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Publication numberCN1372431 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 02103238
Publication date2 Oct 2002
Filing date30 Jan 2002
Priority date20 Feb 2001
Also published asCN100403852C, DE50113589D1, EP1233647A2, EP1233647A3, EP1233647B1, US7289638, US20020114476
Publication number02103238.6, CN 02103238, CN 1372431 A, CN 1372431A, CN-A-1372431, CN02103238, CN02103238.6, CN1372431 A, CN1372431A
Inventors帕夫罗维奇吉诺, 内尔库尔特
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Electroacoustic telephone transmitter
CN 1372431 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明涉及用于电声设备的电声炭精盒和电声转换器。 The present invention relates to a carbon cartridge electro-acoustic transducer for electro-acoustic and electro-acoustic device. 本发明的方法是它们和/或它具有电伸缩或磁伸缩元件,最好是压电元件,它们与一个可调的电压源相连接,并且电伸缩或磁伸缩元件的尺寸改变导致炭精盒或转换器内部几何结构的改变。 The method of the present invention is that they and / or it has electrostrictive or magnetostrictive elements, preferably a piezoelectric element, which is connected to an adjustable voltage source, and the size of electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element is changed resulting in a carbon box or alter the internal geometry of the converter. 这样声学上对相应设备进行适配,并且个体的和动态的适配也是可能的。 On such an acoustic device adapted to the respective and individual and dynamic adaptation is also possible.
Claims(9)  translated from Chinese
1.用于电声设备的电声炭精盒或电声转换器,其具有电伸缩或磁伸缩元件(6,7;12;21),最好是压电元件,它们与一个可调电压源连接,并且电伸缩或磁伸缩元件(6,7;12;21)的尺寸改变导致炭精盒或转换器内部几何结构的改变。 1. The apparatus for electro-acoustic or electro-acoustic graphite box electroacoustic transducer having electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element (6,7; 12; 21), preferably a piezoelectric element, which with an adjustable voltage source is connected, and the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element (6,7; 12; 21) to change the size of the cartridge results in a change of the carbon or the internal geometry of the converter.
2.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器,它基于电声原理工作,并具有一个膜片和一个电极,其特征在于,电极(12)是电伸缩或磁伸缩元件。 1 2. The electro-acoustic transducer according to claim, which is based on the principle of electro-acoustic work, and having a diaphragm and an electrode, characterized in that the electrodes (12) are electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element.
3.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器,它基于电声原理工作,并具有一个电极和一个借助于一个环形距离保持件与电极保持距离的膜片,其特征在于,距离保持件是电伸缩或磁伸缩元件。 1 3. The electro-acoustic transducer according to claim, which is based on the principle of electro-acoustic work, and having an annular electrode and a distance by means of a holding member holding the diaphragm and the distance between the electrodes, characterized in that the distance holder is electric or magnetic retractable telescopic elements.
4.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器或炭精盒,它基于电声原理工作,其特征在于,炭精盒容量(Kapselkapazitaet)作为测量值被用于确定电伸缩或磁伸缩元件所加电压的调整电路,以补偿对电极和膜片间的距离有负面作用的加工允差和温度影响。 The electro-acoustic transducer or a carbon cartridge according to claim 1, which is based on the principle of electro-acoustic work, characterized in that the carbon cartridge capacity (Kapselkapazitaet) as the measured value is used to determine the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element applying a voltage adjustment circuit, to compensate for the distance between the electrodes and the membrane has a negative effect on the process tolerances and temperature.
5.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器或炭精盒,它基于电声原理并作为话筒工作,其特征在于,在主声源和话筒之间配置一个确定声音电平的受声器,其测量值被用于调整电伸缩或磁伸缩元件所加的电压。 5. The electro-acoustic transducer or a carbon cartridge according to claim 1, which is based on the principle of electro-acoustic and work as a microphone, characterized in that, between the main sound source and the microphone configured to determine a sound level of the microphone by , whose measurement values are used to adjust the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element applied voltage.
6.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器,它具有至少一个声音进口,其特征在于,在声音进口区域中设置一个电声的摩擦匹配,它由两块最好在边上具有小孔(8)的由电伸缩或磁伸缩材料,最好是压电材料加工的平板(6,7)构成,这些平板(6,7)在其上和下侧面被金属化并且具有一个电连接(4),并且它们电气上串联连接。 6. an electroacoustic transducer according to claim 1, which has at least one sound import, characterized in that a friction match in an electro-acoustic sound inlet region, which preferably has a small hole at the edge by two (8) by the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive material, preferably a flat plate of piezoelectric material processed (6, 7) form, these plates (6,7) at its upper and lower side surface is metallized and having an electrical connection ( 4), and they are electrically connected in series.
7.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器,其特征在于,电伸缩或磁伸缩元件(21)根据它们相应的几何结构打开或关闭一个声通道孔(35)。 7. an electroacoustic transducer according to claim, characterized in that the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element (21) to open or close a sound passage hole (35) in accordance with their respective geometry.
8.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器,其特征在于,电伸缩或磁伸缩元件根据它们相应的几何结构将第二个空心空间(18)与第一个空心空间(17)连结或使其分开。 8. an electroacoustic transducer according to claim, characterized in that the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive elements in accordance with their respective geometry the second hollow space (18) and the first hollow space (17) connecting or to separate them.
9.如权利要求1所述的电声转换器或炭精盒,其特征在于,电伸缩或磁伸缩元件(21)根据它们相应的几何结构打开或关闭一个元件(19)的一个通道(16)。 9. An electro-acoustic transducer or a carbon cartridge according to claim 1, characterized in that the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element (21) to open or close a member (19) in accordance with their respective geometry of a channel (16 ).
Description  translated from Chinese
电声炭精盒 Electro-acoustic graphite box

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及用于电声设备的电声炭精盒或转换器。 The present invention relates to electro-acoustic converters used in a carbon box or electro-acoustic device. 转换器不是按电磁,电动,静电原理工作就是按压电原理工作,并且转换器不是实现成扬声器就是实现成受声器。 Not by electromagnetic converters, electric, electrostatic principle job is to work according to the piezoelectric principle, and the converter is not implemented as a speaker is to be implemented as a device by the sound.


这种设备主要由实质上的电声变换器构成,它被用在所谓的炭精盒,炭精盒再被装在设备外壳中,在外壳中还有其它必要的电子元件。 This apparatus consists essentially of substantially electro-acoustic transducer, it is used in a so-called graphite box, and then the carbon cartridge is mounted in the device housing, in the housing, there are other necessary electronic components.

电声设备至少含有一个所谓的电声炭精盒,它可以被实现为扬声器或受声器。 Electro-acoustic device comprising at least one so-called electro-acoustic graphite box, which can be implemented as a speaker or a microphone that is. 为了简化语言,在本说明书和专利要求书中称此至少包含一个实现为受声器的炭精盒的电声设备为话筒,称具有至少一个实现为扬声器的炭精盒的电声设备为耳机。 In order to simplify the language, in this specification and the claims call this patent contains at least one microphone that is implemented as a carbon cartridge electroacoustic device as a microphone, said speaker having at least one is implemented as a carbon cartridge Acoustic Equipment for headphone .

但是这两个设备有共同性:设备的声学性能由设备生产厂在生产过程中确定,并且此后其性能不能针对最终使用者改变。 However, these two units have the commonality: acoustic performance of the device in the production process is determined by the device manufacturer, and thereafter its performance can not be changed for the end user. 简言之,称为设备的一个不可变更的“声特性”。 In short, called an unalterable "sound characteristics" of the device.

具有一个电声炭精盒的话筒的声学性能主要决定于膜片与电极之间的距离及炭精盒的调整件的结构。 The acoustic performance of the microphone cartridge having an electro-acoustic graphite structure is mainly determined by the distance and the carbon cartridge adjustment member between the diaphragm and the electrode. 如果在活动的,受声场作用的电极,膜片以及固定电极之间的几何参数是确定的,并且如果声学调整件被计算在炭精盒内部(窄的通道,封闭的容积和仅仅部分空气渗透的区域)且是机械实现的,则方向性,灵敏度和频率响应都是确定的和不可改变的。 If active, the geometric parameters of electrodes, a diaphragm and a fixed electrode that is between the sound field effect is determined, and if the acoustic adjustment member is calculated in the carbon inside the cassette (narrow channels, only partially enclosed volume and air infiltration area) and is the mechanical implementation, the directional sensitivity and frequency response are determined and unchangeable.

因此总是根据所考虑的用途来设计炭精盒,并且一般不可能在另一个外壳或设备中装入一个已存在的炭精盒而没有大的质量损失。 Therefore always considered to use according to the design of the carbon cartridge, and is generally impossible to load a cassette in the presence of a carbon shell or another device without a large loss of quality. 这对于受声器和扬声器都是如此。 This is true for by the microphone and speaker.

上述特性使得一系列的炭精盒开发完全不考虑支架支撑和创立不同的生产工具,它们尤其在如今流行的快速模块更换时会变得很贵。 These features make the development of a series of graphite box without considering the bracket support and the creation of different production tool, especially when they are now popular fast module replacement will become very expensive.

电声炭精盒的声学调整现在必须不按随机原则由测试序列确定,而是可以在广泛的领域中被计算。 Electro-acoustic acoustic adjustment Carbon cartridge must now not determined by the test according to the principle of random sequence, but may be calculated in a wide range of fields. 这个计算基于用于声学和电学的数学模型的一致性并且根据电声的仿真原理进行。 This calculation is based on the consistency of the mathematical model for the acoustic and electrical and conducted in accordance with the principles of electro-acoustic simulation. 此计算借助所谓的等效电路实现。 This calculation means of the so-called equivalent circuit implementation. 此外,电学中的一个电感线圈对应于声学中的窄而长的通道,电学中的电容对应于声学中的封闭容积,电学中的一个欧姆电阻对应声学中的用多孔的和仅部分渗透空气的材料盖住的孔。 In addition, an electrical coil inductance corresponding to the acoustics of the long narrow passage, electrical capacitance corresponds to the acoustics of the enclosed volume of electricity in a corresponding acoustic ohmic resistance of only partially penetrate porous and the air material covered hole. 所以声学面可转换为一个电路图,此电路图以电子技术一般规则在所希望的意义上被设计和调整,并且其结果被转换回声学领域。 So acoustic surface can be converted into a circuit, the circuit diagram of electronic technology and the general rule is designed to adjust the desired meaning, and the result is converted to echo field.

通过组合所有这三种电声元件可以对相应电声转换器进行所希望的调整。 All three of the corresponding electro-acoustic element may be electro-acoustic transducer carried by the combination of the desired adjustment. 已经表明:对于电声转换器的一个合乎目的的音色调整,窄通道尤其扮演了一个主要角色。 Have shown that: for a desirable electro-acoustic transducer of the tone adjusting purposes, especially narrow channel plays a major role. 一个窄通道不仅具有一个感抗成分,而且也具有较明显大小的欧姆电阻成分。 A narrow channel only having an inductive reactance component, and also having an ohmic resistance component obvious size. 后者的存在归诸于窄通道中的流动损耗。 Which is attributed to the presence of a narrow channel flow loss.

所谓的摩擦匹配的形成基于此认识:它不仅在阻抗中具有欧姆电阻成分,也具有电感成分,它已被AT400 910B所说明。 Forming so-called friction match based on this recognition: it not only has an ohmic resistance component of the impedance, and also having an inductance component, it has been described AT400 910B. 该发明建议两个由硬材料加工的并且在边上具有小孔的小板借助于一个螺钉固定在小板的中央。 The invention proposes that both made of a hard material processing of small plate and having a small hole at the edge by means of a screw in the center of the small plate. 通过实现的小板相互扭转,可以影响此结构在轴向方向上的结构的阻抗。 Through a small board to achieve mutual twisting, can affect the structure of the impedance of this structure in the axial direction.

另一个已公开的改变阻抗可能性是小板不是相互扭转,而是小板间的距离借助于中心螺钉被改变。 Another possibility has been disclosed change the impedance is a small plate not twisted with each other, by means of the distance between the center of the screw but small plate is changed. 如此形成所谓摩擦匹配的阻抗改变主要影响话筒或耳机的声音。 Thus forming the so-called friction matching impedance changes mainly affect the sound microphone or headset. 这就是说,不仅话筒或耳机的频率响应,同时其方向特性也被改变。 That is, not only the frequency response of a microphone or headset, while its directional characteristic is also changed. 在每种情况下,并且不依赖于在生产时炭精盒的调整单元是否可被改变,目前声学调整只在组装炭精盒之前进行一次,并且在声学设备的整个寿命期中保持不被改变。 In each case, and without depending on whether the carbon cartridge adjustment unit may be changed at the time of production, the acoustic adjusted prior to assembly of the carbon cartridge only once, and is maintained without change over the life of the acoustic device. 这种情况是话筒或耳机的使用者所不乐意接受的。 This situation is the user of the handset or headset is not willing to accept.

不是只有电声设备的声音特性对于其合乎目的的应用才有决定性意义。 Not only the electrical properties of acoustic sound equipment in line with the purpose for which applications have decisive significance. 它的有关传输质量的性能也是重要的。 It's about the quality of the transmission performance is also important. 它们主要由电声转换器的灵敏度决定。 They are mainly determined by the electro-acoustic transducer sensitivity.

其它的联系如下所述:除了已说明的声学阻抗匹配(摩擦匹配)的影响之外,电极和膜片间的距离影响炭精盒容量,从而影响炭精盒的灵敏度。 Other links as follows: In addition to the already described acoustic impedance matching (matching friction) effects, the distance between the electrodes and the membrane impact graphite cassette capacity, thus affecting the sensitivity of the carbon cartridge. 上面所述炭精盒由于其在话筒外壳中的结构,电气上连接于话筒外壳中的放大器的输入端。 Carbon cartridge described above due to its structure in the microphone housing, the housing is electrically connected to the microphone input of the amplifier. 从而话筒的电声传输性能主要由两个元件决定。 Whereby the electro-acoustic transmission performance is mainly determined by two microphone elements. 即不仅最低声压,而且最高声压也与话筒炭精盒和话筒放大器有关,这里最高声压是指在不明显降低传输质量条件下所能传输的最高声压。 That is not only the lowest sound pressure, but also with a maximum sound pressure microphone and microphone amplifier related graphite box, where the highest sound pressure is defined as the transmission quality under conditions of significant loss can transmit the highest sound pressure.

还可传输的最低声强度被话筒的所谓自身噪声所限制。 Minimum sound transmission can also be limited by the strength of the so-called self-noise microphone. 这里是指热噪声,它存在于所有电子设备中。 This refers to the thermal noise, which is present in all electronic devices. 最强的可传输声强度决定于话筒放大器的有限的供电电压,因为放大器的输出电压不可能高于其供电电压。 Most can transmit sound intensity is determined by the limited supply voltage microphone amplifier, the output voltage of the amplifier is not possible because of higher than its supply voltage.

电声领域的开发工程师总是如此结构电声设备,使得它们无明显质量降低地传输非常轻的和非常响的声音事件。 Development engineer in the field of electro-acoustic structure of electro-acoustic devices always the case, so that they are no obvious way to reduce the transmission quality is very light and very loud sound events. 为了结构用于更小声压的话筒炭精盒,必须如此构造,使得它对于声压起伏尽可地灵敏。 In order for the structure of graphite is more sound pressure microphone cartridge, must be so constructed such that it is for the sound pressure fluctuation as possible to the sensitive. 即其传输系数应尽可能地大。 I.e., the transmission coefficient should be as large as possible. 在静电受声器中这可如此实现:电极间的距离保持尽可能小。 In the electrostatic microphone in this subject can be embodied so that: the distance between the electrodes is kept as small as possible. 然而另一方面在非常高的声压时放大器输入端上的电压如此之高,以至甚至于在较低的声压下放大器的输出电压达到作为放大器自动限幅界限的放大器供电电压高度。 However, on the other hand at very high sound pressure on the amplifier input voltage is so high that even at lower sound pressure amplifier output voltage reaches the amplifier automatically limiting amplifier supply voltage height limit. 这就是说,对于最小和最大可传输声压,即所谓的动态范围,必须作出折衷。 That is, for the minimum and maximum sound pressure can be transmitted, i.e. the so-called dynamic range, a compromise must be made.

如果人们知道在一个录音位置上只指望轻的声音事件例如音乐会的钢琴乐章,或只指望响的声音事件,如打击乐器录音,可以通过熟练地布置话筒部分地克服上述缺点。 If people knew the location of a sound recording sound only expect light piano music events such as concerts, or just expect a loud sound event, such as percussion recordings, you can overcome these shortcomings by skillfully arranged the microphone part. 这就是说,在轻的声源处话筒接近声源放置,相反,在响的乐器处话筒远离声源放置。 That is to say, in light of the sound source at the microphone close to the sound source, on the contrary, in the ring of the instrument at the sound source is placed away from the microphone. 显然,这是困难的并在非常少的情况下才可能。 Obviously, this is difficult and it may be in very few cases.

某些话筒生产厂通过构造一个所谓的减弱器帮助自己脱离困境:在炭精盒和放大器之间按需要手动接入一个分压器,使得在响的声音事件时没有太大的炭精盒信号被放大器接收到。 Some microphone plant by constructing a so-called weakened Help yourself out of the woods: between the carbon and the amplifier box by the need to manually access a divider, so that when a loud sound event is not much of a carbon box signal amplifier to be received. 话筒炭精盒信号的减弱在静电话筒转换器时在高欧姆范围进行,从而存在一个系列电路技术难点。 Carbon box microphone signals weaken when the electrostatic microphone converter in high-ohmic range, so there is a series circuit technical difficulties. 首先对于高阻电路必须使用合适的开关。 First, for a high-impedance circuit must use the appropriate switch. 这意味着考虑应用专门的并从而昂贵的开关。 This means that in order to consider the application of a special and expensive switch. 因为在所述例子中涉及一个静电原理工作的话筒炭精盒,它在话筒的电子电路中表现为一个电容器,因而必须用一个所谓的电容分压器。 Because it involves the principle of an electrostatic microphone graphite work box in the case, it behaves as a capacitor microphone in an electronic circuit, and therefore must use a so-called capacitive divider. 它们借助于电容器实现,并使得所需的信号减弱可在宽范围内进行。 They realized by means of a capacitor, and so that the desired signal can be reduced over a wide range. 可惜的是当一个电容的减弱器被用于这种炭精盒时失真系数(输出信号的失真)增加到可听出。 Unfortunately, when the distortion factor (distortion of the output signal) to audible out of control when a capacitor is used to weaken this graphite box. 因此这种话筒被避免用于高质量应用中。 Therefore, to avoid this microphone is used for high quality applications.


因此存在较大的对于那些转换器或炭精盒的需求,它们的电声性能在其生产之后还可被有针对性地并简单地,最好在装炭精盒到外壳中时被更改。 Thus there is a large graphite or those converters cartridge demand for their acoustic properties after its production may also be targeted to and simply, preferably mounted to the cartridge housing when the carbon is changed. 当然,电声设备的使用者感兴趣的是能使声学性能与相应的应用相适配。 Of course, interested users can make electro-acoustic devices are acoustic performance adapted to the corresponding application.

为了解决此问题,本发明规定:转换器或炭精盒的内部几何结构的变动通过电伸缩或磁伸缩元件,最好由压电元件实现。 To solve this problem, the present invention provides: change the internal geometry of the converter or the carbon cartridge by electrostrictive or magnetostrictive elements, preferably implemented by a piezoelectric element.

在本发明说明书和权利要求书中,“内部几何结构的改变”不仅是指静电转换器的电极与膜片之间距离的改变,而且也指炭精盒的元件相互间距离的改变,例如在一个上面提及的摩擦匹配情况下,或者是打开或关闭的变化,或者是孔或类似物尺寸变化。 In the present description and claims, "to change the internal geometry of the" means not only the converter changing the distance between the electrostatic electrode and the diaphragm, but also to the change between the carbon cartridge element mutual distances, e.g. friction matching of the above-mentioned one, or a change in open or closed, or a hole or the like, dimensional change.

在本发明说明书和权利要求书中,“电伸缩或磁伸缩元件”是指所有这些元件,它们在加上电压时一个特征性的物体尺寸以由所加电压决定的大小可还原地改变。 In the present description and claims, "electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element" refers to all those elements which are characteristic of an object size to the size determined by the applied voltage can be restored at the time of voltage change. 例子是上面提到的压电元件,通过加上一个电压其几何尺寸可还原地改变,它也指那些磁伸缩元件,在磁场作用下它们的几何尺寸可还原地改变。 Examples of a piezoelectric element mentioned above, changes can be restored by adding a voltage of its geometry, it also refers to those magnetostrictive element whose geometry can be changed to restore the magnetic field.

附图说明 Brief Description

下面借助附图详细说明本发明。 Following detailed description of the invention with reference to drawings. 附图中,图1是按照现有技术的一个电声转换器,图2示出电声仿真的对应关系,图3是已公开的摩擦匹配简化侧视图, Drawings, FIG. 1 is an electro-acoustic transducer according to the prior art, Figure 2 shows the correspondence between the electro-acoustic simulation, Fig. 3 is disclosed a simplified side view of a friction match,

图4是本发明的电声摩擦匹配,图5是按本发明构成的转换器,并且图6,7和8示出细节。 Figure 4 is an electrical acoustic matching friction present invention, FIG. 5 is a transducer constructed according to the present invention, and FIG. 6, 7 and 8 show details.


图1作为例子示出一个按电声原理工作的用在话筒中的受声炭精盒。 Figure 1 shows as an example a press operating on the principle of electro-acoustic microphone used in the graphite by the sound box. 话筒的声学特性主要决定于膜片1和电极2之间的距离以及炭精盒的声学调整元件3的结构(后面的容积大小,在后面的声音入孔的摩擦,电极中孔的大小和数量)。 Acoustic properties of the microphone and is mainly determined by the distance between the carbon cartridge 2 of the acoustic diaphragm 1 and the electrode structure adjustment element 3 (hereinafter, the volume size, the sound hole in the back of the friction, the size and number of holes in the electrode ). 如果活动的并置于声场中的电极,膜片和固定电极2之间的几何参数是固定的,并且如果在炭精盒内部声学调整参量3(窄通道,封闭的容积以及仅部分渗透空气的区域)被计算且被机械上实现,则方向性,灵敏度,频率响应都被确定并且是不改变的。 If the active and placed in the sound field in the electrode 2 between the geometric parameters of the diaphragm and the fixed electrode is fixed, and if the adjustment in the carbon cartridge interior acoustic parameter 3 (narrow channel, and only partially enclosed volume of air infiltration region) is calculated and is realized mechanically, directivity, sensitivity, frequency response are determined and do not change. 所示出的炭精盒的“边界条件”由未示出的话筒外壳确定,在它被改变后在炭精盒内部相应的调整参量3不再能保证所要的传输性能。 "Boundary conditions" illustrated graphite box is determined by an unillustrated microphone housing, after it was changed in the carbon inside the cassette corresponding adjustment parameters 3 no longer be guaranteed transmission performance desired.

图2示出电声仿真的对应元件关系,左边是声学元件,右边是对应的电学元件:声学领域中窄而长的通道31对应电学领域中的一个线圈32,声学领域中的封闭容积33对应电学领域中的一个电容器34,并且声学领域中的用多孔且仅部分渗透空气的材料盖住的孔35对应电学领域中的一个欧姆电阻36。 Corresponding elements in Figure 2 shows a relationship between the electro-acoustic simulation, acoustic element is left, the right is the corresponding electric element: the field of acoustics long narrow passage 31 corresponds to the electrical field of a coil 32, the acoustic field of the enclosed volume 33 corresponds electric field of a capacitor 34, and the acoustic field with only a part of the porous and air permeable material covering a hole 35 corresponding to the electrical field of a 36 ohm resistor.

图3示出按照上面引证的AT-B的一个摩擦匹配(Reibungspille)。 Figure 3 shows a friction match according to the above-cited AT-B of (Reibungspille). 它由两块由硬材料加工成的在边上具有小孔39,40的平板36,37构成,它们用一个位于它们中心的螺钉38连结。 It is processed by two plates made of a hard material into the apertures 39, 40 in the sides 36, 37 having a constitution which is located by a screw 38 connecting their centers. 通过有目的地相互旋转平板36、37,可以在轴向上影响该结构的声学阻抗,因为通过旋转改变了路径长度。 By purposefully mutual rotation plates 36 and 37, can affect the acoustic impedance of the structure in the axial direction, because the path length by changing the rotation.

图4示出一个电声摩擦匹配按照本发明的实施例。 Figure 4 shows an electro-acoustic friction match according to an embodiment of the present invention. 它由两个由压电材料构成的在边上具有小孔的平板6、7组成。 It consists of plates having apertures at both sides of a piezoelectric material composed of 6,7. 平板6和7的电连接通过任一已公开的连接方式4实现。 Electric plates 6 and 7 is connected through a connection to any one of the disclosed 4 implementation. 这些平板在上和下侧面被金属化并且电气上串联连接。 These plates in the upper and lower side surfaces are metallized and electrically connected in series. 通过连接一个直流电压源它们如此延伸:平板6、7间的距离5缩短。 By connecting a DC voltage source so that they extend: the distance between the flat 6,7 5 shortened.

连接在平板上的电压的改变通过改变平板6、7间的距离5来改变轴向声学阻抗。 Changing the voltage connected to the plate by changing the distance between the plates 6 and 7 to change the axial direction of the acoustic impedance 5. 从而其中装有此摩擦匹配的话筒或耳机的声音可从外部受影响而不必要拆开话筒-或耳机-炭精盒或者话筒或耳机,也无需再组装它们。 So which is equipped with the friction match microphone or audio headset can be influenced from the outside unnecessary open microphone - or headphones - Carbon box or microphone or headset, also no longer need to assemble them.

这也是可能的:两块平板6或7中的一块由普通材料,例如塑料或金属加工成的平板所代替。 It is also possible: two plates 6 or 7 by an ordinary material such as plastic or metal into plate replaced. 这样仅有一块板对板间距离的减小产生贡献。 This is just a piece of board to reduce the distance between the plates generate contributions. 这些平板不一定设计成圆形,也可用所有其它几何形状,从矩形直到椭圆形,但是它们必须每一块至少有一个位于边上或内部的用作空气或声音通道的孔8。 These plates are not necessarily designed to be circular, other geometries may be used for all, until from the rectangular oval, but they must have at least one in each block or inside the sides of the hole as an air or sound channel 8. 平板6、7的初始距离在所示实施例中由平板7在边上的小阶梯9确定。 Initial distance plates 6,7 in the illustrated embodiment, the step 7 in the edge of the small plate 9 is determined by. 也可用一个垫圈代替阶梯9。 Can also be used instead of a ladder washer 9. 可以通过改变所加电压的极性不仅缩短而且也能增加平板间的距离(阶梯9的径向距离)。 Can be changed by the applied voltage polarity but also can increase not only shorten the distance (radial distance of the step 9) between the plates.

图5示出一个由压电材料加工成的电极在本发明中的应用,它可应用在电声话筒炭精盒中。 Figure 5 illustrates a process of a piezoelectric material into an electrode used in the present invention, it can be used in electro-acoustic microphone graphite box. 与图1所示传统电声话筒炭精盒的区别在于电极12。 1 shows the difference between conventional acoustic microphone graphite electrode 12 is the box diagram. 它现在有第二个圆盘,并且不仅通过电连接作为电声转换器的一个电容器电极与话筒放大器连接起来,而且通过第二根连线14连接于第二个电路。 It now has a second disc, and electrically connected not only through the electro-acoustic transducer as a capacitor electrode connected with the microphone amplifier, but also through the second wire 14 is connected to the root of the second circuit. 这样电极12可以通过加控制电压到连线14上来改变其厚度,从而也改变电极12和膜片11间的距离。 Thus the electrode 12 may be controlled by a voltage applied to the wiring 14 up to change its thickness, thus changing the distance between the electrode 12 and the diaphragm 11. 当然也可以在膜片支撑环15的区域内设置压电元件,使得膜片和电极间距离直接改变,而不是通过间接改变电极12的厚度来改变它。 Of course, can support a piezoelectric element provided in the diaphragm inner ring region 15, so that the direct distance between the diaphragm and the electrode changes, rather than by changing the thickness of the electrode 12 to change it indirectly.

主要优点在于用这种方法来影响话筒的灵敏度。 The main advantage is that in this way to influence the sensitivity of the microphone. 于是不再使用上述外部的衰减电容器,而是直接改变膜片和电极间的距离。 Then the attenuation is no longer using the external capacitor, but directly change the distance between the diaphragm and the electrode. 对应于通过加控制电压到电极上而导致的转换器的电极11,14间距离的减小是炭精盒灵敏度的提高。 Reducing the distance between the electrodes 11, 14 corresponding to the control voltage applied through the electrodes to cause converter box is graphite increased sensitivity. 因为随着膜片和电极间距离的减小,炭精盒的容量也增大。 Because with decreasing distance between the diaphragm and the electrode, graphite cartridge capacity increases. 从而得到下述优点:在灵敏度上调整的炭精盒也自动具有大容量。 Thereby obtaining the following advantages: the sensitivity adjustment of a carbon cartridge is automatically a large capacity. 因为炭精盒容量愈大,一个C-话筒的噪声愈小,从而本发明使得构造高灵敏度且低噪声的话筒成为可能,此话筒还具有大的动态范围,因为在记录响的声音事件时炭精盒可被切换为低灵敏度(电极和膜片间有大的距离)。 Because greater capacity of graphite box, a C- microphone noise smaller, and thus the present invention is constructed such that high sensitivity and low noise microphone becomes possible, the microphone also has a large dynamic range, because the ring carbon at the time of recording sound events capsule may be switched to low sensitivity (between electrodes and the diaphragm has a large distance).

为了提供更佳的可重复结果,可在话筒中相应引入炭精盒容量作为调整时的测量值。 In order to provide a better reproducible results may be introduced into the graphite box corresponding microphone capacity as measured value adjustment. 从而对电极间距离有负面影响的加工误差和温度影响也可以简单而可靠的方法被补偿。 Thus the distance between the electrodes have a negative impact of processing errors and temperature on can also simple and reliable way to be compensated. 相应电路的调整对于具有本发明知识的调整话筒的专业人员而言是没有问题的。 Adjust the circuit for adjusting the microphone has professional knowledge of the present invention is concerned there is no problem.

因为在两个应用例中的压电平板电学上是高阻的,没有更多的电流流过它,这对于电声设备的总耗电来说有正面影响。 Because the application example of the two piezoelectric plates is high impedance of the electrical, no more current flows through it, which have a positive effect on the total power consumption for the electro-acoustic device. 从电学角度看,上述平板可视为一个电容器的平板,这意味着在控制电路中只有短时间的充电电流,它持续到电容器被充电到所连接的电压为止(几个毫秒的时间)。 From the electrical point of view, the above-described tablet can be regarded as one capacitor plate, which means that only a short time in the charging current control circuit, which continues until the capacitor is charged to a voltage of the connected up (several milliseconds). 由于上述原因(无电流),可称此连接到平板上去的电压为偏振电压。 For the above reasons (no current), this connection can be called up to the plate voltage of polarization voltages.

偏振电压的大小可以连续地或者以设定的等级改变。 Polarization voltage magnitude can be changed continuously or in a hierarchical set. 电压源本身是一个直流电源,并且其电压根据需要可以到100V左右。 Voltage source is a DC power supply itself, and its voltage is required to be about 100V. 因为电压源不必须提供额定的电流强度,也可以放弃所有电流保护措施(电流限制)。 Because the voltage source does not have to provide the rated amperage, you can discard all current protection measures (current limit). 电压可以由设备的供电获得(在电容话筒中为幻象馈电),或者由一个连接在设备上的可调电压获得。 Voltage power supply equipment can be obtained by (in condenser microphone for phantom feed), or by an adjustable voltage on the device to get connected.

应用具有特别高的伸缩系数的压电元件自然是有好处的。 Applications with particularly high coefficient of piezoelectric element telescopic nature is good. 从而各个电声元件可以单独地被作用。 Whereby each of the electro-acoustic element may be individually effect. 如图6所示,在炭精盒或摩擦匹配中可在一个元件19中通过用控制电压由一个压电反应平板21来打开或关闭通道16,也可以如图7所示,通过并行接通另一个容积18来增大容积17的声学意义上的大小。 6, can be obtained by matching the carbon box or a friction element 19 with the control voltage generated by the reaction of a piezoelectric plate 21 to open or close the passage 16, and to be as shown in Figure 7, by parallel turning Another volume 18 to increase the size of the volume 17 of the acoustic sense on. 也可如图8所示,例如被安装在声通孔35中的整个摩擦匹配被移动或“盖住”。 Also shown in Figure 8, for example, is mounted in the sound through-hole 35 is moved throughout the match friction or "cover." 其中21表示一个由压电材料加工成的,以上述方式用控制电压控制的平板。 21 represents a process in which a piezoelectric material into the manner described above with the control voltage of the plate. 加有控制电压的平板21打开或关闭那些用于声学调节图中未示出的炭精盒的元件。 Plus a control voltage plate 21 that is used to open or close the acoustic elements regulating FIG Carbon cartridge, not shown.

基于电声原理并作为话筒工作的电声转换器或炭精盒的动态适配是如此实现的:在主声源和话筒之间配置一个确定声音电平的受声器,其测量值被用于调整加到电伸缩或磁伸缩元件的电压通过快速数据处理和压电元件的快速适配,在一次录音中话筒的灵敏度可根据实际的声音电平完成适配。 Based on the principle of electro-acoustic and microphone adapted to work as a dynamic electro-acoustic transducer or graphite box is so realized: between the main sound source and the microphone configured to determine a sound level by the sound device, the measurement value is used was added to adjust the electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element voltage by quickly adapting fast data processing and the piezoelectric element, in a recording sensitivity of the microphone can be adapted according to the actual completion of the sound level.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN102547520A *23 Dec 20104 Jul 2012北京卓锐微技术有限公司Capacitance microphone, and control system and control method for capacitance microphone
CN102547520B *23 Dec 20106 Apr 2016北京卓锐微技术有限公司电容式麦克风及其控制系统和控制方法
CN104662930A *22 Jul 201327 May 2015雅马哈株式会社Protection device for sound signal converter
CN104662930B *22 Jul 201327 Oct 2017雅马哈株式会社声音信号转换设备的保护装置
International ClassificationH04R19/00, H04R17/00, H04R19/01, H04R9/02, H04R7/00, H04R19/04, H04R17/02, H04R7/04, H04R15/00
Cooperative ClassificationH04R19/016
European ClassificationH04R19/01C
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2 Oct 2002C06Publication
25 Feb 2004C10Request of examination as to substance
16 Jul 2008C14Granted