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Publication numberCN1280001 C
Publication typeGrant
Application numberCN 03803054
PCT numberPCT/US2003/000067
Publication date18 Oct 2006
Filing date2 Jan 2003
Priority date31 Jan 2002
Also published asCA2474858A1, CA2474858C, CA2474980A1, CA2474980C, CN1278757C, CN1625428A, CN1625434A, DE60319810D1, DE60320542D1, DE60320542T2, EP1483028A2, EP1483028A4, EP1483028B1, EP1483039A1, EP1483039A4, EP1483039B1, US6835311, US6913154, US6953604, US6959820, US6998058, US7008537, US7011753, US7144533, US20030168401, US20030196963, US20030196964, US20030201231, US20030205529, US20030205530, US20030205531, US20030213750, WO2003063996A2, WO2003063996A3, WO2003064013A1
Publication number03803054.3, CN 03803054, CN 1280001 C, CN 1280001C, CN-C-1280001, CN03803054, CN03803054.3, CN1280001 C, CN1280001C, PCT/2003/67, PCT/US/2003/000067, PCT/US/2003/00067, PCT/US/3/000067, PCT/US/3/00067, PCT/US2003/000067, PCT/US2003/00067, PCT/US2003000067, PCT/US200300067, PCT/US3/000067, PCT/US3/00067, PCT/US3000067, PCT/US300067
InventorsEE科斯洛
Applicant科斯洛技术公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Microporous filter media, filtration systems containing same, and methods of making and using
CN 1280001 C
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明涉及微生物拦截增强过滤介质,其优选具有位于过滤介质上游的吸附预滤器。 The present invention relates to a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, which preferably has a filter located upstream of the adsorption media prefilter. 优选地,在流入液接触微生物拦截增强过滤介质之前,采用预滤器以除去流入液内的天然有机物质,进而防止在过滤介质上的电荷损失。 Preferably, before flowing into the liquid contact microbiological interception enhanced filter media, the use of a pre-filter to remove natural organic matter in the influent, thereby preventing loss of charge on the filter media. 微生物拦截增强过滤介质最优选由原纤化纤维素纳米纤维,尤其Lyocel1纳米纤维组成。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium and most preferably the former cellulose nanofiber, especially Lyocel1 nanofibers. 纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分的表面在其上形成包括阳离子金属络合物的微生物拦截增强剂。 At least a portion of the surface of at least some of the formation of nanofibers include cationic metal complex microbiological interception enhancing agent thereon. 本发明的过滤介质提供大于约4的对数病毒拦截和大于约6的对数细菌拦截。 The present invention provides a filter medium is greater than the number of virus to intercept greater than about 4 and about 6 logarithmic intercept of bacteria.
Claims(59)  translated from Chinese
1.一种微生物拦截增强的过滤介质,它包括:平均流动通道小于或等于1微米的微孔结构;和微生物拦截增强剂,其包括能在所述微孔结构的至少一部分上赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 A microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising: a mean flow path is less than or equal to 1 micron pore structure; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent, which include the ability to impart a positive charge on at least a portion of the microporous structure of the cationic metal complexes.
2.权利要求1的过滤介质,其中所述微孔结构包括纤维直径小于1000纳米的多根纳米纤维。 2. The filter medium of claim 1, wherein said microporous structure comprises a fiber diameter of less than 1000 nanometers multiple nanofibers.
3.权利要求2的过滤介质,其中纳米纤维包括有机纳米纤维、无机纳米纤维及其混合物。 Filter medium of claim 2, wherein the nanofibers comprise organic nanofibers, inorganic nanofibers, and mixtures thereof.
4.权利要求2的过滤介质,其中纳米纤维包括原纤化的Lyocell纳米纤维。 4. The filter medium of claim 2, wherein the nanofiber comprises fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers.
5.权利要求4的过滤介质,其中原纤化的Lyocell纳米纤维的加拿大标准游离度小于或等于45。 4 of the filter medium of claim 1, wherein the Canadian Standard Freeness fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers is less than or equal to 45.
6.权利要求1的过滤介质,其中所述微孔结构是包括有机材料、无机材料或其混合物的膜。 6. The filter medium of claim 1, wherein said microporous structure is a film comprising an organic material, inorganic material or mixtures thereof.
7.权利要求6的过滤介质,其中膜包括聚合物材料。 Filter medium of claim 6, wherein the film comprises a polymeric material.
8.权利要求1的过滤介质,其中所述微生物拦截增强剂由阳离子金属络合物组成,其中在所述微孔结构表面上的阳离子材料具有与其缔合的抗衡离子,和其中用与阳离子材料缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子引起生物活性金属沉淀。 Filter medium of claim 1, wherein said microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex composition, wherein the cationic material on the surface of the microporous structure having a counter ion associated therewith, and wherein the cationic material with associating at least a portion of the bioactive metal counter ion induced precipitation.
9.权利要求8的过滤介质,其中具有与其缔合的抗衡离子的阳离子材料选自胺、酰胺、季铵盐、酰亚胺、苄烷铵化合物、双胍、氨基硅化合物、其聚合物及其组合。 Filter medium of claim 8, wherein the cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith is selected from amines, amides, quaternary ammonium salts, imides, benzalkonium compounds, biguanides, amino silicon compound, polymers thereof and combinations.
10.权利要求1的过滤介质,其中阳离子金属络合物包括选自下述的生物活性金属:银、铜、锌、镉、汞、锑、金、铝、铂、钯及其组合。 10. The filter medium of claim 1, wherein the cationic metal complex comprises a metal selected from the following bioactive: silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, antimony, gold, aluminum, platinum, palladium, and combinations thereof.
11.权利要求1的过滤介质,其中通过用包括二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物的阳离子材料处理所述微孔结构的至少一部分,接着用与所述二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物缔合的至少一部分卤化物抗衡离子沉淀银,来形成阳离子金属络合物。 11. The filter medium of claim 1, wherein the material treated by include cationic diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymers of at least a portion of said microporous structure, followed by the diallyldimethylammonium ammonium halide homopolymer association of at least part of the counter ion precipitation of silver halide to form a cationic metal complexes.
12.权利要求1-11任何一项的过滤介质,其中使所述微孔结构与吸附预滤器介质组合,其中所述预滤器介质含有活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷或其组合。 1-11 12. The filter media of any one of claims, wherein said porous structure in combination with the adsorption media prefilter, wherein said prefilter medium containing activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates , aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resin, ion exchange resin, ceramic, or combinations.
13.一种微生物拦截增强的过滤介质,包括:在其中固定有能除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料的吸附预滤器;在所述吸附预滤器下游布置的微孔结构,其包括多根纳米纤维,所述微孔结构具有小于0.6微米的平均流动通道;和微生物拦截增强剂,其包括在所述微孔结构的多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 13. A microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising: a fixed therein can be removed so that the material charge decrease of pollutants adsorption prefilter; in the pre-filter arranged downstream adsorption microporous structure comprising a plurality of nano high charge density and a microbiological interception enhancing agent, which comprises coating on at least some of at least a portion of the surface of the microporous structure of the plurality of nanofibers having; fibers, said microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than 0.6 microns silver - cationic materials - halide complexes.
14.权利要求13的过滤介质,其中所述微生物拦截增强剂由银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物组成,其中所述阳离子材料包括二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物,和在所述微孔结构的表面上该均聚物具有与其缔合的卤化物抗衡离子,和其中用至少一部分卤化物抗衡离子沉淀银。 14. The filter medium of claim 13, wherein said microbiological interception enhancing agent consisting of silver - cation material - halide complexes composition, wherein the cationic material comprises a diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymers, and in the upper surface of the microporous structure of the homopolymer having associated therewith a halide counterion, and wherein at least a portion of the halide counter ion with silver precipitate.
15.权利要求11或14的过滤介质,其中二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物的分子量大于或等于400000道尔顿。 Filter media 11 or of claim 14, wherein the diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymer of molecular weight greater than or equal to 400,000 daltons.
16.权利要求1、13和14中任何一项的过滤介质,其中所述微孔结构掺入选自下述的一种或多种材料:活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷及其组合。 1, 13 and 14, 16. The filter medium of any one of claims, wherein said microporous structure incorporated in one or more selected from the following materials: carbon, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicon salts, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics and combinations thereof.
17.权利要求1和13任何一项的过滤介质,其中所述微孔结构进一步包括粘结剂。 A filter medium 13 and any one of claims 17, wherein said porous structure further comprises a binder.
18.权利要求1的过滤介质,进一步包括吸附预滤器。 18. The filter medium of claim 1, further comprising adsorbing prefilter.
19.权利要求2和13任何一项的过滤介质,其中由选自下述的材料制备多根纳米纤维:聚合物、离子交换树脂、工程树脂、陶瓷、纤维素、人造丝、羊毛、丝、玻璃、金属、钛酸盐、活化矾土、活性炭、二氧化硅、沸石、硅藻土、活性铝土矿、漂白土、钙羟基磷灰石、及其组合。 2 and filter medium 13 in any one of claims 19, wherein a material selected from the following plurality of nanofibers prepared: polymers, ion exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, cellulose, rayon, wool, silk, glass, metal, titanates, activated alumina, activated carbon, silica, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite, and combinations thereof.
20.一种过滤体系,它包括:包括能除去使电荷下降的污染物的颗粒材料的床;置于所述颗粒材料的床下游的微孔结构,其平均流动通道小于0.6微米;和微生物拦截增强剂,其包括在所述微孔结构的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 20. A filter system, comprising: including the charge can be removed contaminants falling particulate material bed; the bed is placed downstream of the microporous structure of the particulate material having an average of less than 0.6 microns the flow path; and a microbiological interception enhancers, which comprises at least a portion of the upper surface of the microporous structure having a high charge density coated silver - cation material - halide complexes.
21.一种过滤体系,它包括:固体复合单元,其包括能除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料;置于所述单元下游的微孔结构,其平均流动通道小于2.0微米;和微生物拦截增强剂,其包括在所述微孔结构的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 21. A filter system, comprising: a solid composite unit comprising the material capable of removing charge decrease of pollutants; means disposed downstream of said microporous structure having a mean flow path of less than 2.0 microns; and microbiological interception enhanced agents, which include at least a portion of the upper surface of said microporous structure having a high charge density coated silver - cation material - halide complexes.
22.权利要求13和18任何一项的过滤介质,其中所述吸附预滤器为粒状预滤器。 Filter media 13 and 18 in any one of claims 22, wherein said adsorbent prefilter particulate prefilter.
23.权利要求20和21任何一项的过滤体系,其中银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物包括在所述微孔结构表面上的二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物,该均聚物具有与其缔合的卤化物抗衡离子,和其中用至少一部分卤化物抗衡离子沉淀银。 20 and 21 23. A filtration system of any one of claims, wherein the silver - cation material - halide complexes comprising on the surface of the microporous structure of diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymers, which are oligomer having associated therewith a halide counterion, and wherein at least a portion with a halide counterion precipitate silver.
24.权利要求20和21任何一项的过滤体系,其中银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物包括在所述微孔结构表面上的二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物,该均聚物具有与其缔合的卤化物抗衡离子,其中二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵均聚物的分子量大于或等于400000道尔顿,和其中用至少一部分卤化物抗衡离子沉淀银。 20 and 21 24. A filtration system of any one of claims, wherein the silver - cation material - halide complexes comprising on the surface of the microporous structure of diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymers, which are oligomer having associated therewith a halide counterion, wherein ammonium halide diallyldimethylammonium homopolymer molecular weight greater than or equal to 400,000 daltons, and wherein at least a portion of the halide counter ion with silver precipitate.
25.权利要求20和21任何一项的过滤体系,其中能除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料包括活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷或其组合。 20 and 21 25. A filtration system of any one of claims, wherein the material is capable of removing contaminants charge decrease include activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates , bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, or combinations thereof.
26.权利要求20和21任何一项的过滤体系,其中所述微孔结构掺入选自下述的一种或多种材料:活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷及其组合。 20 and 21 26. A filtration system of any one of claims, wherein said porous structure to incorporate one or more materials selected from the group consisting of: activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof .
27.权利要求20和21任何一项的过滤体系,其中所述微孔结构进一步包括粘结剂。 20 and 21 27. A filtration system of any one of claims, wherein said porous structure further comprises a binder.
28.一种制备过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构;和用微生物拦截增强剂涂布至少一部分微孔结构,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括能在该微孔结构的至少一部分上赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 28. A method for preparing a filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a mean flow path of less than 1 micron microporous structure; and at least a portion of the microporous structure with a microbiological interception enhancing agent is applied, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises capable imparting a positive charge on at least a part of the cationic metal complex in the cellular structure.
29.权利要求28的方法,其中提供微孔结构的步骤包括将纤维直径小于1000纳米的多根纳米纤维成形为微孔结构。 29. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises a fiber diameter of less than 1000 nanometers plurality of nanofibers formed into a microporous structure.
30.权利要求28的方法,其中提供微孔结构的步骤包括将多根纳米纤维成形为微孔结构,其中纳米纤维包括有机纳米纤维、无机纳米纤维或其混合物。 30. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises a plurality of nanofibers formed into a porous structure, wherein the nanofiber comprises organic nanofibers, inorganic nanofibers, or mixtures thereof.
31.权利要求28的方法,其中提供微孔结构的步骤包括将多根原纤化的Lyocell纳米纤维成形为微孔结构,其中至少一部分所述原纤化的Lyocell纳米纤维的长度为1mm至8mm,直径为250nm。 31. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises a plurality of fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers formed into a porous structure, wherein at least a portion of the length of said fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers 1mm to 8mm, diameter of 250nm.
32.权利要求28的方法,还包括使加拿大标准游离度小于或等于45的多根原纤化的Lyocell纳米纤维成形为微孔结构。 32. The method of claim 28, further comprising a Canadian Standard Freeness of less than or equal to 45, a plurality of fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers formed into a microporous structure.
33.权利要求28的方法,其中提供微孔结构的步骤包括提供含有机材料、无机材料或其混合物的膜。 33. The method of claim 28, wherein the step of providing a microporous structure comprises providing a membrane comprising an organic material, an inorganic material or mixtures thereof.
34.一种制备微生物拦截增强的过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和将所述纳米纤维成形为平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构。 34. A process for preparing a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of nanofibers; on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of said plurality of nanofibers coating microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microorganism interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic metal complex; and said nanofibers formed into a mean flow path of less than 1 micron microporous structure.
35.一种制备微生物拦截增强的过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供多根聚合物纳米纤维;在所述多根聚合物纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和将涂布处理的纳米纤维成形为平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构。 35. A process for preparing a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of polymer nanofibers; microbiological interception enhancing agent is applied on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of said plurality of polymer nanofiber , the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic metal complex; and nanofibers formed into a coating treatment with a mean flow path of less than 1 micron microporous structure.
36.一种制备微生物拦截增强的过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供多根纤维素纳米纤维;在所述多根纤维素纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和将涂布处理的纳米纤维成形为平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构。 36. A process for preparing a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of cellulose nanofibers; on the surface of at least a portion of at least some of said plurality of cellulose nanofiber coating microbiological interception enhancing agent , the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic metal complex; and nanofibers formed into a coating treatment with a mean flow path of less than 1 micron microporous structure.
37.一种制备微生物拦截增强的过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供平均流动通道小于1微米的膜;和在该膜的至少一部分上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括能在至少一部分所述膜上赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 37. A process for preparing a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a film mean flow path of less than 1 micron; and a coating on at least a portion of the film microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhancing agent include the ability to impart a positive charge on at least a portion of said membrane cationic metal complexes.
38.权利要求37的方法,其中涂布步骤包括:用具有与其缔合的抗衡离子的阳离子材料处理至少一部分所述膜,形成带正电的膜;将带正电的膜暴露于生物活性金属盐中;和在至少一部分所述膜上,用与阳离子材料缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子沉淀生物活性的金属络合物。 38. The method of claim 37, wherein the coating step comprises: using a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith at least a portion of the film processing, film forming positively charged; the film is exposed to a positively charged bioactive metal salt; and at least a portion of said membrane, and cationic materials associated with at least part of the biological activity of counterion precipitated metal complex.
39.一种制备微生物拦截增强的过滤介质的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括具有中到高电荷密度和分子量大于5000道尔顿的银-胺-卤化物络合物;和将涂布处理的纳米纤维成形为平均流动通道小于或为0.6微米的微孔结构,提供吸附预滤器,其包括能从流入液中除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料,并在所述微孔结构的上游放置所述吸附预滤器。 39. A process for preparing a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of nanofibers; on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of said plurality of nanofibers coating microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microorganism intercept enhancers include having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 daltons silver - amine - halide complexes; and nanofiber forming a coating treatment is less than the average flow channels or 0.6 micron pore structure providing adsorption prefilter, which comprises removing the liquid from flowing into the material charge decrease of pollutants, and placing said adsorbent prefilter upstream of said microporous structure.
40.一种制备过滤体系的方法,它包括如下步骤:提供吸附预滤器,该吸附预滤器包括能从流入液中除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料,其中该材料被固定在作为吸附预滤器的固体复合单元内;提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括具有中到高电荷密度和分子量大于5000道尔顿的银-胺-卤化物络合物;和将涂布处理的纳米纤维成形为平均流动通道小于或为0.6微米的包括多根纳米纤维的微孔过滤介质,其中微孔过滤介质在吸附预滤器的下游。 40. A process for preparing filtration system, comprising the steps of: providing a pre-filter adsorption, the adsorbent prefilter comprising removing liquid from flowing into the charge decrease of pollutants in the material, wherein the material is fixed as the adsorbent prefilter the solid composite unit; providing a plurality of nanofibers; on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of said plurality of nanofibers coating microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 Daltons silver - amine - halide complexes; and forming the nanofiber coating treatment is less than the average flow channels or 0.6 micron microporous filter medium comprises a plurality of nanofibers, wherein the microporous filter medium prefilter downstream adsorption.
41.权利要求28、34、35、36、37、39和40任何一项的方法,进一步包括将选自下述的一种或多种成分掺入到过滤介质中的步骤:活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷及其组合。 28,34,35,36,37,39 and 40 to any one of 41. The method of claim, further comprising one or more selected from the following ingredients into the filter medium in the steps of: activated carbon, activated alumina earth, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resin, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
42.权利要求34、36、39和40任何一项的方法,其中提供多根纳米纤维的步骤包括形成多根原纤化Lyocell纳米纤维并将所述原纤化Lyocell纳米纤维成形为微孔结构。 34,36,39 and 40 to any one of 42. The method of claim, wherein providing a plurality of nanofibers comprises forming a plurality of nano-fibrillated Lyocell fibers and the fibrillated Lyocell nanofibers formed into a microporous structure.
43.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,其中涂布步骤包括:用具有与其缔合的抗衡离子的阳离子材料处理多根纳米纤维的至少一部分,形成带正电的纤维材料;将带正电的纤维材料暴露于生物活性金属盐中;和在至少一部分带正电的纤维材料上,用与阳离子材料缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子沉淀生物活性的金属络合物。 The method of any one of 34, 35, 36 and 43. The claims, wherein the coating step comprises: using a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith a plurality of processing at least a portion of nanofibers, forming positively charged fibrous material; the positively charged fiber material is exposed to a biologically active metal salt; and at least a portion of the fibrous material on a positively charged, cationic material associated with at least part of the biological activity of counterion precipitated metal complex.
44.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,其中在涂布步骤中,用具有与其缔合的抗衡离子的阳离子材料处理多根纳米纤维的至少一部分,形成带正电的纤维材料,其中所述阳离子材料选自胺、酰胺、季铵盐、酰亚胺、苄烷铵化合物、双胍、吡咯、氨基硅化合物、其聚合物及其组合。 The method of any one of 34, 35 and 44. 36 claims, wherein in the coating step, with a cationic material having a counter ion associated therewith a plurality of processing at least a portion of nanofibers, positively charged fibrous material is formed, wherein the cationic material is selected from amines, amides, quaternary ammonium salts, imides, benzalkonium compounds, biguanides, pyrrole, amino silicon compound, polymers thereof and combinations thereof.
45.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,其中在涂布步骤中,将纳米纤维材料暴露于生物活性金属盐中,其中所述生物活性金属选自银、铜、锌、镉、汞、锑、金、铝、铂、钯及其组合。 The method of any one of 34, 35 and 45. 36 claims, wherein in the coating step, the nanofiber material is exposed to a biologically active metal salt, wherein the bioactive metal is selected from silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, antimony, gold, aluminum, platinum, palladium, and combinations thereof.
46.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,其中在涂布步骤中,阳离子金属络合物包括金属-胺-卤化物络合物。 The method of any one of 34, 35, 36 and 46. The claims, wherein in the coating step, the cationic metal complex comprises a metal - amine - halide complexes.
47.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,其中在涂布步骤中,阳离子金属络合物包括银-胺-卤化物络合物。 The method of any one of 34, 35, 36 and 47. The claims, wherein in the coating step, the cationic metal complex comprises silver - amine - halide complexes.
48.权利要求34、35和36任何一项的方法,进一步包括在流入液接触微孔结构之前,提供能从流入液中除去使电荷下降的污染物的预滤器的步骤。 Methods 34, 35 and 36 in any one of claims 48, further comprising, prior to the influent contacting the microporous structure, providing a step of removing liquid from flowing into the prefilter so that the charge decrease of pollutants.
49.权利要求29、30、34、39和40任何一项的方法,其中在提供多根纳米纤维的步骤中,由选自下述的材料制备纳米纤维:聚合物、离子交换树脂、工程树脂、纤维素、人造丝、羊毛、丝、玻璃、金属、钛酸盐、活化矾土、陶瓷、活性炭、二氧化硅、沸石、硅藻土、活性铝土矿、漂白土、钙羟基磷灰石、及其组合。 29,30,34,39 and 40 to any one of claims 49, wherein providing a plurality of nanofibers in the step selected from the following nanomaterials fibers: polymer, ionic resins, engineering resins exchange , cellulose, rayon, wool, silk, glass, metal, titanates, activated alumina, ceramics, activated carbon, silica, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite , and combinations thereof.
50.权利要求34、35、36、39和40任何一项的方法,其中形成微孔结构或微孔过滤介质的步骤包括湿铺法、干铺熔体吹塑或干铺纺粘法。 34,35,36,39 and 40 the method of any one of claim 50., wherein the step of the microporous structure or microporous filter medium comprises wet laid process, a dry laid melt blown, or dry laid spun-bond method is formed.
51.权利要求34、35、36、39和40任何一项的方法,其中形成微孔结构或微孔过滤介质的步骤包括将选自下述的一种或多种成分掺入到微孔结构或微孔过滤介质内:活性炭、活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、铝硅酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷及其组合。 Steps 34,35,36,39 and 40 in any one of 51. The method of claim, wherein the porous structure is formed, or microporous filter medium comprises one or more selected from the following ingredients into a porous structure or within the porous filter media: activated carbon, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite, talc, polymeric particles, clay, iodinated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof.
52.一种从流体中除去微生物污染物的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供具有平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构的过滤介质,该微孔结构在它的至少一部分上涂布了含阳离子金属络合物的微生物拦截增强剂,其中所述阳离子材料具有中到高的电荷密度和大于5000道尔顿的分子量;使所述流体与所述过滤介质接触大于3秒;和获得比过滤介质的平均流动通道小的微生物污染物的至少6的对数下降,其中所述微生物污染物流过过滤介质。 52. A method of removing fluid from microbial contaminants, comprising the steps of: providing a flow passage having an average of less than 1 micron microporous structure of the filter medium, the microporous structure at least a portion thereof coated with a cation-containing metal complex microbiological interception enhancing agent, wherein the cationic material having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 daltons; said fluid in contact with the filter medium is greater than 3 seconds; and access than the filter media of at least 6 log reduction in the mean flow path of small microbial contaminants, wherein said microbial contaminants pass through the filter media.
53.权利要求52的方法,其中提供过滤介质的步骤包括提供其中微孔结构包括多根纳米纤维使得微孔结构具有小于0.6微米的平均流动通道的过滤介质。 53. The method of claim 52, wherein the step of providing comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a plurality of nanofibers such that the microporous structure having a filter medium of less than 0.6 micron mean flow passage.
54.权利要求52的方法,其中提供过滤介质的步骤包括提供其中微孔结构包括多根原纤化Lyocell纳米纤维使得微孔结构具有小于0.6微米的平均流动通道的过滤介质。 54. The method of claim 52, wherein the step of providing comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a plurality of fibrillated Lyocell nanofiber such microporous structure having an average of less than 0.6 microns the flow channel filtration medium.
55.权利要求52的方法,其中提供过滤介质的步骤包括提供其中微孔结构包括膜使得微孔结构具有小于0.6微米的平均流动通道的过滤介质。 55. The method of claim 52, wherein the step of providing comprises providing a filter medium wherein the microporous structure comprises a membrane having a microporous structure such that the filter medium of less than 0.6 micron average flow path.
56.权利要求52的方法,其中在提供过滤介质的步骤中,通过以下步骤将微生物拦截增强剂涂布在微孔结构上:用季铵盐处理至少一部分所述微孔结构,形成带正电的微孔结构,将带正电的微孔结构暴露于生物活性金属盐中;和在至少一部分所述微孔结构上,用与季铵盐缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子沉淀生物活性金属。 56. The method of claim 52, wherein the step of providing a filter medium, through the following steps on the microbiological interception enhancing agent is coated microporous structure: at least a portion of said microporous structure with a quaternary ammonium salt treatment, forming a positively microporous structure of the microporous structure, the positively charged is exposed to a biologically active metal salt; and at least a portion of said microporous structure, and a quaternary ammonium salt associated with at least a portion of a biologically active metal precipitated counterion.
57.权利要求52的方法,其中在提供过滤介质的步骤中,微生物拦截增强剂包括具有中到高电荷密度且分子量为400000道尔顿的阳离子聚合物,和用与所述阳离子聚合物缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子沉淀生物活性金属。 57. The method of claim 52, wherein the step of providing a filter medium, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight of 400,000 daltons cationic polymers, and the use of the cationic associative polymer at least part of the counter ions precipitate bioactive metal.
58.一种用于处理、储存和分配流体的重力流动过滤体系,它包括:容纳待过滤流体的第一储罐;与所述第一储罐流体连通的过滤介质,所述过滤介质包括平均流动通道小于1微米的微孔结构,和其中用包括能在所述微孔结构的至少一部分上赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物的微生物拦截增强剂处理所述过滤介质以提供比所述过滤介质的平均流动通道小的微生物污染物的至少4的对数下降;和用于收集已过滤流体的与所述过滤介质流体连通的第二储罐。 58. A method for processing, storing and dispensing fluids gravity flow filtration system, comprising: receiving a first fluid to be filtered storage tank; filter medium in fluid communication with the first tank, said filter medium comprises an average flow channels of less than 1 micron microporous structure, and wherein the use comprises treatment microbiological interception enhancing agent capable of imparting a positive charge on at least a portion of the microporous structure of the cationic metal complex than the filter media to provide the filter The average log reduction of small medium flow passage of microbial contaminants is at least 4; and a second tank for collecting the filtered fluid with the filter medium in fluid communication.
59.权利要求58的重力流动过滤体系,其中所述过滤介质的体积小于500cm3和起始流量大于25ml/min。 Gravity-flow filtration system 58 of claim 59., wherein the volume of the filter medium is less than 500cm3 and initial flow rate greater than 25ml / min.
Description  translated from Chinese
微孔过滤介质、包含它的过滤体系以及制备和使用方法 Microporous filter medium, comprising its filter system and methods of making and using

本发明涉及具有微生物拦截能力的过滤介质,包含该过滤介质的过滤体系,以及制备和使用它的方法。 The present invention relates to a filter medium having microbiological interception capability, comprising the filter medium of the filtration system, and methods of making and using it.

现代消费者用水过滤器通常提供″健康要求″,其中包括减少颗粒、重金属、毒性有机化学品,和分离微生物危害物。 Modern consumer water filters typically provide "health requirements", including the reduction of particles, heavy metals, toxic organic chemicals, and separation of microbial hazards. 这些过滤体系可使用大约1.0微米的结构来拦截微生物如似隐孢菌属(Cryptosporidium)和贾第虫属(Giardia)。 These filtration systems can be used in the construction of approximately 1.0 microns to intercept microorganisms such as cryptosporidium species (Cryptosporidium) and Giardia (Giardia). 但为了提供对甚至更小微生物危害物如病毒的微生物拦截,需要一种具有亚微米微孔结构的过滤介质。 However, in order to provide an even smaller as microbial hazards such as microbiological interception viruses, a need for a filter medium having a microporous structure of submicron. 现有技术的过滤体系通常尝试使用具有不够小的孔尺寸和具有不好的物理整体性的过滤介质来实现宽微生物拦截。 A filtration system of the prior art generally attempt to use with a small enough pore size and filter media having poor physical integrity to achieve a wide microbiological interception. 尚未实现成功的微生物拦截所要求的必需孔结构和令人满意的过滤性能之间的平衡。 Balance not yet achieved successful microbiological interception desired pore structure necessary and satisfactory filtration performance. 此外,现有技术体系并没有提供能在存在由引起过滤性能损失的物质组成的“干扰物”下操作的设备。 In addition, the prior art system does not provide equipment can operate in the presence of filtration performance loss caused by the material composition of "interfering objects".

发明概述本发明在第一方面涉及一种过滤介质,它包括:平均流动通道小于或等于约1微米的微孔结构;和微生物拦截增强剂,它包含在该微孔结构的至少一部分上能赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In a first aspect the present invention relates to a filter medium, comprising: a mean flow path is less than or equal to about 1 micron porous structure; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent which comprises at least a portion of the microporous structure can be imparted positively charged metal complex cations.

另一方面,本发明涉及一种复合过滤介质,它包括:在其中已固定了能除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料作为吸附预滤器;在吸附层下游布置的微孔结构,它包括多根纳米纤维,该微孔结构具有小于约0.6微米的平均流动通道;和微生物拦截增强剂,它包括在该纤维基质的多根纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 Another aspect, the present invention relates to a composite filter media, which comprises: in which has been fixed so that the material can be removed as a charge decrease of pollutants adsorption prefilter; disposed downstream of the adsorption layer microporous structure comprising a plurality of nanofibers, the microporous structure has less than about 0.6 micron mean flow path; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent which comprises at least a portion of the surface of at least some of the fibrous matrix of a plurality of fibers coated with a high charge density of silver - cationic materials - halide complexes.

再一方面,本发明涉及过滤体系,它包括:能除去使电荷下降的污染物的颗粒的粒状床;在该粒状床下游布置的微孔结构,其平均流动通道小于约0.6微米;和微生物拦截增强剂,它包括在该微孔结构的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 A further aspect, the present invention relates to a filter system, comprising: can remove the charge of contaminant particles falling granular bed; in the granular bed arranged downstream of the porous structure, the average flow path of less than about 0.6 microns; and microbiological interception enhancers, which comprises at least a portion of the upper surface of the microporous structure having a high charge density coated silver - cation material - halide complexes.

又一方面,本发明涉及过滤体系,它包括:固体复合单元(composite block),其包括能除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料;置于该单元下游的微孔结构,其平均流动通道小于约2.0微米;和微生物拦截增强剂,它包括在该微孔结构的至少一部分表面上涂布的具有高电荷密度的银-阳离子材料-卤化物络合物。 Yet another aspect, the present invention relates to a filter system, comprising: a solid composite element (composite block), which include the ability to remove the material charge decrease of pollutants; placed downstream of the microporous structure of the unit, the average flow path of less than about 2.0 m; and a microbiological interception enhancing agent which comprises at least a portion of the upper surface of the microporous structure of the silver coating having a high charge density - cation material - halide complexes.

又一方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供平均流动通道小于约1微米的微孔结构;和在该微孔结构的至少一部分上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括在该微孔结构的至少一部分上能赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 Yet another aspect, the present invention relates to a method for preparing a filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron microporous structure; and at least a portion of the microbiological interception enhancing agent is applied to the cellular structure, the a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises at least a portion of the microporous structure to impart a positive charge of the cationic metal complex.

另一方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和将纤维成形为平均流动通道小于约1微米的微孔结构。 Another aspect, the present invention relates to a filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of nanofibers; microbiological interception enhancing agent is applied on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of the plurality of nanofibers, the microbiological interception enhancer comprises a cationic metal complex; and the average fiber forming flow channels of less than about 1 micron microporous structure.

再一方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供多根聚合物纳米纤维;在所述多根聚合物纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和形成为平均流动通道小于约1微米的微孔结构。 A further aspect, the present invention relates to a process for preparing a filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of polymer nanofibers; microbiological interception enhancing agent applied to the surface of at least a portion of at least some of said plurality of polymer nanofibers, The microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic metal complex; and forming a flow path for the average of less than about 1 micron microporous structure.

再一方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供多根纤维素纳米纤维;在所述多根纤维素纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括阳离子金属络合物;和形成为平均流动通道小于约1微米的微孔结构。 A further aspect, the present invention relates to a process for preparing a filter medium, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of cellulose nanofiber; in the plurality of cellulose nanofibers on at least a portion of at least some of the surface is coated with a microbiological interception enhancing agent, The microbiological interception enhancing agent comprises a cationic metal complex; and forming a flow path for the average of less than about 1 micron microporous structure.

再进一步的方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供平均流动通道小于约1微米的膜;和在该膜的至少一部分上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括能在至少一部分膜上赋予正电荷的阳离子金属络合物。 Still further aspect, the method relates to the preparation of the filter medium of the present invention, comprising the steps of: providing a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron membrane; and a coating on at least a portion of the film microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhanced agents include the ability to impart a positive charge on at least a portion of the membrane cationic metal complexes.

又进一步的方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括具有中到高电荷密度和分子量大于5000道尔顿的银-胺-卤化物络合物;和形成平均流动通道小于或大约为0.6微米的微孔结构。 Yet a further aspect, the method relates to the preparation of the filter medium of the present invention, comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of nanofibers; microbiological interception enhancing agent is applied on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of the plurality of nanofibers, said microorganism intercept enhancers include having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 daltons silver - amine - halide complexes; flow channels and having an average of less than or about 0.6 microns for the microporous structure.

再进一步的方面,本发明涉及制备过滤介质的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供吸附预滤器,该吸附预滤器包括能从流入液中除去使电荷下降的污染物的材料,其中该材料固定在固体复合单元内;提供多根纳米纤维;在所述多根纳米纤维的至少一些的至少一部分表面上涂布微生物拦截增强剂,所述微生物拦截增强剂包括具有中到高电荷密度和分子量大于5000道尔顿的银-胺-卤化物络合物;和形成平均流动通道小于或大约为0.6微米的微孔结构。 Still further aspect, the method relates to the preparation of the filter medium of the present invention, comprising the steps of: providing a pre-filter adsorption, the adsorbent prefilter comprising removing liquid from flowing into the material charge decrease of pollutants, wherein the material is immobilized on a solid the composition unit; providing a plurality of nanofibers; on at least a portion of the surface of at least some of said plurality of nanofibers coating microbiological interception enhancing agent, the microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than 5000 Hamilton silver - Amine - halide complexes; and the formation of the average flow channel is less than or about 0.6 micron pore structure is.

再进一步的方面,本发明涉及从流体中除去微生物污染物的方法,其包括如下步骤:提供具有平均流动通道小于约为1微米的微孔结构的过滤介质,该微孔结构在它的至少一部分上涂布了含阳离子金属络合物的微生物拦截增强剂,其中所述阳离子材料具有中至高的电荷密度和大于约5000道尔顿的分子量;使该流体与过滤介质接触大于约3秒;和获得比过滤介质的平均流动通道小的微生物污染物的至少约6的对数下降,其中所述微生物污染物流过过滤介质。 Still further aspect, the present invention relates to a process for removing microorganisms from a fluid contaminants, comprising the steps of: providing at least a portion having a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron pore structure of the filter medium, the microporous structure in its coated with a microbiological interception enhancing agent comprising a cationic metal complex, wherein said cationic material having a medium to high charge density and a molecular weight greater than about 5,000 daltons; so that the fluid in contact with the filter medium is greater than about 3 seconds; and smaller than the filter medium to obtain an average flow passage microbial contaminants of at least about 6 log reduction, wherein said microorganism contaminants pass through the filter media.

再进一步的方面,本发明涉及用于处理、储存和分配流体的重力流动过滤体系,它包括:容纳待过滤流体的第一储罐;与第一储罐流体交换的过滤介质,该过滤介质包括平均流动通道小于约1微米的微孔结构,和其中如此处理过滤介质,以便提供比所述过滤介质的平均流动通道小的微生物污染物的至少约4的对数下降;以及用于收集已过滤流体的与所述过滤介质流体交换的第二储罐。 Still further aspect, the present invention relates to handling, storage and dispensing a fluid gravity flow filtration system, comprising: receiving a first fluid to be filtered storage tank; filter medium tanks exchanged with the first fluid, the filter media comprises The average flow channels of less than about 1 micron microporous structure, and wherein the thus treated filter media to provide the filter medium than the mean flow path of the microbiological contaminants smaller of at least about 4 log reduction; and means for collecting filtered fluid exchange with the fluid in the second filter medium tanks.

附图的简要说明认为具有新颖性的本发明特点和本发明的子特性在所附权利要求书中特别给出。 Brief Description of the considered features of the present invention and sub-features of the present invention has a novelty in the appended claims particularly given. 附图仅用于说明目的且没有按比例画出。 The drawings are only for illustration purposes only and are not drawn to scale. 但本发明本身(在组织和操作方法二者上)可参考对以下优选的实施方案的说明并结合附图而得到最佳理解,其中:图1是引入本发明过滤介质的过滤器的侧视图。 However, the present invention itself (on both the organization and method of operation) can be referred to the following description of preferred embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and best understood, in which: Figure 1 is incorporated into the present invention the filter media side view of a filter .

图2是沿2-2线得到的图1过滤器的截面视图。 Figure 2 is a sectional view of a filter obtained along line 2-2 in FIG.

图3是本发明的例举性重力流动过滤体系的前视图。 Figure 3 is a front view of the example of gravity-flow filtration system of the present invention.

图4是本发明的另一例举性重力流动过滤体系的透视图。 Figure 4 is a perspective view of another example of the gravity-flow filtration system of the present invention.

发明详述在描述本发明优选的实施方案时,在此参考附图中的图1-4,其中相同的数字是指本发明相同的特征。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION In describing the preferred embodiment of the invention, the same characteristics of the present invention with reference to the drawings herein in Figures 1-4, wherein like numerals refer to. 本发明的特征在附图中未必按比例示出。 Features of the invention in the drawings are not necessarily shown to scale.

定义本文所用的″吸收剂″是指能够主要通过将杂质吸引到其内部结构内而吸附杂质的任何材料。 Defined herein, the term "absorbent" refers to any material capable of major impurities sucked into the internal structure of adsorbed impurities.

本文所用的″吸附剂″是指能够主要通过物理方式吸附到其表面上而吸附杂质的的任何材料。 As used herein, "adsorbent" refers to any material capable of adsorbing the main surface on which impurities are adsorbed by physical means.

本文所用的″吸附过滤介质″或″吸附预滤介质″是指用吸附剂如活性炭制备的过滤介质。 "Adsorption filter media" or "adsorption media prefilter" as used herein refers to a filter medium with an adsorbent such as activated carbon prepared. 例举的吸附过滤介质是商购于Orange,Connecticut的KX Industries,LP的PLEKX。 Exemplary adsorption filter media is commercially available in Orange, Connecticut's KX Industries, LP's PLEKX.

本文所用的″粘结剂″是指主要用于将其它材料粘结在一起而使用的材料。 As used herein, "binder" refers to a material mainly used for the other materials are bonded together and used.

本文所用的″加拿大标准游离度(Canadian Standard Freeness)″或″CSF″是指根据纸浆悬浮液可能被排放的速度而测量的纸浆游离度或排放速度值。 As used herein, "Canadian standard freeness (Canadian Standard Freeness)" or "CSF" refers to the freeness of the pulp according to the speed of the pulp suspension may be discharged or the discharge speed and the measured value. 该方法是熟练造纸领域的人员公知的。 This method is the art of papermaking skilled personnel known.

本文所用的″复合过滤介质″是指将预滤器、吸附预滤介质和本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质结合成单一复合结构的过滤介质。 As used herein, "composite filtration medium" means a pre-filter, adsorbent prefiltration medium and microorganisms of the invention in combination interception enhanced filter medium into a unitary composite filter media structure. 有时,预滤器可不存在或由吸附预滤介质承担其功能。 Sometimes, the pre-filter may be absent, or by adsorption pre-filter media to assume its functions.

本文所用的″污染物下降″是指以化学或生物方式减少被拦截、除去、和/或惰性化的流体中的杂质,以使得该流体更安全地例如用于人类使用,或在工业场合更有用。 As used herein, "contaminants down" refers to chemical or biological way to reduce was blocked, removed, and / or deactivation of the impurities in the fluid, so that the fluid safer for human use, for example, or in more industrial applications it works.

本文所用的″纤维″是指特征在于高长径比(如几百比一)的固体。 "Fibers" as used herein refers characterized by a high aspect ratio (e.g. a few hundred to one) as a solid. 有关纤维的任何讨论包括晶须。 Any discussion of fibers includes whiskers.

本文所用的″过滤介质″是指进行流体过滤的材料。 As used herein, "filter media" refers to the fluid filtration material.

本文所用的″流体″是指液体、气体、或其组合。 As used herein, "fluid" refers to liquid, gas, or combinations thereof.

本文所用的″成形″是指将松散的非结构化物质转化成内聚的均匀结构。 As used herein, "molding" refers to a loose, unstructured substance converted into a homogeneous cohesive structure. 例如,将松散的纤维转化成纸张。 For example, the conversion of loose fibers into the paper.

本文所用的″拦截(intercept)″或″拦截(interception)″是指干预或停止流过,以实现改变、除去、灭活或影响。 As used herein, "intercept (intercept)" or "Deny (interception)" refers to flow through intervention or stopped, in order to effect a change, remove, inactivate or influence.

本文所用的″对数下降值″或″LRV″是指在流入液中的生物体数目除以在经过过滤器的流出液中的生物体数目的常用对数值。 As used herein, "log reduction" or "LRV" refers to the number of organisms in the influent divided by the effluent through the filter in the number of organisms of common logarithm.

本文所用的″膜″是指多孔介质,其中结构是具有连续孔结构的单一连续的固体相。 "Film" as used herein refers to a porous medium, which is a single continuous structure having a continuous pore structure of the solid phase.

本文所用的″微生物拦截增强过滤介质″是指具有微孔结构的过滤介质,其中微孔结构表面的至少一部分用微生物拦截增强剂处理。 As used herein, "microbiological interception enhanced filter medium" refers to the filter medium having a microporous structure, at least a portion with a microbiological interception enhancing agent treatment wherein the microporous structure of the surface.

本文所用的″微生物″是指可悬浮在流体中的任何活的生物体,包括但不限于细菌,病毒,真菌,原生动物,及其繁殖形式,包括孢囊和孢子。 As used herein, "microorganism" refers to suspension in the fluid can be any living organism, including but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and reproductive forms, including cysts and spores.

本文所用的″微孔结构″是指平均流动通道低于约2.0微米,和通常低于约1.0微米的结构。 "Porous structure" as used herein refers to the average flow path of less than about 2.0 microns, and typically less than about 1.0 microns structure.

本文所用的″纳米纤维″是指直径小于约3.0mm的纤维。 "Nanofiber" as used herein refers to a fiber diameter of less than about 3.0mm.

本文所用的″天然有机物质″或″NOM″是指通常存在于可饮或非可饮水中的有机物质,其一部分会降低或抑制带正电荷的过滤介质的ξ电势。 As used herein, "natural organic substance" or "NOM" refers generally be present in the drinking water or in organic materials, which reduce or inhibit ξ part potential of a positively charged filter medium. 例举的NOM是聚阴离子酸,例如但不限于腐殖酸和灰黄霉酸。 NOM is exemplified polyanions acids, such as, but not limited to, humic and fulvic acids.

本文所用的″无纺布″是指网或织物或具有相互叠放(但不以针织或织造织物中的高度组织化方式)的各个纤维的结构的其它介质。 "Nonwoven" means a web or fabric is the top of each other or with (but not knitted or woven fabric in a highly organized manner) other media structure of individual fibers as used herein. 无纺网一般可通过本领域熟知的方法而制成。 Nonwoven webs are typically formed by methods known in the art made. 这些方法的例子包括但不限于(仅仅是例举的方式)熔体吹制,纺粘,梳理和气流铺设。 Examples of such methods include, but are not limited to, (merely exemplary manner) melt blown, spunbonded, carding and airflow laying.

本文所用的″纸张″或″纸状″是指通常扁平的纤维层或通过湿铺方法形成的材料垫。 "Paper" or "paper-like" as used herein refers generally flat fiber layer is formed by wet-laid method or the mat of material.

本文所用的″颗粒″是指尺寸范围从胶体至肉眼可见,且对形状没有特别限制但一般具有有限长/宽比的固体。 As used herein, "particle" refers to the size range from colloidal to macroscopic, and the shape is not particularly limited but generally have a limited length / width ratio of the solid.

本文所用的″预滤器″是指一般位于其它过滤层、结构或设备的上游和在流入液接触随后的过滤层、结构或设备之前能够降低颗粒污染物的过滤介质。 As used herein, "pre-filter" refers generally located in other filtration layer upstream and in the structure or equipment influent contacting subsequent filtration layers, structures or devices can be reduced before the particulate contaminants filter media.

本文所用的″片材″是指长度和宽度显著大于其厚度的大致二维的结构。 "Sheet" as used herein refers to a generally significantly greater than the thickness of the two-dimensional structure of length and width.

本文所用的″晶须″是指具有有限的长径比且介于颗粒和纤维的长径比之间的一种长丝。 As used herein, "whiskers" refers to having a limited aspect ratio and a filament between the particles and between the fibers of aspect ratio. 有关纤维的任何讨论包括晶须。 Any discussion of fibers includes whiskers.

微生物拦截增强过滤介质本发明的过滤介质包括微孔结构,所述微孔结构通过使用合适的孔结构和化学处理的组合而提供微生物拦截能力。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium of the present invention the filter medium comprises a microporous structure, the microporous structure through the use of suitable combinations of pore structure and chemical treatment to provide a microbiological interception capability. 微孔结构包括能具有小于约2.0微米的平均流动通道的任何材料。 Microporous structure can comprise any material having an average of less than about 2.0 microns the flow passage. 优选地,微孔结构包括成形为无纺布或纸状结构的纳米纤维,但可包括晶须,或者可以是膜。 Preferably, the microporous structure comprises forming a nonwoven fabric or paper-like structure of the nanofibers, but may include whiskers, or may be a film. 本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质的致密孔结构提供从流体到过滤介质表面的短的扩散距离。 Microorganism of the present invention interception enhanced filter medium dense pore structure provides a short diffusion distances from the fluid to the filter medium surface. 处理微孔结构表面而使用的化学处理方法利用阳离子材料和生物活性金属之间的协同相互作用,这样在组合时对所接触的微生物污染物提供广谱降低作用。 Treated porous structure surface chemical treatment method used and the use of a synergistic interaction bioactive metal cation material between, so that when in contact with a combination of microbial contaminants provide broad spectrum lowering effect. 阳离子材料向过滤介质所提供的电荷有助于微生物污染物的电动拦截,而致密的孔结构提供短扩散通道和因此流动流体中的污染物向微孔结构表面的快速扩散动力学。 Cation material contributes to the charge of microbial contaminants filter media provided by the electric interception, and tight pore structure provides a short diffusion path and thus rapid diffusion kinetics of contaminants in the fluid flow to the surface of the microporous structure. 微孔结构还提供对微生物污染物的补充直接机械拦截。 Microporous structure also provides supplemental microbial contaminants direct mechanical interception. 对于极小颗粒的拦截,由于扩散起主要作用,病毒颗粒的对数下降值和流入液在过滤介质内的接触时间之间有直接关系,而不是取决于过滤介质的厚度。 For very small particles of interception, diffusion plays a major role, log reduction and the contact time between the liquid flows into the filter medium is directly related to virus particles, rather than depending on the thickness of the filter medium.

微生物拦截增强过滤介质的特性为了提供充分的微生物拦截能力,本发明微生物拦截增强过滤介质的平均流动通道小于约2微米,和优选小于或等于约1微米,和更优选小于或等于约0.6微米。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium characteristics in order to provide sufficient microbiological interception capability, microorganisms of the present invention is a mean flow path interception enhanced filter medium of less than about 2 microns, and preferably less than or equal to about 1 micron, and more preferably less than or equal to about 0.6 microns. 本发明微生物拦截增强过滤介质的量与流过过滤介质的流体的流速相比必须足以提供适合污染物扩散至过滤介质表面的接触时间。 Microorganism of the present invention, the amount of interception enhanced filter medium and the flow rate of the fluid flowing through the filter medium compared to the contact time must be sufficient to provide for diffusion of pollutants to the filter medium surface. 为了在大多数条件下,提供对大多数带负电荷的微生物的增加的电动拦截,微生物拦截增强过滤介质的正ξ电势在约6至约7的pH值下通常大于约+10毫伏,和在约9或更大的pH值下保持净正的ξ电势。 Under most conditions in order to provide increased most negatively charged electric interception of microorganisms, the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium positive ξ potential at a pH of from about 6 to about 7 is generally greater than about +10 mV, and maintaining net positive ξ potential at pH of about 9 or greater value.

通过使用基本上除去NOM的吸附预滤器而优选阻止天然有机物质(NOM)如聚阴离子酸(即腐殖酸或灰黄霉酸)与带电的微孔结构接触,其中所述天然有机物质(NOM)可减少或除去微生物拦截增强过滤介质上的电荷。 By using substantially remove NOM adsorption prefilter and preferably prevent natural organic matter (NOM), such as polyanionic acids (i.e., humic or fulvic acid) in contact with the charged microporous structure, wherein the natural organic matter (NOM ) can reduce or remove the charge microbiological interception enhanced filter medium. 当在重力流动的水过滤体系中使用时,优选采用亲水材料制备微生物拦截增强过滤介质,以提供良好的自发可润湿性。 When used in a gravity flow water filtration system, preferably a hydrophilic material prepared interception enhanced filter medium of microorganisms, to provide a good spontaneous wettability. 或者,在其它场合中,可根据需要处理微生物拦截增强过滤介质以提供亲水或疏水特性。 Or, in other occasions, interception enhanced filter media may need to be addressed in accordance with the microorganism to provide a hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties. 微生物拦截增强过滤介质有可能具有带正电荷和带负电荷的以及未带电荷的区域,和/或亲水与疏水区域。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium having a charge and the possible area is not charged, and / or hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions positively charged and negatively. 例如,带负电荷的区域可用于增加不太常见的带正电荷的污染物的拦截,和未带电荷的疏水区域可用于提供吸引到疏水表面上的污染物的增强拦截。 For example, negatively charged regions can be used to increase the less common positively charged contaminants intercepted and uncharged hydrophobic regions can be used to provide enhanced attract contaminant on a hydrophobic surface to intercept.

纤维/晶须或粒状成分本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质包括微孔结构,所述微孔结构可包括多根纳米纤维,所述纳米纤维包括有机和无机材料的晶须或微粒成分,其包括但不限于聚合物、离子交换树脂、工程树脂、陶瓷、纤维素、人造丝、苎麻、羊毛、丝、玻璃、金属、活化矾土、碳或活性炭、二氧化硅、沸石、硅藻土、活性铝土矿、漂白土、钙羟基磷灰石、其它吸附材料或其结合。 Fiber / whisker or particulate component microorganisms of the invention interception enhanced filter medium comprises a microporous structure, the porous structure may comprise a plurality of nanofibers, said nanofibers include organic and inorganic whiskers or particulate material composition, which comprises but not limited to, polymers, ion exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, cellulose, rayon, ramie, wool, silk, glass, metal, activated alumina, carbon or activated carbon, silica, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite, other absorbent materials or combinations thereof. 可以考虑有机和无机纤维和/或晶须或微粒的结合且在本发明的范围内,例如可以与掺入到微孔结构内的非常小的颗粒一起使用玻璃、陶瓷或金属纤维和聚合物纤维。 Organic and inorganic fibers may be considered and combined / or whiskers or particles and within the scope of the present invention, for example, may be incorporated into very small particles within the microporous structure for use with glass, ceramic or metal fibers and polymeric fibers .

当通过湿铺方法由纳米纤维如纤维素或聚合物纤维生产这种纤维时,它们的加拿大标准游离度还应当小于或等于约100,和最优选小于或等于约45。 When the production of cellulose or polymeric fibers such as fibers comprising the nanofiber by wet-laid method, they should also be a Canadian Standard Freeness of less than or equal to about 100, and most preferably less than or equal to about 45. 优选地,大部分纤维的直径应当小于或等于约1000纳米,更优选小于或等于约400纳米,和最优选直径小于或等于约250纳米的纤维。 Preferably, the diameter of the majority of the fibers should be less than or equal to about 1000 nanometers, more preferably less than or equal to about 400 nanometers, and most preferably a diameter less than or equal to about 250 nm fiber. 优选切断纤维到约1mm至约8mm的长度,优选约2mm至约6mm,和更优选约3mm至约4mm。 Preferably the staple fibers to a length of about 1mm to about 8mm, preferably about 2mm to about 6mm, and more preferably from about 3mm to about 4mm. 由于原纤化纤维特别细的尺寸和潜在地低的成本,所以最优选原纤化纤维。 Since fibrillated fibers extremely fine dimensions and potentially low cost, the most preferred fibrillated fiber.

优选地,根据本发明加工的原纤化合成纤维素纤维,可产生超细的亲水微孔结构以用作本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质。 Preferably, the fibrillated synthetic cellulosic fibers of the present invention is processed, can produce ultra-fine hydrophilic microporous structure for use as the present invention is a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium. 可通过在有机溶剂,如氧化胺中直接溶解和纺丝木浆来制备这种原纤化纤维素纤维,和它被称为Lyocell纤维。 Can be prepared by an organic solvent, such as amine oxides and the direct dissolution of wood pulp to prepare such spinning fibrillated cellulose fibers, and it is known as Lyocell fibers. Lyocell纤维的优点是,以一致、均匀的方式生产,从而得到可重复的结果,这与例如天然纤维素纤维的情况不同。 Advantages Lyocell fiber is consistent, producing a uniform manner to obtain reproducible results, which is the case of natural cellulose fibers such as different. 此外,Lyocell原纤常常卷曲。 Furthermore, Lyocell fibrils often curl. 卷曲提供大量的纤维缠结,从而导致具有高干燥强度和显著残留湿强度的成品过滤介质。 Curl offers plenty of neurofibrillary tangles, causing the finished filter media has a high dry strength and significant residual wet strength. 另外,可使用中等投资成本的设备大量地生产原纤化Lyocell纤维。 In addition, you can use a large number of moderate investment cost equipment production fibrillation Lyocell fibers. 应当理解,除纤维素以外的纤维可被原纤化,以生产极细原纤,如合成纤维,尤其丙烯酸或尼龙纤维,或其它天然纤维素材料。 It should be understood that fibers other than cellulose may be fibrillated to produce extremely fine fibrils, such as synthetic fibers, especially acrylic or nylon fibers, or other natural cellulosic materials. 可在微孔结构中使用原纤化和非原纤化纤维的组合。 Can use a combination of fibrillated and non-fibrillated fibers in the microporous structure.

膜本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质可包括有机或无机组分的膜,所述组分包括但不限于聚合物、离子交换树脂、工程树脂、陶瓷、纤维素、人造丝、苎麻、羊毛、丝、玻璃、金属、活化矾土、活性炭、氧化硅、沸石、硅藻土、活性铝土矿、漂白土、钙羟基磷灰石、钛酸盐和其它材料或其结合。 Film of the present invention is a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium may comprise an organic or inorganic film components, the components include, but not limited to, polymers, ion exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, cellulose, rayon, ramie, wool, silk , glass, metal, activated alumina, activated carbon, silica, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium hydroxyapatite, titanates, and other materials or a combination thereof. 可以考虑有机和无机材料的结合且在本发明的范围内。 Can be considered organic and inorganic materials in combination and within the scope of the invention. 可使用对熟悉本领域的人员来说已知的方法制备这种膜。 May be used for a person skilled in the art is known a method for preparing such membranes.

微生物拦截增强剂用能在微生物拦截增强剂上产生正电荷的微生物拦截增强剂化学处理构成微孔结构的纳米纤维或膜。 A microbiological interception enhancing agent with nano fiber or membrane can produce a positive charge on the microbiological interception enhancing agent constitutes a microbiological interception enhancing agent chemically treated microporous structure. 通过用阳离子材料处理纤维或膜,在至少一些纤维或膜的至少一部分表面上形成阳离子金属络合物。 By treatment with a cationic material fiber or film, on a surface of at least a portion of at least some of the fibers or film forming cationic metal complexes. 阳离子材料可以是小的带电分子或沿着聚合物链的长度方向具有带正电原子的直链或支链聚合物。 Cationic material may be a small charged molecule or a straight-chain or branched-chain polymers with positively charged atoms along the length of the polymer chain.

如果阳离子材料是聚合物,则电荷密度优选大于约1带电原子/约每20埃、优选大于约1带电原子/约每12埃、和更优选大于约1带电原子/约每10埃分子长度。 If the cationic material is a polymer, the charge density is preferably greater than about 1 charged atom / about every 20 Angstroms, preferably greater than about 1 charged atom / about every 12 Angstroms, and more preferably greater than about 1 charged atom / molecule length about every 10 Angstroms. 阳离子材料上的电荷密度越高,与其缔合的抗衡离子的浓度越高。 The charge density of the cationic material, the higher the concentration of its associated counter ions. 高浓度的合适抗衡离子可用于驱使阳离子金属络合物沉淀。 Suitable counterions high concentration can be used to drive the precipitation of the cationic metal complex. 阳离子材料不管在高或低pH环境下,应当始终向微孔结构提供高度带正电的表面,这通过流动或ξ电势分析器测定。 Regardless of cation material at high or low pH environment, should always provide highly positively charged surface to the microporous structure, which was measured by flow or ξ potential analyzer. 用高分子量带电聚合物处理后的微孔结构的ξ或流动电势在基本中性pH下可大于约+10毫伏。 With ξ or streaming potential after treatment of high molecular weight charged polymer microporous structure in a substantially neutral pH may be greater than about +10 mV. 和经常高达约+23毫伏。 And often up to about +23 mV.

阳离子材料包括但不限于季铵化胺,季铵化酰胺,季铵盐,季铵化酰亚胺,苄烷铵化合物,双胍,阳离子氨基硅化合物,阳离子纤维素衍生物,阳离子淀粉,季铵化聚二醇胺缩合物,季铵化胶原多肽,阳离子甲壳质衍生物,阳离子瓜耳胶,胶体如阳离子蜜胺-甲醛酸胶体,无机处理过的硅石胶体,聚酰胺-表氯醇树脂,阳离子丙烯酰胺,聚合物和其共聚物,其组合和类似物。 Cationic materials include, but not limited to, quaternized amines, quaternized amides, quaternary ammonium salts, quaternized imides, benzalkonium compounds, biguanides, cationic amino silicone compounds, cationic cellulose derivatives, cationic starch, quaternary ammonium of polyglycol amine condensates, quaternized collagen polypeptides, cationic chitin derivatives, cationic guar gum, colloids such as cationic melamine - formaldehyde acid colloids, inorganic treated silica colloids, polyamide - epichlorohydrin resin, cationic acrylamide, polymers and copolymers thereof, combinations thereof and the like. 可用于该应用的带电分子可以是具有单个带电单元和能够连接到微孔结构的至少一部分上的小分子。 Charged molecules can be used for this application may be a single charged unit and can be connected to at least a portion of the small molecule cellular structure. 阳离子材料优选具有一个或多个与其缔合的抗衡离子,在暴露于生物活性金属盐溶液时,使得靠近阳离子表面的金属优先沉淀以形成阳离子金属沉淀。 Cationic material preferably has one or more counter ions associated therewith, upon exposure to a biologically active metal salt solution, the so close to the surface of the metal cation to form a cationic metal precipitate preferentially precipitate.

例举的胺可以是吡咯,表氯醇衍生的胺,其聚合物和类似物。 Exemplary amines may be pyrroles, epichlorohydrin derived amines, polymers thereof, and the like. 例举的酰胺可以是公开于国际专利申请No.WO 01/07090的那些聚酰胺和类似物。 Exemplary amides may be those published application No.WO 01/07090 polyamide and the like in the international patent. 例举的季铵盐可以是二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵的均聚物,表氯醇衍生的聚季胺聚合物,衍生自二胺和二卤化物的季铵盐,例如公开于美国专利2,261,002,2,271,378,2,388,614和2,454,547(在此将其作为参考引入本发明)和公开于国际专利申请No.WO 97/23594(也在此将其作为参考引入本发明)的那些,聚六亚甲基二甲基溴化铵和类似物。 Exemplary quaternary ammonium salts may be a diallyl dimethyl ammonium halide homopolymers, poly quaternary amine polymer epichlorohydrin derived, are derived from diamines and dihalides quaternary ammonium salts, such as disclosed in U.S. Patents 2,261,002,2,271,378,2,388,614 and 2,454,547 (herein incorporated by reference which present invention) and are disclosed in International Patent Application No.WO 97/23594 (also incorporated by reference herein in its present invention) are those, poly hexamethylene yl dimethyl ammonium bromide and the like. 阳离子材料可化学键接、吸附、或交联至自身和/或至纤维或膜上。 Cationic material may chemically bonded, adsorbed, or crosslinked to itself and / or to a fiber or a film.

另外,适用作阳离子材料的其它材料包括得自BioShieldTechnologies,Inc.,Norcross,Georgia的BIOSHIELD。 Furthermore, other materials suitable for use as cationic materials include those from BioShieldTechnologies, Inc., Norcross, Georgia of BIOSHIELD. BIOSHIELD是一种有机硅烷产品,包括约5%重量的十八烷基氨基二甲基三甲氧基甲硅烷基丙基氯化铵和低于3%的氯丙基三甲氧基硅烷。 BIOSHIELD is an organosilane product including approximately 5% by weight of octadecyl-amino-dimethyl-trimethoxysilyl propyl ammonium chloride and less than 3 percent chloropropyl trimethoxysilane. 可以使用的另一材料是SURFACINE,其得自Surfacine Development CompanyLLC,Tyngsboro,Massachusetts。 Another material that can be used is SURFACINE, which is derived from Surfacine Development CompanyLLC, Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. SURFACINE包含通过使聚(六亚甲基双胍)(PHMB)与4,4′-亚甲基-二-N,N-二缩水甘油苯胺(MBGDA)(交联剂)反应以将PHMB共价键接到聚合物表面上而得到的三维聚合物网状结构。 SURFACINE comprises by reacting a poly (hexamethylene biguanide) (PHMB) and 4,4'-methylene - bis -N, N- diglycidyl aniline (MBGDA) (crosslinking agent) reacted to covalently PHMB bonding to the polymer surface to give a three-dimensional polymer network structure. 碘化银形式的银被引入该网状结构,和作为亚微米尺寸的颗粒被截留。 Form of silver iodide is introduced into the network structure, and as submicron size particles are trapped. 该组合是一种可用于本发明的有效的杀生物剂。 The combination is an effective biocide can be used in the present invention. 取决于纤维和膜材料,MBGDA可以或不将PHMB交联至纤维或膜上。 Depending on the fiber and film material, MBGDA PHMB may or may not be crosslinked to a fiber or a film.

将阳离子材料暴露于生物活性金属盐溶液中,以便阳离子金属络合物沉淀到至少一些纤维或膜的至少一部分表面上。 The cationic material is exposed to a biologically active metal salt solution in order to precipitate the cationic metal complex onto the surface of at least a portion of at least some of the fibers or films. 为此,生物活性的金属是优选的。 To this end, the bioactive metal is preferred. 这些生物活性金属包括但不限于银,铜,锌,镉,汞,锑,金,铝,铂,钯和其组合。 These bioactive metals including, but not limited to, silver, copper, zinc, cadmium, mercury, antimony, gold, aluminum, platinum, palladium, and combinations thereof. 最优选银和铜。 Most preferably, silver and copper. 优选选择生物活性金属盐溶液使得阳离子材料中的金属和抗衡离子基本上不溶于含水环境以驱使阳离子金属络合物沉淀。 Biologically active metal salt solution is preferably selected such that the material of the metal cation and the counterion is substantially insoluble in an aqueous environment to drive precipitation of the cationic metal complex.

尤其有用的微生物拦截增强剂是阳离子银-胺-卤化物络合物。 A particularly useful microbiological interception enhancing agent is a cationic silver - amine - halide complexes. 阳离子胺优选分子量为大于或等于约400,000道尔顿的二烯丙基二甲基卤化铵的均聚物或具有类似电荷密度和分子量的其它季铵盐。 Cationic amine is preferably a molecular weight of greater than or equal to about 400,000 daltons diallyldimethylammonium homopolymer or ammonium halide other quaternary ammonium salts having a similar charge density and molecular weight. 可用于本发明的二烯丙基二甲基氯化铵的均聚物可以商品名MERQUAT100购自Nalco Chemical Company(Naperville,Illnois)。 Can be used in the present invention is diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride homopolymer tradename MERQUAT100 available from Nalco Chemical Company (Naperville, Illnois). 氯抗衡离子可被替代为溴或碘抗衡离子。 Chlorine counterion can be replaced with a bromine or iodine counterion. 如果与硝酸银溶液接触,则银-胺-卤化物络合物沉淀在过滤介质的微孔结构的至少一部分纤维或膜上。 If contact with the silver nitrate solution, the silver - amine - halide complexes precipitate at least a portion of the fibers or a microporous membrane filter media structure.

周围溶液的pH确实影响本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质的ξ电势。 PH of the surrounding solution does affect the present invention microbiological interception enhanced filter media ξ potential. 酸性pH增加过滤介质上的电荷,而碱性pH会降低过滤介质上的电荷。 Acidic pH increase charge on the filter medium, while alkaline pH will reduce the charge on the filter medium. 典型地在饮用水中遇到的pH条件下,微生物拦截增强过滤介质确实维持最小的正电荷和仅在非常高的pH值下使电荷降低到低于0毫伏。 Under the pH conditions typically encountered in the drinking water, microbiological interception enhanced filter medium does maintain a minimum positive charge and at very high pH such that only the charge reduced to less than 0 mV. 暴露于NOM如聚阴离子酸会降低微生物拦截增强过滤介质的ξ电势。 Exposure to NOM as polyanion acid will reduce the microbiological interception enhanced filter media ξ potential. 这将削弱它的微生物拦截能力。 This would weaken its ability to intercept microorganisms. 因此,在存在高含量NOM的场合中,能除去NOM的吸附预滤器会延长微生物拦截增强过滤介质的有效寿命。 Therefore, in the presence of high levels of NOM occasions, to remove NOM adsorption pre-filter will extend microbiological interception enhanced filter media useful life.

制备微生物拦截增强过滤介质的方法可按照本领域熟练技术人员已知的工艺制备微生物拦截增强过滤介质。 Preparation microbiological interception enhanced filter medium in accordance with known to a person skilled in the art of preparing microbial process interception enhanced filter medium. 干铺工艺包括纺粘、静电纺纱、海岛纺丝(spinningislands-in-sea)工艺、原纤化薄膜、熔体吹塑,和本领域熟练技术人员已知的其它干铺工艺。 Dry shop processes include spunbond, electrostatic spinning, spinning island (spinningislands-in-sea) technology, fibrillated film, melt blown, and the skilled artisan craft shop other dry. 例举的干铺工艺以短切纤维作为起始,所述短切纤维可通过梳理成单根纤维而分开,然后通过气动或流体动力方法铺在一起到所需厚度,形成非粘合的纤维片材。 Exemplary dry laying processes as the starting chopped fibers, the fibers may be chopped into individual fibers by carding and separated, and then spread by pneumatic or hydrodynamic methods together to a desired thickness, forming a non-bonded fibers sheet. 然后对该非粘合纤维进行水力喷射,以使纤维原纤化并水力缠绕(hydroentangle)。 Then the non-adhesive fibers hydro-jet, so fibrillation and hydro-entangled (hydroentangle). 可在一些塑料膜上进行类似的工艺,当所述塑料膜暴露于高压水射流时,转化成原纤化纤维网。 Similar process can be performed in a number of plastic film, when the plastic film is exposed to high-pressure water jet, the conversion into a fibrillated web.

在优选的湿铺工艺中,将纤维丝束切断成特定的长度,通常在约1mm至约8mm范围内,和尤其在约3mm至约4mm范围内。 In a preferred wet laid process, the fiber tow was cut into a specific length, usually within the range from about 1mm to about 8mm, and in particular in the range from about 3mm to about 4mm. 在具有类似于掺合机特征的设备内,或在较大规模上、在常称为“hi-low”、“打浆机”或“匀浆机”的机器内,原纤化短切纤维。 In the apparatus having the characteristics similar to a blender, or on a larger scale, often referred to in the "hi-low", "beater" or "refiner" machines, fibrillated chopped fiber. 使纤维经历反复的应力,同时进一步切断,并使纤维长度的下降最小。 The fibers undergo repeated stress, and further cut, and to decrease the minimum fiber length. 当纤维经历这些应力时,由于无定形和结晶区域之间的作用力弱导致纤维劈裂,和加拿大标准游离度(CSF)开始下降,其中所述加拿大标准游离度通过本领域公知的方法来测定。 When the fibers undergo these stresses, due to the amorphous and crystalline regions of the fibers lead to weak cleavage, and Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF) began to decrease, wherein the Canadian Standard Freeness by methods known in the art to determine . 可间隔地取出所得纸浆样品,和CSF可用作原纤化程度的间接量度。 The resulting pulp can be removed sample intervals, and the CSF used as an indirect measure of the degree of fibrillation. 尽管CSF值略微敏感于纤维长度,但它更强烈敏感于纤维的原纤化程度。 While the CSF value is slightly sensitive to the fiber length, but it is more strongly sensitive to the degree of fibrillation of the fibers. 因此,CSF是从纸浆中除水的容易程度的量度,它是监控纤维原纤化程度的合适方式。 Thus, CSF is a measure of the ease of removal of water from the pulp, it is suitable means to monitor the degree of fibrillation of fibers. 若表面积非常高,则在给定量的时间下非常少的水从纸浆中排出,和随着纤维更深入地原纤化,CSF值将逐渐变低。 If the surface area is very high, then in a given amount of time is very little water is drained from the pulp, and fibers with deeper fibrillated, CSF value gradually decreases. 给定CSF值的原纤化纤维可直接用于生产纸张或在各种不同的设备(其中包括脱水压机或传动带)上脱水,产生脱水纸浆。 Given CSF value fibrillated fibers can be used directly in the production of paper or dehydration various devices (including dewatering press or belt), the generated dehydrated pulp. 已脱水纸浆可随后用于制备湿铺纸张。 Dewatered pulp can be subsequently used to prepare wet-laid paper. 一般地,对于本发明的应用来说,使用CSF低于100的纸浆,和优选CSF应当小于或等于约45。 Generally, for application of the invention, the use of less than 100 CSF pulp, CSF, and preferably should be less than or equal to about 45.

用阳离子材料处理纸浆,其方式使得阳离子材料涂布至少一些纤维的至少一部分表面,从而在纤维上赋予电荷。 Pulp treated with cationic material, in a manner such that the cationic material is applied at least a portion of at least some of the fibers of the surface, thereby imparting a charge to the fibers. 施加阳离子材料到纤维上的方法是本领域已知的,和包括但不限于喷涂、浸涂,或浸没涂布,以引起阳离子材料吸附、化学反应或交联到纤维表面上。 The method is applied to the fibers cationic materials are known in the art, and include, but are not limited to, spray coating, dip coating, or immersion coating, cationic materials to cause adsorption, chemical reaction or crosslinking to the fiber surface. 然后在反渗透/去离子水(RO/DI)中漂洗已处理过的纸浆,通常在真空下部分脱水,产生湿垫(lap),然后可将其暴露于生物活性金属盐溶液中。 Then the reverse osmosis / deionized water (RO / DI) rinsing the treated pulp, usually partially dehydrated under vacuum, producing a wet mat (lap), which can then be exposed to a biologically active metal salt solution. 使用几乎无离子的漂洗水引起与阳离子材料缔合的抗衡离子朝已处理的纤维表面紧密地吸引并排除了不想要的离子,所述不想要的离子可引起生物活性金属不可控地沉淀到远离阳离子表面的位置上。 Use rinse water almost no ions cause material associated with the cationic counterion toward fiber surface treated tightly attract and eliminates unwanted ions, the ions can cause unwanted bioactive metal uncontrollably precipitate away from the cation surface position.

金属盐溶液渗透到纤维内,使阳离子金属络合物在至少一部分纤维表面上沉淀。 Metal salt solution penetrates into the fibers, the cationic metal complex precipitates on at least a portion of the fiber surface. 该沉淀精确地沉积与阳离子涂层相邻的金属胶体,这是因为与该涂层缔合的抗衡离子同施加的金属盐反应,形成胶体颗粒。 The precipitate was precisely deposited with cationic coating adjacent metal colloids, metal salt because it is associated with the coating applied with the counter ion to form colloidal particles. 在充分暴露于生物活性金属盐溶液之后,可漂洗纤维并除去过量的水。 After sufficient exposure to biologically active metal salt solution, and the fibers can be rinsed to remove excess water. 或者,可将纤维直接送到纸浆沉淀体系中,产生适合于造纸的配料。 Alternatively, the fibers may be sent directly to pulp precipitation systems, produced ingredients suitable for papermaking.

当硝酸银用作金属盐溶液时,可通过使用获自KratosAnalytical(日本的Shimadzu Group Company)的Kratos EDX-700/800X-射线荧光分光计,证实沉淀银的存在。 When silver nitrate is used as the metal salt solution, may be obtained from using KratosAnalytical (Japan Shimadzu Group Company) of Kratos EDX-700 / 800X--ray fluorescence spectrometer, confirmed the presence of the precipitation of silver.

可根据本领域熟练技术人员已知的工艺制备含膜的微生物拦截增强过滤介质。 Interception enhanced filter medium can according to the microorganism known to a person skilled in the art of preparation containing membranes. 可在形成膜之前处理用于膜的原材料,或可使用本领域已知的方法和处理纤维表面所使用的那些相类似的方法,将阳离子材料施加到膜材料上。 May be processed, before forming a film for the film materials, or methods known in the art and the processing methods similar to those used in the fiber surface, the cationic material is applied to the film material.

添加剂湿铺纤维片材(特别地当湿时)的强度可通过添加各种添加剂而改进。 Wet-laid fiber sheet (particularly when wet when) the intensity of the additive may be improved by adding various additives. 本领域公知添加环氧或丙烯酸或其它树脂到造纸工艺中可提供增强的湿强度,但这些水分散树脂常常引起最终产品较低的渗透率,特别地当纤维尺寸变得非常小时。 Known in the art to add an epoxy or acrylic or other resin to the papermaking process to provide enhanced wet strength, but these low water-dispersible resins are often caused by penetration of the final product, particularly when the fiber size becomes very small. 尽管这些树脂和树脂体系可在本发明中使用,但优选使用本领域已知的粉末、粒状或者纤维形式的热塑性或热固性材料。 Although these resins and resin systems may be used in the present invention, it is preferred to use known in the art of powder, granular or fiber form thermoplastic or thermosetting material.

有用的粘结剂材料包括但不限于聚烯烃,聚卤乙烯,聚乙烯酯,聚乙烯醚,聚乙烯硫酸酯,聚乙烯磷酸酯,聚乙烯胺,聚酰胺,聚酰亚胺,聚噁二唑,聚三唑,聚碳化二亚胺,聚砜,聚碳酸酯,聚醚,聚亚芳基氧,聚酯,聚丙烯酸酯,酚醛树脂,蜜胺-甲醛树脂,甲醛-脲,乙基-醋酸乙烯酯共聚物,其共聚物和嵌段共聚物,和其组合。 Useful binder materials include, but are not limited to, polyolefins, polyvinyl halides, polyvinyl esters, polyvinyl ethers, polyvinyl sulfates, polyvinyl phosphates, polyvinyl amines, polyamides, polyimides, oxadiazole, oxazole, poly triazole, polycarbodiimides, polysulfones, polycarbonates, polyethers, polyarylene oxide, polyester, polyacrylate, phenol resin, melamine - formaldehyde resins, formaldehyde - urea, ethyl - vinyl acetate copolymers, copolymers and block copolymers, and combinations thereof. 以上材料和其它有用的聚合物的变体包括基团如羟基,卤素,低级烷基,低级烷氧基,单环状芳基和类似物的取代。 Variants of the above materials and other useful polymers include substituents such as hydroxy, halogen, lower alkyl, lower alkoxy, monocyclic aryl group and the like groups. 其它潜在可用的材料包括聚合物如聚苯乙烯和丙烯腈-苯乙烯共聚物,苯乙烯-丁二烯共聚物和其它非晶或无定形聚合物与结构。 Other potentially useful materials include polymers such as polystyrene and acrylonitrile - styrene copolymer, styrene - butadiene copolymers and other amorphous or amorphous polymers and structures.

可用于本发明的粘结剂材料的更详细列举包括封端聚缩醛,如聚甲醛,聚(三氯乙醛),聚(正戊醛),聚(乙醛),和聚(丙醛);丙烯酸聚合物,如聚丙烯酰胺,聚(丙烯酸),聚(甲基丙烯酸),聚(丙烯酸乙酯),和聚(甲基丙烯酸甲酯);氟碳聚合物,如聚(四氟乙烯),全氟化乙烯-丙烯共聚物,乙烯-四氟乙烯共聚物,聚(氯三氟乙烯),乙烯-氯三氟乙烯共聚物,聚(偏二氟乙烯),和聚(氟乙烯);聚酰胺,如聚(6-氨基己酸)或聚(e-己内酰胺),聚(亚己基己二酰胺),聚(亚己基癸二酰胺),和聚(11-氨基十一酸);聚芳酰胺,如聚(亚氨基-1,3-亚苯基亚氨基异邻苯二甲酰)或聚(间-亚苯基异邻苯二甲酰胺);聚对亚苯基二甲基,如聚-2-亚二甲苯基,和聚(氯-1-亚二甲苯基);聚芳基醚,如聚(氧基-2,6-二甲基-1,4-亚苯基)或聚(对苯醚);聚芳基砜,如聚(氧基-1,4-亚苯基磺酰基-1,4-亚苯基氧基-1,4-亚苯基亚异丙基-1,4-亚苯基),和聚(磺酰基-1,4-亚苯基-氧基-1,4-亚苯基磺酰基-4,4′-亚联苯基);聚碳酸酯,如聚(双酚A)或聚(羰基二氧基-1,4-亚苯基亚异丙基-1,4-亚苯基);聚酯,如聚(对苯二甲酸乙二酯),聚(对苯二甲酸丁二酯),和聚(亚环己基-1,4-二亚甲基对苯二甲酸酯)或聚(甲醛-1,4-环亚己基亚甲基氧基对苯二甲酰);聚芳基硫化物,如聚(对苯硫醚)或聚(硫代-1,4-亚苯基);聚酰亚胺,如聚(均苯四亚氨基-1,4-亚苯基);聚烯烃,如聚乙烯,聚丙烯,聚(1-丁烯),聚(2-丁烯),聚(1-戊烯),聚(2-戊烯),聚(3-甲基-1-戊烯),和聚(4-甲基-1-戊烯);乙烯基聚合物,如聚(醋酸乙烯酯),聚(偏二氯乙烯),和聚(氯乙烯);二烯聚合物,如1,2-聚-1,3-丁二烯,1,4-聚-1,3-丁二烯,聚异戊二烯,和聚氯丁二烯;聚苯乙烯;以及前述的共聚物,如丙烯腈-丁二烯-苯乙烯(ABS)共聚物。 Binder material can be used in the present invention is exemplified in more detail comprises a capped polyacetals, such as polyoxymethylene, poly (chloral), poly (n-valeraldehyde), poly (acetaldehyde), and poly (propionaldehyde ); acrylic polymers, such as polyacrylamide, poly (acrylic acid), poly (methacrylic acid), poly (ethyl acrylate), and poly (methyl methacrylate); fluorocarbon polymers, such as poly (tetrafluoroethylene ethylene), perfluorinated ethylene - propylene copolymer, ethylene - tetrafluoroethylene copolymer, poly (chlorotrifluoroethylene), ethylene - chlorotrifluoroethylene copolymer, poly (vinylidene fluoride), and poly (vinyl fluoride ); polyamides, such as poly (6-aminocaproic acid) or poly (e- caprolactam), poly (hexamethylene adipamide), poly (hexamethylene sebacamide), and poly (11-aminoundecanoic acid) ; polyaramides, such as poly (imino-1,3-phenylenevinylene aminoisobutyric phthalimido) or poly (m - phenylene iso-phthalic acid diamide); polyparaphenylene dimethyl groups, such as poly-2-xylylene, and poly (chloro-1-xylylene); poly aryl ether, such as poly (oxy-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene yl) or a poly (phenylene ether); polyarylsulfones such as poly (oxy-1,4-phenylene sulfonyl-1,4-phenylene-1,4-phenylenevinylene iso propyl-1,4-phenylene), and poly (sulfonyl-1,4-phenylene - oxy-1,4-phenylene-sulfonyl-4,4'-biphenylene); polycarbonates, such as poly (bisphenol A) or poly (carbonyl dioxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene-isopropyl-1,4-phenylene); polyesters, such as poly (terephthalic acid terephthalate), poly (butylene terephthalate), and poly (cyclohexylene-1,4-dimethylene terephthalate) or poly (1,4-cyclohexylidene formaldehyde methyleneoxy terephthalamide); polyaryl sulfides, such as poly (p-phenylene sulfide) or poly (thio-1,4-phenylene); polyimides, such as poly (average pyromellitic imino-1,4-phenylene); polyolefins, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (1-butene), poly (2-butene), poly (1-pentene), poly ( 2-pentene), poly (3-methyl-1-pentene), and poly (4-methyl-1-pentene); vinyl polymers, such as poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinylidene vinyl chloride), and poly (vinyl chloride); diene polymer, such as 1,2-poly-1,3-butadiene, 1,4-poly-1,3-butadiene, polyisoprene , and polychloroprene; polystyrene; and copolymers of the foregoing, such as acrylonitrile - butadiene - styrene (ABS) copolymer. 可以使用的聚烯烃包括聚乙烯,线型低密度聚乙烯,聚丙烯,聚(1-丁烯),聚(2-丁烯),聚(1-戊烯),聚(2-戊烯),聚(3-甲基-1-戊烯),聚(4-甲基-1-戊烯),和类似物。 The polyolefin may be used include polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (1-butene), poly (2-butene), poly (1-pentene), poly (2-pentene) , poly (3-methyl-1-pentene), poly (4-methyl-1-pentene), and the like.

可使用一系列粘结剂纤维,其中包括聚乙烯、聚丙烯、丙烯酸或聚酯-聚丙烯或聚丙烯-聚乙烯双组分纤维或其它。 Series binder fiber may be used, including polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylic or polyester - or a polypropylene - polyethylene bicomponent fibers or other. 若如下所述适当地处理的话,某些类型的处理聚乙烯纤维是最佳的,和具有的额外优点是,当适量使用时,没有显著干预所得过滤介质的亲水本性。 If handled properly, as described below, then, some types of polyethylene fiber is the best treatment, and has the additional advantage that, when used in moderation, not significantly interfere with the hydrophilic nature of the resulting filter medium. 优选的纤维粘结剂材料可包括FYBREL合成纤维和/或SHORT STUFFEST-8,这二者均是聚烯烃基材料。 Preferred fiber binder materials may include FYBREL synthetic fibers and / or SHORT STUFFEST-8, both of which are polyolefin-based material. FYBREL是一种聚烯烃基合成纸浆,它是一种高度原纤化的纤维且可商购于日本的Mitsui Chemical Company。 FYBREL is a polyolefin-based synthetic pulp, which is a highly fibrillated fiber and is available in Japan Mitsui Chemical Company. FYBREL具有优良的热模塑性并给过滤介质提供光滑的表面。 FYBREL has excellent heat moldability and to provide a smooth surface of the filter media. SHORTSTUFFEST-8商购于MiniFibers,Inc.,Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,和是一种高度原纤化的高密度聚乙烯。 SHORTSTUFFEST-8 commercially available from MiniFibers, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and is a highly fibrillated high density polyethylene.

优选地,粘结剂材料的存在量为约1%至约10%重量,更优选约3%至约6%,和最优选约5%。 Preferably, the binder material is present in an amount from about 1% to about 10% by weight, more preferably from about 3% to about 6%, and most preferably about 5%. 优选粘结剂材料的软化点显著低于纳米纤维材料的软化点,以便可加热过滤介质来活化粘结剂材料,同时微孔结构不会熔化并进而损失孔隙率。 Preferably the softening point of the binder material is significantly lower than the softening point of the nanofiber material can be heated in order to activate the filter media binder material, while the microporous structure does not melt and thereby lose porosity.

颗粒、纤维、晶须或粉末形式的一种或多种添加剂也可与纳米纤维混合或被掺入到膜内,以有助于吸附其它污染物或参与形成微孔结构和拦截微生物污染物。 Particles, fibers, whiskers, or powder form of one or more additives may also be mixed with or incorporated into the nanofiber membrane to facilitate absorption of other contaminants or participate in the formation of microporous structure and interception of microbial contaminants. 有用的添加剂可包括但不限于金属颗粒,活化矾土,活性炭,二氧化硅,聚合物粉末和纤维,玻璃珠粒或纤维,纤维素纤维,离子交换树脂,工程树脂,陶瓷,沸石,硅藻土,活化铝土矿,漂白土,硫酸钙,其它吸附材料如超吸收聚合物(SAP)材料,或其组合。 Useful additives may include, but are not limited to, metallic particles, activated alumina, activated carbon, silica, polymeric powders and fibers, glass beads or fibers, cellulose fibers, ion-exchange resins, engineered resins, ceramics, zeolites, diatomaceous earth, activated bauxite, fuller's earth, calcium sulfate, other adsorbent materials, such as superabsorbent polymer (SAP) material, or combinations thereof. 也可根据特定应用化学处理添加剂,以赋予微生物拦截能力。 Can also be processed according to the specific application of chemical additives to impart microbiological interception capability. 这些添加剂优选以足以使得在用于过滤用途时所得过滤介质中的流体流动基本上不受阻碍的量存在。 The additive is preferably sufficient such that when the filter medium for filtering purposes in the resultant fluid flow is substantially unimpeded by weight. 添加剂的量取决于过滤体系的特定用途。 The amount of additive depends on the particular use of the filter system.

例举的湿铺工艺包括混合CSF为45的原纤化Lyocell纤维纸浆与5%EST-8粘结剂纤维,并在掺合机内在混合下,将纸浆和粘结剂纤维分散在去离子水中,形成具有约1%至约2%稠度的配料。 Exemplary wet-laid process comprises mixing a CSF of 45 fibrillated Lyocell fiber pulp and 5% EST-8 binder fibers, and the internal mixing blender, the pulp and binder fibers dispersed in deionized water form having from about 1% to about 2% consistency ingredients. 向该混合物中添加约3%重量的MERQUAT100,将其短暂地分散在稀的纸浆配料中。 To this mixture was added about 3% by weight of MERQUAT100, which briefly dispersed in the dilute pulp furnish. 阳离子材料保持与纸浆接触约4至约12小时,直到大部分被吸附在至少一部分纤维上,以赋予并维持在纤维上的正ξ电势。 Cationic material remains in contact with the pulp from about 4 to about 12 hours, until most of the adsorbed on at least a portion of the fibers, to impart and maintain positive ξ electric potential on the fibers. 在室温下,在约8小时内,足量的MERQUAT被吸附,以提供在纤维上的正ξ电势,它大于约+10毫伏。 At room temperature, in about eight hours, sufficient amount of MERQUAT adsorbed, to provide a positive ξ electric potential on the fibers, which is greater than about +10 mV. 接下来,在真空下使该纸浆部分脱水,并用去离子水漂洗,形成湿垫。 Next, under vacuum so that the partially dewatered pulp, and rinsed with deionized water, to form a wet mat. 采用去离子水制备用量等于干燥纳米纤维重量0.5%的金属盐溶液如硝酸银,并均匀地倾倒在片材上,和使之短时间地静置,以便允许用与阳离子材料缔合的至少一部分抗衡离子沉淀生物活性金属。 Deionized water was prepared using an amount equal to 0.5% by dry weight of the nanofiber of the metal salt solution such as silver nitrate, and evenly poured onto the sheet, and allowed to stand for a short time so as to allow association with the cationic material at least a portion counter ion precipitation bioactive metal. 此后,可在湿铺过滤介质的生产中直接使用该纤维。 After that, you can use directly in the wet laid fiber filter media production.

采用微生物拦截增强过滤介质的过滤体系可设想掺入本发明过滤介质的许多类过滤体系。 Using microbiological interception enhanced filter media filtration system of the present invention can be incorporated into the filter media envisage many classes filtration system. 以下所述的是一些具体的实施方案。 The following are some of the specific embodiments. 然而,这些过滤体系是例举性的和不应当解释为限制本发明的范围。 However, these are exemplary of the filtering system and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

包括微生物拦截增强纳米纤维的预涂层过滤体系利用用微生物拦截增强剂处理的纳米纤维的本发明的一种过滤体系是一种工业、商业或市政过滤器,该过滤器利用施加到多孔隔膜上的预涂层。 Includes a microbiological interception enhancing precoat filter system nanofibers nanofibers with a microbiological interception enhancing agent treated a filtration system of the present invention is an industrial, commercial or municipal filter, the filter is applied to the use of a porous separator precoat. 通过分散颗粒如硅藻土、珍珠岩或纤维来生产该涂层作为施加到多孔隔膜上的预涂层供过滤液体如啤酒、白酒、果汁和在食品行业或药物工业中使用的其它液体。 By dispersed particles such as diatomaceous earth, perlite or fibers to produce the coating as a liquid such as beer, wine, juice and other liquids used in the food industry or the pharmaceutical industry applied to the pre-coating on a porous membrane for filtration. 当液体与滤饼接触时,不想要的污染物被除去,同时也使液体变得透明。 When the liquid in contact with the filter cake, unwanted contaminants are removed, while the liquid becomes transparent. 带电的纳米纤维不仅除去液体内比预涂层的孔径小得多的带负电的污染物,而且大大地改进所有颗粒的机械拦截。 Charged nanofibers only removes the liquid is much smaller than the pore size of the precoat negatively charged contaminants, but also greatly improve the mechanical intercept all the particles. 纳米纤维可与常规的预涂层成分如硅藻土结合使用。 Nanofibers may be used with conventional precoat binding components such as diatomaceous earth. 在预涂层中需要仅仅小量的纳米纤维,通常为约1.5%至约10%重量,以产生显著的效果。 In the pre-coating need only a small amount of nanofibers, typically from about 1.5% to about 10% by weight, to produce a significant effect. 优选地,在这些应用中使用亲水微生物拦截增强过滤介质。 Preferably, a hydrophilic filter medium enhanced microbiological interception in these applications.

包括多层过滤介质的过滤体系本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质可包括具有大于一层微生物拦截增强过滤介质的结构。 Microorganisms include multilayer filter media filtration system of the present invention interception enhanced filter medium may comprise more than one layer having enhanced microbiological interception structure of the filter medium. 第一层微生物拦截增强过滤介质可带正电,而第二层可带负电。 The first layer of microbiological interception enhanced filter media can be positively charged, while the second layer of negatively charged. 可通过使纳米纤维纸浆与带负电的化合物或材料如聚羧酸接触,来产生带负电的材料,其中所述带负电的化合物或材料已与小量交联剂如甘油混合。 Can be negatively charged compounds or materials such as glycerol has been mixed by the nano fiber pulp such as polycarboxylic acid compound or material in contact with the negatively charged, to generate the negatively charged material, wherein the band and a small amount of a crosslinking agent. 在这种混合物中浸泡之后加热纳米纤维导致在通过甘油交联的带负电的羧酸聚合物纳米纤维上形成涂层。 After this mixture was heated soaking nanofiber coating on the negative results in the formation of glycerol by crosslinking with electrical carboxylic acid polymer nanofibers. 多层微生物拦截增强过滤体系能拦截带正电和带负电的微生物目标。 Multilayer microbiological interception enhanced filter system can intercept targets positively charged and negatively charged microbes. 再者,在其中存在NOM的应用中,可能需要吸附预滤器,以保持在微生物拦截增强过滤介质上的电荷。 Furthermore, in applications where there is NOM, the adsorption of the prefilter may require in order to maintain the charge in a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium.

具有与微生物拦截增强过滤介质组合的吸附预滤器的过滤体系用微生物拦截增强剂处理的本发明的微孔过滤介质,根据应用和过滤器的容纳设计,可用作平片介质、折叠介质,或用作螺旋缠绕的介质。 Having microbiological interception enhanced filter medium combination prefilter adsorption filter system with a microbiological interception enhancing agent treated microporous filter medium of the present invention, according to the application and receiving filter design, can be used as a flat sheet media, the media is folded, or used as a helically wound media. 它可用于几乎任何类型流体包括水和空气的过滤。 It can be used for almost any type of fluid including water and air filtration.

然而,在中到高含量的NOM如聚阴离子腐殖酸和灰黄霉酸存在下微生物拦截增强过滤介质可能不那么有效,这是由于在这种酸存在下,在过滤介质上正电荷的下降和最终丧失。 However, in medium to high levels of NOM such as humic and fulvic polyanion presence of an acid microbiological interception enhanced filter medium may be less effective, which is due to the presence of an acid in this, the decrease in positive charge on the filter medium and ultimately lost. 因此,单独利用微生物拦截增强过滤介质的这种应用应当基本上不含或具有低含量的聚阴离子酸。 Therefore, the use of microbiological interception enhanced filter alone media such applications should be substantially free of or has a low content of polyanion acid.

在含有微生物拦截增强过滤介质(它可与含有NOM的流体接触)的过滤体系中,使用吸附预滤器是明智的,以便在与微生物拦截增强过滤介质接触之前,除去在流入液内的NOM。 Containing microbiological interception enhanced filter media (which may contain fluid contact with NOM) is a filtration system, using adsorption prefilter is wise to before and microbiological interception enhanced filter media contacts, remove the liquid inside the inflow NOM. 或者,带正电的过滤介质可形成为众多层,或者作为一组片材,或者转化成结构体。 Alternatively, positively charged filter media may be formed as a number of layers, or as a set of sheets, or converted into a structure. 在这类排列下,可能牺牲过滤介质的外层以除去NOM,同时内层受到保护并提供长期的微生物污染物降低。 Under this type of arrangement may be at the expense of the outer layer of the filter media to remove NOM, while the inner layer is protected and provide lower long-term microbial contaminants. 吸附或吸收NOM的添加剂可掺入到微孔结构内,其中包括阴离子交换树脂。 NOM adsorption or absorption additives can be incorporated into the porous structure, which includes an anion exchange resin. 为了避免牺牲材料的这种昂贵损失,下述实施例描述了其它可供替代的方法用于保护过滤介质免遭NOM的影响。 In order to avoid this expensive loss of the sacrificial material, the following examples are described other alternative methods are available for protecting the filter media from the impact of NOM.

1.扁平吸附过滤介质作为预滤器微生物拦截增强过滤介质可与起到拦截NOM干扰物(在它们与带电微生物拦截增强过滤介质接触之前)作用的吸附过滤介质结合使用。 1. Flat adsorption filter media as a pre-filter microbiological interception enhanced filter media can play an interception with NOM interferences (before they charged microbiological interception enhanced filter media contact) combined with the role of adsorption filter media. 微生物拦截增强过滤介质和一层或多层吸附过滤介质可用作平片复合材料,螺旋缠绕在一起,或摺叠在一起。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium and one or more layers of filter media can be used as adsorption flat sheet composite, spiral wound together or folded together. 可根据美国专利Nos.5792513和6077588,以及现有技术的其它工艺,制备这种吸附过滤介质。 According to U.S. Patent Nos.5792513 and 6077588, as well as other processes of the prior art, the preparation of such adsorption filtration media. 尤其合适的平片吸附过滤介质以PLEKX商购于KXIndustries,LP,Orange,Connecticut。 Particularly suitable flat sheet adsorbing filter media to PLEKX commercially in KXIndustries, LP, Orange, Connecticut. 平片过滤介质可含有亲水或疏水颗粒,这些颗粒也可用微生物拦截增强剂处理,但不是必须的,和固定在基质上,以便除了由微生物拦截增强过滤介质所提供的微生物拦截能力以外,还提供增加的微生物拦截能力。 Flat sheet filter medium may contain hydrophilic or hydrophobic particles, these particles may also be treated microbiological interception enhancing agent, but not necessarily, and immobilized on a substrate, so that apart from the microbiological interception enhanced microbiological interception capability provided by the filter media, it also provide increased microbiological interception capability. 至少一吸附层优选放置在微生物拦截增强过滤介质的上游,以减少NOM对微生物拦截增强过滤介质的有害影响。 At least one adsorption layer is preferably placed upstream of the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, to reduce NOM harmful effects on the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium. 微生物拦截增强过滤介质可充当为支持吸附剂而使用的基质之一,所述吸附剂用于过滤流入流体中的NOM。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium can act as one of the matrix and used to support the adsorbent, the adsorbent is used to filter the fluid flowing into the NOM. 例如,PLEKX结构的上层可以是粒状预滤器。 For example, the upper structure may be PLEKX particulate prefilter. PLEKX复合材料的芯可以主要由对NOM具有高亲和力的吸附剂组成,和下部的下游层可以是微生物拦截增强过滤介质。 Core PLEKX composites may consist essentially of NOM has a high affinity for the adsorbent composition, and the lower portion of the downstream layer can be a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium. 使用在以上提及的专利中所述的PLEKX工艺,这些层可粘结成单一的内聚复合结构。 Use PLEKX process in the above-mentioned patents described, the layers may be bonded into a single cohesive composite structure. 结果是在单一材料内提供化学、粒状和微生物拦截的高污物容量的过滤器结构。 The result is to provide chemical, particulate and microbiological interception high dirt capacity of the filter structure in a single material. PLEKX结构的芯可包括可用于化学污染物吸附的宽范围的成分。 PLEKX core structure may include a component can be used in a wide range of chemical contaminants adsorbed.

2.GAC过滤介质作为吸附预滤器微生物拦截增强过滤介质也可与粒状吸附剂床如粒状活性炭(GAC)床结合使用。 2.GAC filter media as an adsorbent prefilter microbiological interception enhanced filter media can be as granular adsorbent bed of granular activated carbon (GAC) in combination with the bed. 粒状床过滤器应当放置在微生物拦截增强过滤介质的上游,以便在接触带电微孔过滤介质之前,从流入液中除去任何电荷降低的污染物如NOM。 Granular bed filter should be placed upstream of the microbiological interception enhanced filter media to prior contact with live microporous filter media to remove any contaminants from flowing into the charge reduces fluid such as NOM.

3.固体复合单元(composite block)过滤介质作为吸附预滤器微生物拦截增强过滤介质也可与优选包括活性炭的固体复合单元过滤介质结合使用,将所述固体复合单元放置在微生物拦截增强过滤介质的上游,以便在与微生物拦截增强过滤介质接触之前,从流入液中除去任何电荷降低的污染物如NOM。 3. Solid composite unit (composite block) filter media as an adsorbent prefilter microbiological interception enhanced filter media may also preferably include activated carbon and solid composite unit filter media used in conjunction with the solid composite unit is placed in a microbiological interception enhanced filter media upstream so before the microbiological interception enhanced filter media contact, remove any charge reduces pollutants from flowing into the liquid as NOM. 活性炭单元可包括但不限于活化矾土、沸石、硅藻土、硅酸盐、硅铝酸盐、钛酸盐、骨炭、钙羟基磷灰石、氧化锰、氧化铁、镁氧矿、珍珠岩、滑石、聚合物颗粒、粘土、碘化树脂、离子交换树脂、陶瓷及其组合,以使污染物如重金属、砷、氯的额外降低和改进味道与气味。 Activated carbon unit may include, but are not limited to, activated alumina, zeolite, diatomaceous earth, silicates, aluminosilicates, titanates, bone char, calcium hydroxyapatite, manganese oxide, iron oxide, magnesia, perlite , talc, polymer particles, clay, iodinated resins, ion exchange resins, ceramics, and combinations thereof, such that such additional and improved taste and odor reducing heavy metals, arsenic, chlorine contaminants. 这些材料以及活性炭,在通过挤塑、压塑或本领域熟练技术人员已知的其它工艺转化成固体复合材料之前,可用微生物拦截增强剂处理。 These materials and activated carbon, before passing through extrusion, compression molding, or known to a person skilled in the art other processes transforming into a solid composite material, available microbiological interception enhancing agent treatment. 例举的工艺描述于美国专利Nos.5019311和5189092中。 Exemplary processes are described in U.S. Patent Nos.5019311 and 5189092 in. 固体复合单元可含有特定选择的对NOM具有高吸附容量的阴离子交换树脂。 NOM anions with high adsorption capacity of solid composite unit may contain a specific choice of exchange resins.

结合吸附预滤器和微生物拦截增强过滤介质的成套过滤设备本发明过滤体系的一个特别的实施方案包括以上所述的复合过滤介质,其中包括微生物拦截增强过滤介质和吸附过滤介质。 Combine the prefilter and the adsorption of a particular microbiological interception enhanced filter medium of embodiment apparatus of the present invention, the filter sets filter systems include the above described composite filter media, including the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium and adsorption filtration media. 该设备被设计为驱动压力仅为几英寸水柱到最大几英尺水柱的重力流动设备而操作。 The device is designed to drive a pressure of only a few inches of water to a maximum of a few feet of water gravity flow device operate. 复合过滤介质受迫首先流过吸附预滤器,然后流过微生物拦截层。 The composite filter media is forced to flow through the first adsorption prefilter, then through a microbiological interception layer. 如图1所示,例举的过滤器设计在具有哈壳型罩(clam shellenclosure)的过滤器外壳10内引入本发明复合过滤介质。 Shown in Figure 1, for example, the filter design of the present invention is incorporated in the composite filter media having a clamshell-type cover (clam shellenclosure) of the filter housing 10. 过滤器外壳10包括具有入口14的顶部12和具有出口18的底部16。 Filter housing 10 includes a top 12 having an inlet 14 and outlet 18 having a bottom 16. 在由顶部和底部确定的密封腔室内引入居留空间(residing)是图2的截面视图中更精确地示出的复合过滤介质20。 Determined by the top and bottom of the seal chamber is introduced residence space (residing) is a sectional view of Figure 2 shows more precisely a composite filter media 20. 顶部12和底部16可由单片聚合物材料形成,并向上折叠,以提供哈壳结构。 Top 12 and bottom 16 may be monolithic polymeric material, to the fold, to provide Kazakhstan shell structure.

为了组装过滤器,将复合过滤介质20基本切割成哈壳型罩的大小与形状。 To assemble the filter, the composite filter media 20 basic cut into the size and shape of the clamshell-type hood. 复合过滤介质20固定在底部16内和顶部12放置在底部16上方并压制在一起。 Composite filter media 20 is fixed in the bottom 16 and top 12 is placed above the bottom 16 and pressed together. 顶部和底部外壳部分12、16可焊接在一起,从而在过滤介质20的整个周边处产生焊接件22。 Top and bottom housing portion 12, 16 may be welded together, so that the dielectric 20 in the entire periphery of the filter 22 to produce weldment. 如图2所示,示出了顶部和底部以及在直接相邻焊接件22的区域内复合过滤介质之间基本上不可渗透的界面。 As shown in Figure 2, there is shown a top and bottom and in the area between immediately adjacent the welding member 22 is substantially impermeable composite filter media interface. 在哈壳罩和复合过滤介质上的多余材料被简单地切割掉。 Excess material on the clamshell hood and the composite filter media are simply cut off. 应当理解,可使用在过滤器外壳内密封过滤介质的其它方法,例如但不限于粘合剂、机械夹持等等。 It should be appreciated that other methods of sealing the filter media within the filter housing, such as, but not limited to, adhesives, mechanical clamping, and so on. 尽管过滤器设计具有哈壳罩,但过滤器的设计并不限制于此。 Although the filter has a clamshell hood design, but the design of the filter is not limited thereto. 可密封使得流入液不会旁路流过过滤介质的任何罩将是合适的。 Sealable bypass stream flowing into the liquid does not cover any filter media would be appropriate.

再参考图2,在复合过滤介质20与顶部12和底部16之间形成的封接使得被过滤的水受迫沿着箭头A和B所示的路径和不可能旁路流过过滤介质20。 Referring again to FIG. 2, the composite filter media 20 is formed between the top 12 and bottom 16 of the sealing such that the filtered water is forced along a flow path shown by arrows A and B, and can not pass through the filter media 20. 事实上,在复合过滤介质20的周围,因密封产生的压力增加过滤介质的密度,结果被过滤的水与复合过滤介质20在周围区域内的接触时间增加和过滤效率提高。 In fact, around 20 of the composite filter media, the pressure generated by the seal to increase the density of the filter medium, the results of filtered water and the composite filter media 20 in the peripheral region of the contact time is increased and filtration efficiency.

在过滤器的生产过程中,可使用视频体系和气体或气溶胶脉冲测试,获得关于密封和组装完整性的保证。 In the filter manufacturing process, you can use the video system and the gas or aerosol pulse test, to be assured about the integrity of the seal and assembly. 气体或气溶胶脉冲试验采用稀丁烷或雾化油烟的微小脉冲,所述稀丁烷或雾化油烟完全被完整的过滤器吸附或拦截,但将显著地透过有缺陷的过滤器。 Gas or aerosol pulse test uses tiny pulses dilute butane fumes or fog, said dilute butane fumes or fog completely adsorbed or intercepted complete filter, but will significantly through defective filters. 可使用本领域熟练技术人员已知的其它离线试验方法,系统地检测过滤介质与罩之间的密封质量。 Other art can be used off-line testing methods known to those skilled art, the system detect the quality of the seal between the filter media and the cover.

过滤器外壳的壁可足够薄和柔韧,以便当过滤器与水接触时,流入水的水力负载产生的中等压力引起顶部12和底部16略微弯曲并在顶部12和底部16以及复合过滤介质20的内表面之间提供余隙空间。 The filter housing wall may be sufficiently thin and flexible so that when the filter is in contact with water, the water flows into the hydraulic pressure medium to generate the load caused by the top 12 and bottom 16 are slightly bent at the top 12 and bottom 16 and 20 of the composite filter media provide clearance space between the inner surface. 这一余隙空间有助于在复合过滤介质20的流入表面上水的分布并提供流出液排放到出口18中。 This clearance space helps in the distribution of the composite filter media 20 flows into the water on the surface and provide effluent discharged to the outlet 18.

参考图3,示出了在重力流动设备中可用于提供饮用水的本发明过滤体系30的前视图,所述重力流动设备可用于其中安全、合适微生物质量的饮用水缺少的发展中国家。 Referring to Figure 3, shows a front view of the filtration system of the present invention in a gravity flow device may be used to provide drinking water 30, the gravity flow apparatus may be used wherein the security, the lack of suitable microbiological quality of drinking water in developing countries. 尽管水被讨论作为液体流入液,但其它液体的过滤认为在本发明的范围内。 Although water is discussed as a liquid into the liquid, but the filter other liquids considered to be within the scope of the present invention. 过滤体系30具有第一储罐35,该储罐是原料水的收集运输容器。 Filter system 30 having a first receiver 35, the raw water tank is collected by the transport container. 第一储罐35可以是袋结构,如基本上由防漏材料如聚合物材料即聚酯、尼龙、聚烯烃如聚乙烯、聚氯乙烯和类似物的多层膜制备的。 The first tank 35 may be a bag structure, such as a polymeric material that is substantially as polyester, nylon, polyolefins such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and the like prepared from multilayer film barrier material. 为了便于使用,第一储罐35可具有加强的开口和手柄36供携带和悬挂第一储罐35,以便在过滤过程中提供压头。 For ease of use, the tank 35 may have a first opening and a reinforced handle 36 for carrying and hanging the first receiver 35 so as to provide pressure head during the filtration process. 优选第一储罐35具有可再密封的开口37,当密闭时它提供基本上水密密封。 Preferably, the first receiver 35 has a resealable opening 37, when closed it provides a substantially water-tight seal. 这种可再密封的开口是本领域熟练技术人员已知的,或者可包括具有螺帽的螺纹开口。 Such resealable opening are known to those skilled in this art, or may comprise a nut having a threaded opening.

第一储罐35优选配有输出管40,以便在该罐内储存的水可被排放出供过滤和最终使用。 The first receiver 35 is preferably equipped with outlet tube 40, so that the water stored in the tank may be discharged for use in filtration and final. 输出管40优选用食品安全级的挠性聚合物制备。 Output tube 40 is preferably a flexible polymer prepared with food grade safety. 输出管40可使用简单的夹钳打开和关闭。 The outlet tube 40 can use a simple clamp opening and closing. 输出管40可通过超声焊接永久地连接到第一储罐35上或简单地通过摩擦保持。 The outlet tube 40 may be permanently connected by ultrasonic welding to the first receiver 35 or simply by friction holding. 输出管40优选在第一储罐35内具有内部延伸端42,以便内部延伸端42延伸到第一储罐35底部的上方,使得在水过滤之前,提供用于截留可沉降的沉淀的区域。 Output tube 40 preferably has a first end extending inside the tank 35 in 42, so that the internal extension of the first end 42 extends above the bottom of the tank 35, so that before water filtration, to provide an area for settling of the precipitate can be trapped. 通过在水过滤之前限制流入液内存在的沉淀量,来延长过滤体系的有效寿命。 By filtration before the water flows into the liquid limit of the amount of precipitation in the memory, to extend the effective life of the filter system.

输出管40将第一储罐35连接到如上所述的包括本发明复合过滤介质的过滤器10上。 Outlet tube 40 is connected to the first storage tank 35 as described above, the present invention includes a composite filter media 10 of the filter. 夹钳45可在沿着输出管40长度上的任何点外装配在输出管40上。 Clamp 45 may be at any point along the length of the outer tube 40 is fitted on the output in the output tube 40. 这种夹钳是本领域公知的,和可以是由挠性聚合物或金属制备的简单的整体结构。 This clamp is well known in the art, and may be a simple overall structure of a flexible polymer or metal produced. 当夹钳处于开放位置时,来自第一储罐35的水自由地流动到过滤器10内。 When the clamp is in the open position, the first receiver 35 from the water to flow freely to the filter 10 inside. 过滤器10可拆卸地连接到输出管40上。 Filter 10 is detachably connected to the output tube 40. 然后将过滤器10的出口连接到第二储罐50上。 The outlet 10 is then connected to the filter 50 to the second tank. 第二储罐50充当已过滤水或流出液的收集容器。 The second storage tank 50 acts as a filtered water or effluent collection vessel. 或者,过滤器10和第二储罐50可通过第二输出管(未示出)连接在一起。 Alternatively, the filter 10 and the second tank 50 may be connected together through the second outlet pipe (not shown). 第二储罐50通常配有分配已过滤水的装置。 The second storage tank 50 are usually equipped with a device for dispensing filtered water.

可如下所述使用以上的过滤体系。 May be used as described above filtering system. 用户将有或无输出管40连接到其上的第一储罐35带到水源处。 The user will have no output or pipe 40 is connected to a first storage tank 35 to the water on which place. 若输出管40仍然连接到第一储罐35上,则夹钳45必须处于密闭位置内,或第一储罐35必须通过其它方式来密封。 If the output tube 40 is still connected to the first tank 35, the clamp 45 must be in the closed position, or the first storage tank 35 must be sealed by other means. 用适量原料水填充第一储罐35,和再次密封其开口,同时用户将第一储罐35携带回优选的位置如住宅。 Filled with the amount of raw water storage tank 35 first, and re-seal the opening, and the user will carry back to the preferred position 35 of the first tank such as residential. 原料水有可能被微生物和化学污染物污染和可能不是可饮用的。 Raw water may be contaminated with microorganisms and chemical contaminants may not be drinkable. 为了加速过滤,从支持装置处吊挂或悬挂第一储罐35。 To accelerate the filtration, hanging from a support device or suspension of the first tank 35. 取决于通过浊度证明存在的任何显著量的沉淀,使原料水保持吊挂的时间段足以使沉淀沉降到低于第一储罐35内的输出管40的内部延伸端42的高度。 Depending on any significant amount of precipitate by the presence of turbidity proof, so that raw water holding hanging time period sufficient to precipitate the first settling tank to the height lower than the outlet tube 35 within the interior 40 of the extending end 42. 当然,若水相对清澈,则不需要吊挂第一储罐35这一时间段。 Of course, if the water is relatively clear, you do not need to hang the first receiver 35 of this time period. 将输出管40连接到第一储罐35上(若事先拆卸),并固定到过滤器10上。 The outlet tube 40 is connected to the first tank 35 (if pre-assembled) and fixed to the filter 10. 过滤器10固定到第二储罐50上供收集已过滤的水。 Filter 10 is fixed to the second storage tank 50 for reference collected filtered water. 然后将夹钳45放置在开口位置和允许水流入到过滤器10内,其中一旦通过复合过滤介质20处理过的水变得可饮用,并收集在第二储罐50内。 The clamp 45 is then placed in the opening position and allows the water flowing into the filter 10, wherein upon the composite filter media 20 through the treated water becomes potable, and collected in the second tank 50. 为了保持已过滤水的可饮用性,第二储罐50的表面可用消毒剂或用微生物拦截增强剂制备或处理。 In order to maintain the potability of the water has been filtered, the available surface of the second tank 50 with a microbiological interception enhancing agent or disinfectant preparation or processing. 优选所使用的消毒剂不改变或影响水的味道。 Preferred disinfectant used does not change or affect the taste of water.

对于配有约3”5”尺寸的过滤器并在约6”水柱压力下操作的设备来说,典型的水流量为约25至约100ml/min。这在约10-40分钟内提供1升可饮用水,所述可饮用水的细菌对数下降至少约6和病毒污染物对数下降至少约4。过滤器10的连续使用(因在其上的逐渐沉积)将有可能形成减慢流速的颗粒层,直到过滤工艺花费不可接受量的时间为止。尽管流速减少,但过滤器将维持其微生物拦截能力长的时间段。 For the distribution of about 3 " 5" size filter and at about 6 "water column pressure operated device, the water flow is typically about 25 to about 100ml / min. This provides a 1 in the range of about 10 to 40 minutes liters of potable water, which can decrease the number of bacteria in drinking water of at least about 6 log reduction of pollutants and viruses at least about 4. Filter continuous use 10 (due to the gradual deposition thereon) will likely slow down the formation of particle flow rate, until the filter process takes an unacceptable amount of time elapses. Although the flow rate decrease, but the filter will maintain its microbiological interception capability long period of time.

掺入本发明过滤介质的另一重力流动设备包括如图4所示的例举的的玻璃水瓶设计供过滤、储存和分配已过滤水或其它流体。 Carafe filter media incorporated in the present invention further comprises a gravity flow apparatus shown in Figure 4 for example, the design for filtering, storage and distribution of the filtered water or other fluids. 尽管所述的玻璃水瓶主要是圆形,但取决于它的使用和环境,玻璃水瓶60可采用任何形状和是设计选择上的事情。 While the glass bottle is mainly circular, but depending on its use and the environment, the glass bottle 60 may be any shape and is a matter of design choice. 基本的玻璃水瓶具有带手柄64和盖66的外壳62。 Basic carafe with handle 64 has a housing 62 and cover 66. 玻璃水瓶60分成下部储罐或储存室68和上部储罐78,它们通过位于外壳62内的罩70和盖66密闭。 Carafe 60 into the lower part of the tank or storage tank 78 and the upper chamber 68, which is located in the hood by 70 and cover 66 sealed within the housing 62. 喷口72促进已过滤水经储存室68的出口74排出。 Spout 72 facilitate the filtered water through the discharge outlet 68 of the reservoir chamber 74.

上部储罐78和储存室68通过隔板80隔开,所述隔板在其底部设有具有开口(未示出)的过滤接受容器85。 An upper tank 78 and reservoir chamber 68 are separated by the separator 80, the separator provided with a filter having an opening (not shown) of the receptacle 85 at the bottom thereof. 在一个实施方案中,将本发明的扁平复合过滤介质76放置在具有水密密封的过滤接受容器85内,以隔离上部储罐78和储存室68。 In one embodiment, the present invention is a flat composite filter media 76 is disposed in the filter having a water-tight seal within the receiving container 85, to isolate the upper part of the tank 78 and the reservoir chamber 68. 可使用本领域熟练技术人员已知的方式,其中包括但不限于揿钮或铰接手法,完成过滤介质76在过滤器容器85内的放置。 May be used known to a person skilled in the art manner, including, but not limited to, snaps or hinged way, completed filter media 76 disposed within the filter vessel 85. 过滤介质76优选制备为可置换的卡盒。 Preparation of filter media 76 is preferably replaceable cartridge. 玻璃水瓶设计的其它特征可并入本发明内,而没有脱离本发明的范围。 Other design features may be incorporated into glass bottles within the present invention, without departing from the scope of the invention. 过滤介质可包括平均流动通道小于约1微米的任何微孔结构,和如此处理以便提供比过滤介质的平均流动通道小的微生物污染物至少约4的对数下降。 Filter medium may comprise a mean flow path of less than about 1 micron any porous structure, and thus treated in order to provide a logarithmic decrease of at least about 4 of the filter medium is smaller than the mean flow path of microbial contaminants. 优选过滤介质的体积小于约500cm3,和起始流动速度大于约25ml/min。 Preferably the volume of the filter medium is less than about 500cm3, and the initial flow rate greater than about 25ml / min.

用户将倾倒原料水到上部储罐78内并在重力的影响下使原料水流过过滤介质76。 The raw water was poured user into the upper tank 78 and under the influence of gravity so that the raw material flow through the filter media 76. 已过滤的水收集在储存室68中。 Filtered water collected in the reservoir chamber 68. 当原料水在充足的接触时间下流过本发明的过滤介质时,过滤介质通过提供高滴度的微生物下降使水变得可饮用。 When the raw water in sufficient contact time flow through the filter medium of the present invention, the filter medium decreased by providing potable water becomes high titers of microorganisms. 微生物的对数下降值(LRV)取决于过滤介质与流动水的接触时间。 Log reduction of microorganisms (LRV) depending on the filter media and the flow of water contact time. 为了提供微生物约8的对数下降值,所要求的接触时间为约6至约10秒。 In order to provide a log reduction of microorganisms, the required contact time is from about 6 to about 8 to about 10 seconds.

玻璃水瓶60也可具有指示剂(未示出),指示剂允许用户跟踪过滤器的使用期限,以估计何时过滤介质的有效寿命已消耗完。 Carafe 60 can also have an indicator (not shown), the indicator allows users to track the use of filters period to estimate when the effective life of the filter media has been consumed. 也可使用其它类型的指示剂,如用于指示玻璃水瓶60再填充物数量的指示剂,用于测量流过过滤介质的水或液体的体积等。 Also possible to use other types of indicators, such as a glass bottle 60 for indicating the number of re-fill indicator for measuring the volume flowing through the filter medium or a liquid like water.

其它过滤体系本发明的过滤介质、尤其是复合过滤介质也可掺入到使用点(point-of-use)的场合,如在约1psi的轻微压力下操作的用作个人水过滤体系的运动瓶设计。 Other filter media filtration system of the present invention, especially the composite filter media may also be incorporated into the point of use (point-of-use) of the case, a slight movement of the bottle as in the operation of a pressure of about 1psi water filtration system for personal design. 合适的运动瓶设计公开于国际专利申请No.WO01/23306,其中过滤介质可引入到运动瓶的过滤器容器内。 Suitable movement bottle design disclosed in International Patent Application No.WO01 / 23306, in which the filter medium can be introduced into the movement of the bottle filter container.

对于其它使用点的场合来说,本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质可进一步引入至水龙头终端(end-of-tap)(EOT)、水槽下(under-sink)、工作台面上、或其它常见的消费或工业过滤体系和在加压体系内使用的结构。 For the other case where the point of use, the microorganism of the present invention may further interception enhanced filter medium is introduced into the tap terminal (end-of-tap) (EOT), under the sink (under-sink), a countertop, or other common consumption or industrial filtration systems and structures used in the pressurization system. 过滤体系可包括预滤器,所述预滤器包括吸附剂颗粒床或固体吸附剂复合单元。 Filtration system may include a pre-filter, the prefilter includes bed of adsorbent particles or solid adsorbent composite unit. 微生物拦截增强过滤介质可以是摺叠或螺旋缠绕结构,或通过在合适的心轴(mandrel)上真空成形,而形成为厚垫,从而生成湿成形或干成形的卡盒。 Microbiological interception enhanced filter medium can be folded or spiral wound configuration, or by a suitable mandrel (mandrel) on vacuum forming, to form a thick mat, thereby generating a wet- or dry-forming cartridge.

实施例提供以下实施例说明本发明,而不应理解为限定本发明的范围。 Example The following examples illustrate the present invention and are not to be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.

使用获自Porous Materials Inc.,Ithaca,New York的自动毛细管流动孔隙计,进行孔隙学研究。 Obtained from the use of Porous Materials Inc., Ithaca, New York Auto capillary flow meter porosity, pore-studies. 使用由设备制备商公开的标准步骤测定的参数包括平均流动孔径和透气(空气)性。 Prepared using standard procedures's apparatus disclosed by measured parameters include mean flow pore size and permeability (air) resistance. 在可变压力下在干和湿的过滤介质上分析空气流动。 In the analysis of air flow variable pressure on dry and wet filtration media. 在湿法运行之前,将过滤介质先浸渍在硅油中至少10分钟,同时保持高真空。 Before the wet running, the first filter medium immersed in a silicone oil at least 10 minutes, while maintaining a high vacuum.

使用用获自Holtsiville,New York的Brookhaven Instruments的BI-EKA电动分析仪测量的流动电势和流动电流,测定各种过滤介质的ξ或流动电势。 Use streaming potential and streaming current use were obtained from Holtsiville, New York's Brookhaven Instruments of BI-EKA electric analyzer measurements, measurements of various filter media ξ or flow potential. 该仪器包括分析仪、平板测量元件、电极和数控体系。 The apparatus includes analyzers, flat measuring cell, electrodes and CNC system. 分析仪包括泵,以产生使电解质溶液(通常为0.0015M氯化钾)从储罐流过测量元件所要求的压力,其中所述测量元件含有本文所述的过滤介质样品。 Analyzer includes a pump to produce the electrolyte solution (typically 0.0015M KCl) from the tank flows through a pressure measuring element, wherein said measuring element comprises a filter medium sample as described herein. 测量温度、压降、导电率和pH的传感器位于所述元件的外部。 Measuring temperature, pressure drop, conductivity and pH of the sensor is located outside of the element. 根据该方法,电解质溶液被泵送经过多孔材料。 According to this method, the electrolyte solution is pumped through the porous material. 当电解质溶液流过所述样品时,发生电荷的移动。 When the electrolyte solution flows through the sample, the occurrence of movement of the charge. 可藉助放置在样品每端的电极,检测所得“流动电势和/或流动电流”。 Can make use of electrodes placed at each end of the sample, the resulting test "flow potential and / or the flow of current." 然后根据Fairbrother和Mastin方法(该方法考虑了电解质的导电率)的计算来确定样品的ξ(流动)电势。 Then according Fairbrother and Mastin method (which takes into account the conductivity of the electrolyte) is calculated to determine ξ samples (flow) potential.

使用American Type Culture Collection(ATCC)No.11775的大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的悬浮液,进行过滤介质的细菌挑战,以评估对细菌挑战的响应。 Using the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) No.11775 E. coli (Escherichia coli) suspension, filtering media bacterial challenge to assess the response to bacterial challenge. 使用MS2噬菌体(bacteriophage)ATTCNo.15597-B1评估对病毒挑战的响应。 Use response MS2 bacteriophage (bacteriophage) ATTCNo.15597-B1 assessment of virus challenge. 使用ATCC的标准操作步骤繁殖细菌和噬菌体,并使用本领域熟知的标准微生物步骤制备和量化受到微生物颗粒的悬浮液挑战的过滤器的流入液和流出液中的微生物。 ATCC standard procedures using the growth of bacteria and phage, and known in the art using standard microbiological and quantization step of preparing the influent and effluent by the filter particles in suspension microbial challenge microorganisms.

实施例1-3:用未处理的Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质(比较)根据下述方法制备平均流动通道为约0.3至约0.6微米由未处理的Lyocell纤维制成的过滤介质。 Example 1-3: The filter medium untreated Lyocell fiber preparation (Comparative) Preparation of a mean flow path of the filter medium from about 0.3 to about 0.6 microns by untreated Lyocell fiber made according to the following method.

在厨房式样的掺合机内,在脉冲设置下,将重量为0.45g商购于MiniFibers,Inc.的干燥EST-8粘结剂纤维充分分散在1.0L去离子水中。 Within the kitchen style blender, in the pulse setting, a weight of 0.45g commercially available from MiniFibers, Inc. Of dry EST-8 binder fibers sufficiently dispersed in 1.0L of deionized water. 将加拿大标准游离度为45且干重为120.0g的原纤化Lyocell纤维作为湿纸浆加入到分散的粘结剂纤维中。 The Canadian Standard Freeness of 45 and a dry weight of 120.0g fibrillated Lyocell fiber pulp is added to the dispersion as a wet binder fibers. 共混分散的纤维混合物另外15秒。 Blending the dispersed fiber mixture for another 15 seconds. 将纤维混合物倾倒入具有额外1.0L去离子水的较大工业韦林氏掺合机内并共混额外15-30秒。 The fiber mixture was poured into the additional 1.0L of deionized water having a large Waring blender and blended industrial additional 15-30 seconds. 将纤维混合物倾倒入通常填充有约12.0L去离子水并配有100目成形筛网的30.530.5cm2不锈钢FORMAX定纸框内。 The fiber mixture was poured into generally filled about 12.0L deionized water and equipped with a 100 mesh forming screen of 30.5 30.5cm2 stainless FORMAX given paper box. 使用具有60个直径为2cm的孔的3030cm2不锈钢搅拌片,以从顶部到底部上下翻转纤维混合物约8-10次。 Having 60 holes with a diameter of 2cm stainless steel mixing of 30 30cm2 pieces, to flip the fiber mixture up and down from the top in the end portion of about 8-10 times. 通过在框下方施加轻微真空从纤维混合物中除去水,以引起纤维在丝网上形成。 By applying a slight water below the block was removed from the fiber mixture to cause the fibers in the wire-line formation. 一旦大部分水被除去,采用真空泵进行补充脱水,以除去额外过量的水分和产生相对光滑、平坦、很薄的纸状片材。 Once most of the water is removed using a vacuum pump to supplement dehydration, to remove additional excess water and to produce a relatively smooth, flat, thin paper-like sheet. 所得片材从筛网中分离并在顶部和底部上与沾吸(blotter)片材组合。 The resulting sheet is separated from the screen and on the top and bottom and blotting (blotter) sheet composition. 轻轻地用2.27kg大理石擀辊辊压组合片材,以除去过量水和使片材的顶部表面光滑。 Gently with 2.27kg marble rolling roll at a composite sheet to remove excess water and make the top surface of the sheet smooth. 然后将该片材放置在两块新鲜且干燥的沾吸片材之间并在约120℃下放置在FORMAX片材干燥器上约10至约15分钟。 Then, this sheet is placed between two fresh and dry blotting sheet and at about 120 ℃ FORMAX placed on a sheet dryer for about 10 to about 15 minutes. 从沾吸片材中分离干燥的过滤介质并在FORMAX片材干燥器上直接加热各侧约5分钟,以活化干燥的粘结剂纤维。 The dried filter medium isolated from blotting the sheet and the sheet on FORMAX directly heated drier for about 5 minutes on each side, in order to activate the dry binder fiber.

表I示出了在使用上述工艺制备的不同厚度的由未处理Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质上进行的孔度和透气性试验结果。 Table I shows the porosity of the filter medium from untreated Lyocell fiber produced using the above process for the preparation of different thickness and permeability test results.

表I用未处理Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质的平均流动通道和孔度 Table I mean flow path with untreated Lyocell fiber filter medium was prepared and porosity

用未处理Lyocell纤维制备的所得过滤介质具有约-9.0毫伏可重复的流动电势。 The resulting prepared with untreated Lyocell fiber filter media has approximately -9.0 mV repeatable flow potential.

实施例4:采用用微生物拦截增强剂处理的Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质向掺合机中加入12.0g干重Lyocell纤维作为加拿大标准游离度为约45的10%重量湿纸浆、0.45g SHORT STUFFEST-8粘结剂纤维和1.0L去离子水。 Example 4: Preparation of using Lyocell fiber treated with a microbiological interception enhancing agent is added to the filter media in a blender dry weight 12.0g Lyocell fiber as Canadian Standard Freeness of about 45 to 10% by weight of wet pulp, 0.45g SHORT STUFF EST-8 binder fibers and 1.0L of deionized water. 共混混合物一直到纤维充分分散。 The mixture was blended until well dispersed fibers. 向掺合机中加入3.0mlMERQUAT100(30%的水溶液),和使纤维与MERQUAT100共混约10秒,并使之放置至少约6小时。 Was added to the blender 3.0mlMERQUAT100 (30% aqueous solution), and the fibers and MERQUAT100 blended for about 10 seconds, and allowed to stand at least about 6 hours. 在约6小时之后,将纤维倾倒在配有100目成形丝网的标准8英寸Brit罐中并在真空下除去过量水。 After about 6 hours, poured into the fibers forming wire equipped with a 100-mesh standard 8 inches Brit tank and excess water removed under vacuum. 用500ml去离子水漂洗所得纸浆片材。 Rinsed with 500ml of deionized water The resulting pulp sheet. 再次通过真空除去过量水。 By vacuum again to remove excess water.

在纸浆片材上均匀倾倒硝酸银稀溶液,以提供充分的暴露和饱和度,从而提供约0.1425g银/片材。 On the pulp sheet evenly pour dilute silver nitrate solution, in order to provide adequate exposure and saturation, thus providing about 0.1425g silver / sheet. 将硝酸银溶液放置在纸浆片材上至少约15分钟并在真空压力下除去过量水。 The silver nitrate solution was placed on a pulp sheet having at least about 15 minutes and the excess water removed under vacuum pressure. 然后将银处理的纸浆片材撕碎成小片并放置在WARING掺合机内且在2.0L去离子水中再分散。 The pulp sheet is then processed silver shredded into small pieces and placed in a blender and WARING redispersed in 2.0L of deionized water. 将第二3.0ml部分的MERQUAT100溶液加入到该分散液中和共混混合物约10分钟,并将内容物倾倒入配有100目成形筛网的30.530.5cm2不锈钢FORMAX定纸框内。 The MERQUAT100 second solution portion added to the 3.0ml dispersion and blending the mixture for about 10 minutes, and the contents were poured into the forming screen with a 100 mesh stainless steel FORMAX of 30.5 30.5cm2 given paper box . 以与实施例1-3所述的未处理Lyocell过滤介质相同的方式制备微生物拦截增强过滤介质的纸状片材。 In Example 1-3, wherein filtering the untreated Lyocell same manner microbiological interception enhanced media paper-like sheet of the filter medium.

在约7.0的pH下,过滤介质的ξ电势始终大于约+10毫伏。 At a pH of about 7.0, the ξ potential of the filter medium is always greater than about +10 mV.

实施例5-23:本发明的微生物拦截增强过滤介质和未处理的Lyocell过滤介质的微生物拦截的比较如实施例1-4所述,或者未处理或者用MERQUAT100与银处理的原纤化Lyocell纤维过滤介质片材折叠两次并切割成标准的锥形漏斗且放置在小的灭菌玻璃漏斗内。 Example 5-23: The present invention is a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium and a microbiological interception untreated Lyocell comparative filter media as described in Example 1-4, or untreated or treated with MERQUAT100 silver fibrillated Lyocell fiber filter media sheet is folded twice and cut into standard conical funnel and placed in small sterilized glass funnel. 使用去离子水预润湿每一过滤介质。 Pre-wetted with deionized water, each of the filter media. 将约125ml各种微生物挑战者倾倒经过过滤器并在灭菌的250mlErlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液。 About 125ml of various microorganisms was poured through the filter within the Challenger and sterilized 250mlErlenmeyer flask effluent was collected. 对流出液一式两份地进行系列稀释,并按照各生物体所要求的标准实验室步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷并在37℃的加热保温箱中静置过夜。 Of effluent in duplicate were serially diluted, and according to standard laboratory procedures in the desired organism, in a petri dish and allowed to stand in the plating tank 37 ℃ of heat insulation overnight. 第二天记录所有试验结果。 The next record all test results. 表II概述了采用去离子水制成的微生物挑战者的一系列试验的对数下降值。 Table II summarizes the use of deionized water to make a series of tests of microbial challenger log reduction.

表II用处理和未处理的原纤化Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质的LRV Table II filter media with treated and untreated fibrillation Lyocell fiber preparation of the LRV

“-”表示最小到没有下降如表II所述,与由未处理的Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质相比,由采用MERQUAT100和银处理的Lyoce11纤维制备的过滤介质提供显著的微生物拦截能力。 "-" Indicates that there is no decline in the smallest as shown in Table II, and compared to the untreated Lyocell fiber filter media prepared, providing significant microbiological interception capability using MERQUAT100 from filter media and silver processing Lyoce11 fibers prepared. 当用MS2病毒颗粒挑战时,微生物拦截增强过滤介质的效率表明,本发明的过滤体系在除去纳米尺寸的病原体如病毒方面证明是有效的。 When used MS2 challenge virus particles, microbiological interception enhanced filter medium showed the efficiency of filtration systems of the present invention in removing nano-sized pathogens such as viruses proved to be effective.

实施例24-27:在聚阴离子酸存在下,用处理的Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质的微生物拦截能力如上所述,NOM如聚阴离子酸降低正ξ电势,并进而降低微生物拦截增强过滤介质的效率。 Example 24-27: In the presence of an acid polyanion, with a microbiological interception capability Lyocell fiber preparation process of the filter medium as described above, NOM acids such as polyanion positive ξ potential decrease, and thus reduce the microbiological interception enhanced filter media efficiency . 在暴露于500ml腐殖酸(0.005g/1.0L H2O)之后,微生物拦截增强过滤介质的ξ电势从+14.1降低到-14.4。 500ml exposure to humic acid (0.005g / 1.0L H2O) after the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium of the ξ electric potential decreases from +14.1 to -14.4. 同样,在暴露于500ml灰黄霉酸(0.005g/1.0L H2O)之后,微生物拦截增强过滤介质的ξ电势从+10.1降低到-8.9。 Similarly, exposure to 500ml fulvic acid (0.005g / 1.0L H2O) after the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium of the ξ electric potential decreases from +10.1 to -8.9. 实施例24-27表明,在腐殖酸和灰黄霉酸溶液存在下,使用用MERQUAT100与银处理的Lyocell纤维制备的过滤介质的微生物拦截能力下降。 EXAMPLE 24-27 show that humic acid and fulvic acid solutions exist, the use of micro-organisms with the ability to intercept and silver processing MERQUAT100 Lyocell fiber filter media prepared decline.

折叠用MERQUAT100和银处理的过滤介质的小圆片并放置在小的灭菌玻璃漏斗内,形成过滤器并用去离子水预润湿。 Folding MERQUAT100 and silver treated filter medium small round and placed in a small sterile glass funnel, and the filter is formed pre-wetted with deionized water. 分别用腐殖酸和灰黄霉酸制备E.coli和MS2病毒颗粒的挑战溶液。 Each challenge solution humic and fulvic acid preparation E.coli and MS2 virus particles. 将约125ml挑战溶液倾倒经过过滤器并在灭菌的250ml Erlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液。 Approximately 125ml challenge solution was poured through the filter and collected effluent in 250ml Erlenmeyer flask was sterilized. 稀释流出液,并按照标准实验室步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷。 Dilution of the effluent, and in accordance with standard laboratory procedures on a petri dish in plating. 下表III和IV概述了E.coli和MS2病毒颗粒的对数下降值。 Table III and IV outlines the logarithmic decline in the value of E.coli and MS2 virus particles.

表III:在灰黄霉酸存在下微生物拦截增强过滤介质的LRV Table III: fulvic acids in the presence of microbiological interception enhanced filter media LRV

表IV在腐殖酸存在下微生物拦截增强过滤介质的LRV Table IV in the presence of humic acids microbiological interception enhanced filter media LRV

显然,在NOM存在下微生物拦截增强过滤介质的LRV显著低于表II所示的不存在NOM干扰时E.coli和MS2的7-9的对数下降。 Obviously, in the presence of NOM microbiological interception enhanced filter medium LRV was significantly lower than in the absence of Table II NOM interference 7-9 of E.coli and decrease the number of MS2 shown.

实施例28-46:在聚阴离子酸存在下,用处理的Lyocell纤维和吸附剂层制备的过滤介质的微生物拦截能力为了降低NOM对实施例24-27所示的过滤介质的影响,将吸附预滤器加入到过滤器上,以便在与过滤介质接触之前,除去或截留流入液中的NOM。 Example 28-46: In the presence of an acid polyanion with a microbiological interception capability Lyocell fibers and the adsorbent layer prepared by processing the filter medium in order to reduce the impact on the filter medium 24-27 NOM illustrated embodiment, the pre-adsorption filter added to the filter in order to contact with the filter medium before removing or trapped fluid flow into NOM. 吸附剂层是用600g/m2精细粉碎的煤基活性炭制备的PLEKX,其表面积为1000g/m2和商购于KX Industries,LP。 Adsorbent layer is PLEKX with 600g / m2 finely pulverized coal-based activated carbon prepared a surface area of 1000g / m2, and is commercially available from KX Industries, LP.

将组合两(2)层用微生物拦截增强过滤介质制备的过滤介质和一(1)层PLEKX层的复合过滤介质装配到陶瓷布氏漏斗内的金属排液筛网上。 The combination of the two (2) layers with a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium is prepared and a composite filter media for one (1) layer PLEKX layer filter medium fitted into the metal tapping mesh within the ceramic Buchner funnel. 采用热的金属粘合剂将这三(3)层固定在各布氏漏斗内,以防止流入液的任何旁流。 Hot metal adhesive these three (3) within each layer is affixed to a Buchner funnel to prevent any liquid flowing into the bypass. 在布氏漏斗内,在所有时刻维持深度为约5cm的水压头。 In the Buchner funnel, maintaining a depth of about 5cm head of water at all times. 实施例28-34的过滤器在微生物挑战之前装入灭菌的去离子水,且不暴露于腐殖酸或灰黄霉酸。 Example 28-34 filters before microbial challenge the sterilized deionized water, and without exposure to humic or fulvic acids. 表V所示的结果表明,添加吸附剂层的复合过滤介质的效率类似于以上表II所示的结果。 The results shown in Table V show that the addition efficiency of the adsorbent layer of the composite filter media similar to the above results in Table II below.

实施例35-40的过滤器在微生物挑战之前装入500ml腐殖酸溶液(0.005g/L H2O)。 Example 35-40 filter loaded prior to microbial challenge 500ml humic acid solution (0.005g / L H2O). 下表VI示出了结果。 The following table VI shows the results. 实施例41-46的过滤器在微生物挑战之前装入500ml灰黄霉酸溶液(0.005g/L H2O)。 Example 41-46 filter loaded prior to microbial challenge 500ml fulvic acid solution (0.005g / L H2O). 下表VII示出了结果。 Table VII below shows the results.

表V在不存在NOM干扰下,用MERQUAT100和银处理的原纤化Lyocell纤维与PLEKX制备的过滤介质的LRV Table V NOM in the absence of interference, and silver treated with MERQUAT100 fibrillated Lyocell fiber filter media prepared in the LRV PLEKX

表VI在腐殖酸存在下,用未处理的和MERQUAT100和银处理的原纤化Lyocell纤维与PLEKX制备的过滤介质的LRV Table VI in the presence of humic acids, with the untreated and treated silver MERQUAT100 and fibrillated Lyocell fiber filter media prepared in the LRV PLEKX

表VII在灰黄霉酸存在下,用未处理的和用MERQUAT100和银处理的原纤化Lyocell纤维与PLEKX制备的过滤介质的LRV Table VII in the presence of fulvic acids, with the untreated and treated with silver MERQUAT100 and fibrillated Lyocell fiber filter media prepared in the LRV PLEKX

这些数据表明,使用放置在微生物拦截增强过滤介质上游的吸附预滤器如PLEKX,通过在流入液接触微生物拦截增强过滤介质之前,除去流入液内的NOM,从而维持或改进过滤介质的微生物拦截能力。 These data show that the use is placed in a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium is upstream of the prefilter, such as adsorption PLEKX, before flowing into the liquid by contacting microbiological interception enhanced filter medium, to remove NOM liquid flows into the inside, so as to maintain or improve the ability of the filter medium microbiological interception . 吸附剂预滤器介质不需要用微生物拦截增强剂来处理以维持微生物拦截增强过滤介质的效率。 Adsorbent prefilter medium does not need to deal with a microbiological interception enhancing agent in order to maintain the efficiency of the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium. 不用处理吸附预滤器介质可能是节约成本的措施。 Without treatment adsorption media prefilter may be cost-saving measures. 因此,包括微生物拦截增强过滤介质和放置在微生物拦截增强过滤介质上游的吸附剂层的复合过滤介质将足够结实地耐受来自NOM的干扰。 Therefore, including microbiological interception enhanced filter medium and placed in the microbiological interception enhanced filter media upstream adsorbent layer composite filter media will be strong enough to withstand interference from NOM.

实施例47-48:本发明的过滤体系的E.coli.挑战使用以上所述的图1和2中的哈壳过滤器设计,组装图3所示的本发明的两种过滤体系,其中包括含两(2)层吸附过滤介质,用600g/m2表面积为1000g/m2的煤基活性炭制备的PLEKX,和如实施例4所述由处理过的原纤化Lyocell纤维制备的单层微生物拦截增强过滤介质的复合过滤介质。 Example 47-48:. E.coli filtration system of the present invention using the above described challenges Figure 1 and 2 of the two filter systems filter clamshell design, the assembly shown in Figure 3 of the present invention, including containing two (2) layer adsorption filter media, PLEKX with 600g / m2 surface area of activated carbon prepared for 1000g / m2 of coal-based, and as described in Example 4 by a single microorganism treated fibrillation Lyocell fiber preparation interception reinforced composite filter media of the filter medium. PLEKX的支撑层设置在各过滤器外壳的底部并使用乙烯-醋酸乙烯酯(EVA)热熔体原地胶粘。 PLEKX support layer disposed at the bottom of each filter housing and ethylene - vinyl acetate (EVA) hot melt adhesive in situ. 将微生物拦截增强过滤介质层胶粘到第一PLEKX层上,接着第二PLEKX层也原地胶粘到该微生物拦截增强过滤介质顶部。 The microbiological interception enhanced filter media layer PLEKX glued to the first layer, followed by second place PLEKX layer also glued to the top of the microbiological interception enhanced filter media. 该结构采用PLEKX层中的仅仅一层作为吸附剂预滤器,而另一PLEKX层主要充当微生物拦截增强过滤介质的载体。 The structure uses PLEKX layers only as an adsorbent prefilter layer and another layer mainly PLEKX microbiological interception enhanced filter media to act as a carrier. 外壳的外部边缘也被胶粘并紧紧地压制在一起,以防止任何旁路泄漏到外壳的外侧。 The outer edge of the housing also be glued and pressed together tightly to prevent any bypass leakage to the outside of the housing. 在由热熔体材料确定的边界内的活性过滤区域的尺寸为5cm-6cm宽和8cm-10cm长,从而提供40cm2至60cm2的活性过滤器面积。 In the hot-melt material is determined by the size of the active filtering zone boundary is 5cm-6cm wide and 8cm-10cm long, thereby providing 40cm2 to 60cm2 of the active filter area. 尽管在这一原型测试过程中使用热熔体,但在商业生产过程中可采用使用超声或其它焊接方法的过滤器组件。 Although the use of hot-melt prototype testing in this process, but can be used in the commercial production process using the filter assembly ultrasonic or other welding method.

使用塑料配件,将内径为0.635cm(0.25英寸)的软管连接到过滤器外壳的入口处并原地坚固胶粘。 Use of plastic parts, the inner diameter of 0.635cm (0.25 inch) hose is connected to the inlet of the filter housing and in situ solid adhesive. 将过滤器的出口打开以允许流体流出过滤器的外壳。 The outlet of the filter open to allow fluid flow out of the filter housing. 连接到过滤器入口处的软管被连接到派热克斯玻璃漏斗上,产生约30cm-60cm的入口总水柱。 Connected to the filter inlet of the hose is connected to the pyrex glass funnel, yield about 30cm-60cm inlet total water column. 将试验悬浮液倾倒在漏斗内,用各种生物体挑战过滤器。 The test suspension was poured into the funnel, filter the challenge with a variety of organisms.

将约500ml去离子水倾倒经过过滤体系,以预润湿外壳内的过滤介质。 Approximately 500ml of deionized water was poured through the filter system in order to pre-wet the filter media within the housing. 对于E.coli.测试,使用组合高度为60cm的软管和漏斗以提供压头。 For E.coli. Test, using a combination of hose and a height of 60cm funnel to provide pressure head. 在这一流入液压力下的流量为70ml/min。 In this influent flow pressure of 70ml / min. 将E.coli.的挑战悬浮液倾倒经过该体系和在灭菌的250ml Erlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液。 The E.coli. The challenge suspension was poured through the system and collected in a 250ml Erlenmeyer flask was sterilized effluent. 对流出液一式两份地进行系列稀释,并按照标准实验室步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷并在37℃的加热保温箱中静置过夜。 Of effluent in duplicate were serially diluted, and according to standard laboratory procedures in the petri dish and allowed to stand in the plating tank 37 ℃ of heat insulation overnight. 第二天记录所有试验结果和下表VIII列出了这些结果。 The next day and the recording of all test results are listed in Table VIII under these results.

表VIII采用E.coli.微生物挑战本发明的过滤体系 Table VIII using E.coli. Microbial challenge filtration system of the present invention.

因此,在约1-2ml/min.cm2的流量下,使用包括PLEKX预滤器和微生物拦截增强过滤介质的复合过滤介质的本发明过滤体系将提供大于8.5的E.coli的对数下降。 Thus, at about 1-2ml / min.cm2 flow, including PLEKX using prefilter and a microbiological interception enhanced filter medium composite filter media filtration system of the present invention will provide a greater than 8.5 log reduction of E.coli.

实施例49-51:本发明过滤体系的MS2挑战以与以上实施例47和48所述的E.coli挑战相类似的方式制备三个过滤器,用于测定本发明的过滤体系的病毒拦截能力。 49-51 Example: MS2 filter system of the present invention in E.coli challenge Challenge above Example 47 and 48 prepared in a manner similar to the three filters, the filter system of the present invention for measuring the ability of the virus to intercept . 在实施例49和50的两个过滤器中,在过滤器外壳的流出液侧的底部安装网格层,接着安装微生物拦截增强过滤器介质层,接着安装用600m2/g表面积为1000g/m2的煤基活性炭制备的PLEKX的单层面层。 In an embodiment both filters 49 and 50, the bottom side of the filter in the effluent of the installation housing a mesh layer, and then install the microbiological interception enhanced filter medium layer, followed by mounting 600m2 / g surface area of 1000g / m2 of coal-based activated carbon prepared PLEKX single level floor. 对于实施例51的第三个过滤器,用100筛目的金属筛网替代塑料网格作为底部支撑层。 For the embodiment of the third filter 51, with a 100 mesh metal screen as an alternative to plastic mesh bottom support layer. 对于MS2挑战,使用30cm的软管和漏斗,以降低流速并提供流经复合过滤介质较长的接触时间。 For MS2 challenge, using 30cm hose and funnel, to reduce the flow rate and provide a longer flow through the composite filter media contact time. 将去离子水倾倒经过该体系以预润湿各层并验证外壳没有泄漏。 Deionized water was poured through the system in order to pre-wet the layers and verify the seal does not leak. 对于30cm高的水柱记录流量为38ml/min。 For 30cm high flow of water recorded 38ml / min. 在去离子水流出体系之后,将MS2挑战溶液倾倒经过该体系。 After deionized water out of the system, the solution was poured through the MS2 challenge system. 在灭菌的Erlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液、稀释,并按照MS2的标准步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷并静置过夜。 Collected in the effluent sterilized Erlenmeyer flask, diluted, and in accordance with standard procedures MS2, the petri dish and allowed to stand overnight plating. 第二天记录所有试验结果并列于下表IX中。 The next day all the test results recorded in Table IX in parallel.

表IX用MS2噬菌体微生物挑战过滤器 Table IX challenge microbial filter using MS2 bacteriophage

在约0.75ml/min.cm2的流量下,利用包括PLEKS预滤器和微生物拦截增强过滤介质的复合过滤介质的本发明过滤体系表明提供大于8.5的MS2的对数下降。 At about 0.75ml / min.cm2 flow rate, the use of pre-filter comprising PLEKS and microbiological interception enhanced filter medium composite filtration media of the present invention to provide filtration systems show a greater than 8.5 log reduction of MS2.

实施例52和53:本发明过滤体系的长期MS2挑战这些实施例评估当用MS2噬菌体挑战时,本发明过滤体系的有效性,该过滤体系具有包括两(2)层微生物拦截增强过滤介质层和两(2)层此前所述的PLEKX层的复合过滤介质。 Example 52 and 53: MS2 challenge long-term filter system of the present invention to these embodiments evaluation when using MS2 bacteriophage challenge, the validity of the present invention, the filter system, the filter system having include two (2) layers microbiological interception enhanced filter medium layer and Composite two (2) layers described hereinabove PLEKX layer of filter media.

通过在图1和2所示的过滤器罩内固定100目的筛网来制备本发明的两个过滤体系。 Through a 100 mesh screen fixed within the filter of Figures 1 and 2 are prepared as shown in the two filters cover system of the present invention. 将两层微生物拦截增强过滤介质放置在筛网顶部,接着放置两层PLEKX层。 The layers microbiological interception enhanced filter medium is placed at the top of the screen, and then placing the two PLEKX layer. 将各层原地坚固胶粘以防止旁流。 The layers in place strong adhesive to prevent bypass. 同样用胶水密封过滤器罩。 Also cover with glue sealed filter. 将内径为0.635cm(0.25英寸)的软管坚固地连接到过滤器外壳的入口处。 The inner diameter of 0.635cm (0.25 inch) hose firmly connected to the inlet of the filter housing. 将过滤器外壳的出口打开以允许流体流过。 The outlet of the filter housing opens to permit fluid flow therethrough. 将漏斗坚固地连接到各过滤器上,以提供25.4cm(10英寸)水柱的过滤器,和10.2cm(4英寸)水柱的其它过滤器用于微生物挑战试验。 The funnel is firmly connected to the respective filter, to provide a 25.4cm (10 inches) of water filters, and 10.2cm (4 inches) of water column for the other filters microbial challenge test.

使约500ml去离子水流过各过滤体系,以预润湿过滤介质并验证没有发生旁流。 So that about 500ml of deionized water through each of the filtering system in order to pre-wet the filter medium and verify bypass flow did not occur. 随后使500ml在去离子水中制备的MS2挑战者流过各体系。 Subsequently 500ml MS2 challenger prepared in deionized water flowing through each system. 在灭菌的Erlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液、稀释,并按照生物体的标准步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷并静置过夜。 Collected in the effluent sterilized Erlenmeyer flask, diluted, and organisms in accordance with standard procedures, in the petri dish and allowed to stand overnight plating. 24小时后,使额外的500ml去离子水流过该体系,接着使另外500ml MS2挑战者流过该体系。 After 24 hours, so that an additional 500ml of deionized water to flow through the system, and then enabling another 500ml MS2 challenger flow through the system. 每24小时继续该方案,一直到过滤器介质不再提供高于4的LRV。 Per 24 hours to continue the program, has been provided to the filter media is no longer higher than 4 LRV. 下表X和XI示出了结果。 The following table X and XI show the results.

表X实施例52:具有25.4cm水柱的本发明过滤体系的效率 Table X Example 52: Efficiency of the present invention having a 25.4cm of water filtration system

表XI实施例53:具有10.2cm的水柱的本发明过滤体系的效率 Table XI Example 53: Efficiency of water 10.2cm having the filter system of the present invention

具有25.4cm的压头的实施例52的过滤体系的有效寿命对于6.0L水提供120小时可接受的MS2的对数下降。 Logarithmic effective life of the filter system having a 25.4cm head pressure of Example 52 to provide water for 120 hours 6.0L acceptable MS2 decrease. 然而,当压头为10.2cm时,如实施例53,过滤体系的有效寿命延长,从而对于体积为13.0L水提供364小时可接受的MS2的对数下降值。 However, when the pressure head is 10.2cm, as described in Example 53, to extend the effective life of the filter system, thereby providing for 364 hours Volume acceptable log reduction values of MS2 is 13.0L water. 显而易见的是,流速影响过滤体系的微生物拦截能力。 It is clear that the ability to intercept the flow rate of microbial filtration system. 根据实施例52和53的结果,较低流速由于微生物与过滤介质较大的接触时间导致将提供更有效的微生物拦截。 According to the results of Examples 52 and 53, with the lower flow rate due to microbial filter medium will result in a greater contact time to provide more effective microbiological interception.

实施例54:本发明过滤体系的长期E.coli挑战该实施例评估本发明过滤体系的有效性,该过滤体系具有包括两(2)层微生物拦截增强过滤介质层和两(2)层此前所述的PLEKX层的复合过滤介质。 Example 54: Long-term E.coli challenge of the present invention, the filter system of the embodiment of the present invention is to evaluate the effectiveness of the filter system, the filter system having include two (2) layers microbiological interception enhanced filter medium layer and two (2) layers heretofore Composite PLEKX layer of said filter medium.

使约500ml去离子水流过各过滤体系,以预润湿过滤介质并验证没有发生旁流。 So that about 500ml of deionized water through each of the filtering system in order to pre-wet the filter medium and verify bypass flow did not occur. 随后将500ml在去离子水中制备的E.coli挑战者流过过滤器。 Then E.coli challenger 500ml prepared in deionized water to flow through the filter. 在灭菌的Erlenmeyer烧瓶内收集流出液、稀释,并按照E.coli的标准步骤,在陪替氏培养皿上镀敷并静置过夜。 Collected in the effluent sterilized Erlenmeyer flask, diluted, and in accordance with standard procedures E.coli, in petri dish plated and allowed to stand overnight. 24小时后,使额外的500ml去离子水、接着另外500ml E.coli挑战者流过该体系。 After 24 hours, so that an additional 500ml of deionized water, followed by addition 500ml E.coli challenger flow through the system. 每24小时继续该方案,一直到过滤器介质不再提供高于4的LRV。 Per 24 hours to continue the program, has been provided to the filter media is no longer higher than 4 LRV. 下表XII示出了结果。 The following table XII shows the results.

表XII实施例54:具有25.4cm的水柱的本发明过滤体系的效率 Table XII Example 54: Efficiency of water 25.4cm having the filter system of the present invention

在6.0L水以约24ml/min的平均流量流过该体系之后,实施例54的过滤体系提供可接受的性能,其中由25.4cm的水柱引起压头。 After 6.0L of water at an average flow rate of about 24ml / min of flow through the system, the filter system 54 of the embodiment provides acceptable performance embodiment, wherein the water column caused by 25.4cm indenter.

尽管已结合特定优选的实施方案具体描述了本发明,但显然根据上文描述,许多替换、修改和变化对本领域熟练技术人员来说是显而易见的。 Although already in connection with specific preferred embodiments of the present invention is specifically described, according to the above description it will be apparent that many alternatives, modifications and variations of the skilled artisan is obvious. 因此认为,所附权利要求书包括落入本发明真实范围和主旨内的任何这些替换、修改和变化。 Therefore considered, including the appended claims fall within the true scope and spirit of the present invention, any such alternatives, modifications and variations.

Classifications
International ClassificationF24F3/16, B01D29/15, C12H1/056, C12H1/044, A61L2/02, B01J20/28, C02F1/44, A61L2/00, C02F1/28, B01D39/06, B01D39/04, B01D71/06, B01J20/24, B01J20/26, B01D39/18, B01D61/00, C02F1/00, C02F1/76, B01D39/16, B01J20/32, A01N25/26, B01D39/20, B01D37/02, A61L9/16, C02F1/42, C02F1/50, B01D63/00
Cooperative ClassificationB01J20/3204, B01J20/3212, B01J20/3236, B01J20/3293, Y10T428/249982, B01D2201/34, C02F1/003, C02F2303/04, C12H1/0424, B01D29/15, B82Y30/00, Y10T428/249978, A61L9/16, C02F1/001, C02F1/283, B01J2220/42, B01J20/28007, C12H1/0408, A61L2/0017, C02F1/444, B01D37/02, Y10T428/249967, A61L2/022, B01D39/18, B01J20/28014, B01D39/1623, C02F1/281, B01J20/28023, C02F1/76, A61L2/0082, C02F1/505, C02F1/004, C02F1/42, C02F2307/04, B01D39/2017
European ClassificationB01J20/28B4D, B01J20/28D, B01J20/28D8, C02F1/00D6, B01D29/15, B82Y30/00, B01J20/32D4D, C12H1/04C4, B01D39/18, B01D39/20B4, A61L2/00P2A, A61L9/16, B01D39/16B4, B01D37/02, A61L2/02F, B01J20/32, A61L2/00P4, C02F1/44D, C12H1/04B, C02F1/00D4, C02F1/50B
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