|Publication number||CN1026337 C|
|Application number||CN 91100132|
|Publication date||26 Oct 1994|
|Filing date||5 Jan 1991|
|Priority date||5 Jan 1990|
|Also published as||CA2033628A1, CN1055771A, DE69031381D1, DE69031381T2, EP0437855A2, EP0437855A3, EP0437855B1, US5000273|
|Publication number||91100132.8, CN 1026337 C, CN 1026337C, CN 91100132, CN-C-1026337, CN1026337 C, CN1026337C, CN91100132, CN91100132.8|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (15), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: SIPO, Espacenet|
本发明涉及一种整体式粘结基体，这种基体通过一种可用作浸渗粘结剂的低熔点合金，它可将金刚石切削构件粘结到基体上。 The present invention relates to a monolithic adhesive matrix, this matrix is impregnated by a binder may be used as low melting point alloy, it may be diamond cutting elements bonded to the substrate. 更具体地说，是涉及一种低熔点铜-锰-锌合金，它可用作浸渗粘结剂，把金刚石或其它超硬切削构件结合到基体（例如钻头体）上。 More particularly, it relates to a low-melting Cu - Mn - Zn alloy, it can be used as the binder impregnated, the diamond or other superhard cutting member is bonded to the substrate (e.g., the drill bit body). 本发明也涉及用新的低熔点铜-锰-锌合金浸渗基体粉末来生产一种粘合基体的方法。 The present invention also relates to a new low-melting Cu - Mn - Zn alloy impregnated matrix powder to produce a pressure-sensitive adhesive matrix method.
这里所描述的发明特别适用于制造这样一种旋转钻头，这种钻头体的外表面镶有许多用来切削或磨蚀岩层的切削构件，而内部有向钻头外表面上一个或多个喷嘴提供钻孔泥浆的通道。 Invention described herein is particularly suitable for the manufacture of such a rotary drill bit, the outer surface of the bit body inlaid many such cutting elements for cutting or abrasive rock, and there is an internal or an outer surface of the drill bit drill a plurality of nozzles provided hole mud channel. 各喷嘴位于钻头体的表面，以使钻孔泥浆由喷嘴排出并且在钻孔过程中流过切削构件，从而冷却和/或清洗这些构件。 Each nozzle is located in the surface of the bit body, so that the drilling mud is discharged from the nozzle in the drilling process and flows through the cutting member, thereby cooling and / or cleaning of these components. 切削构件最好是具有由多晶金刚石或其它超硬材料构成的超硬切削面的预成型切削构件。 Preferably the cutting member is a preform having a superhard cutting face of the cutting member of a polycrystalline diamond or other superhard material constituted.
正如本领域熟练技术人员所理解的，“超硬”这个术语是用来描述金刚石和立方晶系一氮化硼材料。 As those skilled in the art will appreciate, "super-hard" is the term used to describe diamond and cubic boron nitride materials. 为方便起见，“金刚石”这术语这里是可与“超硬”这术语互换的，并且其含意包括高压或低压下（亚稳态生长）制得的金刚石（单晶的或多晶）的材料以及立方晶系-氮化硼材料。 For convenience, "diamond" which is the term "superhard" This terminology interchangeable, and it is meant to include a high pressure or low pressure (metastable growth) (monocrystalline or polycrystalline) diamond obtained materials and cubic crystal - boron nitride materials.
用于钻岩的牵引钻头通常用两种方法中的一种来制造的。 Pulling the drill bit for rock drilling usually in one of two ways manufactured. 一种常规方法是通过机械加工将大块的钢材制成所要求的形状，就制成钢体钻头，再在钻头体上钻孔以容纳包含金刚石的切削构件，然后将该金刚石刀具压入其位置。 One conventional method is to shape by machining large pieces required, made of steel, it is made of steel body drill bits, and then drilled to accommodate the cutting member comprising diamond in the drill bit body, the diamond tool is then pressed into its Location. 当钻头是用这种方法制造时，金刚石刀具是通过刀具和孔的压配合而用机械方法固定的。 When the drill bit is produced by this method, with a diamond cutter is pressed through the hole while the tool and mechanically fixed. 另一种方法是将刀具钎焊到钢质钻头体上。 Another method is brazed to the tool steel bit body.
另一种制造牵引钻头的常规方法中，钻头体是通过粉末冶金方法来形成的。 Another conventional method of manufacturing the traction of the drill bit body is formed by powder metallurgy method. 美国Wilder等人的NO.3，757，878和美国Barr的NO.4，780，274是用来生产基体钻头的粉末冶金法的实例，被引用在本发明。 NO.3,757,878 and American Barr's NO.4,780,274 American Wilder, who is used to instantiate drill production base powder metallurgy method, was quoted in the present invention. 在这种方法中，将石墨块机械加工成铸模。 In this method, the graphite block was machined into the mold. 将一种耐磨基体粉末（例如由碳化钨粉末颗粒制成）放置在该铸模内，将钢质坯件放入到该铸模内，在基体粉末的上部。 The a wear-resistant matrix powder (e.g. tungsten carbide powder particles) is placed inside the mold, steel blank will be placed into the mold, the upper portion of the base powder. 其后，再把一种浸渗合金安放在模子里。 Subsequently, then one kind of infiltration alloy placed in the mold. 加热时，该浸渗合金熔化并且透入到基体粉末内，并充满颗粒间的空间。 When heated, the infiltrating alloy melts and penetrates into the matrix powder to, and fill the space between the particles. 冷却时，这些渗入的合金就凝固并把基体粉末颗粒粘结在一起成为粘聚的整块。 Upon cooling, the alloy solidifies these infiltration and to matrix powder particles bonded together into a cohesive piece. 该浸渗的合金也将这粘聚块结合到钢质坯件上形成基体钻头。 The alloy is also impregnated these cohesive block forming a matrix drill bit coupled to the steel blank. 然后将一有螺纹的连接件焊到该钢质坯件的端部以使得钻头能够连接到钻具组。 Then a threaded connecting member welded to the end portion of the steel blank member such that the drill bit can be connected to the drill string. 以常规的铜基浸渗合金进行这种方法所需的炉温约为1065℃到约1200℃。 In the conventional copper-based infiltration alloy of this approach make the desired furnace temperature of about 1065 ℃ to about 1200 ℃.
通常将含有金刚石的切削构件以两种方法中的一种方法连接到如此制成的基体钻头上。 Typically the diamond-containing cutting member in one of two methods in the drill bit attached to the substrate thus produced. 如果含有金刚石的刀具能够经得起浸渗温度而没有显著的破坏，则在基体粉末加进之前就把该刀具放入模子内，而作为浸渗过程的结果，它们被结合到基体上，这些含有金刚石的刀具就变成基体钻头整体的一部分。 If the diamond-containing tool capable of withstanding the infiltration temperature without significant damage, before the matrix powder added to put the tool into the mold, and as a result of the infiltration process, which is bonded to the substrate, these diamond-containing cutting tool becomes a part of a matrix drill bit as a whole. 然而，如果含有金刚石的刀具不能够不受显著破坏地承受住浸渗温度，则在浸渗好的刀头从模子里取出以后，通常用钎焊将刀具连接到钻头体上。 After However, if the diamond-containing cutting tool can not be free from significant damage to withstand the infiltration temperature, then removed from the mold in a good impregnation head, usually by brazing, the tool is connected to the bit body.
比起在渗透过程中直接将刀具结合到基体上，人们更不愿意用钎焊将该含金刚石刀具焊到钻头体上。 Compared to the direct binding tool during infiltration to the substrate, it is more reluctant to use brazing the diamond-bearing tool welded to the bit body. 钎焊是制造过程中的一个额外的步骤，它具有它自己的复杂性。 Brazing is a manufacturing process of an extra step, it has its own complexity. 虽然在制造基体钻头中删去钎焊步骤显然要合乎要求的，但市场上可买到的许多含金刚石的切削构件不能经受传统的铜基浸渗合金所需要的浸渗温度。 Although omitted brazing step in the manufacture of matrix drill bit is clearly desirable, but many of the diamond-containing cutting elements commercially available can not be subjected to conventional copper-based infiltration alloy required for infiltration temperature. 例如，常规的多晶型金刚石预成型件仅在低于700℃到750℃的温度下是热稳定的，因此，它必须在浸渗后钎焊到钻头体上。 For example, conventional polycrystalline diamond preforms type only at temperatures below 700 ℃ to 750 ℃ is thermally stable, and therefore, it must be impregnated after brazing to the bit body. 更新的多晶型金刚石预成型件，例如由通用电器公司购得的商标为Geoset的预成型件和由DeBeers公司购得的商标为Syndax3的预成型件在低于常规浸渗温度（约1150℃）时，在名义上是热稳定的。 Update polymorphs diamond preforms, such as preforms and trademarks by DeBeers company bought by General Electric Company acquired the trademark for Syndax3 Geoset preform infiltration in lower than conventional temperature (about 1150 ℃ ), the nominally thermally stable. 然而在事实上，商标为Geoset的热稳定多晶型金刚石切削构件在温度低到1000℃就开始性能变坏。 However, in the stable polymorph diamond cutting elements at temperatures as low as 1000 ℃ began to performance deterioration in fact, hot Geoset's trademark. 近来，DeBeers公司已开发一种商标为STSRSyndill的多晶系金刚石预成型件，在高到近于1000℃时它是热稳定的。 Recently, DeBeers has developed of a mark line for STSRSyndill polycrystalline diamond preform, at high to near 1000 ℃ when it is thermally stable.
因此，本领域的技术人员迄今正积极地寻求浸渗温度比常规铜基浸渗剂低得多的新型浸渗合金。 Thus, those skilled in the art so far are actively seeking infiltration temperature is much lower than the conventional copper-based infiltrant new infiltration alloy. Griffin的美国专利NO.4，669，522公开了一种基本上是铜一磷二元共晶体或近于共晶体组分的合金作为浸渗合金。 Griffin U.S. Patent NO.4,669,522 discloses a substantially copper-phosphorus binary eutectic or near-eutectic alloy composition as the infiltration alloy. 所揭示的这种合金的浸渗温度不大于850℃，更好的情况下不大于750℃。 When disclosed infiltration temperature of this alloy is not more than 850 ℃, more preferably not more than 750 ℃. 然而，有理由认为这种铜磷浸渗合金使用时具有某些冶金学上的问题，因此它在商业上没有获得成功。 However, having reason to believe that some metallurgical problems on when this copper phosphorus alloys infiltration, so it does not get commercial success.
本发明的一个优点是提供了一种浸渗温度低于约1000℃的新型浸渗合金。 An advantage of the present invention is to provide a method an infiltration temperature below about 1000 ℃ new infiltration alloy.
本发明的另一个优点是提供了一种用浸渗温度低于约1000℃的浸渗合金来制造粘聚基体的新方法。 Another advantage of the present invention is to provide a method with an infiltration temperature below about 1000 ℃ infiltration alloy to a new method for producing cohesive matrix.
本发明还有另一个优点是提供了一种用浸渗温度低于约1000℃的铜基浸渗合金制造钻头体的方法。 Yet another advantage of the present invention to provide a method of using an infiltration temperature below about 1000 ℃ copper-based infiltration alloy of the bit body.
本发明提供了包含约5%到65%重量的锰，低于35%重量的锌，其余部分为铜的一种新的低熔点浸渗合金，从而获得了这些和其它一些优点。 The present invention provides a manganese comprises from about 5% to 65% by weight, less than 35% by weight of zinc, the remainder being a low melting point copper new infiltration alloy to obtain these and other advantages. 较好的是该浸渗合金包含约20%到30%重量的锰，10%到25%重量的锌，其余为铜。 Preferred is the infiltration alloy comprises about 20% to 30% by weight of manganese, 10% to 25% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper. 最好的是该浸渗合金包含20%重量的锰，20%重量的锌，其余为铜。 Most preferably, the infiltration alloy comprises 20% by weight of manganese, 20% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper. 这种较佳组分的浸渗合金的熔点约为835℃，浸渗温度（即浸渗可以进行的温度）约为950℃。 Melting point infiltration alloy of this preferred composition is about 835 ℃, infiltration temperature (i.e., impregnation can be carried out in the temperature) of about 950 ℃. 现有技术揭示了性质上具有相似组分的各种金属合金。 The prior art discloses a variety of metal alloys having a composition similar nature. 例如见Cascone的美国专利4，003，715，Greenfield的美国专利4，389，074，Trler等人的美国专利3，778，238，Shapiro等人的美国专利3，775，237，Shapiro等人的美国专利3，880，678，Renschen的美国专利3，972，712等等。 See for example U.S. Patent No. 4,003,715 Cascone, Greenfield's U.S. Patent 4,389,074, Trler et al., U.S. Patent No. 3,778,238, Shapiro et al., U.S. Patent No. 3,775,237, Shapiro et al. U.S. Patent No. 3,880,678, Renschen U.S. Patent No. 3,972,712 and the like. 但以前还从未公开过具有上述组分的浸渗合金。 But has never before been disclosed infiltration alloy having the above composition.
本发明也提供了一种整体的粘聚基体，它包含许多嵌入在粘结基体内的切削构件，而该基体是用一种浸渗合金将基体材料浸渗而制得的。 The present invention also provides an overall cohesive matrix, which contains a number of embedded in the adhesive matrix of the cutting member, while the substrate is impregnated with an impregnating alloy matrix material and the obtained. 该浸渗合金具有上述的组分并且其特征为浸渗温度约为1050℃或低于1050℃，更好的约为950℃。 The infiltration alloy having the above components and wherein the infiltration temperature of about 1050 ℃ or below 1050 ℃, more preferably about 950 ℃. 该基体切削构件由超硬材料，例如在浸渗温度下是热稳定的多晶金刚石材料制成的。 The base member is made of super-hard cutting material, e.g., at infiltration temperature is a thermally stable polycrystalline diamond material. 根据要求，这整体的基体形成钻头体的一部分。 Upon request, a portion of the bit body which is formed integral matrix.
本发明的另一方面，是提供了一种制备整体的基体的方法，它包括：塑造一个中空的铸模，以至少铸造基体的一部分，将切削构件放入铸模内，至少在铸模的一部分装入基体粉料，在炉内用一种浸渗合金浸渗基体材料以形成聚集体，让该聚集体凝固而成整体的基体，该合金是一种包含锰的铜基合金，它经选择以提供浸渗温度不大于约1050℃。 Another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for the preparation of a unitary matrix, which comprises: a hollow shaping mold, casting at least a portion of the substrate, the cutting member into the mold, at least a portion of the mold loaded powder matrix material, with an infiltration alloy in a furnace impregnated substrate material to form aggregates, allowing the mass solidified entire substrate, the alloy is a copper-based alloy containing manganese, it is selected to provide infiltration temperature not greater than about 1050 ℃. 更合乎要求的是浸渗合金也包含一定量的锌并且具有大约950℃的浸渗温度。 More desirable is the infiltration alloy also contains a quantity of zinc and has an infiltration temperature of about 950 ℃.
在本发明的一个较佳的实施例中，提供了一种制造钻头体的方法，它包括塑造一个中空的铸模以至少铸造该钻头体的一部分，将切削构件（由热稳定的多晶型金刚石材料制成）放入铸模内，至少在铸模的一部分装入基体粉料，在炉内用一种浸渗合金浸渗该基体粉料以形成聚集体，随后让该聚集体凝固，该合金包括约20%重量的锰，约20%重量的锌，其余是铜，该合金熔点约为835℃而浸渗温度约为950℃。 In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of manufacturing a drill bit body, comprising a hollow shaped portion of the mold to cast the bit body, at least, the cutting member (thermally stable polycrystalline diamond type material) into the mold, at least part of the mold powder matrix material, with an infiltration alloy in a furnace infiltrating the powder matrix material to form aggregates, and then allowing the mass to solidify the alloy comprising about 20% by weight of manganese, about 20% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper, the alloy melting point of about 835 ℃ and an infiltration temperature of about 950 ℃.
图1是铸模纵截面示意图，说明根据本发明制造旋转钻头的方法。 Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional schematic view of a mold, described rotary drill bit according to the manufacturing method of the present invention.
图2是在图1的铸模中制得的旋转钻头的部分截面图。 Figure 2 is a partial sectional view of the mold of Figure 1 obtained in a rotary drill bit.
根据本发明制得一种新的浸渗合金，它可用于制造基体。 According to the present invention is to prepare a new infiltration alloy, which is used to make the matrix. 在最广泛的含义上，这种新的浸渗合金含有约5%至65%重量的锰，约0%至35%的锌，其余是铜。 In the broadest sense, the new infiltration alloy comprises about 5 to 65% by weight of manganese, from about 0 to 35% of zinc, and the balance copper. 更好的情况是该浸渗合金含有约20%至30%重量的锰，约10%至25%重量的锌，其余是铜。 More preferably, the infiltration alloy comprises about 20 to 30% by weight of manganese, from about 10-25% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper.
这些成分的浸渗合金的熔点约在830℃至980℃范围内，浸渗温度不高于约1050℃。 Melting point infiltration alloy of these components in the range of from about 830 ℃ to 980 ℃, an infiltration temperature not higher than about 1050 ℃. 浸渗温度一般总高于合金的熔点，以降低它熔化后的粘滞性，从而提高它进入基体粉料的穿透率。 Total infiltration temperature is generally above the melting point of the alloy, to reduce its viscosity after melting, thereby increasing its penetration into the matrix powder. 这种发明的浸渗合金也可含有少量其他合金元素，只要它们不会把熔点提高到约980℃以上。 Infiltration alloy of this invention may also contain minor amounts of other alloying elements, so long as they do not increase the melting point to about 980 ℃ above. 例如，发明的浸渗合金也可含有约0.1%到5%重量的硅，约0.1%至1%重量的锡，或约0.1%至1%重量的硼。 For example, the infiltration alloy invention may also contain from about 0.1% to 5% by weight of silicon, from about 0.1 to 1 percent by weight of tin, or about 0.1% to 1% by weight of boron.
这种发明的浸渗合金可以用来制造基体钻头。 Infiltration alloy of this invention can be used to make a matrix drill bit. 参看图1，其说明了用这种新型浸渗合金制造基体钻头的装置和方法。 Referring to Figure 1, illustrating the apparatus and method of using the new infiltration alloy matrix drill bit. 这装置包括一个由两部分构成的铸模10，它由石墨或其他适当的材料（如砂、烧石膏，某种陶瓷材料，或涂复有一层与浸渗粘结剂和基体材料不发生反应的材料的金属等）构成。 This apparatus comprises a two-part mold 10, which consists of graphite or other suitable material (such as sand constituted, plaster of Paris, a ceramic material, or coated with a layer of matrix material and impregnated with the binder does not react metal materials like). 铸模10的内部构型大体上对应于所需的钻头体或其一部分的表面形状。 Internal configuration of the mold 10 substantially corresponds to the desired shape of the bit body or a part of the surface. 铸模10还有位于其内表面的凹穴，用来接纳金刚石刀具12。 There mold 10 in its pocket inner surface 12 for receiving the diamond tool.
将铸模10的上部和模盖10a取去，放好模芯14，再将一层基体粉末颗粒16放入铸模10，复盖突出的金刚石12，并摇振使它到位并使粉料紧密。 The upper mold 10 and the mold cover 10a taken away, put away the mold core 14, and then a layer of the matrix powder particles 16 into the mold 10, covering 12 prominent diamond and shaking it to the powder in place and tight. 基体粉料最好由碳化钨，浇铸碳化钨或其混合物的颗粒构成。 Powder matrix material is preferably made of tungsten carbide, cast tungsten carbide or mixtures of particles. 也可以使用其他的硬质粉料，如碳化物，硼化物，氮化物和氧化物，或者是如铁、钴、钨、铜、镍及它们的合金之类的金属粉料（不论是涂复过或未涂复的）。 Can also use other hard powders, such as carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides, or such as iron, cobalt, tungsten, copper, nickel metal powder and alloy thereof or the like (whether coated over or coated). 对基体粉料的唯一限制是它在浸渗过程中不会与浸渗合金反应而使该合金的熔点提高到约980℃上。 The only restriction on the matrix powder is that it does not react with the infiltration alloy melting point of leaving the alloy increased to about 980 ℃ in the infiltration process. 基体粉料最好包含各种不同大小颗粒的混合物，以产生高的振实密度从而得到良好的耐磨性和耐腐蚀性。 Powder matrix material preferably comprises a mixture of a variety of different particle size, in order to produce high tap density to obtain good wear resistance and corrosion resistance.
在将金刚石刀具12和基体粉料16放入铸模10以后，把钢质坯件18放在铸模10上，位于粉料16之上。 In the diamond tool 12 and the substrate 16 into the mold 10 after the powder, the steel blank 18 is placed on the mold 10, 16 is located above the powder. 钢质坯件18与铸模10的表面是隔开的，用适当的夹具（图上未示出）将它固定在其位置上。 Steel blank 18 and the surface of the mold member 10 is spaced with an appropriate jig (not shown on the diagram) to secure it in place. 随后，把铸模10的上部放在坯件18之上，再在铸模10内放入一堆浸渗合金（如22所示）处在位于钢质坯件18之内及其周围的基体成形材料之上，并伸延至空间24。 Subsequently, the upper mold 10 is placed on top of the blank 18, and then placed in a mold 10 bunch infiltration alloy (such as 22) in the 18's is located in and around the base molding material steel blanks above, and extended to the space 24. 浸渗合金一般是粗的弹丸形或事先切好的碎块形。 Infiltration alloy is generally thick bullet-shaped or pre-cut pieces shape. 根据本发明，该合金是一种含有5%至65%重量的锰，35%以下重量的锌，其余是铜的铜基合金，更好的是含有约20%至30%重量的锰，约10%至25%重量的锌，其余是铜的铜基合金。 According to the present invention, the alloy is a copolymer containing from 5 to 65% by weight of manganese, 35% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper-based alloy of copper, more preferably manganese containing from about 20 to 30% by weight, from about 10-25% by weight of zinc, and the balance copper-based alloy copper. 这种合金的浸渗温度为1050℃或较低。 Infiltration temperature of this alloy is 1050 ℃ or lower.
基体成形材料和浸渗合金装入铸模以后，将组合好的铸模放入炉内加热至浸渗温度，使合金熔化并以已知的方式浸渗基体形成材料。 The matrix forming material and the infiltration alloy is loaded after the mold, the combination of good mold placed in an oven heated to an infiltration temperature, the alloy is melted and impregnated in a known manner the matrix forming material. 这个浸渗过程在低于约1050℃的温度下进行，最好是在约950℃左右进行。 The infiltration process at a temperature below about 1050 ℃ temperature, preferably at about 950 ℃ carried.
然后将组合件冷却并从铸模取出。 The assembly is then cooled and removed from the mold. 制得图2所示的钻头体。 The bit body shown in FIG prepared. 因此钻头体包含钢质坯件18，其上粘结着耐磨基体颗粒复盖层16，而金刚石切削构件12则嵌入在该复盖层内。 Thus the drill bit comprises a steel blank 18, on which the base particles bonded with the wear-resistant covering layer 16, and the diamond cutting elements 12 embedded in the cover layer. 如上面所讨论的，本发明的一个重要优点在于金刚石切削构件12是当钻头体在铸模内形成过程中嵌入在钻头体内的，因为比较低的浸渗温度减小了对金刚石切削构件的热损伤，并且允许使用那些在1000℃以上的温度下将会损坏的金刚石刀具。 As discussed above, an important advantage of the present invention is that the diamond cutting elements 12 when the bit body is formed in the mold process embedded in the drill body, because the comparatively low infiltration temperature reduces to thermal damage to the diamond cutting elements , and allows the use of those at a temperature above 1000 ℃ will damage the diamond tool. 钻头体成形后冷却过程中由热致应力引起损坏的危险也减小了。 After forming the bit body during cooling caused by thermally induced stresses risk of damage is reduced.
金刚石切削构件12可以是任一种用来制造基体钻头的常规构件，如天然或合成金刚石刀具，或是立方晶系一氮化硼刀具。 Conventional member diamond cutting elements 12 may be manufactured to any one of the matrix drill bit, such as natural or synthetic diamond cutting tools, or cubic boron nitride cutting tools. 但是本发明的最大用途是当金刚石切削构件是由热稳定的多晶金刚石聚合体构成时，例如前面所述的商标为GeosetTM、Syndax3、或STSR Syndill之类的预成型件。 However, the maximum use of the present invention is that when the diamond cutting elements are thermally stable by polymerization of polycrystalline diamond body constitutes, e.g., the aforementioned trademark is GeosetTM, Syndax3, or preform STSR Syndill like. 这些预成型件可以得到各种形状，如圆盘或三角形。 These preforms can be obtained in various shapes, such as a disc or triangle. 一般而言，预成型件包含一层由多晶金刚石或其他超硬材料构成的表面层，它结合在粘结碳化钨之类的衬底层上。 Generally, the preform comprising a layer of the surface layer of polycrystalline diamond or other superhard material, it is bonded to the backing layer of cemented tungsten carbide and the like. 不结合在衬底上的独立式多晶聚合体也适合作为金刚石切削构件12。 Not binding on the substrate freestanding polycrystalline aggregates are also suitable as the diamond cutting elements 12. 独立式聚合体可以本身直接作为金刚石切削构件。 Freestanding polymer can itself be directly used as a diamond cutting elements. 另外，也可以通过在铸模内放入粉状或固态衬底材料与金刚石切削构件相接触，而在浸渗过程中使独立式聚合体在当场结合到衬底或支承材料上。 It is also possible by placing a powdered or solid backing material in contact with the diamond cutting elements in the mold, and in the infiltration process, to the spot-standing polymer bound to a substrate or support material. 金刚石薄膜（即在亚稳条件下沉积在衬垫上的金刚石材料）也被认为属于本发明范围之内。 Diamond film (i.e., the conditions under metastable diamond deposited on a liner material) are also considered within the scope of the present invention. 因此，放入铸模10内的金刚石切削构件也可包含沉积在衬垫上的金刚石薄膜。 Thus, the mold 10 is placed in the diamond cutting elements may also be included in the deposited diamond film on the pad. 如果制得足够厚的金刚石薄膜（例如约0.5mm厚），可把金刚石薄膜与衬垫分离开来，而将它本身用作金刚石切削构件12。 If made sufficiently thick diamond film (e.g., about 0.5mm thick), the diamond film can be separated from the liner, and is used as the diamond cutting member 12 itself.
不管金刚石切削构件12的确切性质如何，最好都有一层1至50μm厚的金属复盖层沉积在下面的超硬颗粒上。 Regardless of the exact nature of the diamond cutting elements 12 preferably have a layer thickness of 1 to 50μm metal coating deposited on the underlying superhard particles. 金属复盖层促进超硬颗粒被浸渗合金浸湿，从而使最后产品中金刚石切削构件12牢固地嵌入在整体的基体中。 Metal coating particles are impregnated with superhard alloy to promote wetting, so that the final product in the diamond cutting elements 12 firmly embedded in the overall matrix. 在超硬颗粒上敷施金属复盖的技术对本领域的技术人员来说是人所共知的。 Ultrahard particles deposited on the metal coating technique of applying the skilled artisan is well known. 例如，可参看美国专利3，757，878（Wilder等）中关于一种化学气相沉积技术的说明，这种技术可用来将一层钨、钼、钽、钛、铌与它们的合金沉积在超硬颗粒上。 For example, can be found in U.S. Patent No. 3,757,878 (Wilder et al) description of a chemical vapor deposition technique, this technique can be used to a layer of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, niobium and their alloys are deposited over hard particles. 钨是一种较佳的复盖物，因为它容易被本发明的新型浸渗合金浸湿。 Tungsten is a preferred covering material, as it is easily wetted by the novel infiltration alloy of the present invention. 它之所以较佳，还因为在适当条件下它与其下的超硬颗粒化学结合在一起，并且因为它可作为超硬颗粒的抗氧化保护层。 The reason why it is preferred, but also because of superhard particles under the proper chemical conditions under which together therewith, and because it can be used as anti-oxidation protective layer of superhard particles.
以上所述制造钻头体的方法，已经使用以下材料而成功地实施：GeosetTM类型的多晶金刚石预成型件，由浇铸碳化钨构成的基体粉末，以及（1）含有20%重量的锰，20%重量的锌，0.5%重量的硅，其余为铜的浸渗合金。 The above method for producing the drill bit body, the following materials have been used to successfully implement: GeosetTM type polycrystalline diamond preforms, cast tungsten carbide matrix powder constituted by, and manganese (1) containing 20% by weight, 20% by weight of zinc, 0.5% by weight of silicon, and the balance copper infiltration alloy. 这种浸渗合金的熔点约为835℃，而浸渗温度为950℃。 This infiltration alloy melting point of about 835 ℃, and an infiltration temperature of 950 ℃. 在这温度下，该发明的浸渗合金的浸渗率仅稍低于在1180℃下的常规浸渗剂，而它在1000℃的浸渗率则可与1180℃下的常浸渗剂相比。 Under this temperature, the infiltration rate of infiltration alloy slightly below the invention at 1180 ℃ conventional infiltrant, infiltration rate at which it can be and often is 1000 ℃ infiltrant 1180 ℃ under phase ratio.
上述过程也已成功地用下面成分的浸渗合金而实施：（2）含有20%重量的锰，20%重量的锌，0.5%重量的锡，其余为铜; The above process has also been successfully implemented with the following infiltration alloy composition: (2) containing 20% by weight of manganese, 20% by weight of zinc, 0.5% by weight tin, the balance copper;
（3）含有20%重量的锰，20%重量的锌，0.2%重量的硼，其余为铜; (3) containing 20% by weight of manganese, 20% by weight of zinc, 0.2% by weight of boron, and the balance copper;
（4）含有20%重量的锰，25%重量的锌，0.2%重量的硼，其余为铜; (4) containing 20% by weight of manganese, 25% by weight of zinc, 0.2% by weight of boron, and the balance copper;
在按上面所说明的方式来实施本发明过程时，重要的是将条件保持得不需使浸渗温度高于约1050℃。 When the above-described manner to implement the process of the present invention, it is important to make the condition kept without infiltration temperature above about 1050 ℃. 例如，基体粉末不应包含任何能使浸渗温度提高到1050℃以上的金属粉末。 For example, the matrix powder should not contain any make infiltration temperature increased to 1050 ℃ metal powder. 同样，有时用来促进浸渗合金对基体粉末的浸渗作用的助熔剂，应当是一种低熔点助熔剂，如无水Na2BO4之类。 Similarly, sometimes used to promote infiltration combined effect 金对基 infiltration of flux powder, should be a low melting point flux, such as anhydrous Na2BO4 like. 当它适当的低熔点助熔剂为硼酸，硼的氧化物，氟化物，氯化物等。 When it is appropriate for a low-melting flux boric acid, boron oxide, fluorides, chlorides and the like. 当浸渗过程在真空中或在惰性气氛中进行时就不需要助熔剂。 When the infiltration process in a vacuum or in an inert atmosphere when it is not required flux.
在铸模中用来置换基体材料以形成特定几何形状的钻头体的粘土，以及施加于铸模表面将特定的钻头或铸模部件固定在其位置上的胶合剂，都应当与浸渗合金不发生反应，而且不阻碍浸渗过程。 Clay in the mold for substitution matrix material to form a specific geometry of the bit body, and applying to the surface of the mold to a particular bit or mold components are fixed in place on the adhesive, should not react with the infiltration alloy, and do not hinder the infiltration process. 一种合适的粘土是氧化铝粉末，聚乙烯石蜡（滴点＝92℃）和硼酸的混合物构成的。 A suitable clay is alumina powder, polyethylene wax (drop point = 92 ℃) and consisting of a mixture of boric acid. 其它的基体置换材料包括砂，石墨，造型粘土，烧石膏，而且也可使用其它可铸的陶瓷材料。 Other matrix materials include replacement of sand, graphite, modeling clay, plaster of Paris, and also use other castable ceramic material. 迄今试验过的最合适的粘合剂是Testor的NO.3501粘合剂（这是常常用来制作塑料模型的粘合剂），或者是一种滴点高于100℃的聚乙烯石蜡。 Tried to date the most suitable adhesives are Testor's NO.3501 binder (which is often used for making plastic models of binder), or a drop point higher than 100 ℃ of polyethylene wax.
上面所说明的制造带有金刚石刀具的岩石钻头的方法。 The above described method for manufacturing a diamond tool with a rock drill bit. 与现有方法相比有许多优点。 Compared with the conventional method has many advantages. 第一，如果在1000℃以下使用，它消除了GeosetTM切削构件所发生的性能变坏，这种切削构件名义上在1100℃以下的温度下是稳定的，但在约1000℃以上性能就开始变坏。 First, if used below 1000 ℃, it eliminates the performance GeosetTM deterioration occurred cutting member, which cutting member nominally at a temperature of 1100 ℃ less stable, but more than about 1000 ℃ performance began to change bad. 其次，这方法可以允许STSR Syndill切削构件（它只在约1000℃以下是稳定的）在浸渗过程中结合到基体钻头上，因而不再需要钎焊。 Secondly, this approach may allow STSR Syndill cutting member (it is below about 1000 ℃ stable) binding to the impregnation process, a matrix drill bit, eliminating the need for brazing. 第三，它避免了发生于某些敷施在金刚石颗粒上的金属复盖层的起泡问题。 Third, it avoids the occurrence of certain was applied on the metal coating the diamond particles of foaming problems. 某些金属复盖层含有一层铜。 Some metal coating comprises a layer of copper. 当浸渗温度高于铜的熔点（1083℃）时，铜层就会发生起泡。 When the infiltration temperature is higher than melting point of copper (1083 ℃), blister copper layer will occur. 但是，由于本发明的方法是在1050℃以下进行，最好是在950℃的温度下进行，这个问题就避免了。 However, since the method of the present invention is carried out at below 1050 ℃, is preferably carried out at a temperature of 950 ℃, the problem is avoided. 第四，由于本方法是在较低的温度下进行，浸渗剂凝固后冷却过程中所产生的热应力也有显著降低。 Fourth, since the process is carried out at a lower temperature, the thermal stress during cooling after solidification infiltrant arising also significantly reduced. 许多其他优点对本领域的技术人员是显然的。 Numerous other advantages of the present skill in the art will be apparent.
发明的浸渗合金的用途并不限于制造基体钻头，它也能用于任何铸造过程，通过浸渗基体粉末并将颗粒粘结在一起而制造整体的机件，这一点也应当是明显的。 Uses infiltration alloy of the present invention is not limited to a matrix drill bit manufacturing, it can also be used in any casting process, by impregnating matrix powder particles are bonded together and manufactured integral parts, it should be apparent. 例如，这浸渗合金也可用于一种制造拉丝模的过程，其中含有金刚石的阴模通过浸渗过程而结合到模块上。 For example, this infiltration alloy can also be used in the process of manufacturing a drawing die, wherein the die containing diamond are bonded by the infiltration process to the module. 本发明的其它许多变换形式和实施方法，对本领域的技术人员将是显而易见的。 Many variations and other forms of embodiment of the method of the invention, to those skilled in the art will be apparent.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|CN100393899C||7 Mar 2006||11 Jun 2008||天津市鑫辰有色金属科技开发有限公司;崔春翔||Production of immersing alloy for petroleum drilling bit|
|International Classification||C22C9/00, C04B35/52, C22C30/06, E21B10/46, C22C1/04, E21B10/00, C22C26/00|
|Cooperative Classification||C04B35/52, E21B10/46, C22C1/0475, C22C26/00|
|European Classification||C22C1/04I, C22C26/00, E21B10/46, C04B35/52|
|30 Oct 1991||C06||Publication|
|7 Apr 1993||C10||Request of examination as to substance|
|26 Oct 1994||C14||Granted|
|24 Feb 1999||C19||Cessation of patent right (cessation of patent right due to non-paymentof the annual fee)|