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Publication numberCN1338993 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 00803282
PCT numberPCT/GB2000/000173
Publication date6 Mar 2002
Filing date24 Jan 2000
Priority date1 Feb 1999
Also published asCA2360922A1, CN1207150C, DE60002981D1, DE60002981T2, EP1148994A1, EP1148994B1, US6619788, US20020071007, WO2000044565A1
Publication number00803282.3, CN 00803282, CN 1338993 A, CN 1338993A, CN-A-1338993, CN00803282, CN00803282.3, CN1338993 A, CN1338993A, PCT/2000/173, PCT/GB/0/000173, PCT/GB/0/00173, PCT/GB/2000/000173, PCT/GB/2000/00173, PCT/GB0/000173, PCT/GB0/00173, PCT/GB0000173, PCT/GB000173, PCT/GB2000/000173, PCT/GB2000/00173, PCT/GB2000000173, PCT/GB200000173
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Droplet deposition apparatus
CN 1338993 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
在压电打印头中使用一种受体掺杂的“硬”压电换能材料代替传统的“软”给体掺杂材料。 The use of a receptor-doped "hard" piezoelectric transducer material instead of the traditional "soft" donor-doped material in piezoelectric print head. 该打印头以V形侧边喷射结构为佳,并在高分辨灰度打印时具有优越性。 The print head to the side injection V-shaped structure is better, and has the advantages of high resolution grayscale when printing.
Claims(8)  translated from Chinese
1.一种微滴沉积装置,所述装置包括液滴喷嘴以及与所述喷嘴相通并输送喷射微滴的液体给所述喷嘴的压力腔,该压力腔的侧壁设置了可根据应用的电信号而变形使喷嘴喷射出微滴的受体掺杂压电材料。 A droplet deposition apparatus, said apparatus comprising a nozzle and a droplet in communication with the nozzle and transporting the liquid droplet to the ejection nozzle of the pressure chamber, the side walls of the pressure chamber is provided according to the application of the electric signal is deformed so that the nozzle ejected droplet acceptor doped piezoelectric material.
2.根据权利要求1所述的装置,其特征在于,在施加的电信号电压下,所述材料的滞后耗损正切(tanδ)基本上不大于0.05。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that, in the electrical signal applied voltage, the hysteresis loss of the material's tangent (tanδ) is substantially not greater than 0.05.
3.根据权利要求1或2所述的装置,其特征在于,所述材料的品质因数在15到30之间,最好为约25。 1 or 3. The apparatus according to claim 2, characterized in that the material quality factor between 15 and 30, preferably about 25.
4.根据前面任何一项权利要求所述的装置,其特征在于,所述喷嘴位于所述压力腔的两个末端之间的另一侧壁上。 4. A device according to any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that said nozzles are located on both ends of the other side wall between the pressure chamber.
5.根据前面任何一项权利要求所述的装置,其特征在于,施加的电信号使所述压电材料以剪切模式变形,并在所述压力腔中形成声压波,从而喷出所述微滴。 5. The apparatus of any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the electrical signal applied to said piezoelectric material is deformed in shear mode, and the sound pressure waves are formed in said pressure chamber, thereby ejecting the described droplets.
6.根据权利要求5所述的装置,其特征在于,在所述外壁上的所述压电材料有两个并排延伸的区域,所述区域具有极性,从其横截面上看,施加的电信号可使所述区域变形成V形。 6. The apparatus according to claim 5, characterized in that the outer wall of the piezoelectric material has two regions extending side by side, the region having a polarity, see its cross section, applied varying electrical signal causes said V-shaped region.
7.根据前面任何一项权利要求所述的装置,其特征在于,所述压电材料为压电换能材料。 7. A device according to any preceding claim, wherein said piezoelectric material is a piezoelectric transducer material.
8.一种微滴沉积装置,该装置基本上和参考附图3到图7中的任何一幅所介绍的装置相同。 A droplet deposition apparatus, the apparatus substantially one and any reference to the figures 3 to 7 in the same apparatus as described.
Description  translated from Chinese
一种微滴沉积装置 A micro droplet deposition apparatus

本发明涉及一种微滴沉积装置。 The present invention relates to a droplet deposition apparatus.

具体地说,本发明涉及打印机或其他由电信号产生声压波并从腔体内喷射液体(如油墨)的微滴沉积装置。 More specifically, the present invention relates to a printer or other droplet deposition apparatus of the sound pressure waves generated by the electric signal from the cavity and the ejection liquid (e.g. ink). 所述装置可以只有一个这样的腔体,但更为典型的是带有一排各带一个喷嘴的此种腔体的打印头,所述打印头接受携带数据的电信号,电信号为腔体根据命令喷出微滴提供所需能量。 The device may have only one such cavity, but more typically has a printhead with a nozzle row of each such cavity, said print head to accept the electrical signals carrying data, in accordance with an electric signal to the cavity command to provide the necessary droplet ejection energy. 这个或每个腔体以压电元件为边界,而电信号可造成该压电元件偏转,从而产生了喷射微滴的声压波。 The or each cavity to the piezoelectric element as a boundary, and the electrical signal can cause deflection of the piezoelectric element, resulting in the ejection of droplets of sound pressure waves. 参考我们已公开的专利EP0277703、US4887100、WO91/17051可以进一步得到典型结构的细节。 Refer to our published patent EP0277703, US4887100, WO91 / 17051 can be further details of a typical structure.

在此种装置中,喷射微滴所要求的电信号电压通常要尽可能地小;电压低就能简化驱动电路和/或降低成本。 In this apparatus, the droplet ejection electrical voltage is usually required to be as small as possible; low voltage drive circuit can be simplified and / or lower costs. 而且,在打印头工作时产生的热量,在打印头内和驱动电路内都与电压的平方成正比,也要减至最小。 Further, when the heat generated in the printhead work, in the print head and the drive circuits are proportional to the square of the voltage, but also minimized. 过多的产热量应该予以避免,因为热量影响油墨的流体物性,使得打印不精确,尤其是在打印头不同腔体间存在明显的温度差异时。 Excessive heat production should be avoided, because the heat affect the fluid properties of the ink, making the printing inaccurate, especially if there is a significant temperature difference between the print head at different cavity. 当一个腔体的工作次数显著地比另一个要多的时候,这样的差异就会出现,比如说一个腔体在打印一个图象的密度大区域,而另一个在打印密度小得多的区域。 When the number of operations of a cavity is significantly more time than the other, such a difference occurs, for example, a cavity in the print density of an image area, and the other a much smaller area in the print density . 所以,优选的压电材料往往是一种软(给体掺杂)锆钛酸铅压电换能材料。 Therefore, the preferred piezoelectric material is often a soft (donor doping) of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric transducer material. 软的压电换能器(PZT)具有很高的压电活性;也就是说,对于给定的电压,此材料的物理变形相对大些,这一点对于从腔体中喷出液体微滴特别有用。 Soft piezoelectric transducer (PZT) having a high piezoelectric activity; that is, for a given voltage, physical deformation of this material is relatively larger, which is for discharging the liquid droplets from the chamber in particular it works.

如同我们的专利EP-A-277703中的“尾部喷射”(“end-shooter”)打印头部分所述,将压电材料排列成“V”字形可以进一步降低驱动电压。 As noted in our patent EP-A-277703 in the "tail injection" ("end-shooter") portion of the print head, the piezoelectric material arranged in a "V" shape may further reduce the driving voltage. 其他或另外的方法,如专利WO91/17051中所述,可将打印头制成“侧边喷射”(“side shooter”)。 Other or additional methods, as described in Patent WO91 / 17051 as described, the print head can be made "side injection" ("side shooter"). 相对于采用单片压电元件的“尾部喷射”方案,对于一定的微滴喷射性能,这两种方案都能将驱动电压减半;同时采用这两种方式,能将驱动电压减低到四分之一。 With respect to the use of monolithic piezoelectric element "tail injection" scheme, for a given droplet ejection performance, these two programs can halve the drive voltage; simultaneously using these two methods, the driving voltage can be reduced to a quarter one.

“尾部喷射”是指一种结构,在该结构中,喷嘴位于细长腔体的尾部,压电材料分布在腔体的侧面上。 "Tail jet" refers to a structure, in this structure, the nozzle is at the end of the elongate chamber, the piezoelectric material distributed on the side surface of the cavity. 而在侧边喷射结构中,喷嘴置于腔体的没有分布压电材料的较长侧面上。 The structure of the side jet nozzles placed on the longer side of the cavity without distribution of the piezoelectric material. 在“V形”方案中,腔体的纵向侧面受到沿腔体纵向延伸的压电材料的限制,其中压电材料有极性相反的区域,因此在施加电信号时,材料的两个区域朝同一个方向变形,从横截面方向看去,形成V字形。 In the "V-shaped" embodiment, the longitudinal sides of the cavity is limited by the cavity longitudinally extending along the piezoelectric material, wherein the piezoelectric material has a polarity opposite to that area, so when an electric signal is applied, the two regions of the material toward the deformed in the same direction, as viewed from the direction of the cross-section to form a V-shape.

尽管上述方法被认为是驱动电压低且热效应小,但也存在很大的缺点,即与单片尾部喷射的方案相比,从驱动电路上可以看出,这两种方案中的腔体壁的电容几乎成倍地增加。 While the above method is considered to be a low driving voltage and small thermal effects, but there is a big disadvantage, i.e. a monolithic tail injection solutions, the drive circuit can be seen from these two schemes in the body wall of the cavity capacitance increases almost exponentially. 因此,V形侧边喷射方案中的电容为可进行比较的单片尾部喷射的四倍。 Thus, V-shaped side injection scheme can be compared to the capacitance of the monolithic tail injection four times. 高电容有两种后果,首先是电容热效应,这一点的不利之处业经讨论;第二点是高电容量增大了装置的时间常数(RC)。 High capacitance has two consequences, firstly the capacitance thermal effects, this disadvantage already discussed; the second is a high capacitance increases the time constant (RC) device. 驱动电信号的波形最好尽可能地近似方波,以便最大化声压波的锐度。 Driving electrical waveform best possible approximation of the square wave to maximize the sharpness of the sound pressure wave. 大的时间常数会增大电路响应阶越变化的上升时间,因而其产生有效的高频方波的能力有所减弱。 Capacity increases the time constant circuit in response to the change in the order of the rise time, and thus it produces an effective high frequency square wave weakened. 因此驱动信号的频率受到限制,从而也降低了打印机的工作速度。 Thus the frequency of the drive signal is limited, thus reducing the operating speed of the printer. 在可变密度(灰度)打印机中这一点尤其重要,在这种打印机中,每一沉积微滴都是由极高频率的数量可以控制的更小的次微滴组成。 In variable density (gradation) This is particularly important in the printer, in this printer, each deposited droplet is determined by the number of high frequency can be controlled smaller secondary droplets composition.

本发明的优选实施例就着眼于解决这个问题。 Preferred embodiment of the present invention is aimed at solving this problem.

本发明提供一种微滴沉积装置,该装置包括液体微滴喷嘴以及与喷嘴相通并输送用于喷射微滴的液体给喷嘴的压力腔,该压力腔的外壁设置可根据应用的电信号而变形使喷嘴喷射微滴的受体掺杂压电材料。 The present invention provides a droplet deposition apparatus, the apparatus comprising a liquid droplet and a nozzle in communication with the nozzle and the delivery pressure chamber for ejecting droplets of liquid to the nozzle, and the outer wall of the pressure chamber can be deformed according to the electrical signal applied droplet jetting nozzle receptor doped piezoelectric material.

在施加的电信号电压下,该材料最好有一个基本上不大于0.05的滞后耗损(tanδ)。 In the electrical voltage applied, the material preferably has a hysteresis loss is not substantially greater than 0.05 in (tanδ).

滞后耗损正切由以下给出tanδ=ε″/ε′ Hysteresis loss tangent given tanδ = ε "/ ε 'consists of the following

其中,ε″为介电常数的虚部,ε′为实部。 Wherein, ε "is the imaginary part of the dielectric constant, ε 'is the real part.

该材料的品质因素(如此处所定义的)以15到30之间为佳,最好大约为25。 Quality factor of the material (as defined herein) to between 15 to 30 and most preferably, about 25.

此处的品质因素是指量d15/(S55ε0)1/2tanδ=ε″/ε′其中,d15=剪应变/电场压电常数S55=电剪切柔量ε0=自由空间的介电常数对一系列的PZT材料所作的试验表明有这样的大趋势,即高品质因数与高损耗角正切和高相对介电常数有关系。 Quality factor here is the amount of d15 / (S55 ε0) 1 / 2tanδ = ε "/ ε 'where, d15 = shear strain / electric piezo electric constant shear compliance S55 = ε0 = permittivity of free space a series of tests showed that the PZT material made such a big trend, namely high quality factor and high loss tangent and high relative permittivity of a relationship.

如同所述的,本发明特别适用于所含压电材料以剪切模式变形的装置,以及具有“侧边喷射”或“V形”结构中一种或最好两种结构都有的装置。 As said, the present invention is particularly applicable to devices contained in the piezoelectric material in shear mode deformation, as well as having a "side injection" or "V-shaped" structure has one or preferably two structural means.

用于本发明的优选压电材料为受主掺杂PZT,如摩根摩确克(Morgan Matroc)销售的PC4D。 Preferably the piezoelectric material used in the present invention is an acceptor-doped PZT, such as Morgan Mount indeed g (Morgan Matroc) sold PC4D.

现在参考附图,仅通过示例的方式来对本发明进行说明。 Referring now to the drawings, merely by way of example to illustrate the present invention. 在附图中,图1为现有技术的单片尾部喷射打印头的透视图(为清楚起见,去掉了一些部件),该图与US 4887100专利中的图1相似;图2为尾部喷射的V形打印头的部分剖视图,与US 4887100专利中的图2相似;图3是根据本发明的侧边喷射的V形打印头的纵向剖视图;图4显示了不同材料随驱动电压的变化其滞后耗损发生的变化;图5显示了不同材料随波形变化滞后耗损发生的变化;图6显示了打印头使用不同的材料产热量的变化;以及图7显示了不同PZT材料产热量的变化。 In the drawings, FIG. 1 is a prior art monolithic rear perspective view of the print head jet (for clarity, some components removed), the drawing and US 4887100 patent is similar to FIG. 1; FIG. 2 is a rear injection V-shaped printhead partial sectional view, similar to the US 4887100 patent in FIG. 2; FIG. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of a side of the present invention, the injection of the V-shaped print head; Figure 4 shows the different materials with the drive voltage changes its hysteresis depletion vary; Figure 5 shows the different materials with the waveform change hysteresis loss changes occur; Figure 6 shows the use of different materials printhead heat production changes; and Figure 7 shows the change of the heat production of different PZT materials.

为了适当地说明本发明,首先对不同类型的微滴沉积设备进行说明。 In order to properly illustrate the present invention, the first of the different types of droplet deposition apparatus will be described. 在附图中,相同的部件给予相同的数字标号。 In the drawings, like parts are given the same numerical designation.

首先参见图1,平面阵列按需滴落式喷墨打印机包括打印头10,该打印头10由若干个平行墨腔或沟槽2组成,只示出了其中九个,这些沟槽2的纵向轴线都处于一个平面。 Referring first to Figure 1, a planar array of drop on demand ink jet printer includes a print head 10, the print head 10 by a plurality of parallel ink chambers or channels 2 composition, only nine of which are shown, these longitudinal grooves 2 axis are in a plane. 沟槽2被沿整个打印头上表面延伸的顶盖(未示出)封闭。 Grooves (2) are along the top cover extending throughout the surface of the print head (not shown) closed.

沟槽2含有油墨4,为尾部喷射结构,并终止在各沟槽相应末端的喷嘴板5处,在喷嘴板5上开有喷嘴6,一个沟槽有一个喷嘴。 Ink 4 containing grooves (2), for ejecting the tail structure, and terminate at respective ends of each trench of the nozzle plate 5, the nozzle plate 5 having a nozzle opening 6, a groove having a nozzle. 油墨微滴7根据要求从沟槽2中喷出并沉积在打印表面9上的打印线8上,打印表面9和打印头10之间有垂直于沟槽轴线平面的相对运动。 7 according to the requirements of ink droplets ejected from the grooves (2) and deposited on 8, there is relative motion perpendicular to the plane of the axis of the groove between the printing surface 9 and the print head 10 on the printing surface 9 of the print line.

在打印头10上有平面的基部20,沟槽2就是在其上切割出来或由软PZT压电材料形成,并自喷嘴板5向后平行地延伸。 In the print head 10 has a flat base portion 20, on which the groove 2 is cut out or formed of a soft PZT piezoelectric material, and rearwardly from the nozzle plate 5 extends parallel. 沟槽2长且窄,横截面为矩形,其相对的侧壁11沿整个沟槽长度延伸。 Long and narrow groove 2, a rectangular cross section, its opposite side walls 11 extending along the entire length of the channel. 侧壁11设有沿沟槽长度延伸的电极(未示出),因此,侧壁11可相对于沟槽轴线沿几乎整个沟槽长度以剪切模式作横向偏转运动,结果造成沟槽里的油墨压力产生变化,从而影响微滴从喷嘴的喷射。 Side wall 11 is provided with electrodes extending along the length of the channel (not shown), therefore, the groove side wall 11 relative to the axis along substantially the entire length of the channel in shear mode transversely yaw movement, resulting in the trench the ink pressure generating change, thus affecting the droplet ejection from the nozzle. 沟槽2在远离喷嘴的末端处连接,形成横向沟槽(未示出),该横向沟槽又通过管14与墨盒相通。 Grooves (2) at the end remote from the nozzle is connected, define a transverse groove (not shown), the transverse grooves in turn communicates through a pipe 14 and the ink cartridge. 促动沟槽侧壁11的电路连线(未示出)接在基部20上的大规模集成电路(LSI)芯片16上。 Actuating circuit wiring on the trench sidewalls (not shown) connected to the base 20 of the large scale integrated circuit (LSI) chip 16 (11).

如图中所示,沟槽侧壁与基部20是单一体的,实际上以悬臂方式连接,并且是由单片压电材料切割而成。 As shown, the trench sidewalls and the base portion 20 is a single body, in fact, is connected in a cantilever manner, and is cut from a single piece of piezoelectric material is made.

图2显示了图1中打印头的改进型,在该打印头中,沟槽侧壁11具有极性相反的区域,因此施加其上的电场会将其偏转成V形。 Figure 2 shows a modification of the printhead 1, the printhead, the groove side wall 11 having opposite polarity region, thus applying an electric field which will deflect on its V-shaped. 在图2中,该阵列包括以剪切模式变形的促动件15、17、19、21、23的形式构成的可偏转侧壁11,这些促动件夹在底壁25和顶壁27之间,并且每个都由上半壁29和下半壁31组成,如箭头33和35所示,上半壁29和下半壁30的极性在垂直于包含沟槽轴线的平面的方向上相反。 In Figure 2, the array comprising a deflectable sidewall actuator member to shear mode deformation 15,17,19,21,23 form constituted 11, the actuating member 25 sandwiched between the bottom wall and the top wall 27 of the between, and each by the half wall 29 and a lower half wall 31 composed of, as indicated by arrows 33 and 35, the polarity of the half wall 29 and a lower half wall 30 in a direction perpendicular to a plane containing the axis of the trench opposite. 电极37、39、41、43和45分别覆盖各个沟槽2的内壁。 Electrodes 37,39,41,43 and 45 respectively covering the inner wall of each groove 2. 因此,当某个沟槽上加上电压,比如说在以剪切模式变形的促动件19和21中间的沟槽2的电极41上加上电压,将电极41两边的沟槽2的电极39和43接地,从而就会有电场以相反的方向施加在促动件19和21上。 Thus, when a voltage on a trench, for example a voltage in the middle of the groove 19 and 21 the actuating member shear mode deformation of electrode 2 41, the electrode 41 on both sides of the trench electrode 2 39 and 43 to ground, there will be an electric field is applied in opposite directions on the actuating member 19 and 21. 由于每个促动件的上半壁29和下半壁31的极性相反,这些促动件以剪切模式中间的沟槽偏转并形成如虚线47和49所示的V形。 Since the polarity of the half-walls of each actuating member 29 and a lower half wall 31. Rather, the actuating member in shear mode deflection of the intermediate trench and the formation of V-shaped as shown in broken lines 47 and 49. 从而就有一个脉冲施加到促动件19和21中间的沟槽2内的油墨4上,并产生声压波顺着该沟槽的长度传播,将油墨微滴7从中喷出。 Thus there is a pulse is applied to the actuating member 19 and intermediate grooves 21 on the two inside the ink 4, and generates sound pressure waves propagate along the length of the trench, 7 from which the ink droplets ejected.

图3为侧边喷射打印头的纵向剖视图。 Figure 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the side jet printhead. 在形成沟槽顶壁的盖子27上设有喷嘴6,喷嘴6与沟槽2相通,沟槽2的侧面以形式为剪切模式变形促动件的PZT材料形成的侧壁所限定,其中一个促动件用数字21来指代。 Forming trenches in the cover top wall 27 is provided with a nozzle 6, the nozzle 6 communicates with the groove 2, the side grooves (2) in the form of shear mode deformation of the side walls of PZT material forming the actuating member is defined, in which one actuating member 21 to refer to digital. 如图2所示,每个剪切促动件都有极性相反的区域29和31,当由电极41、43形成的电场在其纵向表面作用时,区域29和31偏移并形成V形。 2, each of the sheared actuating member has opposite polarity regions 29 and 31, when the electric field generated by the electrodes 41, 43 formed in its longitudinal surface effect, the offset regions 29 and 31 and forming a V-shaped . 端子34将电极连接到大规模集成电路(LSI)芯片16上。 The electrode terminal 34 is connected to the large scale integrated circuit (LSI) chip 16. 横向沟槽13在每一沟槽2的末端处将沟槽2与墨盒连通起来。 Transverse grooves 13 at each end of the groove 2 of the cartridge in communication with the grooves (2) up. 除了喷嘴6的位置,打印头沿剖面2-2剖开的横截面与图2相似。 In addition to the position of the nozzle 6, similar to the print head taken along section 2-2 in Figure 2 cross-section.

除了本实施例创造性地选择使用下面将作说明的压电材料,以及使用了V形剪切模式促动件,尽管根据本发明的侧边喷射打印头中可以替代使用单向极性的单片促动件,该打印头与专利WO91/17051的图1(d)中的打印头还是很相似。 In addition to this example embodiment creative selection piezoelectric material used as will be described, and the use of the V-shaped shear mode actuating member, although the side jet printhead according to the present invention may be used instead of monolithic unidirectional polarity the actuating member, the print head and patent WO91 / 17051 of FIG 1 (d) of the print head is still very similar.

PZT材料有两种基本类型,“软”或施主掺杂型以及“硬”或受主掺杂型。 There are two basic types of PZT materials, "soft" or donor-doped and the "hard" or acceptor doped. AJ摩尔森(AJMoulson)所著的“电子陶瓷“一文(切普曼及霍尔(Chapman&Hall)出版社,1990版)中讲到,施主掺杂(用其离子电荷比要取代的离子高的离子进行掺杂)降低了起稳定畴作用的缺陷对的浓度,从而降低了老化率。 AJ Molsen (AJMoulson) book "Electronic Ceramics" article (Chapman and Hall (Chapman & amp; Hall) Press, 1990 edition) mentioned in donor-doped (with its ionic charge than to replace the ion The ion doping) concentration decreased from a stable effect of defects on the domains, thereby reducing the aging rate. 结果,这种畴壁迁移率的增长增大了该材料的介电常数、滞后损耗(tanδ)、弹性柔度以及耦合系数。 As a result, this growth domain wall mobility increases the dielectric constant of the material, hysteresis loss (tanδ), elastic compliance and coupling coefficients. 机械品质因数和矫顽性都得以降低。 Mechanical quality factor and coercivity are reduced. 其相应的压电活性使得这种软PZT成为压电打印头选择的传统材料。 Its corresponding piezoelectric activity makes this soft PZT piezoelectric printheads become traditional materials selection.

相反,受主掺杂类型的PZT阻止了畴壁迁移,结果其介电常数、滞后损耗(tanδ)、弹性柔度以及耦合系数都减小,而矫顽性增加。 On the contrary, by the PZT type dopant prevents migration of the domain wall, the results of its permittivity, hysteresis loss (tanδ), elastic compliance and coupling coefficients are reduced, and the coercivity increases. 因此此材料显示出较弱的压电活性,因此迄今也没有用在压电打印头中。 Therefore this material exhibits weaker piezoelectric activity, and therefore to date there is no use in piezoelectric print head.

我们分析了大量PZT材料的性能,发现了一个令人吃惊的结果,即在某些情况下,相比于软材料,该硬材料是更为合适的选择。 We analyze a large number of properties of PZT material, found a surprising result that, in some cases, compared to the soft material, the hard material is a more appropriate choice.

我们选择了四种样品的PZT材料用来分析,也就是摩托罗拉(Motorola)HD 3202、住友(Sumitomo)H5E、摩托罗拉(Motorola)HD 3195和摩根摩确克(Morgan Matroc)PC4D。 We chose the PZT material used to analyze four samples, which is Motorola (Motorola) HD 3202, Sumitomo (Sumitomo) H5E, Motorola (Motorola) HD 3195, and indeed grams Mount Morgan (Morgan Matroc) PC4D. 选择这四种材料是因为它们涵盖了已有的促动材料的范围,并且在剪切模式压电活性指标上均匀间隔。 Select four materials because they cover a range of conventional actuation material, and evenly spaced in a shear mode piezoelectric activity parameters. 剪切模式压电活性指标以无量纲的品质因数d15/(S55ε0)1/2为表征,该品质因数相当于转化的单位电压和体积的机电能。 Shear mode piezoelectric activity indicators dimensionless quality factor d15 / (S55 ε0) 1/2 for the characterization of the quality factor corresponds to a conversion of the unit voltage and the volume of the electromechanical energy. 按照压电活性,这些材料的排序为HD 3202>H5E>HD 3195>PC4D,而测得的低信号品质因数分别为48.2,37.4,31.5,25.7。 According to the piezoelectric activity, ordering these materials for HD 3202> H5E> HD 3195> PC4D, while the measured low signal quality factor were 48.2,37.4,31.5,25.7.

用这四种PZT材料做出了四种128线打印头晶片,并在典型的工况下对其进行了电容量和滞后耗损的测量,各工况值如下:驱动电压: 10到50伏。 PZT materials made with these four lines, four printhead chip 128, and in a typical operating conditions was carried out and the measured capacitance of the hysteresis loss, the value of each condition is as follows: driving voltage: 10 to 50 volts.

驱动频率: 20、50、100及200千赫工作波形: 基本上为方波(峰值电压占循环时间的75%)打印头温度: 18℃,40℃,50℃(在短脉冲情况下进行测量,并假定打印头的温度不会明显升高)滞后损耗(tanδ)的测量根据由DA霍尔(D A Hall)、PJ斯蒂闻森(PJ Stevenson)和T R穆林斯(T R Mullins)所著的“硬压电陶瓷中的电介质非线性”论文中所述的方法进行(Vol.57 Brit.Cer.Proc.p197-211)。 Driving frequency: 20,50,100 and 200 kHz operating waveforms: basically a square wave (75% of the peak voltage of the cycle time) print head temperature: 18 ℃, 40 ℃, 50 ℃ (in the case of short pulse measurements and assume that the temperature of the print head does not significantly increase) hysteresis loss (tanδ) measured according to the Hall by the DA (DA Hall), PJ Christi smell Sen (PJ Stevenson) and TR Mullins (TR Mullins) book The method of "hard piezoelectric ceramic dielectric nonlinear" paper according performed (Vol.57 Brit.Cer.Proc.p197-211).

这些测量结果表明,对于给定材料,电容量和滞后耗损不随频率变化,不过这二者都随驱动电压的增长而发生明显的增长。 These measurements show that for a given material, capacitance and hysteresis loss does not vary with frequency, but this occurs both significantly increase with the increase of the driving voltage.

图4中显示了对这四种PZT材料在频率为200千赫的驱动电压下的tanδ变化的比较。 Figure 4 shows the comparison of these four PZT material tanδ at a frequency of 200 kHz of the driving voltage changes. 图4还给出了制造商引用的各种材料的低场编目数据。 Figure 4 also shows the low-field cataloging data referenced by the manufacturer of a variety of materials. 结果表明,三种“软一些”的PZT材料具有相似的特性,tanδ随着驱动电压显著增长。 The results show that the three "softer" the PZT material having similar properties, tanδ as a significant increase in the driving voltage. 并且引用的“目录”、低场tanδ和打印头工作所要求的驱动电压(25伏左右)之间的相应数据存在着很大的差异。 And referenced in the "Directory", the corresponding data fields tanδ and low driving voltage printheads work required (25 volts) between there are significant differences. 与此相反,”最硬“的PZT材料PC4D显示出低得多的tanδ,以及tanδ随着驱动电压增长的变化也要小。 In contrast, the "hardest" PZT material PC4D exhibit a much lower tanδ, and tanδ increase with changes in the driving voltage also small.

图4还给出了HD 3203在相当于打印头驱动电压25伏下的滞后耗损,PZT材料活性越低,其所需要的驱动电压越高。 Figure 4 also shows the HD 3203 corresponding to the print head drive voltage of 25 volts hysteresis loss, the lower the activity of PZT material, the higher the driving voltage it needs. 这些表明,在同等的打印头工况下,HD 3203、H5E和HD 4195的滞后耗损相似,PC4D的预计滞后耗损低得多,不超过0.05,而其他材料的预计滞后耗损为此值的四到五倍。 These indicate that the print head in the same conditions, similar to the HD 3203, H5E hysteresis loss and HD 4195's, PC4D expected much lower hysteresis loss, not more than 0.05, and this value is expected to lag other materials depletion of four to five.

可以利用每种PZT材料的相对品质因数M来计算该材料的等效驱动电压V,例如VH5E=VHD3203MHD3203/MH5E还进行了固定频率和驱动电压下的不同波形的测试。 PZT materials can be used for each quality factor M is calculated relative to the material of equivalent driving voltage V, e.g. VH5E = VHD3203MHD3203 / MH5E also tested different fixed frequency waveform and the driving voltage under. 图5就显示了在不变驱动电压(30伏)和200千赫的固定驱动频率下的三角波(峰值电压占0%)和方波(峰值电压的理论值占100%,但实际上作不到)的变化效果。 Figure 5 is shows a constant drive voltage (30 volts) and a triangular wave of fixed driving frequency of 200 kHz under (peak voltage 0%) and a square wave (the peak voltage of the theoretical value 100%, but in fact do not to) the change effect. 和驱动频率不同,波形类型对tanδ有很大的影响,比如说,当从三角波改变到峰值电压占循环时间的87.5%的波形后,HD3203的tanδ增长了85%。 And the driving frequency is different from the type of waveform has a great influence on tanδ, for example, when changing from the peak voltage of the triangular wave to account for 87.5% of the cycle time of the waveform, HD3203 of tanδ increased by 85%. 这与打印头由方波驱动,PZT产热增加是一致的。 This print head by the square wave drive, PZT is consistent increase in heat production.

滞后耗损与驱动电压的关系用来计算不同设计方案打印头的产热量。 Relationship between the driving voltage of the hysteresis loss and heat production is used to calculate the different design of the printhead. 四种PZT材料的打印头内产热量以及PZT材料内产热量都作了计算。 PZT materials within four kinds printhead heat production and heat production within the PZT material have made a calculation. 这种测试又对三种打印头结构类型进行:传统的单片悬臂式尾部喷射型,V形尾部喷射型和V形侧边喷射型。 This test also on three print head structure types: the traditional monolithic cantilever tail jet type, V-shaped rear side of the V-shaped spray pattern and spray type. 与单片悬臂式型相比,后两种类型的驱动电压分别被假定为前者的1/2或1/4,相反,它们的电容量分别被假定为前者的2倍或4倍。 Compared with monolithic cantilever type, the latter two types of driving voltage is assumed to respectively 1/2 or 1/4 of the former, the contrary, their capacitance is assumed to be the former two or four times, respectively. 用一个电子制表模型来计算这些不同工况下的配置。 Use a spreadsheet model to calculate these different conditions configurations. 计算基于以下假定:1.每次充/放电驱动电路所产生的热量=21/2 CV2(两侧壁,每个侧壁的电容为C,每次喷射微滴都被促动一次);2.每个沟槽的PZT材料所消耗的热量=πCV2tanδ/2;3.驱动电路的上升时间(10-90%)=6.6RC(适用于电容为C、平行连接、充电和放电的阻抗都为R的侧壁);4.油墨类物质的最大温升=产热量/比热容墨滴体积(假定PZT产生的所有的热量都被喷射出的墨滴带走)。 Calculated based on the following assumptions: 1 each charge / discharge heat = 2 1/2 CV2 generated by the driving circuit (two side walls, each side wall has a capacitance of C, each ejecting a droplet are actuated once) ; 2 calories per trench PZT material consumed = πCV2tanδ / 2;.. 3 drive circuit rise time (10-90%) = 6.6RC (applicable to capacitance C, connected in parallel, the impedance of the charging and discharging are R sidewall); 4. Maximum temperature rise of the ink substances = heat production / drop volume specific heat capacity (assuming all the heat generated PZT ink droplets are ejected away).

以下的一组参数假定适用于典型的灰度工况:驱动电压(伏)=25伏(适用于单片悬臂式HD 3203,其他材料按上面讨论的取一比例计算)侧壁电容(C)=200微微法灰度等级(L)=8级动作次序:三组合循环(即沟槽分为三个交叉间隔组动作)波形类型:DRR(拉,放,加强,在专利WO95/25011中图4c显示)。 The following set of parameters assumed for typical gray conditions: driving voltage (V) = 25 volts (suitable for monolithic cantilever HD 3203, by taking a percentage of other materials discussed above calculation) sidewall capacitance (C) = 200 pF gradation (L) = 8 sequence of movements: three combined cycle (ie, three cross grooves spaced set of actions) Waveform Type: DRR (pull, release, strengthened patent WO95 / 25011 Fig. 4c shows).

行频(F)=6.19千赫(微滴频率=130千赫)满密度墨滴体积=55微微升以上计算了每个驱动电路片(也即每64行)的发热总量,对每一结构也计算出了相对于基本例子(HD 3203,单片悬臂式)的比值。 Total heating line frequency (F) = 6.19 kHz (= 130 kHz droplet frequency) full density = 55 picoliter drop volume calculated above each driver circuit chip (i.e. per 64 lines), and for each structure is also calculated with respect to the basic example (HD 3203, monolithic cantilever) ratio. 每种情况的结果总结在图6和图7中。 Results in each case are summarized in Figures 6 and 7. 前者显示了驱动电路随着计算的上升时间的发热总量,后者显示了单独的PZT材料随着油墨温度上升的发热量。 The former shows the total heat generation driving circuit with the calculated rise time, which shows a single PZT material with heat ink temperature rise.

从图7可以看出,在采用PC4D材料时,打印头的发热最少,虽说其驱动电压较高。 As can be seen from Figure 7, when using PC4D materials, thermal head of a minimum, although the driving voltage is high. 从图6可以很清楚地看出,当把驱动电路片的发热量也计入时,采用传统的HD 3203的打印头的发热总量最小,不过PC4D打印头比其次最好的H5E打印头差不到哪儿去。 Can be clearly seen from Figure 6, when the calorific value is also included in the driving circuit sheet, the total amount of heat using traditional printing head HD 3203 minimum, but worse than the printhead PC4D next best H5E printhead not much. PC4D要求的驱动电压要高一些,但对于同样的打印头结构,其上升时间一律比HD 3203的上升时间要小一半。 PC4D required drive voltage is higher, but for the same printhead structure, its rise time than the HD 3203 will be the rise time is smaller by half. 完全用术语来说,V形尾部喷射结构所产生的热量要比单片尾部喷射结构所产生的热量少一半以上,而V形侧边喷射结构所产生的热量一般地又减少同样的比例。 Entirely in terms, the V-shaped tail injection of heat generated by the structure than the heat generated by the monolithic structure of the tail injection less than half, and the V-shaped sides of the heat generated by the ejection structure generally also reduced by the same proportion. 不过,V形尾部喷射结构和V形侧边喷射结构的上升时间较之单片尾部喷射结构的上升时间要高出同样的倍数。 However, the rise time of V-shaped and V-shaped rear side of the ejection structures jetting structures than the rise time of a monolithic tail of jetting structures higher by the same factor.

尽管这些结果初步表明了HD 3203材料仍为最合适的材料,但实际上,也有违反直觉选择PC4D并带来益处的情况。 Although these preliminary results indicate that the HD 3203 is still the most suitable material material, but in fact, there are cases counterintuitive choice PC4D and bring benefits.

因此,如果需要快速的上升时间、高驱动电压并且允许热量产生,在单片尾部喷射结构中使用PC4D很明显是最好的(145毫秒,而HD3203为316毫秒)。 Therefore, if a fast rise time, high driving voltage and allows the heat generated, using PC4D monolithic tail injection structure is clearly the best (145 ms, and 316 ms for the HD3203).

如果较之于HD 3203要求有改进的上升时间并有同样减少的发热量,建议采用使用PC4D的V形尾部喷射结构。 If compared to HD 3203 is required to improve the rise time and the same amount of heat to reduce the recommended use of the V-shaped tail PC4D jet structure. 其上升时间从356毫秒降低到251毫秒发热量也降低40%。 Its rise time from 356 milliseconds to 251 milliseconds to reduce the amount of heat is also reduced by 40%. 如果采用使用PC4D的单片侧边喷射结构,结果相似。 If side injection using PC4D monolithic structure, with similar results.

如果要求合理的上升时间(相较于单片尾部喷射结构的356毫秒为456毫秒),再加上非常低的发热量(只有基本例子的30%)和低驱动电压(对应于25伏的12伏),应该采用使用PC4D的V形侧边喷射结构。 If the request for reasonable rise time (compared to monolithic structure 356 ms tail injection of 456 msec), plus a very low calorific value (only 30% of the basic example) and low driving voltage (corresponding to a 25 volt 12 V) should be used to use the V-shaped sides PC4D jet structure. 在这样的打印头中,油墨的温升为可忽略的0.5℃,而使用HD 3203的单片尾部喷射结构的温升为21℃。 In such a print head, the ink temperature rise is negligible 0.5 ℃, using HD monolithic tail of the temperature rise of the ejection structure 3203 is 21 ℃. V形侧边喷射结构的PC4D打印头非常适合于高分辨的灰度打印机,因为即便存在因热引起的打印密度导致的微滴速率的变化,这个变化也很小。 PC4D V-shaped side jet printhead configuration is well suited for high-resolution gray scale printer, because even if there is a change due to the printing density caused by thermally induced droplet rate, this change is also very small.

尽管本发明以PC4D材料为对象进行说明,但其他的受体掺杂压电材料也可能有同样的特性和优点。 Although the present invention is to PC4D material for the object described, but other acceptor doped piezoelectric material may have the same characteristics and advantages.

本说明(包括权利要求)公布的和/或插图中显示的每项特征都可独立于其他公布和/或图示的特征而被包含到本发明中。 The description (including the claims) published and / or each feature shown in the illustration can be independent of the characteristics of other published and / or illustrated are included in the present invention.

本说明书中的“本发明的目的“涉及到本发明的一些优选实施例,但并不必涉及权利要求书中所涵盖的本发明的所有实施例。 Some of this specification, "object of the present invention" relate to preferred embodiments of the present invention, but not necessarily related to the present invention is covered by claim book all embodiments.

在压电打印头中使用了一种受体掺杂的“硬”压电换能材料代替传统的“软”给体掺杂材料。 Use of a receptor-doped "hard" piezoelectric print head in the piezoelectric transducer material instead of the traditional "soft" donor-doped material. 该打印头以V形侧边喷射结构为佳,并在高分辨灰度打印时具有优越性。 The print head to the side injection V-shaped structure is better, and has the advantages of high resolution grayscale when printing.

International ClassificationB41J2/045, B41J2/015, B41J2/14, H01L41/09, B41J2/055
Cooperative ClassificationB41J2/14209
European ClassificationB41J2/14D1
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