other suitable color arrangement.
In another embodiment of the present invention, an adhesive or bonding agent is applied to each micro-component to assist in placing/holding a micro-component 40 or plurality of micro-components in a socket 30. In an alternative embodiment, an electrostatic charge is placed on each micro-component and an electrostatic field is applied to each micro-component to assist in the placement of a micro-component 40 or plurality of micro-components in a socket 30. Applying an electrostatic charge to the micro-components also helps avoid agglomeration among the plurality of micro-components. In one embodiment of the present invention, an electron gun is used to place an electrostatic charge on each micro-component and one electrode disposed proximate to each socket 30 is energized to provide the needed electrostatic field required to attract the electrostatically charged micro-component.
In its most basic form, each micro-component 40 includes a shell 50 filled with a plasma-forming gas or gas mixture 45. Any suitable gas or gas mixture 45 capable of ionization may be used as the plasma-forming gas, including, but not limited to, krypton, xenon, argon, neon, oxygen, helium, mercury, and mixtures thereof. In fact, any noble gas could be used as the plasma-forming gas, including, but not limited to, noble gases mixed with cesium or mercury. Further, rare gas halide mixtures such as xenon chloride, xenon fluoride and the like are also suitable plasma-forming gases. Rare gas halides are efficient radiators having radiating wavelengths of approximately 300 to 350 nm, which is longer than that of pure xenon (147 to 170 nm). This results in an overall quantum efficiency gain, ie., a factor of two or more, given by the mixture ratio. Still further, in another embodiment of the present invention, rare gas halide mixtures are also combined with other plasma-forming gases as listed above. This description is not intended to be limiting. One skilled in the art would recognize other gasses or gas mixtures that could also be used. In a color display, according to another embodiment, the plasma-forming gas or gas mixture 45 is chosen so that during ionization the gas will irradiate a specific wavelength of light corresponding to a desired color. For example, neon-argon emits red light, xenon-oxygen emits green light, and krypton-neon emits blue light. While a plasma-forming gas or gas mixture 45 is used in a preferred embodiment, any other material capable of providing luminescence is also contemplated, such as an electro-luminescent material, organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), or an electro-phoretic material.
The shell 50 may be made from a wide assortment of materials, including, but not limited to, silicates, polypropylene, glass, any polymeric-based material, magnesium oxide and quartz and may be of any suitable size. The shell 50 may have a diameter ranging from micrometers to centimeters as measured across its minor axis, with virtually no limitation as to its size as measured across its major axis. For example, a cylindrical-shaped micro-component may be only 100 microns in diameter across its minor axis, but may be hundreds of meters long across its major axis. In a preferred embodiment, the outside diameter of the shell, as measured across its minor axis, is from 100 microns to 300 microns. In addition, the shell thickness may range from micrometers to millimeters, with a preferred thickness from 1 micron to 10 microns.
When a sufficiently large voltage is applied across the micro-component the gas or gas mixture ionizes forming plasma and emitting radiation. In
There are a variety of coatings 300 and dopants that may be added to a micro-component 40 that also influence the performance and characteristics of the light-emitting panel. The coatings 300 may be applied to the outside or inside of the shell 50, and may either partially or fully coat the shell 50. Types of outside coatings include, but are not limited to, coatings used to convert UV light to visible light (e.g. phosphor), coatings used as reflecting filters, and coatings used as bandpass filters. Types of inside coatings include, but are not limited to, coatings used to convert UV light to visible light (e.g. phosphor), coatings used to enhance secondary emissions and coatings used to prevent erosion. One skilled in the art will recognize that other coatings may also be used. The coatings 300 may be applied to the shell 50 by differential stripping, lithographic process, sputtering, laser deposition, chemical deposition, vapor deposition, or deposition using ink jet technology. One skilled in the art will realize that other methods of coating the inside and/or outside of the shell 50 may also work. Types of dopants include, but are not limited to, dopants used to convert UV light to visible light (e.g. phosphor), dopants used to enhance secondary emissions and dopants used to provide a conductive path through the shell 50. The dopants are added to the shell 50 by any suitable technique known to one skilled in the art, including ion implantation. It is contemplated that any combination of coatings and dopants may be added to a micro-component 40.
In an embodiment of the present invention, when a micro-component is configured to emit UV light, the UV light is converted to visible light by at least partially coating the inside of the shell 50 with phosphor, at least partially coating the outside of the shell 50 with phosphor, doping the shell 50 with phosphor and/or coating the inside of a socket 30 with phosphor. In a color panel, according to an embodiment of the present invention, colored phosphor is chosen so the visible light emitted from alternating micro-components is colored red, green and blue, respectively. By combining these primary colors at varying intensities, all colors can be formed. It is contemplated that other color combinations and arrangements may be used.
To obtain an improvement in discharge characteristics, in an embodiment of the present invention, the shell 50 of each micro-component 40 is at least partially coated on the inside surface with a secondary emission enhancement material. Any low affinity material may be used including, but not limited to, magnesium oxide and thulium oxide. One skilled in the art would recognize that other materials will also provide secondary emission enhancement. In another embodiment of the present invention, the shell 50 is doped with a secondary emission enhancement material. It is contemplated that the doping of shell 50 with a secondary emission enhancement material may be in addition to coating the shell 50 with a secondary emission enhancement material. In this case, the secondary emission enhancement material used to coat the shell 50 and dope the shell 50 may be different.
Alternatively to the previously discussed phosphor which can be used to coat the micro-component, or alternatively, placed into a socket in a display panel in which the micro-components are placed, the micro-component material can be doped with a rare earth that is a frequency converter. Such dopants can include barium fluoride or similar materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet, or gadolinium gallium garnet. These types of frequency converting materials serve to convert plasma light at the UV wavelength to visible light of red, blue or green color. The gasses in the micro-component in such cases will include rare gas halide mixtures such as xenon chloride, xenon fluoride and the like. Rare gas halides are efficient radiators having radiating wavelengths of approximately 300 to 350 nm, which is longer than that of pure xenon (147 to 170 nm). This results in an overall quantum efficiency gain, i.e., a factor of two or more, given by the mixture ratio. Still further, in another embodiment of the present invention, rare gas halide mixtures are also combined with other plasma-forming gases as listed previously. This description is not intended to be limiting. In the case when such frequency converting materials are used, instead of using a phosphor coating, they can be integrated as a dopant in the shell of the micro-component. For example, yttrium aluminum garnet doped with cerium can serve to convert UV wavelengths from rare gas halides into green light.
In addition to, or in place of, doping the shell 50 with a secondary emission enhancement material, according to an embodiment of the present invention, the shell 50 is doped with a conductive material. Possible conductive materials include, but are not limited to silver, gold, platinum, and aluminum. Doping the shell 50 with a conductive material, either in two or more localized areas to provide separate electrode-like paths or in a way to produce anisotropic conductivity in the shell (high perpendicular conductivity, low in-plane conductivity), provides a direct conductive path to the gas or gas mixture contained in the shell and provides one possible means of achieving a DC light-emitting panel. In this manner, shorting is avoided and two or more separate electrode paths are maintained to allow exciting of the gas.
In another embodiment of the present invention, the shell 50 of the micro-component 40 is coated with a reflective material. An index matching material that matches the index of refraction of the reflective material is disposed so as to be in contact with at least a portion of the reflective material. The reflective coating and index matching material may be separate from, or in conjunction with, the phosphor coating and secondary emission enhancement coating of previous embodiments. The reflective coating is applied to the shell 50 in order to enhance radiation transport. By also disposing an index-matching material so as to be in contact with at least a portion of the reflective coating, a predetermined wavelength range of radiation is allowed to escape through the reflective coating at the interface between the reflective coating and the index-matching material. By forcing the radiation out of a micro-component through the interface area between the reflective coating and the index-matching material greater micro-component efficiency is achieved with an increase in luminosity. In an embodiment, the index matching material is coated directly over at least a portion of the reflective coating. In another embodiment, the index matching material is disposed on a material layer, or the like, that is brought in contact with the micro-component such that the index matching material is in contact with at least a portion of the reflective coating. In another embodiment, the size of the interface is selected to achieve a specific field of view for the light-emitting panel.
Several methods are proposed, in various embodiments, for making a micro-component for use in a light-emitting panel. It has been contemplated that each of the coatings and dopants that may be added to a micro-component 40, as disclosed herein, may also be included in steps in forming a micro-component, as discussed herein.
In one embodiment of the present invention, a continuous inline process for making a micro-component is described, where a shell is at least partially formed in the presence of at least one plasma-forming gas, such that when formed, the shell is filled with the gas or gas mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the process takes place in a drop tower. According to
In an embodiment of the present invention, the above process is modified so that the shell can be doped with either a secondary emission enhancement material and/or a conductive material, although other dopants may also be used. While it is contemplated that the dopants may be added to the shell by ion implantation at later stages in the process, in a preferred embodiment, the dopant is added directly in the aqueous solution so that the shell is initial formed with the dopant already present in the shell.
The above process steps may be modified or additional process steps may be added to the above process for forming a micro-component to provide a means for adding at least one coating to the micro-component. For coatings that may be disposed on the inside of the shell including, but not limited to a secondary emission enhancement material and a conductive material, it is contemplated in an embodiment of the present invention that those coating materials are added to the initial droplet solution so that when the outer membrane is formed around the initial droplet and then passed through the dehydration region 640 the coating material is left on the inside of the hollow dry gel shell. For coatings that may be disposed on the outside of the shell including, but not limited to, coatings used to convert UV light to visible light, coatings used as reflective filters and coatings used as band-gap filters, it is contemplated that after the micro-component leaves the refining region 660, the micro-component component will travel through at least one coating region. The coatings may be applied by any number of processes known to those skilled in the art as a means of applying a coating to a surface.
A further modification of the drop tower of
If no luminous output is detected or a luminous output of less than a predetermined threshold is detected, the control unit 815 sends a signal to actuator 817 which then actuates a second micro-component displacement device or arm 819 to remove the failed micro-component from the stream.
With respect to the photo-detectors, they are conventional, and can be of the type, for example, which detect UV light. Alternatively, if the micro-component has been coated prior to the end of the fabrication process, for example, with phosphor, the detector may be of the type which is sensitive to a red light output. It should be noted that although the micro-component displacement devices or arms 819 and 829 have been described as mechanical in nature, they may also be non-mechanical, such as an intermittent fluid stream such as a gas or liquid stream or a light pulse such as a high-intensity laser pulse.
In another embodiment of the present invention, two substrates are provided, wherein at least one of two substrates contain a plurality of cavities. The two substrates are affixed together in the presence of at least one plasma-forming gas so that when affixed, the cavities are filled with the gas or gas mixture. In an embodiment of the present invention at least one electrode is disposed between the two substrates. In another embodiment, the inside, the outside, or both the inside and the outside of the cavities are coated with at least one coating. It is contemplated that any coating that may be applied to a micro-component as disclosed herein may be used. As illustrated in
The nodules on the first roller with nodules 224 may be disposed in any pattern, having even or non-even spacing between adjacent nodules. Patterns may include, but are not limited to, alphanumeric characters, symbols, icons, or pictures. Preferably, the distance between adjacent nodules is approximately equal. The nodules may also be disposed in groups such that the distance between one group of nodules and another group of nodules is approximately equal. This latter approach may be particularly relevant in color light-emitting panels, where each nodule in a group of nodules may be used to form a micro-component that is configured for red, green, and blue, respectively.
While it is preferred that the second roller assembly simply include two second rollers, 232 and 234, in an embodiment of the present invention as illustrated in
In an embodiment of the present invention that is applicable to the two methods discussed above, and illustrated in
In another embodiment of the present invention, at least one substrate is thermally treated in the presence of at least one plasma-forming gas, to form a plurality of shells 50 filled with the plasma-forming gas or gas mixture. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, as shown in
In a yet still further method of manufacture, the micro-components can be manufactured using any of the above-mentioned methods, but not in the presence of a plasma-forming gas, and either in a vacuum, air or other atmosphere such as an inert atmosphere. They can be fabricated with one or two openings, and the initial gas inside can be drawn out, for example, through injection of plasma-forming gas through one opening, forcing the gas therein out the other opening. The openings can then be sealed conventionally.
In yet another alternative method, a device having one or more micro-pippettes can create the micro-components much like conventional glass blowing. The gas used to effect the glass-blowing operation can be one of the aforementioned plasma-forming gasses.
In yet still another alternative, an optical fiber extrusion device can be used to manufacture the micro-components. Like an optical fiber, which is solid, the device can be used to extrude a capillary which is hollow on the inside. The capillary can then be cut, filled with plasma-forming gas and sealed.
With respect to the selection of materials and dimensions for the micro-components manufactured in the manner described herein, they are manufactured to meet requirements for various standard display resolutions.
In a further aspect, once the micro-components are manufactured, it is desirable to condition them prior to assembly into a plasma display panel. By conditioning is meant exciting them for a time and at an excitation sufficient to cause those micro-components which are likely to fail a short time after assembly in a plasma display panel, to fail prior to assembly. In this manner the yield relative to non-defective micro-components which are eventually assembled into a plasma display panel is significantly increased. Examples of devices for achieving said conditioning are shown in
As may be appreciated, an alternative system is illustrated by
With respect to micro-components manufactured as discussed with reference to
Other embodiments and uses of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of this application and practice of the invention disclosed herein. The present description and examples should be considered exemplary only, with the true scope and spirit of the invention being indicated by the following claims. As will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art, variations and modifications of each of the disclosed embodiments, including combinations thereof, can be made within the scope of this invention as defined by the following claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US1961735 *||17 Aug 1928||5 Jun 1934||Gen Electric Vapor Lamp Co||Electric sign|
|US2036616 *||13 Feb 1935||7 Apr 1936||Asch Joseph C||Lighting device|
|US2644113 *||22 May 1950||30 Jun 1953||Walter V Etzkorn||Luminous body|
|US2984534 *||18 Dec 1957||16 May 1961||Telefunken Gmbh||Method of manufacturing vacuum tubes|
|US3453478 *||31 May 1966||1 Jul 1969||Stanford Research Inst||Needle-type electron source|
|US3559190 *||22 Dec 1966||26 Jan 1971||Univ Illinois||Gaseous display and memory apparatus|
|US3646384 *||9 Jun 1970||29 Feb 1972||Ibm||One-sided plasma display panel|
|US3969651 *||30 Dec 1974||13 Jul 1976||Ibm Corporation||Display system|
|US4027246 *||26 Mar 1976||31 May 1977||International Business Machines Corporation||Automated integrated circuit manufacturing system|
|US4257798 *||26 Jul 1979||24 Mar 1981||The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy||Method for introduction of gases into microspheres|
|US4379301 *||22 Sep 1981||5 Apr 1983||Xerox Corporation||Method for ink jet printing|
|US4386358 *||22 Sep 1981||31 May 1983||Xerox Corporation||Ink jet printing using electrostatic deflection|
|US4429303 *||22 Dec 1980||31 Jan 1984||International Business Machines Corporation||Color plasma display device|
|US4563617 *||10 Jan 1983||7 Jan 1986||Davidson Allen S||Flat panel television/display|
|US4591847 *||21 Jun 1973||27 May 1986||International Business Machines Corporation||Method and apparatus for gas display panel|
|US4654561 *||7 Oct 1985||31 Mar 1987||Shelton Jay D||Plasma containment device|
|US4658269 *||2 Jun 1986||14 Apr 1987||Xerox Corporation||Ink jet printer with integral electrohydrodynamic electrodes and nozzle plate|
|US4728864 *||3 Mar 1986||1 Mar 1988||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||AC plasma display|
|US4833463 *||26 Sep 1986||23 May 1989||American Telephone And Telegraph Company, At&T Bell Laboratories||Gas plasma display|
|US4843281 *||17 Oct 1986||27 Jun 1989||United Technologies Corporation||Gas plasma panel|
|US4890383 *||14 Apr 1989||2 Jan 1990||Simens Corporate Research & Support, Inc.||Method for producing displays and modular components|
|US4912364 *||15 Jul 1988||27 Mar 1990||Tungsram Reszvenytarsasag||Three-phase high-pressure gas discharge lamp filled with a gas containing sodium or a metal-halide|
|US5019807 *||27 Feb 1989||28 May 1991||Staplevision, Inc.||Display screen|
|US5126632 *||15 Mar 1991||30 Jun 1992||Parker William P||Luminous panel display device|
|US5194027 *||9 Sep 1991||16 Mar 1993||Planar Systems, Inc.||Solid seal for thin film electroluminescent display panels|
|US5315129 *||1 May 1991||24 May 1994||University Of Southern California||Organic optoelectronic devices and methods|
|US5396149 *||25 Sep 1992||7 Mar 1995||Samsung Electron Devices Co., Ltd.||Color plasma display panel|
|US5482486 *||27 Jun 1994||9 Jan 1996||Commissariat A L'energie Atomique||Process for the production of a microtip electron source|
|US5500287 *||30 Oct 1992||19 Mar 1996||Innovation Associates, Inc.||Thermal insulating material and method of manufacturing same|
|US5501871 *||16 May 1994||26 Mar 1996||Innovation Associates, Inc.||Thermal insulating material and method of manufacturing same|
|US5510678 *||27 Jan 1995||23 Apr 1996||Nippon Hoso Kyokai||DC type gas-discharge display panel and gas-discharge display apparatus with employment of the same|
|US5514934 *||14 Nov 1994||7 May 1996||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Discharge lamp, image display device using the same and discharge lamp producing method|
|US5707745 *||13 Dec 1994||13 Jan 1998||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Multicolor organic light emitting devices|
|US5721160 *||15 Apr 1996||24 Feb 1998||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Multicolor organic light emitting devices|
|US5725787 *||25 May 1995||10 Mar 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of light-emitting device with raised black matrix for use in optical devices such as flat-panel cathode-ray tubes|
|US5746635 *||12 Dec 1995||5 May 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Methods for fabricating a flat panel display having high voltage supports|
|US5747931 *||24 May 1996||5 May 1998||David Sarnoff Research Center, Inc.||Plasma display and method of making same|
|US5755944 *||7 Jun 1996||26 May 1998||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Formation of layer having openings produced by utilizing particles deposited under influence of electric field|
|US5757026 *||15 Apr 1996||26 May 1998||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Multicolor organic light emitting devices|
|US5757131 *||7 Aug 1996||26 May 1998||Nec Corporation||Color plasma display panel and fabricating method|
|US5757139 *||3 Feb 1997||26 May 1998||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Driving circuit for stacked organic light emitting devices|
|US5862054 *||20 Feb 1997||19 Jan 1999||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.||Process monitoring system for real time statistical process control|
|US5865657 *||7 Jun 1996||2 Feb 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of gated electron-emitting device utilizing distributed particles to form gate openings typically beveled and/or combined with lift-off or electrochemical removal of excess emitter material|
|US5872355 *||9 Apr 1997||16 Feb 1999||Hewlett-Packard Company||Electroluminescent device and fabrication method for a light detection system|
|US5889568 *||12 Dec 1995||30 Mar 1999||Rainbow Displays Inc.||Tiled flat panel displays|
|US5897657 *||1 Jul 1996||27 Apr 1999||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Multiprocessing system employing a coherency protocol including a reply count|
|US5898266 *||18 Jul 1996||27 Apr 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Method for displaying frame of pixel information on flat panel display|
|US5913704 *||12 May 1997||22 Jun 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Fabrication of electronic devices by method that involves ion tracking|
|US5914150 *||28 Feb 1997||22 Jun 1999||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Formation of polycarbonate film with apertures determined by etching charged-particle tracks|
|US5917646 *||24 Dec 1996||29 Jun 1999||Xerox Corporation||Rotatable lens transmissive twisting ball display|
|US6013538 *||24 Nov 1997||11 Jan 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Method of fabricating and patterning OLEDs|
|US6017584 *||27 Aug 1998||25 Jan 2000||E Ink Corporation||Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same|
|US6019657 *||29 Oct 1998||1 Feb 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Dual-layer metal for flat panel display|
|US6022652 *||23 Feb 1996||8 Feb 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||High resolution flat panel phosphor screen with tall barriers|
|US6023259 *||13 Mar 1998||8 Feb 2000||Fed Corporation||OLED active matrix using a single transistor current mode pixel design|
|US6025097 *||28 Feb 1997||15 Feb 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Method for creating a color filter layer on a field emission display screen structure|
|US6030269 *||26 May 1998||29 Feb 2000||Candescent Technologies Corporation||Method for forming a multi-level conductive black matrix for a flat panel display|
|US6030715 *||9 Oct 1997||29 Feb 2000||The University Of Southern California||Azlactone-related dopants in the emissive layer of an OLED|
|US6033547 *||4 Jan 1999||7 Mar 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Apparatus for electrohydrodynamically assembling patterned colloidal structures|
|US6037710 *||29 Apr 1998||14 Mar 2000||Candescent Technologies, Inc.||Microwave sealing of flat panel displays|
|US6037918 *||30 Mar 1998||14 Mar 2000||Candescent Technologies, Inc.||Error compensator circuits used in color balancing with time multiplexed voltage signals for a flat panel display unit|
|US6038002 *||18 Jun 1997||14 Mar 2000||Lg Electronics Inc.||Thin film transistor liquid crystal display and method for fabricating the same|
|US6039619 *||22 May 1998||21 Mar 2000||Samsung Display Devices Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for manufacturing partition wall of plasma display device|
|US6045930 *||2 May 1997||4 Apr 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Materials for multicolor light emitting diodes|
|US6046543 *||23 Dec 1996||4 Apr 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||High reliability, high efficiency, integratable organic light emitting devices and methods of producing same|
|US6048469 *||30 Jan 1998||11 Apr 2000||The Regents Of The University Of California||Advanced phosphors|
|US6048630 *||23 Dec 1996||11 Apr 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Red-emitting organic light emitting devices (OLED's)|
|US6049366 *||4 Jun 1996||11 Apr 2000||Sniaricerche S.C.P.A.||Polymer stabilized liquid crystals and flexible devices thereof|
|US6069443 *||13 Mar 1998||30 May 2000||Fed Corporation||Passive matrix OLED display|
|US6072276 *||19 Jun 1997||6 Jun 2000||Nec Corporation||Color plasma display panel and method of manufacturing the same|
|US6079814 *||27 Jun 1997||27 Jun 2000||Xerox Corporation||Ink jet printer having improved ink droplet placement|
|US6080606 *||26 Mar 1996||27 Jun 2000||The Trustees Of Princeton University||Electrophotographic patterning of thin film circuits|
|US6201518 *||31 Aug 1998||13 Mar 2001||Sarnoff Corporation||Continuous drive AC plasma display device|
|US6545422 *||27 Oct 2000||8 Apr 2003||Science Applications International Corporation||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US6570335 *||27 Oct 2000||27 May 2003||Science Applications International Corporation||Method and system for energizing a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US6577062 *||22 Jan 2002||10 Jun 2003||Fujitsu Limited||Plasma display panel|
|US6864631 *||15 Oct 2002||8 Mar 2005||Imaging Systems Technology||Gas discharge display device|
|US6902456 *||20 Aug 2003||7 Jun 2005||Science Applications International Corporation||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US6990620 *||21 Oct 2003||24 Jan 2006||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Scanning a protocol signal into an IC for performing a circuit operation|
|US7005793 *||24 May 2005||28 Feb 2006||Science Applications International Corporation||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US7025648 *||2 Mar 2004||11 Apr 2006||Science Applications International Corporation||Liquid manufacturing processes for panel layer fabrication|
|US7157854 *||20 May 2003||2 Jan 2007||Imaging Systems Technology||Tubular PDP|
|US7176628 *||19 May 2005||13 Feb 2007||Imaging Systems Technology||Positive column tubular PDP|
|US20020008470 *||22 May 2001||24 Jan 2002||Hiroko Uegaki||Paste, display member, and process for production of display member|
|US20020009536 *||16 Dec 1997||24 Jan 2002||Yuichiro Iguchi||Method and apparatus for producing a plasma display|
|US20020016075 *||19 Jun 2001||7 Feb 2002||Hannstar Display Corp.||Method of patterning an ITO layer|
|US20020017864 *||10 Aug 2001||14 Feb 2002||Toppan Printing Co., Ltd.||Plasma display panel, manufacturing method and manufacturing apparatus of the same|
|US20020022565 *||2 May 2001||21 Feb 2002||Sreeram Attiganal Narayanaswamy||Materials to fabricate a high resolution plasma display back panel|
|US20020024295 *||4 Apr 2001||28 Feb 2002||Kanako Miyashita||Highly productive method of producing plasma display panel|
|US20020070678 *||8 Jun 2001||13 Jun 2002||Young-Mo Kim||Plasma display panel using excimer gas|
|US20030090213 *||13 Dec 2002||15 May 2003||George Edward Victor||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US20030094891 *||26 Nov 2002||22 May 2003||Green Albert Myron||Light-emitting panel and a method for making|
|US20040004445 *||17 Apr 2003||8 Jan 2004||George Edward Victor||Method and system for energizing a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US20040051450 *||20 Aug 2003||18 Mar 2004||George Edward Victor||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US20040063373 *||26 Jun 2003||1 Apr 2004||Johnson Roger Laverne||Method for testing a light-emitting panel and the components therein|
|US20040106349 *||8 Jul 2003||3 Jun 2004||Green Albert Myron||Light-emitting panel and a method for making|
|US20050095944 *||3 Nov 2004||5 May 2005||Science Applications International Corporation||Design, fabrication, testing, and conditioning of micro-components for use in a light-emitting panel|
|US20060097620 *||22 Dec 2005||11 May 2006||Science Applications International Corp., A California Corporation||Socket for use with a micro-component in a light-emitting panel|
|US20070015431 *||27 Sep 2006||18 Jan 2007||Science Applications International Corporation||Light-emitting panel and a method for making|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7288014 *||14 Jan 2004||30 Oct 2007||Science Applications International Corporation||Design, fabrication, testing, and conditioning of micro-components for use in a light-emitting panel|
|US7535175||2 Feb 2007||19 May 2009||Imaging Systems Technology||Electrode configurations for plasma-dome PDP|
|US7595774||24 Aug 2005||29 Sep 2009||Imaging Systems Technology||Simultaneous address and sustain of plasma-shell display|
|US7679286||5 Sep 2006||16 Mar 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Positive column tubular PDP|
|US7727040||27 Jan 2006||1 Jun 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Process for manufacturing plasma-disc PDP|
|US7730746 *||10 Jul 2006||8 Jun 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Apparatus to prepare discrete hollow microsphere droplets|
|US7772773||2 Feb 2007||10 Aug 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Electrode configurations for plasma-dome PDP|
|US7772774||8 Feb 2007||10 Aug 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Positive column plasma display tubular device|
|US7789725||19 Oct 2007||7 Sep 2010||Science Applications International Corporation||Manufacture of light-emitting panels provided with texturized micro-components|
|US7808178||6 Feb 2007||5 Oct 2010||Imaging Systems Technology||Method of manufacture and operation|
|US7833076||14 Jul 2008||16 Nov 2010||Imaging Systems Technology, Inc.||Method of fabricating a plasma-shell PDP with combined organic and inorganic luminescent substances|
|US7863815||19 Jan 2007||4 Jan 2011||Imaging Systems Technology||Electrode configurations for plasma-disc PDP|
|US7923930||23 Jul 2007||12 Apr 2011||Imaging Systems Technology||Plasma-shell device|
|US7932674||6 Feb 2006||26 Apr 2011||Imaging Systems Technology||Plasma-dome article of manufacture|
|US7969092 *||30 Mar 2007||28 Jun 2011||Imaging Systems Technology, Inc.||Gas discharge display|
|US8232725||20 Feb 2010||31 Jul 2012||Imaging Systems Technology||Plasma-tube gas discharge device|
|US9013102||14 Mar 2012||21 Apr 2015||Imaging Systems Technology, Inc.||Radiation detector with tiled substrates|
|US20040063373 *||26 Jun 2003||1 Apr 2004||Johnson Roger Laverne||Method for testing a light-emitting panel and the components therein|
|US20050095944 *||3 Nov 2004||5 May 2005||Science Applications International Corporation||Design, fabrication, testing, and conditioning of micro-components for use in a light-emitting panel|
|U.S. Classification||445/3, 445/2|
|International Classification||H01J9/24, G09G1/00, G09G, H01J9/42, H01J17/49, G09G3/28, H01J9/395, B81B1/00, H01J9/227, G09G3/10, F21V8/00, H01T21/06, H01J9/50|
|Cooperative Classification||H01J9/241, G02B6/0036, G02B6/0065, H01J2217/49264, H01J17/49, G02B6/0033, H01J11/18|
|European Classification||H01J17/49, H01J9/24B, H01J11/18, G02B6/00L6O, G02B6/00L6O4B, G02B6/00L6P|
|3 Nov 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORPORATION, CA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GEORGE, E. VICTOR;WYETH, N. CONVERS;GREEN, ALBERT M.;ANDOTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015952/0507;SIGNING DATES FROM 20020806 TO 20020808