US 1880735 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
CII. 4, 1932. Q E BON|NE 1,880,735
REFRIGERATOR Filed July 17, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 '4T-Mmmm?.
M F20/0 Cw/Q ZZ J 15 15 M .f/ la '5 jl /f/ if #27 WITNESSES IN VEN TOR izo/rZesEmzme A TTORNEYS` Oct. 4, 1932.
C. E. BoNlNE 1,880,735
REFRIGERATOR Filed July 17, 1929 5 sheets-sheet 4 FIG. lff- IN VEN TOR.- CizorZeSEBozzzne TTORNEYS.
Patented Oct. 4, 1932 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CHARLES E. BONINE, 0F MELROSE PARK, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR T0 JAMES H. BELL, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA nnrnronna'ron Application filed. July 17,
This invention relates to refrigerators, andl ture in the'neighborhood of 114j F. below zero, and cannot therefore be used after the manner of ordmary ice 1n refrlgeratorsas commonly constructed without danger of eX- cess freezing and spoliation of the articlesvor products undergoing preservation. v
The main obj ect of my invention is to overcome the drawbacks above pointed out through provision of a refrigerator structure wherein the influence ofthe solid carbon di-v oxide is moderated to such an 'extent' that a sufficiently cool even chilling temperature is maintained for preservation of the articles being refrigerated more economically and eiiiciently than possible with the use of ordinary 4Other objects and attendant advantages of this invention will appear in the course of the description following of the typical em- Y bodiments shown 4in the drawings whereof Fig. I is a planview of my improved refrigerator 1n one form.
Fig. II is a sectional view of the structure taken as indicated by the arrows II-II in Fig. I.
Fig. III is a cross section taken as indicated by the arrows III--III in Figs. I and II.
Fig. IV is a view like Fig. III showing a modifiedconstructon of the refrigerator.
Figs. V and VI are sectional illustrations showing, more or less diagrammatically, further modications which dier but sli htly lirorlrithe form of my invention shown in igs.
Figs. VII and VIII are views similar to Figs. V and VI showng two other'modifications.
Fig. IX is a cross sectional view taken as indicated by the arrows IX-IX in Fig. VIII.
Fig. X is a view corresponding to Fig. VIII illustrating an alternative construction of the form of refrigerator shown in the latter figure.
1929. Vserial No. sisma.
i Fig. XI is a cross sectiontaken as indicated by the arrows XI-XI in Fig. X; and
Fig. XII shows an additional alternative form of refrigerator generally resembling the modification of' Fig. VIII.
Referring first to Figs. I-III, the form of prises a casing 4 made from cork or a suitable thermo-insulating compositon with a chamber 5 therein for a block B of solid carbon dioxide or the like, as well as a comparatively larger chamber 6 for the articles or materials whlch are to be refrigerated. The chamber 5 is accessible from the top of the structure through an opening 7 fitted with a removable lift cover 8. The refrigerating chamber 6 is likewise accessible through a top opening 9 which is closed by a lid 10 with a hinged connection at 11. In the present instance, the two chambers 5, 6 are defined by a box-like inset 12 made from sheet metal to fit the hollow of the thermo insulate casing 4 whereof the walls are amply thick to eiiiciently preclude thermal losses by radiation. In practice the chamber 5 is preferably made just large enough to conveniently hold acommercial size block B of the refrigerant, and to about half the depth of the refrigerating chamber v6.A
For convenience, the side walls 13, 14 of the metallic inset 12 may be common to both the chambers 5, 6, said side Walls being of single thickness throughout, as shown in Fig. III. The end Jwalls and bottom of the refrigerating chamber 6 are however made double and the thicknesses separated by a substantial interval with provision'of coextensive communieating passages 15, 16, 17.
In the operation of the 'refrigerator of Figs. I-III, the cold heavier-than-air gas released incident to sublimation of the solid carbon dioxide flows from the bottom of the chamber 5 through openings 18 (Fig. II) in the outer portion of the contiguous end wall of the refrigerating chamber 6 into the passage 15, then downward in said passage, then horizontally -through the passage ,16 along the bottom of the chamber 6, and Afinally upward through the passage 17 in the my improved refrigerator therein shown com- 'la 'i 19 in the inner thickness of the last 'mentioned end wall. As the gas descends in the chamber- 6 and passes about the articles or products therein, thermal interchange takes place with rise of the stratas of the gas incidentally warmed which find their way back into the chamber 5, through -aligned openings 20, 21 in the two thicknesses constituting the left hand end wall of the chamber latter in the opposite side Walls 13, 14 and 6. In contacting with the solid carbon dioxide block B, the returned warmed gas is obviously lowered in temperature and thereby prepared to .retrace the same vcourse which it had previously followed. A -continuous circulation is in this way maintained within the refrigerator between the chambers 5, 6 to the end that refrigeration is effected by the liberated gaseous carbon dioxide and not through direct influence of the solid refrigerant itself, which, it will be noted, is isolated by virtue of interposition of the vertical gas ilow passage 15 between said chambers. After the refrigerating process has proceed-l ed to the point where the products within the chamber 6 take on the temperature of the vcold gas, the rate of circulation within the refrigerator naturally decreases with maintenance of a uniformly cold more or less static atmosphere about said products. This condition operates as a check on the sublimation ofthe refrigerantand in turn greatly enhancesthe economical-operation of the re- Concurrently with -the events,
frigerator. above related, a certain proportion of the gas in the refrigerating chamber 6 escapes through openings 22 near the bottom of the into clearances 23, 24 which are coextensive with said side walls, see Fig. III. From these clearances 23, 24 the gas eventually exhausts into the external atmosphere by way of grooves 25, 26 respectively in the casing 4; and the hinged cover 10. By reason of this provision it will be seen that, in addition to circulation of the gas between the chambers 5 and 6, a circulation is maintained around the side walls 13, '14 of the refrigerating chamber to cool them, as well as around the opposite end walls and bottom of said chamber. It -is' also important to note that I the openings 22 are fewer in number and -smaller than the openings 20, 21 so that most the insulating material from which they are made.
The modification of Fig. IV is similar to the first described embodiment except as' to the provisions made for escape of the carbon .dioxide gas from the refrigerator. In this case outlets 26a are formed in the side walls of the insulate casing 4a near the top, which outlets, as shown, lead horizontally from the clearances 23a, 24a to the exterior and which are defined by tubes 31 of glass or the like. SuchV construction assures against possible clogging of the outlets through dismtegray tion of the cork or composition constituting the casing 4a. Here, as in the description of other modifications following, the parts which are not specifically mentioned, but which correspond to those of the first em-f bodiment, are identified by the same reference numerals previously employed with addition of different letters of the alphabet.
Fig. V shows an alternative form of metallic inset 12b in whichthe end and bottom walls of the chamber 5b are made doublewith incidentformation of a' passage 32 having communication with said chamber 5b near the top through apertures 33, said passage leading directly into the interval 15b along the contiguous side wall of the refrigerating chamber 6b through a portt. Accordingly, gas liberated from the solid carbon dioxide in the chamber 5b isobliged to pass first around said chamber before making its cir-` cuit about andV through the refrigerating chamber 6b as in the first. embodiment.
Inthe modification of'Fig. VI, that portion of the outer Side wall of the refrigerating chamber 6c which is common' to the chamber 50 for the refrigerant, is fashioned from wire gauze or perforated metal conventionally indicated at 35. In all other respects the inset 120 is like the inset 12 of Figs. I-III as will be readily apparent by comparison. The advantage of the present construction is that, by reason of the greater number of openings in the partition 35, freer'circulation ofA gas is permitted through the chamber 5'0 as is manifested by the arrows in Fig. VI, and clogging of the flow passages by shifting of the solid carbon dioxide block as might happen in the `inset 12 of Fig. II where the ports or-apertures 18, 21 are fewer in number, prevented.
In Fig; VII, the Chamber 5d fori-the Suid carbon dioxidel is lincluded within the conlines of the refrigerating chamber 6d to the end that the inset 12d is devoid of external projections. As shown, flow channels are formed around both chambers 5cl, 6d, and circulation of gas over the course indicated by the arrows is determined by the apertures 18d, 19d, 20d, 21d and 22d in the partitioning. Figs. VIII and IX show a modification suitable to the refrigeration of fruits and the like where direct Contact of carbon dioxide gas-as in the previous embodiments with the articles or products undergoing refrigeration-is prohibitive if spoliation or discoloration is to be prevented. Accordingly, the refrigerating chamber 6e is entirely isolated from the chamber 5e containing the solid carbon dioxide; and -channels 36, 37 are provided for return of the gas after having traversed the hollow end wall 15e, and bottom 16e, and opposite end Wall In Figs. X and XI the return channels 23f,
Qlf are made coextensive in depth with the refrigerating y chamber Gf. construction and operation ofthis modification is exactly the same as that described in connection with Figs. VII and VIII.
The modification of Fig. XII is suitable for household refrigerators and the like in which, for the sake of convenience, access must be had to the refrigerating chamber through a side doorlopening instead of from the top as in the other modifications of my invention.' T o this end, the top, bottom and ormosite end walls of .the chamber 6g are made hollow for circulation of the gas around it after the manner indicated by the arrows. Excess gas is permitted to escape through a suitable vent 26g in the cover 8g for the chamber 5g; and a tra-p 40 is provided at the bottom of the unit for escape to the exterior of condensation of any water vapor which may find its .way into said chamber.
.' It is of course to be understood that the chamber 5g may be constructed with double sides and bottom as shown in Fig. V.
As exemplified herein,my invention is susceptible tol many variations and vtherefore adaptable to any special requirements which must be met in practice. It is to be particu? larly remarked however that the principle of operation is the same in all the forms which have been discussed inv detail. Obviously the principle set forth may be embodied in refrigerators which are portable for shipment of .perishable commodities, as well as in refrigerators intended for domestic and other purposes. The appended claims are accordingly to be broadly construed with the Aabove considerations in mind.
Having thus described myV invention, I claim:
1. In a refrigerator of the character described, a thermo insulated casing affording a chamber for solid carbon dioxide; a chamber for the articles being refrigerated; passages determining fiow of the cold gas lib- Otherwise, the v erated incident to sublimation of the solid carbon dioxide, down along one .end of the refrigerating chamber, across the bottom of the same and up along the opposite end previous to entering said refrigerating chamber at the top for descent about the articles in said refrigeraing chamber; and passages to conduct the gas from the bottom of said refrigerating chamber upward along the outer faces of its opposite side walls before being permitted to escape from vthe refrigerator.
'2. In a refrigerator of the character described, a thermo-insulated casing aording a chamber for solid carbon dioxide; a cham- 'ber for the articlesbeing refrigerated; passages determining circulation of the cold gas liberated incident to sublimation of the solid carbon dioxide, downward along one end of the refrigerating chamber, across the bottom and up the opposite end, then through said lrefrigera-ting chamber and backj intothe chamber containing the refrigerant; and passages through which proportionate amounts of the circulating gas are concurrently con,- ducted from near the bottom of the refrigerating chamber and upward along the outer faces of its opposite sides previous to release from the refrigerator intothe outside atmosphere.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, this 13th day of July, 1929.
CHARLES E. BONINE.