椎间盘假体 本分案申请是基于申请号为200380104667. 6、申请日为2003年10月31日、发明名称为“椎间盘假体”的中国专利申请的分案申请。 The intervertebral disc prosthesis  sub-text application is a divisional application based on Application No. 200380104667.6, filed on October 31, 2003, titled "disc prosthesis," the China patent applications. 技术领域 本发明涉及了一个椎间盘假体，用于在脊柱中，特别是在颈椎上，替代连接椎骨的纤维软骨盘。 Technical Field  The present invention relates to an intervertebral disc prosthesis for the spine, particularly in the spine, connecting vertebrae alternative fibrocartilage disc. 背景技术 在先前技术中已知有各种假体形式。 BACKGROUND ART  In the prior art there are known various forms of prostheses. 其中有些假体，由于它们用可压缩材料制成， 或由于它们容许假体的不同组成部分相互过度的运动，可能比较容易地引起至少假体的一部分被挤出在椎骨之外，这对病人是不希望的。 Some of the prosthesis, since they are made of a compressible material, or because they allow the different components of the prosthesis mutual excessive exercise, may be more easily lead to at least a portion of the prosthesis is extruded out of the vertebrae, which the patient It is undesirable. 发明内容 本发明的目的是采用一个简单的椎间盘假体，来纠正先前技术的某些缺点，使得可以限制假体不同组成部分相互的运动。  The present invention is the use of a simple intervertebral disc prosthesis, to correct some of the shortcomings of the prior art, so that the prosthesis can limit the movement of the various components of each other.  一个包括至少三个部分的椎间盘假体达到了这个目的，它包括：一个称为上板的第一板、一个称为下板的第二板、以及一个芯子，芯子的上表面与上板的至少一部分下表面接触，芯子的下表面与下板的至少一部分上表面接触，并且上板至少相对于芯子可以运动， 特征在于：下板和芯子之间有配合装置，从而沿着基本上平行于下板的轴线，限制或消除了芯子相对于下板的移动，并且环绕基本上垂直于下板的轴线，限制或消除了芯子相对于下板的转动，通过上板和下板的两个平面形成了一个基本上不变的角度。  A comprises at least three parts of the intervertebral disc prosthesis to achieve this object, comprising: a first plate called upper plate, a lower plate called a second plate, and a core, the core at least a portion of the surface of the upper plate and the lower surface in contact, at least a portion of the lower surface of the core and the lower surface of the contact plate and the upper plate, at least with respect to the core can be moved, characterized in that: there are cooperating means between the lower plate and the core , thereby substantially along an axis parallel to the lower plate, to limit or eliminate the core to move relative to the lower plate, and surrounds the lower plate is substantially perpendicular to the axis, to limit or eliminate rotation of the core relative to the lower plate, by two flat upper and lower plates form a substantially constant angle.  按照另一个特征，下板包括与芯子的凹形装置配合的凸形装置。  According to another feature, the lower plate comprises male means and female means of the core fit.  按照另一个特征，下板包括与芯子的凸形装置配合的凹形装置。  According to another feature, the lower plate comprises female means of the core means cooperating male.  按照另一个特征，得到的角度使得芯子沿着从前到后的方向形成一个锐角。  According to another feature, the core is formed to give an angle such that an acute angle along a front to back direction.  按照另一个特征，相同的板可以与不同厚度的芯子装配。  According to another feature, the same plates can be assembled with cores of different thicknesses.  按照另一个特征，在上板和下板之间的角度在0°和15°之间。  According to another feature, between the between the upper and lower plates of the angle of 0 ° and 15 °.  按照另一个特征，芯子可以相对于上板和/或下板运动，使得可以补偿假体的三个部分的相互定位缺陷。  According to another feature, the core relative to the upper and / or lower plate movement, making it possible to compensate for the three parts of the prosthesis of the mutual positioning defects.  按照另一个特征，至少上板下表面的一部分为凹的，并且与芯子的上表面相补。  According to another feature, the upper plate of at least part of the surface is concave, and the upper surface of the core fill.  按照另一个特征，每个凸形装置的尺寸稍小于每个凹形装置的尺寸，从而能够在芯子和下板之间具有微小的间隙。  According to another feature, the dimensions of each male means is slightly smaller than the size of each female means so as to be able to have a slight clearance between the core and the lower plate.  按照另一个特征，每个凸形装置的尺寸基本上相同于每个凹形装置的尺寸，从而防止在芯子和下板之间的任何间隙。  According to another feature, the size of each male means are substantially the same as the size of each female means so as to prevent any clearance between the core and the lower plate.  按照另一个特征，下板的凸形装置是两个扣销，向着假体的内部弯曲，并且相互对着位于假体的两边，以及芯子的凹形装置是两个凹区。  According to another feature, the lower plate of the male means is a two button pins, bent toward the inside of the prosthesis and located opposite each other on either side of the prosthesis and the female means of the core are two recessed areas.  按照另一个特征，至少一个扣销被一个设有钻孔的凸耳替代，采用进入钻孔的一3个销钉把一个舌片固定在凸耳上。  According to another feature, at least one snap pin is a substitute with bay drilling ear, into the borehole using a 3 pin to a tongue fixed to the lugs.  按照另一个特征，下板的凸形装置是两个位于下板中心附近的销钉，芯子的凹形装置是两个凹坑。  According to another feature, the male means of the lower plate of the lower plate is located near the center of two of the pins, female means of the core are two recesses.  按照另一个特征，下板的凸形装置是相互对着位于假体两边附近的两个壁，芯子的凹形装置是凹区。  According to another feature, the lower plate of the male means is located opposite each other on either side of the two walls of the prosthesis, the core of the device is a concave depression.  按照另一个特征，下板的凸形装置是位于假体中心的一个肋，芯子的凹形装置是一个槽。  According to another feature, the male means of the lower plate is a rib located on the center of the prosthesis, the core means is a concave groove.  按照另一个特征，芯子由聚乙烯制成。  According to another feature, the core is made of polyethylene.  按照另一个特征，下板在其前边附近包括一个或几个开孔，用于在一个椎骨中容纳假体固定装置。  According to another feature, the lower plate near its front comprises one or several openings for receiving the prosthesis fixing device in a vertebra.  按照另一个特征，下板的开孔为矩形，固定装置包括一个与下板形成锐角的本体和一个头部。  According to another feature, the lower plate is a rectangular opening, forming an acute angle fixing means comprises a body and a head portion of the lower plate.  按照另一个特征，下板的开孔为圆形，固定装置为钉子形。  According to another feature, the lower plate is a circular opening, fixing means for the nail-shaped.  按照另一个特征，上板至少在其上表面的一部分上为凸形，以配合椎骨的形状。  According to another feature, the board, at least on a part of its upper surface is convex to match the shape of the vertebrae. 附图说明 在参照附图、阅读以下的描述之后，对本发明的其他特征和优点将会看得更清楚， 其中： 图Ia和Ib分别代表了一个实施例的上板的底视图和底透视图， 图加和2b分别代表了一个实施例的下板的顶视图和顶透视图， 图3a和北分别代表了一个实施例的芯子的顶视图和顶透视图， 图如和4b分别代表了图la，lb, 2a, 2b，3a和北实施例的椎间盘假体的顶透视图和侧视图， 图如和恥分别代表了第二个实施例的椎间盘假体的侧视图和沿着图fe平面DD 的剖视图， 图6a代表了第三个实施例的椎间盘假体的侧视图， 图6b和6d代表了沿着图6a平面AA的剖视图，芯子相对于下板分别具有微小间隙和不具有间隙， 图6c和6e分别代表了沿着图6b和6d平面BB的椎间盘的剖视图， 图7a和8a分别代表了另外两个实施例的下板的顶视图和底透视图， 图7b和8b分别代表了图7a和8a下板的侧透视图和顶透视图，其中按照两个不同实施例插入了假体固定装置， 图9a代表了第四个实施例的下板的顶视图， 图9b代表了沿着图9a平面C_C的下板的剖视图， 图IOa和IOb分别代表了另一个实施例的上板的后视图和侧视图。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION  In reference to the drawings, after reading the following description of the other features and advantages of the invention will be seen more clearly in which:  FIG. Ia and Ib represent the upper plate of an embodiment of bottom view and a bottom perspective view,  FIG plus and 2b represent a top view and a top perspective view of the lower plate of an embodiment,  Figures 3a and north respectively represent a top view of one embodiment of the core and top perspective view,  FIG. 4b as and represent the Figure la, lb, 2a, 2b, 3a and North embodiment of the intervertebral disc prosthesis top perspective view and a side view,  FIG representing such and shame a second embodiment of the intervertebral disc prosthesis of a side view and a sectional view taken along the plane DD fe, and  Figure 6a represents the third embodiment of the intervertebral disc prosthesis side view,  FIG. 6b and 6d represents a cross-sectional view taken along the plane AA of Fig. 6a, the core relative to the lower plate, respectively, with a slight gap and do not have a gap,  FIG. 6c and 6e represent a cross-sectional view taken along the plane BB in Fig. 6b and 6d of the disc, [ 0034] Figures 7a and 8a, respectively, represent two top view and a bottom perspective view of the lower plate of the embodiment,  FIG. 7b and 8b represent a side perspective view of 7a and 8a of the lower plate and top perspective view, which according to two different embodiments of the insertion of the prosthesis device,  FIG. 9a represents a top view of a fourth embodiment of the lower plate,  Figure 9b Figure 9a represents a plane along the lower plate C_C sectional view,  FIG IOa and IOb represent the upper plate of another embodiment of a rear view and a side view. 具体实施方式 本发明的椎间盘假体由一个上板1构成，它依靠一个芯子3相对于一个下板形成关节式连接，如在图如，仙，如和6a中可以明显看出。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION  The intervertebral disc prosthesis of the present invention is constituted by an upper plate 1, it relies on a core (3) with respect to a lower plate formed articulation, such as in Fig., Saints, as can be clearly seen and 6a . 本发明假体的一个优点是它包括了简单的部分，可以设计成使得假体配装在颈椎上。 One advantage of the present prosthesis is that it includes the easy part, it can be designed such that the prosthesis fitted on the cervical spine.  在图Ia和Ib中可以明显看出，上板1至少在其下表面的一部分10上稍凹，从而与芯子3的稍凸的上表面配合。  can be clearly seen in Figure Ia and Ib, the upper plate 1 at least slightly concave upper surface of the lower part 10, which is slightly convex and the core 3 with the upper surface. 芯子3的上表面与上板1的凹形部分10相补，使得能够在上板1和芯子3之间运动。 On the surface of the core 3 and the concave portion 10 of the upper plate 1 complementarity, making it possible in the core between the plates 1 and 3 sports.  在一个供替代的实施例中，上板1上表面的一部分为凸形，如图IOa和IOb所示， 以便更好地配合在要配装假体的椎骨上，椎骨的底部是凹的，此时，上板1的凸形部分位于上板的前部，如在图IOb中可明显看出。  In an alternative embodiment for the upper surface of the convex part of the upper plate 1, as shown in FIG. IOa and IOb to better fit the vertebral body to go with pretend bottom vertebrae are concave, at this time, the male part 1 is located on the front panel of the board, as can be clearly seen in Figure IOb in.  下板2基本上为平的。  The lower plate 2 is substantially flat. 实际上，其下表面不需要凸或凹，因为椎骨顶部基本上是平的。 In fact, its lower surface does not need a convex or concave since the top of the vertebrae is substantially flat. 在图加，2b，7a和8a的实施例中，在下板2的两个基本上平行的边21、22上，下板2包括两个位置相互对着的扣销20。 In FIG addition, 2b, 7a and 8a of the embodiments, the two sides 21 and 22 of the lower plate 2 is substantially parallel to the lower plate 2 comprises two mutually opposite positions of the snap pin 20. 每个扣销20向着假体内部弯曲，因此可以进入位于芯子3上的凹区30。 Each snap pin 20 toward the interior of the prosthesis bent, so you can enter the core pits located on 30 3. 在图3a和北中可明显看出，芯子3包括一个基本上平的下表面。 3a and north will be apparent, the core 3 includes a substantially flat lower surface. 用于配合在下板2上。 Used in conjunction with the lower plate 2. 对于颈椎假体，芯子3较薄（例如3mm厚），或者对于腰椎假体较厚（例如15mm)ο 在图3a，3bJa和4b的实施例中，芯子3的每个凹区30尺寸稍大于下板2的每个扣销20尺寸，从而沿着基本上平行于下板2的轴线的移动，以及环绕基本上垂直于下板2的轴线的转动，均限制了芯子3相对于下板2的间隙。 For cervical prosthesis, the core 3 is thin (e.g., 3mm thick), or prosthesis for a lumbar thicker (e.g., 15mm) ο  In FIG. 3a, 3bJa Example 4b, each recess of the core 3 District 30 slightly larger than the lower plate 20 of each snap pin 2 size to move along an axis substantially parallel to the lower plate 2, and surround substantially perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the lower plate 2, are limiting the core 3 with respect to the lower plate gap 2. 上板1和芯子3之间的运动，以及芯子3相对于下板2的间隙，使得病人能够运动，并且如果需要，可以补偿假体定位的缺陷。 Movement between 1 and 3 on the core plate, and core (3) with respect to the gap between the lower plate 2, so that patients can exercise, and if needed, can compensate for the prosthesis positioning defects. 间隙也提供了一个优点，防止作用于假体上应力造成过早磨损。 Gap also provides an advantage to prevent stress acting on the prosthesis causing premature wear.  在图fe和恥的实施例中，芯子3的每个凹区30的尺寸基本上与下板2的每个扣销20尺寸相同，从而在移动和转动上，均防止芯子3相对于下板2的任何间隙。  In the embodiment of FIG fe and shame, the size of each pit 30 of the core 3 is substantially lower plate 20 of each snap pin 2 of the same size, so that the movement and rotation, both to prevent the core 3 with respect to the board any gaps 2. 此时，容许假体的唯一运动是上板1相对于芯子3的运动。 At this point, the only movement to allow the prosthesis is on board a motion with respect to the core 3.  在9a和9b的实施例中，扣销20之一用一个设有钻孔200的凸耳替代。  In an embodiment, 9a and 9b, the snap pin with a projection of 20 with a borehole 200 ear instead. 用一个进入钻孔200的销钉M把一个舌片23固定在凸耳上。 M drilling into the pin with a 200 to a tongue 23 is fixed lug. 在一个供替代的实施例中，两个扣销均用固定了舌片23的凸耳替代。 In an embodiment of an alternate, two snap pin are fixed a tongue 23 protruding ears instead.  在图6a，6b，6c，6d和6e的实施例中，下板2不包括任何扣销20，而包括位于下板2中心附近的两个销钉25。  In Fig. 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d and 6e in the embodiment, the lower plate 2 does not include any deduction pin 20, while the lower plate 2 comprises two pins 25 near the center. 此时，作为相补，芯子3不包括任何凹区30，而在其下表面包括两个凹坑35。 In this case, as the fill phase, the core 3 does not include any concave region 30, and at its lower surface comprises two recesses 35. 下板2的销钉25尺寸和芯子3的凹坑35尺寸，在图6b和6c实施例中容许有微小的移动和转动间隙，在图6d和6e实施例中不容许有间隙。 Pin 25 of the lower plate 2 and the core size of the pit size 35 3 in FIG. 6b and 6c embodiments allow a slight gap and rotational movement, in FIG. 6d and 6e embodiment does not allow a gap.  在图中未示的另一个实施例中，下板2在其上表面上包括一个肋，没有扣销20或销钉25。  In another not shown embodiment, the lower plate 2 on its upper surface includes a rib, did not buckle pin 20 or pin 25. 作为相补，芯子3在其下表面包括一个槽。 As complementarity, core 3 comprises a groove on its lower surface. 下板的肋尺寸和芯子的槽尺寸，在一个实施例中容许有微小的移动和转动间隙，在另一个实施例中不容许有间隙。 The dimensions of the ribs and the lower plate of the core slot size, in one embodiment, allow a slight gap and rotational movement, in another embodiment, a gap is not allowed.  在图中未示的另一个实施例中，替代扣销20，下板2包括两个壁，相互对着设置在下板的两个基本上平行的边21，22附近，它们设置在假体内，但不是扣销20。  In another not shown embodiment, instead of the snap pin 20, the lower plate 2 comprises two walls, disposed opposite to each other near the lower plate of the two substantially parallel sides 21 and 22, which are provided in leave the body, but not snap pin 20. 芯子3包括相对于壁的相补凹区。 Including with respect to the core (3) relative to fill the pit wall. 在该实施例中，芯子的每个凹区尺寸稍大于，或者基本上等于下板的每个壁尺寸，从而使得能够有或没有微小的移动和转动间隙。 In this embodiment, the core region of each recess is slightly larger than the size or dimension of each wall is substantially equal to the lower plate, thus making it possible to have a small or no gap and rotational movement.  在图中未示的另一个实施例中，凹形装置位于下板和凸形装置位于芯子。  In another not shown embodiment, the concave and convex device located under the plate means is located core.  本发明的椎间盘假体可以纠正脊椎前凸的缺陷和对脊椎，例如对颈椎增加脊椎前凸。  The intervertebral disc prosthesis of the present invention can correct lordosis defects and the spine, such as increased cervical lordosis. 因此，沿着图4的从前到后的方向F，在假体的上板1和下板2之间，需要存在一个锐角。 Thus, the front-to-rear direction of FIG. 4 F, between the upper plate of the prosthesis 1 and the lower plate 2, there is an acute need. 例如，这个角度在0°到15°之间。 For example, the angle between 0 ° to 15 °. 为了根据病人来调整所需的角度，简单地需要选择一个芯子，在代表其上表面的中面和通过其下表面的平面之间具有一个适当的角度。 According to the patient in order to adjust the desired angle, simply need to select a core, on behalf of its upper surface and the surface has an appropriate angle between the surface of the plane through the lower.  如果凹形件位于下板和凸形件位于芯子，则依靠进入下板空腔或开孔的一个突起，沿从前向后的方向形成一个锐角的脊椎前凸芯子可以与板成为整体。  If the female member is located at the core plate and the male member is located, rely on the next cavity or opening of a plate projection, forms an acute angle with the core of lordosis rearward direction from the front plate as a whole.  当上述芯子为平时依靠上板的形状，或者当上述芯子为凸时依靠上板相对于芯子的位置，可以得到先前技术中已知的假体倾角。  When the above-mentioned core is usually rely on the shape of the upper plate, or rely on a convex when said core upper plate relative to the position of the core, can be known in the prior art prosthesis dip. 对于上述先前技术的第一种情形，本发明假体的机加工更加经济，因为芯子用比板更便宜的材料（例如，聚乙烯）组成。 For the first scenario above previous art, the present invention is machined prosthesis is more economical, because the composition of the core with a cheaper material than the plates (for example, polyethylene). 对于上述先前技术的第二种情形，本发明的芯子不容易被挤出假体之外，因为板之间的角度在假体定位时基本上不变。 For the above-mentioned prior art the second case, the core of the present invention is not easy to be out of the prosthesis outside, because the angle between the plates when the prosthesis is positioned substantially unchanged.  如果外科医生需要一个病人的确定的脊椎前凸，则他们将选择一个相对于下板2 不容许有间隙的芯子3。  If the surgeon needs to determine a patient's spinal lordosis, they will choose one with respect to the lower plate 2 does not allow a gap of the core 3. 另一方面，如果他们简单地需要脊椎前凸保持在一定范围值内，则他们将选择一个相对于下板2容许微小移动和转动间隙的芯子。 On the other hand, if they simply need lordosis maintained within a certain range of values, they will select a lower plate 2 with respect to permit slight movement and rotation of the core gap.  在图7a，7b，8a和8b中代表的一个供替代的实施例中，本发明的椎间盘假体可以固定在脊椎中，防止在脊椎对定位假体施加的横向合力（它随着脊椎前凸而增加）影响下假体移位。  In Fig. 7a, 7b, 8a and 8b in the embodiment represented a substitute for, the intervertebral disc prosthesis of the present invention may be fixed to the vertebra, the spinal preventing lateral force exerted on the positioning of the prosthesis (as it Under increased lordosis) on the prosthesis displacement. 此时，下板2包括位于假体后侧边附近的一个或几个开孔观，29，使得可以容纳固定装置4，5。 In this case, the lower plate 2 comprises one or several openings located close to the side View prosthesis after 29, making it possible to accommodate fixing means 4,5.  这样，在图7a和7b情形中，下板2的开孔28为矩形，固定装置4由一个本体40 和一个头部41构成。  Thus, in the case of FIG. 7a and 7b, the openings 28 of the lower plate 2 is rectangular, the fixing means 4 consists of a body 40 and a head portion 41 configured. 头部41的尺寸稍大于下板2的开孔观的尺寸，使得一旦固定装置4 在一个椎骨中定位时，下板2夹在固定装置4的头部41和上述椎骨之间。 The head opening 41 is slightly larger than the size of the concept of the lower plate 2, such that once the fixing device 4 is positioned in a vertebra, the lower plate 2 is sandwiched between the fixing device 41 of the head 4 and said vertebra. 在固定装置4的本体40和下板2之间具有一个小于或等于90°的角度。 Between the fixing device 40 of the main body 4 and the lower plate 2 having a value less than or equal to an angle of 90 °.  在图和8b的情形中，在下板2中具有两个圆形开孔29，固定装置5为钉子形， 具有一个比开孔四尺寸大的头部，使得可以把下板2夹在固定装置5的头部和固定假体的椎骨之间。  In the case of Figure 8b and the lower plate 2 having two circular openings 29, nail-shaped fixing means 5, having a size larger than the opening four-head, makes it possible to lower plate 2 is sandwiched between the head and the fixed prosthesis fixing device 5 vertebrae.  对于熟悉该技术的人员应该清楚，本发明能够形成无数其他具体形式的实施例而不偏离如权利要求中规定的范围。  For those familiar with the art will be clear that the invention is capable of forming an embodiment of the countless other specific forms without departing from the scope as defined in the claims. 因此，必须认为本实施例仅是举例说明，而可以在所附权利要求范围规定的领域中修改，并且本发明不一定限于以上给出的细节。 Therefore, the present examples are to be considered illustrative, but can be modified in the scope of the appended claims predetermined field, and the present invention is not necessarily limited to the details given above.