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Publication numberUS1824221 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication date22 Sep 1931
Filing date24 Oct 1928
Priority date24 Oct 1928
Publication numberUS 1824221 A, US 1824221A, US-A-1824221, US1824221 A, US1824221A
InventorsMason William H
Original AssigneeMasonite Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process and apparatus for disintegration of fibrous material
US 1824221 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 22, 1931.

w. H. MASON 1,824,221

PRooEss AND APPARATUS Fon DISINTEGRATION oF FIBRoUs MATERIAL Filed Oct. 24, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet l E'g. .ZI

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. n I I 5o ,9g 8.9301! sa Je fl; 66 77 74 INVENTOR .9/ l l/I//iamf #fa/6072 I8/ BY y/xw-cmhw ATTORNEYS Sept. 22, 193i. w. H. MAsN 1,824,221

PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR DISINTEGRATION OF FIBROUS MATERIAL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed 001'.. 24. 1928 INVENTOR [4W/fami /mswz BY @f ATTRNEYS Patented Sept. 22, 1931 PATENT; olf-'Fica WILLIAM H. MASON, OF LAUREL, MISSISSIPPI, ASSIGNOR T0 MASONITE-CORPORLTION,

OFA LAUREL-MISSISSIPPI, A CORPORATION-OF DELAWARE PROCESS ANDAAPPARATUS FOR DISINTEGRATION F FIBROUS MATERIAL -Application filed October 24, 1928. Serial No. 314,812.

My invention relates toa process and apparatus for the ldisintegration of fibrous ma terial, for example, wood chips, in which the material in a closed chamber or. gun 1s subjected to penetration by an elastic uid such as steam or other gas or vapor at very high pressure and is thereupon progressively discharged therefrom through a constricted opening into a region at low pressure, for example, atmospheric pressure, whereupon the elastic fluid within the pores and interstices of the material by expansion quickly and thoroughly disintegrates thematerial' into a mass of loose fibre.

Such a process and ap, aratus are disclosed and broadly claime in U. S. Letters Patent No. 1,578,609, granted to me on March 30, 1926. The present process relates toimprovements thereon in the manner of controlling and applying the steam or other fluid to the material in the pressure chamber, and in the manner of controlling the discharge therefrom. The present apparatls relates to special valve means for controlling the discharge of material and fluid from the pressure chamber, and hydraulic means for controlling such valve means. The improved apparatusV also includes hydraulic means for controlling the admission of steam or other elastic fluid to the pressure chamber and various details of construction as hereinafter set vforth and claimed. f

Reference is hereby made to the accom-l panying drawings of which Figure 1 is a side elevation of an apparatus constructed in acv cordance with my invention.

Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view, partly of one of the4 steam valves with hydraulic means for operating same.

Fig. 7 is avertical section of the hydraulic valve for operating the ram which closes the discharge opening of the gun.

In the apparatus shown the pressure chamy ber is withina vertical cylinder or gun 1 of a strength suitable for resisting very high internal pressure, for example pressure 1n excess of twelve hundred pounds persquare inch. This cylinder is lpreferably formed of a single piece. Its upper end is provided with andannular rib 2 of tapered cross section and having a groove 3 in its face or upper surface for insertion of compressible pack? ing material. The cylinder also has a iange 4 provided with a large number of threaded bores 5.

The upper end of the cylinder 1 is sealed by the cap plate 6 which is provided with an annular groove 7 of tapered cross section and adapted to receive the rib 2. Vertical thread'- ed studs 8 having nuts 8 are provided for firmly uniting the cap 6 to the cylinder 1. There is a feed opening 9 formed in cap 6 by which the raw material, as for example wood chips, may be fed into the cylinder at any desiredtime from the chute 10 which is supplied from the hopper 11, the supply being controlled by a sliding gate 12. The ophing 9 may be closed by the valve 13 which is mounted on an arm 14 carried ontlie lower end of a vertical operating rod 15. The arm 14 is provided with a positioning ipin 16 which engages a bore.17 formed in the lower surface ofthe plate 6, whereby upon depressing the rod 15 the arm 14l and valve 1 13 will-be correspondingly depressed, and upon rotating the rod 15I the valve 13 will 'be moved to one side so as to fully uncover the feed opening.A

A suitable stuffing box 18 is provided to permit the rotation and sliding movement of the' rod 15 without esca-pe of steam from the cylinder. The means for operating the rod 15 comprises a. hand lever 19 pivoted at 2O to saidrrod. A coil spring 22 surrounds the" A i' rod 15, .and` normally holds the same inan .elevatedh'positiom the lower end of the spring pressing against the movable, member or stuffing box 18 and the upper end against the collar 23 adjustable upon said rod. The short end of lever 19 engages a slotted opening 21 formed in a standard 21 secured to the cap 6, said opening 21 permitting horizontal movement of said lever through an angle of approximately 90. v

The lower end of the cylinder 1 is tapered to form ahopper having a portion 24 of reduced cross sectional'area. -At this point the cylinder 1 is provided with a horizontal flange v 25 to the lower surface of which is secured a cylinder 26. The upper end of the cylinder 26 is provided with a flange 27 which yis united to the flange 25 of cylinder 1 by bolts28.

In order to facilitate access to the interior of the cylinder 26 the same is preferably made of semi-cylindrical parts one of which may be removed without affecting the other, orthe parts above and below to which it is united.

A bushing 29, preferably of bronze, is provided to protect the interior of the cylinder 26 against wear due to the discharge of steam and fibrous material from the cylinder 1. This bushing is also made of a pair of semicylindrical parts, one of which may be removed along with the corresponding portion of cylinder 26. Each half of bushing 29 is provided with flanges 29, which occupy recesses in the ends of the cylinder 26 and are clamped in such position by the action of the-holding bolts 28 and 48.

On account of the fact that elastic fluid at very high pressure must be retained for an interval within the ,cylinder 1 and thereupon discharged therefrom, a problem is involved in the designing of valve means for control ling the retention and discharge of the elastic fluid.

ln my earlier apparatus, as shown in Patent 'l No. 1,578,609 previously mentioned, the valve means comprises a constricted outlet or port in the form of a slot and a balanced valve piston is movable transversely across the slot to close and open it, and in Patent No. 1,655,618 granted to me on January 10, 1928, another form of valve is sho-wn which however depends upon the closing of slot shaped ports by a movable member, in this case ,an

oscillatory hollow cylinder, by which means pressures are substantially balanced.

The present structure is a wide Ideparture 1n principle from the valve means referred to,

in that although ports of small cross section,

preferably in the form of slots are used, no closing means are applied directly to the slots f and the pressure of escaping fluid is not balanced with respect to the movable part ofthe valve. x

According to the present invention, the discharge valve includes a fixed member or bod having a chamber which communicates wit the pressure chamber of cylinder 1 through small ports, preferably formed as slots, said upper and lower integral chamber also having a valve seat of much greater area than the area of the ports and adapted to be closed by a movable member, which in its preferred form is an axially movable hydraulic ram which can be held in contact with the valve seat by hydraulic pressure which can readily be sufficient to overcome the pressure of the elastic fluid within the cylinder l'and valve body, or released to permit its discharge.

. In the structure shown, a fixed valve member or body 30,' preferably of manganese bronze, is provided. The upper surface of this member is fiat,eXcept for an annular rib 31 of tapered cross section which engages` a similarlyshaped groove 32 in thelowersurface ofthe end of the cylinder 1. There is a. groove.- 33 formed in the face or upper surface of the rib 31 for insertion of compressible packing .material to insure a tight joint. The valve cylinder 1 whereby the valve body is firmly united thereto.

The lower surfacerof the valve body 30 is formed with an annular rib, 36, the interior lower edge of which is spherically ground to form a valve seat 37. Within the valve body above said seat is a chamber or recess 88, the lower portion of which is of circular crosssection, and the upper portion tapered as shown. There are a pair of narrowy ports in the form of slots 39 forming constricted openings through which the chamber 38 communi- Cates with the lower end 24 of the pressure chamber of cylinder 1, and between said slots the wall of the valve body is formed as a web .38 of substantial depth, and of tapered cross sectiomso that the cross section of the chamber 38 increases in the direction of discharge from a point immediately below the ports 39. The valve seat 37 is at a substantial distance from the ports 39, and its diameter, as shown, is much greater than the width of the ports.

ln order to protect the ports 39 of the valve body 30 against excessive wear, a wear plate 40 of suitable material, for example manganese bronze, is provided. This plate, preferably circular in form, is provided with slotted ports 41, which vare adapted to register with the ports 39 when the plate 40 is in operative position and such plate is normally retained in such position by a pair of dowel pins 42 which are threaded in and rigid with body 3() and engagey suitable openings 43 formed in the wear plate 40. The plate 40 mayberelnoved from its operative position for purposes of replacement, etc., by means of a rod having a hook at its lower end which may be inserted through the feed opening 9 and the hook caused to engage plate 40 by one of the slots 41, or otherwise, whereupon theplate 40 may be lifted from its position and removed from the cylinder 1.

' valve body 30 with the dowel A new wear plate exactly similar thereto may then be lowered through 'the opening 9 and by suitable manipulation seated upon the pins 42 passing through the openings 43.

In order to close the lower end of the chamberV 38 ofthe valve plate 30, I provide a hydraulic ram or plunger 44 suitably mounted in an operating cylinder 45 which is bolted to a spider 46 integral with the Cylinder 47, the latter being secured by bolts 48 to the lower end of cylinder 26. The cylinder-47 is also secured to the upper' end of the discharge pipe 76. L

The upper end of the ram 44 is provided with a shoulder 49 upon which is removably seated a conical deiiector 50, and above the p same is a removable valve cap 51 which is ground to {itthe valve seat 37. This cap is seated upon a shoulder 50 formed on the ram and upon the upper surface of the delector 50 and is pinned to the end .of the ram by a pin 51. The parts 50 and 51 may be made of manganese bronze.

A pipe 52is threaded within the cylinder 45 to control by hydraulic means theposition of the ram 44so as to either hold the same against the fluid pressure within the cylinder 1 or permit said pressuren and gravity to move the ram downward to open the discharge valve and permit escape of steam and fibrous material from the cylinder 1. This pipe 52 passes through a suitable gland 53 mounted on the cylinder 47 and thence to a hydraulic 3-way valve 81. This valve may be of any desired construction. A s shown, the valve body 81 is provided with openings within which are respectively threaded a pressure pipe 82, an exhaust pipe 83 and one end of pipe 52.- A piston or plunger 84 .is slidable within bushings 85, 86 rigid with said body and an operating lever 87 is pivoted at 88 `to a link 89 which is pivoted at 90 to the body 81.

The lower end of lever 87 is pivotally connected at 91 to the outer end of the piston 84 and the parts are so arranged that when the lever 87 is in the position shown in Fig. 7 no water can flow into the valve 81 from pipes 82 and 52. v

When the lever is moved to the right the .piston moves to the left sutliciently to cause water from pressure pipe 82 to flow through pipe 52 to cylinder 45 thereby elevating the ram until it contacts with valve seat 37 to of the ram and the pressure of steam within cylinder 1 will cause the ram to descend and open the discharge valve of said cylinder.

Means are provided for permitting the entrance of steam into the cylinder 1 at 1ts`lower and also at its upper end. The said means comprise a pipe 54 threaded in the wall of cylinder 1 at or near its lower end so that the bore thereof .registers with. the inlet 55V formed in the wall of the cylinder, and another pipe 56 which is threaded in the wall of the cylinder at or near its upper end to there- 'by form an inlet 56. A deflector 57 is preferably provided within the cylinder so that the wall thereof opposite the inlet 56 willbe protected against wear caused by inrushingl steam or other gaseous fluid. The iiow of steam through the inlet pipes 54v and 56 is controlled by valves 58 and 59, Fig. 1, said valves being preferably operated by hydraulic means of any desired form. The particular hydraulic means for operating said valves is not important, as any well known control may be used. I have therefore shown in Fig. 1 in somewhat diagrammatic or simplied form a 4-way hydraulic valve 60 by which the steam valves are operated, as

follows: K Y

The hydraulic valve 60 is provided with a controlling lever 61. This lever has three positionsg When the lever 6L is in central or neutral position, the pressure pipe which is supplied from the main pressure line 64 is connected to pipes 62-and 63 and through such pipes with the hydraulic cylinders-66 of both l of the steam valves 58 and 59. The pipes 62 and 63 enter their respective cylinders. above the pistons 67 which are united to the movable valve heads 68 of said valves. The lovzL er surfaces of pistons 67-are continuously subjected to pressure ofptluid from pressure p1 e 64 through the pipes 69 and 72 respectlve y. However, since the upper surface of the piston is of greater area than the lower, the pressure thereon overcomes that from below and holds each of the steam valves tightly closed, in which laction it is aided by thepressure of the steam itself.

VWhen the lever 61 is moved to the left the upper steam valve 59 is unalfected and remains closed, and the pipe 62 is connected to the exhaust 73. This relieves the pressure above the piston 67 of valve 58 and the pressure upon the lower surface of the piston derived from the pressure pipe 69 causes upward movement of the piston which opens the stemvalve 58.

' As the lever 61 is moved from its left hand to neutral position, the connection between pipe 62 and exhaust 73 is broken, and pipe 62 is connected to pressure pipe 65 whereupon the excess 'of pressure above the piston 67 with respect to that below causes its descent and closes the steam valve 58. As the lever l61 is'moved from neutral to its right hand las position the pressure in pipe 62 is unaffected so that valve 58 remains closed and pipe 63 is connected to exhaust 73 whereupon the pressure below the piston 67 of valve 59 due to' the fluid from pipe 72 causes the piston to rise and open the steam valve 59. Movement of lever 61 from right hand to neutral position brakes the connection of pipe 63 with the exhaust 73 and restores the connection of pipe 63 with pressure pipe 65, thereby causing the descent of the piston 67 and the closinfr of the steam valve 59. v

n the operation of the apparatus to carry out my improved process and assuming the control lever 61 to be in neutral position, the control lever 87 in right hand position and the parts in position shown in Fig. 2, the operator depresses the lever 19 thereby open.A

ing the feed inlet 9 and by a horizontal movement of the lever swings the valve 13 to one side of the inlet opening. The gate 12 is opened to permit the discharge of chips through the chute 10 through said inlet into the pressure chamber of the gun or cylinder 1, practically filling the same, whereupon the gate 12 is closed and by reverse movement of the lever 19, the valve 13 is seated in position shown to tightly close the inlet 9.

The hydraulic controlling lever 61 is thereupon moved to its left hand position, thereby opening the steam valve 58. This/causes a'ow of steam at a comparatively low pressure from the steamy pipe 73al through the valve 58 and pipe 54 into the pressure chamber at a point adjacent its discharge ports The steam so admitted is preferably at a comparatively low pressure, for example one hundred pounds per square inch, although lower or higher pressures may be used, and if desired such pressure may be obtained by suitably throttling the high pressure steam which supplies the upper steam valve as will be hereinafter described. The low pressure steam referred to may be supplied through valve 58 for a period of fifteen seconds, although this time is also subject to variation 'depending to some extent on the pressure of the low pressure steam. The lever 61 is then moved to neutral position thereby causing the closingof the steam valve 58 and it is then immediately shifted to its right hand position`. This causes the opening of the upper steam valve 59 by which steam at very high pressure is adm1tted from supply pipe 4 through valve 59 to pipe 56.v

The high pressure steam may be at a pressure of one thousand pounds per square inch,

although obviously somewhat lower or higher values may be used. Within one or two seconds the operator begins discharging material and steam through the discharge valve of cylinder 1 by shifting the lever 87 from its right hand to 'left hand position thereby causing the descent of the hydraulic -ram 44 from the position shown and opening the discharge valve'of cylinder 1'. rlhe chips forced by 'high pressure steam thereupon escape rapidly through thevports 41 and 39 of the wear plate and discharge valve member into a region at substantially atmospheric pressure, whereupon the expansion of the steam which has filled the pores and interstices of the material while in the pressure chamber causes the chips to .be instantly disintegrated into loose fibres which by the rapidly moving steam are carried through the discharge pipe 76 into the manifold 7 7,

The supply of high pressure steam to the pressure -chamber -is continued until sub\ stantially all of the material has been discharged from the chamber, at which time the whistling sound of steam escaping through the ports of the discharge valve becomes audible to the operator who immediately shifts the lever 61 from the right hand to neutral position thereby closing the steam valve 59. He thereupon operates the hydraulic valve lever 87 from its left toits right hand position thereby causing a liow of fluid through the pressure pipe 52 into the cylinder 45 and elevating the ra 44 into the position shown, whereby the discharge valve of the gun 1 is closed.

rlhe period of discharge may be from 3 to 5 seconds, or more or less, being dependent upon the pressure of the steam, the size of the chips, the size of the gun, the amount of moisture in the chips and the size and number of the valve ports. After the normal time of discharge with a given apparatus and material has been determined, it is possible to conserve high pressure steam by shutting it olf just before its escape through the valve ports would become audible by a whistling sound, as above described.

The process described is very advantageous in that the preheating of the material with low pressure steam causes a softening Furthermore, the application of low pressure steam to the material at a point adjacent the dischargeports of the pressure chamber softens first the material wlhich will be first discharged .and the stem progressively acts upon and softens the material at points more and more remote from the discharge opening and which will be later discharged. Such application of steam provides for a more uniform heating ofthe raw material than where the steam is applied at a point remote from the discharge opening, since in the latter case the material first contacted by the low pressure steam would be heated longer than material between it and the discharge opening. Another advantage of introducing steam at the bottom of the gun is to prevent the chips at such point from becoming submerged by condensed steam which would interfere with pressure the thoroughness of their disintegration Within the pressure chamber and being re- When discharged from the gun. At the time` movable therefrom in a vertical direction, the high pressure steam is admitted to the and means. for securing said wear plate 'l amber the `material has been so against movement in a horizontal plane. softened bythe low pressure steaml that -not 5. In an apparatus of the class described, more than Vone or two seconds are required an elongated vertically disposed body havor penetration ofits pores and interstices inga pressure chamber, means for closing the by the high pressure steam, and the discharge lower end thereof, said means having one valve can then be openedior the purpose of or more ports, movable valve means for closforcing the material through the portsrofnthe ing said port or ports, a wear plate havin discharge' valve, whereby overheating or aport or ports in registry with the first name charring of the material is avoided. The port or ports, said wear plate resting upon high pressure steam is preferably admitted the pressure chamber closing means within at a point near the upper end of the pressure the pressure chamber and being removable chamber althoughit might be admitted at therefrom in a vertical direction, and means some other point so long as it did not intercarried by said pressure lchamber closing fere with the descent of the material by gravmeans to secure the wear plate against moveity to the bottom of the pressure chamber and1 ment in a horizontal plane. its substantially continuous discharge there- 6. In an apparatus of the class described, from. l n an elongated verticallydispos'ed body hav- It will be understood that the values of ing a pressure chamber, a discharge valve steam pressure which have been mentioned member at the bottom of said chambenhavand the lengths of time during which the ming a recess and a valve seat on its lowier sur-A pressure is applied are subject to'variation, face, said recess communicating with said valve means for closing said port or ports, and a cylinder member havin and being substantially less than that of the and my invention is not limited thereto but pressure chamber through one or more ports includes lall such apparatus and methods as of small area as compared with the passage come within the scope of the claims. through said valve seat, and a wear plate Having now disclosed my invention, what having a portor ports in registry with the I claim is: Y port or ports of. said valve member, said 1. In an apparatus of the class described, wear plate resting upon said valve member a discharge valve member having a circular withinythe pressure chamber'and being revalveseat, a recess interior thereto, and an movablein a vertical direction. aperture extending from said recess throughl 7 In an apparatus of the class described, said member', the cross-section of said aperthe combinationof a valve member having ture increasing in the direction of discharge, one or more narrow slots extending therethrough, one or more upwardly extending valve seat. l p projections and a wear plate having a slot 2. In an ap aratus of the .class described, or slots .extendin therethrough to register a discharge v ve comprising a member'havwith the slot or s ots of the valve Plate and ing` a circular valve seat, a recess interior an opening or openings to receive the protliereto,'and an aperture extending from said jection or projections of the valve plate. recess through said member and so formed 8. In an apparatus of the class described, that its cross sectional area increases in the a cylinder having an open end with an outdirection of discharge, the minimum diamwardly extending flange, a circular groove eter of the circular valve'seat being much of tapered cross section in said Harige' surgreater than the minimum width of said rounding said opening, a plate having a ciraperture. f v cular rib of tapered cross section, means for 3. In 'an a paratus of the class described, retaining said rib in engagement with said an elongate vertically disposed body havgroove, a port or ports extending through ing a pressure chamber, means for closing the said plate, and valve means for controlhng lower end of said pressure chamben said discharge through said port or ports. means having Aone or more ports, movable 9. In an apparatus o the class described,

a wear plate above said pressure chamber .a member for closing sai end, one ofl said closing means and having a port or ports in members having a circular groove of tapered registry with the port 'or ports thereof. cross-section, andthe other a circular rib of 4..In an apparatusiof the class described, tapered cross section, andmeans f or retainan elongated vertically disposed body having ing said rib .engagement with saidgroove, a pressure chamber, means for closing the said rib having a groove formed i'n its face'. lower end of said chamber, said means hav- 10. A valve member having a circular rib ing one or more ports, movable valve means of tapered cross section, a port or ports exfor closing said' port or ports, a wear plate tending through said member within the outhaving a port or ports in registry with the line of said rib, and a valve seat surrounding iirst named port or ports, said wear late restsaid port or ports. ing upon the pressure chamber closing means valve member having a circular rib an openend and l of said recess.

13. In an apparatus of the class described,

. of tapered cross section, said rib having a groove formed in its face, a port or ports extending through said member within the outline of said rib, and a valve seat surrounding said port or ports.

12. In an apparatus of the class described, an elongated pressure chamber having a charging inlet adjacent one end and a dis-l charge portion of reduced area adjacent the other end, separate steam connections adjacent the two ends of said chamber, said discharge portion having a port or ports opening directly into a recess of much greater cross-section than the area of the port or ports, and valve means for closing the/outlet an elongated pressure chamber having a charging inlet adjacent one end and a discharge portion of reduced area adjacent theother end, separate steam connections adjacent the two ends of said chamber,A means within said chamber for delecting steam entering the chamber from the connection at the charging end thereof, said discharge portion comprising a port or ports opening directly into arecess of much greater cross-section than the area' of the port or ports, and valve means for closing said recess.

14. In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber adapted to hold high pressure steam, a charging inlet, a steam inlet, and a discharge valve seat, a valve to engage said seat, and a hydraulic ram to supportsaid valve against steam pressure within the pressure chamber.

15. In an apparatus of the class described, a bod having a pressure chamber adapted to hold igh pressure steam, a charging inlet, a steam inlet, an outwardly opening outlet valve, and a hydraulic ram -for holding said valve in closedposition against the action of high pressure steam within the chamber.

16. In an apparatus of the class described, a cylinder having an end rib of gradually diminishing thickness, a groove formedin the face of said rib, an end plate having a tapered groove fitted upon said rib, and means for securing said plate to said cylinder.-

17. In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber adapted Ato hold high pressure steam, a charo'ing inlet, a discharge outlet, a steam inlet a jacent the discharge outlet, a second steam inletl remote therefrom, and unitary means for admitting steam, first through the first steam inlet alone md thereafter' through the second steam in- 18. In an apparatus for disintegrating wood or woody material by subjecting same to penetration by elastic fluid, the combination of a pressure cylinder and means for admitting'low and high pressure elastic Huid thereto comprising unitary h draulic means for admitting low pressure uid only, high pressure iiuid onlyand for shutting oi both having a charging inlet and a constricted dis- I charge opening, admitting steam Aat a pressure of the order of 100 lbs. per square inch to the chamber onl at a point-adjacent the discharge opening fbr a time suiiicient to soft-v en the material adjacent said opening and thereafter admitting steam at a pressure upward of 500 lbs. per square inch to the chamber only at a point remote from the discharge opening, opening the discharge opening and progressively discharging the material there-v through while substantially maintaining the high steam pressure.

20. In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a constricted discharge port, a chamber exterior to said port, and having a valve seat, and a hydraulic ram movable axially into and out of engagement with said valve seat.

21. In anapparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a constricted discharge port, a chamber exterior to said port and having a valve seat and an axially movable piston having at one end a removable valve c'ap to engage said valve seat.

22. In an apparatus ofthe class described, a cylinder having a pressure chamber, a body secured to they lower end of said cylinder and having a valve seat, a piston movable into and out; of en agement with said valve seat, a second cylin er secured to the lower end of the first cylinder to enclose said body and a discharge trunk secured to said second cylinder, the second cylinder comprising independent sections, other and to said first cylinder and said trunk.

23. In an apparatus of the class described, a cylinder having a pressure chamber, means for closing-the lower end of said cylinder and having a valve seat, a piston movable axiallyV into and out of engagement with said valve seat, a defiector on said piston, a cylinder enclosing said valve seat and receiving the discharge therefrom, and a bushing removably secured to the interior of said cylinder.

24. A chambered gun member open at one end, a separate closure member secured thereto, said closure member having on the gun side constricted outlet means for the gun chamber with an enlarged passage therebeyond, an outlet for said passage and. means for valving said outlet.

252 In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a valve member having a recess communicating with the pressure chamber through a constricted aperture, and a valve seat for the seating of a valve to controlfiow of material through removably secured to each said aperture and recess, the area of the aperture being substantially less than that of the passage through th-e valve seat.

26.l In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a valve member having a recess communicating With the pressure chamber through a constricted aperature, anda spherical valve seat for the seating of a Valve to control iow of material through said aperture and recess, the area of the aperture being substantially less than that of the passagethrough the valve seat.

27. In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a member having a chamber communicating with the pressure chamber through a constricted port and having a valve seat situated at a substantial distance from said port in an outward direction, and a valve member movableintoand out of engagement with said valve seat;

28. In an apparatus of the class described, a body having a pressure chamber, a member having a chamber communicating with the pressure chamber through a constricted port and having a valve seat' situated at a substantial distance from said port in an outward direction, a valve member movable into and out of engagement with said valve seat, and hydraulic means for operating said movable member.

29. A valve comprising a hydraulic cylinder and'piston ram, said ram having at one end a valve cap removably seated thereon, and a member having a valve seat with a passage therethrough, said valve cap seating upon said valve seat.

30. A valve comprising a hydrulic lcylinder and piston ram, said ram having at one end a valve surface, a flaring deflector surrounding said ram adjacent said valve surface, and amember having a valve seat with a passage therethrough, said valve surface seating upon said valve seat.

31. A valve comprising a hydraulic cylinder and piston ram, said ra-m having at one end a valve surface, a shoulder and a Haring deiector surrounding said ram adjacent said valve surface and removably seated on said shoulder, and a member having a valve seat with a passage therethrough, said valve y surface seatlng upon said valve seat.

32. A valvecomprlslng a hydraulic cyl1nder and plston ram, said ram havlng at one end a shoulder, a deflector seated thereon, a

`valve cap seated on said delector, and a member havinga valve seat witha Vpassage i therethrough, said valve cap seating upon saidvvalve seat.

In testimony whereof, I have signed my WILLIAM H, MASON. 'g

name hereto.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification162/21, 241/1, 99/323.4, 162/247
International ClassificationD21B1/00, D21B1/36
Cooperative ClassificationD21B1/36
European ClassificationD21B1/36