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Publication numberCN1014429 B
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 85109013
Publication date23 Oct 1991
Filing date8 Nov 1985
Priority date12 Nov 1984
Also published asCN85109013A, DE186271T1, DE3584957D1, EP0186271A1, EP0186271B1, US5413908, WO1986002948A1
Publication number85109013.3, CN 1014429 B, CN 1014429B, CN 85109013, CN-B-1014429, CN1014429 B, CN1014429B, CN85109013, CN85109013.3
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Polynucleotide probes
CN 1014429 B
Abstract  translated from Chinese
用于制备DNA探针的多核苷酸,包含这种多核苷酸的探针,及制备和使用这种探针的方法。 For the preparation of DNA probe polynucleotide probes comprising such, and methods of making and using such probes are polynucleotide. 这种多核苷酸包含DNA的“核心”区域,该区域能与人类或动物DNA的多态区杂交(结合),并因之能制成能够对人类或动物比如:从血液、精子、发根等进行精确的身份鉴别的DNA“指纹图谱”。 Such polynucleotide comprises a DNA "core" region, which can hybridize with the polymorphic region of human or animal DNA (binding), and consequent can be made capable of humans or animals for example: from the blood, sperm, hair roots and other precise identification through DNA "fingerprint."
Claims(27)  translated from Chinese
1.一种赋予基因组DNA试验样品特征的方法,该方法包括将用限制性核酸内切酶分裂样品DNA而得到的片段与具有以下通式并按5′至3′方向读码的、以分离或克隆形式存在的多核苷酸进行杂交H.(J.核心.K.)nL (1)式中:“核心”表示具有至少6个连续的核苷酸的并从按相同方向读码的以下任何序列中选出的一种序列,GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2)AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3)GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4)T(C)mGGAGGAXGG(G)pC (5A)T(C)mGGAGGA(A)qGGGC (5B)式中:(i)X是A或G,Y是C或T,T是T或U,m是0、1或2,P是0或1,q是0或1,n至少是3;(ii)J和K一起表示0至15个在重复的单位之内的添加核苷酸;(iii)H和L各自表示0或至少是1个位于一些重复的单位两侧的添加核苷酸,(iv)该重复的单位(J.核心.K.)不需要是核苷酸数目和种类的精确重复,条件是该多核苷酸具有一个可识别地重复的保守序列,(v)“核心”也能表示一个变异体核心序列,条件是在所有n重复单位中实际核心序列与上述关于式(2)至(4)、(5A)和(5B)所定义的“真正的”核心序列平均至少有70%同源性,或者对于上述序列是互补序列的一种多核苷酸,该多核苷酸能够和由一个或多个在与重复单位(J.核心.K.)相当的序列之内不能切成任何适当长度的限制性核酸内切酶产生的从一个以上的微小随体区域或高变异位置而来的DNA片段进行杂交,而且能够检测杂交了的DNA。 1. A method of imparting a test sample of genomic DNA characteristic, the method comprises splitting the sample DNA with restriction enzyme restriction fragments obtained with a nucleic acid having the following general formula and press the 5 'to 3' direction of reading, to separate form or clone a polynucleotide hybridizing H. (.. J Core .K) nL (1) wherein: "core" means having at least 6 consecutive nucleotides from the same direction and reading frame of the following Any sequence selected, GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2) AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3) GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4) T (C) mGGAGGAXGG (G) pC (5A) T (C) mGGAGGA (A) qGGGC (5B) wherein :( i) X is A or G, Y is C or T, T is T or U, m is 0, 1 or 2, P is 0 or 1, q is 0 or 1, n is at least 3; (ii) J and K together represent 0 to 15 in the repeating unit of the added nucleotide; (iii) H and L each represent 0 or at least one repeating unit located on both sides of some of the added nucleotide, (iv) the repeating units (J. core .K.) does not need to be precise the number of repetitions and the type of nucleotide, provided that the polynucleotide has an identifiable repeating conserved sequence, (v) "core" can also represent a variant core sequence, provided that all n repeating units in the actual core sequences described above with respect to formula (2) to (4), (5A) and (5B) defined by the "real" core sequence with an average of at least 70% derived, or for the above sequence is the complementary sequence of a polynucleotide, the polynucleotide can, and by one or more repetitive units (J. core .K.) can not be cut into any suitable equivalent sequences within restriction endonuclease produced from the nucleic acid length of more than one minisatellite region or position from the high variability of the DNA fragments to hybridize, and can detect hybridization of the DNA.
2.根据权利要求1的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.K.)重复的序列的核苷酸的总数不超过25。 2. A method according to claim 1, wherein the presence of each (J. core .K.) The total number of repeat nucleotide sequences does not exceed 25.
3.根据权利要求1的方法,其中核心具有16个核苷酸的最大值。 3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the core has a maximum of 16 nucleotides.
4.根据权利要求1的方法,其中核心表示一种至少7个上述连续核苷酸的序列。 4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 7 said consecutive nucleotides.
5.根据权利要求1的方法,其中核心表示至少12个上述连续核苷酸的序列。 5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 12 contiguous nucleotides of the above.
6.根据权利要求1的方法,其中核心表示14至16个从以式上(2)、(3)或(4)表明的序列中选出的上述连续核苷酸序列。 6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the core represents 14 to 16 selected from the formula (2), (3) or (4) indicate the sequence of the continuous nucleotide sequence.
7.根据前述的任何一个权利要求的方法,其中实际核心序列与真正核心序列至少有80%同源性。 7. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein actual core sequences and true core sequences have at least 80% homology.
8.根据权利要求7的方法,其中J是0或1和K是0或1。 8. The method according to claim 7, wherein J is 0 or 1 and K is 0 or 1.
9.根据前述的任何一个权利要求的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.k.)重复单位中的核苷酸的总数不超过20。 9. A method according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the presence of each (J. core .k.) The total number of repeating units of not more than 20 nucleotides.
10.一种制备探针/片段杂化物的方法,该方法包括将用限制性核酸内切酶分裂DNA样品而得到的DNA片段与具有以下通式并按由5′至3′的方向读码的、以分离或克隆的形式存在的多核苷酸进行杂交H.(J.核心.K.)nL (1)式中:“核心”表示具有至少6个连续的核苷酸的并从按相同方向读码的任何下列序列中选出的一种序列GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2)AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3)GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4)T(C)mGGAGGAXGG(G)pC (5A)T(C)mGGAGGA(A)qGGGC (5B)式中:(ⅰ)X是A或G,Y是C或T,T是T或U,m是0、1或2,p是0或1,q是0或1,n至少是3,(ⅱ)J和K一起表示0至15个重复单位之内的添加的核苷酸,(ⅲ)H和L各表示0或至少是1个位于一些重复单位两侧的添加的核苷酸,(ⅳ)重复单位(J.核心.K.)不需要是核苷酸的数目和种类的精确重复,条件是该多核苷酸具有一个可识别地重复的保守序列,(ⅴ)“核心”也能表示一个变异体核心序列,条件是在所有n重复的单位中的实际核心序列与上述关于式(2)至(4)、(5A)和(5B)所定义的“真正的”核心序列平均至少有70%同源性,或者对于上述序列是互补序列的多核苷酸,该多核苷酸能够和由一个或多个在与重复单位(J.核心.K.)相当的序列之内不能切成任何适当长度的限制性核酸内切酶产生的从一个以上的微小随体区域或高度变异位置而来的DNA片段进行杂交。 10. A process for preparing a probe / fragment hybrids, the method comprising obtained with the restriction endonucleases split DNA sample DNA fragment having the following general formula and press read by the direction of 5 'to 3' a code in the form of isolated or cloned occurring polynucleotide hybridization H. (J core .K..) nL (1) wherein: "core" means having at least 6 consecutive nucleotides from the same sequence selected from any of the following directions of a reading sequence GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2) AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3) GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4) T (C) mGGAGGAXGG (G) pC (5A) T (C) mGGAGGA (A) qGGGC (5B) where: (ⅰ) X is A or G, Y is C or T, T is T or U, m is 0, 1 or 2, p is 0 or 1, q is 0 or 1, n is at least 3, ( ⅱ) J and K together represent 0 to 15 repeating units within the added nucleotides, (ⅲ) H and L each represent 0 or at least one repeating unit located on both sides of a number of added nucleotides, ( ⅳ) repeating units (J. core .K.) need not be precise repetition number and kind of nucleotides, provided that the polynucleotide has an identifiable repeating conserved sequences, (ⅴ) "core" can also be represents a variant core sequence, provided that actual core sequences in all n repeating units of the formula above in relation (2) to (4), (5A) and (5B) "true" core sequences defined by an average of at least 70% homology, or for the above-described sequence is complementary to a polynucleotide sequence, the polynucleotide can be one or more and by the corresponding sequence in the repeating units (J. core .K.) that it can not cut restriction endonuclease produced from the nucleic acid of any suitable length of more than one minisatellite region or highly variable DNA fragments from the position of hybridization.
11.根据权利要求10的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.K.)重复序列中的核苷酸总数不超过25。 11. The method according to claim 10, wherein the presence of each (J. core .K.) Total number of nucleotides in the repeat sequence does not exceed 25.
12.根据权利要求10的方法,其中核心具有16个核苷酸的最大值。 12. The method according to claim 10, wherein the core has a maximum of 16 nucleotides.
13.根据权利要求10的方法,其中核心表示一种至少7个上述连续核苷酸的序列。 13. The method according to claim 10, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 7 said consecutive nucleotides.
14.根据权利要求10的方法,其中核心表示一种至少12个上述连续核苷酸的序列。 14. The method according to claim 10, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 12 contiguous nucleotides of the above.
15.根据权利要求10的方法,其中核心表示从以式(2)、(3)或(4)表明的序列中选出的14至16个上述连续核苷酸的一种序列。 15. The method according to claim 10, wherein the core represents a sequence selected from the formula (2), (3) or (4) indicate the sequence of 14-16 contiguous nucleotides of the above.
16.根据权利要求10至15的任一项权利要求的方法,其中实际核心序列与真正核心序列至少有80%同源性。 16. A method according to any one of claims 10 to 15 according to the requirements of claim, wherein the core sequence and the true actual core sequences have at least 80% homology.
17.根据权利要求16的方法,其中J是0或1和K是0或1。 17. The method according to claim 16, wherein J is 0 or 1 and K is 0 or 1.
18.根据权利要求10至17的任何一项权利要求的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.K.)重复单位中的核苷酸总数不超过20。 18. The method of any one of claims 10 to 17 claim, wherein the presence of each (J. core .K.) Repeat units in the total number of nucleotides not more than 20.
19.制备探针的一种方法,该方法包括将一种标记或标志物引入具有以下通式的、按5′→3′方向读码的、以分离或克隆形式存在的多核苷酸中H.(J.核心.K.)nL (1)其中:核心表示具有至少6个连续的核苷酸的并从按相同方向读码的任何以下的序列中选出的一种序列GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2)AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3)GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4)T(C)mGGAGGAXGG(G)pC (5A)T(C)mGGAGGA(A)qGGGC (5B)(ⅰ)X是A或G,Y是C或T,T是T或U,m是0、1或2,p是0或1,q是0或1,n至少是3;(ⅱ)J和K一起表示0至15个在重复单位之内的添加的核苷酸,(ⅲ)H和L各表示0或至少是1个位于一些重复单位两侧的添加的核苷酸,(ⅳ)该重复的单位(J.核心.K.)不需要是核苷酸的数量和种类的精确重复,条件是该多核苷酸具有可识别地重复的保守序列,(ⅴ)“核心”也能表示一个变异体核心序列,条件是在所有n重复单位中实际核心序列与上述关于式(2)至(4)、(5A)和(5B)所定义的“真正的”核心序列平均至少有70%同源性,或者是对于上述序列是互补序列的多核苷酸,该多核苷酸能够和由一个或多个在与重复单位(J.核心.K.)相当的序列之内不能切成任何适当的长度的限制性核酸内切酶产生的从一个以上的微小随体区域或高变异位置而来的DNA片段进行杂交。 19. A method for preparing a probe, the method comprising the introduction of a marker or markers having the general formula, according to 5 '→ 3' direction of the reading frame, to isolate or clone a polynucleotide in the form of H . (. J core .K.) nL (1) wherein: represents the core having at least 6 contiguous nucleotides and selected from any of the following sequences in the same reading frame in the direction of a sequence GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2) AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3) GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4) T (C) mGGAGGAXGG (G) pC (5A) T (C) mGGAGGA (A) qGGGC (5B) (ⅰ) X is A or G, Y is C or T, T is T or U, m is 0, 1 or 2, p is 0 or 1, q is 0 or 1, n is at least 3; (ⅱ) J and K together represent 0 to 15 in the repeating unit of the added nucleoside acid, (ⅲ) H and L each represent 0 or at least one repeating unit located on both sides of a number of added nucleotides, (ⅳ) of the repeating units (J. core .K.) need not be a nucleotide The exact number and types of repeated, provided that the polynucleotide has an identifiable repeating conserved sequences, (ⅴ) "core" can also represent a variant core sequence, provided that actual core sequences in all n repeating units and above for formula (2) to (4), (5A) and (5B) defined by the "real" core average of at least 70% sequence homology, or a polynucleotide sequence complementary to said sequence, the polynucleotides by one or more and can be cut within the repeat unit (J. core .K.) not cut within the sequence corresponding to the length of any suitable restriction endonuclease produced from more than one minisatellite region or position from the high variability of the DNA fragment hybridized.
20.根据权利要求19的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.K.)重复序列中的核苷酸总数不超过25。 20. The method of claim 19, wherein the presence of each (J. core .K.) Total number of nucleotides in the repeat sequence does not exceed 25.
21.根据权利要求19的方法,其中核心具有16个核苷酸的最大值。 21. The method of claim 19, wherein the core has a maximum value of 16 nucleotides.
22.根据权利要求19的方法,其中核心表示至少7个上述连续核苷酸的一种序列。 22. The method of claim 19, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 7 said consecutive nucleotides.
23.根据权利要求19的方法,其中核心表示至少12个上述连续苷酸的一种序列。 23. The method of claim 19, wherein the core represents a sequence of at least 12 consecutive nucleotide of the above.
24.根据权利要求19的方法,其中核心表示从以式(2)、(3)或(4)表明的序列中选出的14至16个上述连续核苷酸的一种序列。 24. The method of claim 19, wherein the core represents a sequence selected from the formula (2), (3) or (4) indicate the sequence of 14-16 contiguous nucleotides of the above.
25.根据权利要求19至24的任何一项权利要求的方法,其中实际核心序列与真正的核心序列至少有80%同源性。 25. A method according to any one of claims 19 to claim 24, wherein the core sequence and the actual true core sequences have at least 80% homology.
26.根据权利要求25的方法,其中J是0或1和K是0或1。 26. The method according to claim 25, wherein J is 0 or 1 and K is 0 or 1.
27.根据权利要求19至26的任何一项权利要求的方法,其中存在于每个(J.核心.K.)重复单位中的核苷酸总数不超过20。 27. A method according to any one of claims 19 to 26 in as claimed in claim, wherein the presence of each (J. core .K.) Repeat units in the total number of nucleotides not more than 20.
Description  translated from Chinese

本发明涉及用于探查人类或动物基因组的可标记的多核苷酸探针,以及用该探针 The present invention relates to a polynucleotide probe used to probe the human or animal genome can be labeled with the probe and 定基因组DNA的方法。 Methods Genomic DNA fixed. 这些 These ones 定法在父系和母系检验、法医学、遗传疾病以及癌症的诊断方面是有用的。 Titration in the paternal and maternal testing, forensics, genetic diseases and cancer diagnosis is useful.

以前 Before 定基因组DNA中遗传变异的主要方法是检测限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP)。 The main approach for a given genetic variation in genomic DNA is to detect restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). As 定引起Huntington氏午蹈病的DNA缺陷的部位(见JFGusella等,Nature 306,234-238,1983);以及对成视网膜细胞瘤的前因素的分析(见WKCavanee等,Nature 305,779-784,1983)。 (Nature 306,234-238,1983 see JFGusella etc.,) set to cause DNA defects Huntington's disease afternoon dance site; and an analysis of retinoblastoma front factors (see WKCavanee etc., Nature 305,779-784, 1983).

大多数RFLPS是由于DNA中小范围改变,通常是由于硷基置换引起的,造成或破坏了特异限制性内切酶位点所致。 Most RFLPS DNA is small due to the range, and is usually caused due to base substitution, or damage caused by the cut-specific restriction enzyme site induced. 因为人类DNA的平均杂合性较低(每个碱基对大约0.001),故在一个已给定的部位很少能由限制性内切酶确定一个PFLP。 Since the average heterozygosity of human DNA is low (approximately 0.001 per base pair), so that a given site has rarely by restriction enzyme to determine a PFLP. 即使进行了此项测定,由于大多数RFLPS就杂合性来说只是二态性的(有或没有限制性核酸内切酶位点),其所取决的等位频度也绝大超过50%,而通常还要低些,因此不管考查的个体是否为纯合子,所有这些RFLPS对于谱系分析均没有意义(不能提供所需要的信息)。 Even with this measurement, since most RFLPS on heterozygosity is just dimorphism (with or without restriction endonuclease sites of the nucleic acid), it depends on the allelic frequency of more than 50% is also vast , usually even lower, so regardless of whether the test individuals homozygous for all of these RFLPS pedigree analysis were not significant (not provide the required information).

对于表现出多等位基因变异,而具有高杂合性的DNA,如得到该高变异区域的探针,则可大大简化其遗传分析程序。 For exhibiting multi-allelic variation and high heterozygosity DNA, as a probe to obtain a high variability in the region, which can greatly simplify genetic analysis procedure. 第一个这样的区域是由ARWyman等人由人DNA的随机片段文库中得到的(见Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 77,6754-6758,1980)。 The first such region by ARWyman et random fragment library of human DNA obtained (see Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 77,6754-6758,1980). 在这个区域上多等位基因变异的结构基础尚不明了。 Structure on the basis of multi-allelic variation in this region is not yet clear. 继之,也是出于偶然,在靠近人胰岛素基因处(GIBell等,Nature 295,31-35,1982),和靠近β-珠蛋白基因处(NJProudfoot等,Cell 31,553-563,1982;S,E,Y.Goodbourn等,Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 80,5022-5026,1983);以及在靠近C-Ha-ras-1致癌基因处(D,J.Capon等,Nature 302,33-37,1983)又发现了其它几个高可变区。 Followed also by chance, near the human insulin gene in place (GIBell etc., Nature 295,31-35,1982), and close to the β- globin gene at (NJProudfoot etc., Cell 31,553-563,1982; S , E, Y.Goodbourn etc., Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 80,5022-5026,1983); and in close proximity to C-Ha-ras-1 oncogene at (D, J.Capon etc., Nature 302, 33-37,1983) also found several other hypervariable regions. 在这种情况下,可变区均包括短序列〔“微小随体(minisatellite)〕的串联重复。多态性起因于等位基因在重复数目上的差异,可能是由有丝分裂或有丝分裂的不均等交换或由复制期间DNA滑动所引起的。可使用任何不裂解重复单位的限制性内切酶确定所得微小随体长度的变异。 In this case, the variable regions each including a series of short sequence ["minisatellite (minisatellite)] is repeated. Polymorphism results from allelic differences in the number of repeats, may be caused by mitosis or mitosis unequal endonuclease determine variation resulting minisatellite length caused by the switching or sliding during DNA replication may be used without any restriction cleavage repeating units.

本发明人及同事先前曾描述了一种人肌红蛋白基因内含子中的,由四个33bp序列串联重复组成的短的微小随体(见P.Weller等,EMBO J.3,439-446,1984)。 The present inventors and colleagues have previously described a human myoglobin gene intron by 33bp sequence of four short tandem repeats of minisatellites (see P.Weller etc., EMBO J.3,439- 446,1984). 值得注意的是,33bp重复序列上表现出与前述其它人类微小随体有“微弱的”相似性。 Notably, 33bp repeat sequence exhibiting the aforementioned other human minisatellites have "weak" similarity. 该文推测,微小随体区域可能是因转位而出现的。 The paper speculated that the minisatellite regions might arise by transposition of. 如果人肌红蛋白基因中33bp重复是可转位的,则其可能提供一个人基因组的串联重复区域的探针,该基因组常常与因重复数目不同而导致的多等位基团多态性有关。 If the human myoglobin gene 33bp repeat is indexable, it may provide a human genomic tandem repeat region of the probe, the genome varies with the number of repeats often caused by multi-allelic polymorphisms groups .

用肌红蛋白基团中33bp的串联重复序列DNA探针探查人类基因组DNA。 Repeat with myoglobin groups 33bp tandem sequence DNA probed the human genomic DNA. 在3个个体(父,母和女儿)的基因组DNA中的几个不同区域观察到了多态变异。 In several different areas of the three individuals (father, mother and daughter) of genomic DNA observed polymorphic variation. 这种变异出现于较大的片段中(2-6Kb),与一个以上微小随体区域的长度变异所致的稳定遗传之多态性相对应。 This mutation occurs in the larger fragment (2-6Kb), with stable genetic polymorphisms of length variation caused by more than one minisatellite regions correspond.

进一步的研究揭示,为了显现微小随体或高可变区中的变异性,用以下方法探查基因组DNA,比用肌红蛋白基因33bp重复片段探针更为有效。 Further studies revealed, in order to show the minisatellite or hypervariable regions of variability, by the following method probing genomic DNA, is more effective than the probe repeats the myoglobin gene with 33bp.

本发明是基于以下发现:即人类或动物基因组DNA中许多微小随体含有一个DNA区域,该区域在不同微小随体间具有高度均一性。 The present invention is based on the discovery: i.e., human or animal genomic DNA of a number of minisatellite DNA containing a region which has a high degree of uniformity between different minisatellites. 此共同核心区为长约16碱基对的短序列。 This common core area is a short sequence of about 16 base pairs. 现已发现,以串联重复的核心核苷酸序列作为其基本成分的探针,至少须重复三次才可用于测定基因组DNA中的各种不同微小随体区,并且有能参照这些区域DNA的变异,对个体样品作出 It has been found in the core of tandemly repeated nucleotide sequences as a probe the basic component, at least in triplicate shall be used to determine the genomic DNA in a variety of different minisatellite region, and there can be referred to those regions of DNA variation for individual samples made 定或作出指纹图谱的精确程度。 Given or made by the accuracy of the fingerprint. 所得结果之好,完全超出预测,因为以前制得的探针只是能检定基因组DNA中的单一微小随体区。 The results obtained are good, completely beyond prediction, because just before the probe prepared test genomic DNA can be a single minisatellite region. 这些探针的 These probes 别程度要比由RFLP所给出的好,但却不能提供就个体而言实质上是唯一的指纹。 Do extent than by RFLP given good, but it can not provide the individual concerned would essentially unique fingerprints. 值得指出的是,本文所提出的核心探针能够根据一个以上的微小随体区域或高可变区来区分DNA,正是这一发现,导致了一个不易察觉的且又并非一般水平的发明活动,而使本发明具有基础科学的新颖性和重要性。 It is worth noting that the core of the probe can be proposed in this paper, according to one or more of minisatellite region or hypervariable region to distinguish DNA, it is this discovery, led to an imperceptible level and because the invention is not a general activity , leaving the present invention has the basic scientific novelty and significance.

根据对核心序列的了解,被制得的DNA探针可具有与基因组中不同区域之微小随体区杂交的性质。 According to knowledge of the core sequence, DNA probes are prepared may have a slight different regions of the genome that hybridizes with the nature of the body region. 但是对于制取一个可操纵的探针本身,仅仅识别或 But for the preparation of a steerable probe itself, merely to identify or 定特别核心序列是不够的。 Given particular core sequence is insufficient. 还必须制得含有核心序列之串联重复体的多核苷酸或其衍生物。 Must also be prepared containing the polynucleotide or a derivative of tandem repeats of the core sequence. 这样的探针可作为微小随体从人或动物DNA中分离出来,或者可通过合成进行技术构建。 Such probes may be isolated as minisatellites from human or animal DNA, or may be constructed by synthesis technique. 另外,建立其它致使杂交成功的强制条件也是很重要的。 In addition, the establishment of the other resulting in the success of hybridization conditions are also important to force. 这包括要了解保守核心的可耐受的同源程度,以及任何含有或不含有重复序列的非核心DNA,作为一个整体单位的可耐受的长度。 This includes the core to understand conservative tolerable degree of homology, and with or without any repeats of non-core DNA, as a whole unit tolerable length.

因此,本发明包括要认识和发现:(1)了解能以这种方式应用的任何一个核心序列。 Accordingly, the present invention includes recognizing and found that: (1) for any one of the core sequence can be applied in this way. 它包括进一步 It includes further 别; Do not;

(2)经研究基因组中不同的高可变区,可发现有必须之相符程度的不同核心序列; (2) The study genome different hypervariable region, different core sequences can be found in the degree of coincidence;

(3)可积聚一簇DNA探针,其将识别多态性的不同谱系; (3) can accumulate cluster DNA probe, which will recognize different lineages polymorphism;

(4)用某探针比另外一个探针可更为成功地完成特殊的遗传分类; (4) using a probe may be more than another probe to successfully complete specific genetic classification;

(5)在任一个分类中使用一个以上的探针,可扩大 (5) the use of more than one probe in any one classification, can be expanded 定的可能性; Given the possibility;

(6)通过进一步研究成功之探针的第一代,可产生更简单和更成功的探针,如借助于合成。 (6) by further study of a first generation of successful probes, simpler and can produce more successful probes, such as by means of synthesis.

因此,根据本发明的第一个方面,是提供一种制取多态微小随体长度-特异结合特征的多核苷酸之方法,其包括:(ⅰ) Thus, according to a first aspect of the present invention is to provide a process for producing polymorphic minisatellite length taken - specific binding characteristics of the method of the polynucleotide, comprising: (ⅰ) 定DNA的天然串联重复序列,其能够与其它多形DNA区域进行有限杂交; Natural set of tandem repeats of DNA, which is capable of other polymorphic DNA regions finite hybridization;

(ⅱ) (Ⅱ) 别假定引起这种结合的天然之保守核心序列;以及(ⅲ)分离和人工建造一个完善的或不完善的串联重复序列,该序列得自这样的天然保守核心序列,它们与微小随体结合的性质表现为比天然重复序列较低的基因组区域特殊性和较高的多态片段接受性。 Do not assume that the cause of this natural combination of conserved core sequence; and (ⅲ) separation and artificial construction of a perfect or imperfect tandem repeat sequence which is derived from such natural conservative core sequence, which combined with the minisatellite Nature showed lower than the natural sequence of repeated genomic region specificity and higher polymorphic fragment acceptance.

探针的核心组成可以基于同样的基本原则,以各种方式确定。 Core probe composition can, in various ways to determine based on the same basic principles. 最重要的基本原则是,探针的重复序列应含有或包括共同核心区域的核苷酸序列,与人类或动物基因组DNA的微小随体区域有共同序列。 The most important basic principle is that the repeat sequence of the probe should be or comprise a nucleotide sequence comprising the common core region, with the minisatellite regions of the human or animal genomic DNA have a common sequence. 共同的核心区域是在展示高度一致的意义上的“共同的”,即一个微小随体与另一个微小随体之间至少有80%相符。 Common core region is showing at least 80% of the time between the "common", i.e. a minisatellite and another minisatellite highly consistent sense. 例如,这些微小随体可用肌红蛋白基因33bp重复序列探查基因组DNA片段来测定,以产生本文称之为“λ33阳性”片段的杂交片段。 For example, these minisatellite available myoglobin gene 33bp repeat sequence probe to determine the genomic DNA fragments to produce a hybridizing fragments referred to herein as "λ33-positive" fragment. 这些片段和肌红蛋白基因的33bp重复序列含有约16bp的共同核心序列。 These fragments and 33bp repeats myoglobin gene containing a common core sequence of about 16bp. λ33阳性片段本身可用作基因组DNA的探针,以产生也有共同核心序列的另外片段,虽然可能有某些小的变异。 λ33-positive fragments themselves be used as probes of genomic DNA to generate additional fragments have a common core sequence, although there may be some minor variations.

另一个原则是核心核苷酸序列不能短到不能有效地与样品DNA的微小随体区域相杂交的程度,而且不能长到不能测定多态性的程度,这样就变得太象肌红蛋白基因中的33bp串联重复序列了。 Another principle is the core nucleotide sequence can not short to not effectively with minisatellite region of the sample DNA hybridization degree relative, and can not grow to the extent of polymorphism can not be measured, so that it becomes too much like myoglobin gene The 33bp tandem repeats of. 一般说来,核心应具有六个核苷酸,乃至具有微小随体之共同核心中的核苷酸数,即大约16个。 Generally, the core should have six nucleotides, and even have a common core of minisatellites in the number of nucleotides, i.e., about 16. 探针的重复序列不必完全由核心组成,在核心序列的某一端可含有少量端侧核苷酸。 Repeat sequence of the probe need not be composed entirely of the core, at one end of the core sequence may contain a small amount of end nucleotide. 重复单位在核苷酸数目或种类上,以及在重复单位的核心或非核心成分方面,不一定是准确的重复。 Repeating units in the number of nucleotides or species, as well as in the core or non-core components of the repeating units, the repetition is not necessarily accurate. 然而,本文为方便起见,把它们作为重复单位进行描述或定义,尽管这是一个不十分确切的术语。 However, in this article, for convenience, as a repeating unit of them describe or define, although this is not a very precise term. n个重复单位的组,可与任何核苷酸序列相邻,其范围和种类一般是不相干的。 n repeating units of the group, can be used with any nucleotide sequence adjacent to the range and variety is generally irrelevant.

本发明中,多核苷酸是指以下列方式定义的核苷酸:第一定义:即具有下列通式的多核苷酸,依5′→3′方向读码H.(J.core.K)nL (1) The present invention, refers to a polynucleotide as defined in the following manner nucleotides: a first definition: i.e. having the general formula polynucleotide read by 5 '→ 3' direction code H. (J.core.K) nL (1)

这里:“Core”代表至少有6个连续核苷酸的序列,该序列选自下列以同样方向读码的序列:GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2)AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3)GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4)T(C)mGGAGGAXGG(G)pC (5A)T(C)mGGAGGA(A)qGGGC (5B)其中:X是A或G,Y是C或T,m是0、1或2,P是0或1,q是0或1,n是至少3; Here: "Core" represents an at least six consecutive nucleotides, the sequence selected from the following sequences read in the same direction code: GGAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2) AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG (3) GGAGGYGGGCAGGAGG (4) T (C) mGGAGGAXGG (G) pC (5A) T (C) mGGAGGA (A) qGGGC (5B) wherein: X is A or G, Y is C or T, m is 0, 1 or 2, P is 0 or 1, q is 0 or 1, n is at least 3;

J和K一起代表重复单位中0至15个另外的核苷酸;且H或L各代表0或至少1个邻接重复单位的其它核苷酸,且条件是:(ⅰ)在每个重复单位中,“core”和J及K(J.core K),并不一定有同样的序列或长度; J and K together represent a repeating unit of 0 to 15 additional nucleotides; H and L each represent 0 or other nucleotide or at least one adjacent repeating units, and with the proviso that: (ⅰ) in each repeat unit in, "core" and J and K (J.core K), does not necessarily have the same sequence or length;

(ⅱ)“core”也能代表一个有变异的核心序列; (Ⅱ) "core" also can represent a core sequence variation;

(ⅲ)在所有n个重复单位中,总的实际核心序列与上述的式(2)至(5)所定义的总的“真正的”核心序列(有同样数目n的重复单位)至少有70%同源性; (Ⅲ) in all n repeating units, the total actual core sequences of the above-mentioned formula (2) the total "true" core sequence to (5) as defined in (the same number n of repeating units) at least 70 % homology;

以及与上述序列互补的多核苷酸。 And a sequence complementary to the above-described polynucleotides.

第二定义:具有通式H.(J.core.K.)nL (1) The second definition: having the general formula H. (J.core.K.) nL (1)

的多核苷酸,其中:“core”代表有6至16个连续核苷酸的序列,同样以5′→3′方向续码,选自(1)用含有每个重复单位约33个核苷酸(nt)的肌红蛋白串联重复序列的探针DNA探查人或动物基因组DNA所得到的第一个人或动物微小随体的5′→3′共同核心区域;(2)用包含第一个微小随体之共同核心区的串联的探针DNA,探查人类或动物DNA所得到的第二个人类或动物微小随体的5′→3′共同核心区,以及(3)用包含第二个微小随体的共同核心区的,含有串联重复序列的探针DNA,探查人类或动物基因组DNA所得到的第三个人类或动物微小随体的5′→3′共同核心区,(上述每个串联重复序列都至少是3个单位的重复); Polynucleotide, wherein: "core" represents an 6-16 consecutive nucleotides, the same 5 '→ 3' direction continued code, selected from (1) with each repeating unit containing about 33 nucleotides 5 '→ 3' common core region acid (nt) of myoglobin tandem repeat sequence of the probe DNA probing human or animal genomic DNA obtained by the first person or animal minisatellite; (2) comprises a first DNA probes in series a common core region of minisatellites, human or animal DNA probe obtained second person or animal minisatellite 5 '→ 3' common core region, and (3) comprises a second a common core area minisatellite containing tandem repeats of the probe DNA, probe 5 '→ 3' common core area of human or animal genomic DNA obtained in the third person or animal minisatellite, (each of the above tandemly repeated DNA sequences are at least three repeating units);

以及互补于上述序列的多核苷酸。 And a polynucleotide complementary to the above sequence.

第三定义:有通式H.(J.core.K.)nL (1)的多核苷酸,其中:“core”代表有至少6个连续核苷酸的任何序列,得自人类或动物基因组DNA的微小随体的共同核心区内,其显示至少75%,最好80%的保守程度; Third definition: the general formula H. (J.core.K.) nL (1) a polynucleotide, wherein: "core" represents an at least six contiguous nucleotides of any sequence, obtained from human or animal genome The common core region of minisatellites of DNA, which exhibits at least 75%, preferably 80% of the degree of conservation;

在各重复单位,“core”并不一定有同样的序列,而所有其它符号的意义如上所述; In each repeating unit, "core" does not necessarily have the same sequence, and all other symbols are the meaning as described above;

以及互补于上述序列的多核苷酸。 And a polynucleotide complementary to the above sequence.

第四定义:有至少3个6至12个核苷酸序列重复的多核苷酸,该序列包括链索的(5′→3′)核心序列,选自:(5′)GPGGGCWGGWXG(3′) (6)其中:P不等于G;W=A或T,X=A或G; Fourth definition: There are at least three 6-12 nucleotide sequence repeats polynucleotide comprising the sequence (5 '→ 3') core sequence of the chains, is selected from: (5 ') GPGGGCWGGWXG (3') (6) where: P is not equal to G; W = A or T, X = A or G;

或其变异体,条件是在所述重复中总的实际核心序列,就有同样数目重复片段的结构(6)来说,与总的“真正”核心序列至少有70%的同源性; Or a variant thereof, provided that (6) for the structure of the total actual core sequences of the repeat, there are the same number of repeats in, with the total "true" core sequences have at least 70% homology;

以及与上述序列互补的多核苷酸。 And a sequence complementary to the above-described polynucleotides.

所有上述结构式和整个序列中,均按常用的5′→3′方向表示。 All of the above structural formula and throughout the sequence, according to the direction of conventional 5 '→ 3' representation.

本发明包括DNA、RNA以及任何其它可与DNA杂交的多核苷酸。 The present invention comprises a polynucleotide DNA, RNA as well as with any other DNA hybridization. 上面所限定的多核苷酸是未被标记的,且可以双股(ds)或单股(ss)形式存在。 Polynucleotide as defined above is not labeled, double-stranded and may (ds) or single stranded (ss) form.

本发明包括ss形式的标记的多核苷酸,作为探针以及它们的标记的ds前体,由此可得到ss探针。 The present invention comprises a labeled form of ss polynucleotides, as probes as well as their labeled ds precursor, thereby obtained ss probe.

其最好是用任何惯用方法,以32P放射标记的,但也可用杂交技术中已知的其它方法进行放射标记,按照1981年3月15-20日在Keystone,Colorado召开的使用纯化基因的发育生物学1981 ICN-UCLA讨论会的论文集(Vol.ⅩⅩⅢ 1981,PP 647-658,Academic Press,Editor Donald D.Brown et al)中,由DCWard等人所述的方法,用生物素或相似的标记物标记,或者可依照ADBMalcolm等人〔Abstraots of the 604 the Biochemical Society Meeting,Cambridge,England (meeting of 1 July,1983)〕的方法,用酶标记。 It is best to use any conventional method, radiolabeled with 32P, but can also be used in hybridization techniques other methods known radiolabeled according held 15-20 March 1981 in Keystone, Colorado developmental gene using purified Biological ICN-UCLA Symposium Proceedings 1981 (Vol.ⅩⅩⅢ 1981, PP 647-658, Academic Press, Editor Donald D.Brown et al), the method according to the DCWard et al., with biotin or similar labeling substance, or may be [Abstraots of Meeting, Cambridge, England (meeting of 1 July, 1983) the 604 the Biochemical Society] method, in accordance with an enzyme-labeled ADBMalcolm et al.

由此,根据本发明的另一个方面,这里提供一种用于对含有人或动物DNA的样品进行遗传起源测定的多核苷酸探针,其包括一个标记的或标志成分,一个含有至少3个串联重复序列(包括变异体的)的多核苷酸,其与人类或动物基因组最小随体区的同源程度达到能使探针与使用限制性内切酶切断的相应DNA片段相杂交。 Thus, according to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a polynucleotide probe for human or animal DNA-containing samples of the genetic origin of measurement, which comprises a marker or marker component, contains at least three tandem repeats (including variants) of the polynucleotide with human or animal genome with a minimum degree of homology of the body region reaches make enzymes cut within the probe and the corresponding DNA fragment using restriction phase hybridization.

其特征在于:a)重复序列各含有一个核心,其与来自不同基因组区的大多数微小随体所具有的相似长度完全一致的核心区域,有至少70%是同源的; Characterized in that: a) contains a repeating sequence of each core, which is similar to the length of the most minisatellites from different genomic region has exactly the same core area, there is at least 70% homologous;

b)核心长度为6至16个核苷酸; b) the core length from 6 to 16 nucleotides;

c)重复单位内,非核心的核苷酸总数不超过15。 c) the repeating unit, the total number of nucleotides in the non-core does not exceed 15.

本发明还包括一种 The present invention also includes a 定人类或动物基因组DNA样品的方法,包括用本发明的探针探查DNA,并确定DNA的已杂交片段。 The method given human or animal genomic DNA sample, including DNA probed with the present invention, and to determine the DNA fragment has been hybridized.

本发明的这个方面包括:用限制性内切酶切断细胞材料的总DNA,用上述探针对高可变的DNA片段进行杂交,该探针除含有标记或标志成分外,还含有一个重复的核心部分,以及检测结合于不同长度之DNA片段上的,或者更常用地是结合于不同分子大小之带上的标记或标志物的浓度。 This aspect of the present invention comprises: cut with the restriction enzyme cutting the total DNA of cellular material, using the probe for hypervariable DNA fragments hybridized to the probe in addition to containing a labeled or marker component, but also contains a duplicate the core part, and the concentration detecting binding on DNA fragments of different length, or more usually on a belt to a combination of different molecular size of the marker or markers.

普通作法是根据链长度筛选或分离切断的DNA,即在杂交前用电泳方法完成,查出标志物的浓度,以得到一个特征化的图谱,其个别的谱带是特异性遗传起源的。 Common practice according to the chain length cut filter or isolated DNA, i.e., by electrophoresis completed before hybridization, the concentration of isolated markers, to obtain a characterization of the spectrum, their individual bands is specific genetic origin.

定义下列定义用于本发明。 Definitions The following definitions used in the present invention. 而上述的说明可能亦有帮助。 The above description may also help.

高可变区: Hypervariable region:

人类或动物DNA在一个被识别位点或部位上的区域,如果就其长度或序列来说,是有许多不同形式的,则称为高可变的。 DNA in a human or animal by the recognition site or the site area, or if the sequence of its length, is in many different forms, it is called a high variable.

限制性片段长度多态性(RFLP):是人或动物DNA片段在电泳分离和经探针检测后,其图谱上所表现的遗传变异。 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP): a genetic variation in the human or animal DNA fragments after electrophoretic separation and detection by the probe, which the pattern of the performance.

微小随体:是由短DNA序列的串联重复片段组成的人或动物DNA的一个区域。 Minisatellite: short tandem repeat DNA sequence by a fragment consisting of a region of human or animal DNA. 所有的重复单位可不必完全一致。 All repeat units may not necessarily exactly the same. (本发明的探针包含多态的微小随体)。 (Probe of the present invention comprise the polymorphic minisatellite).

多态(性)的:一个DNA的基因或其它片段,在个体之间表现变异性,即称为是多态(性)的。 Polymorphism (property): a gene or other DNA fragments, performance variability between individuals, i.e. called polymorphism (resistance).

核心(序列):原来是用于完全相符的(保守的)核心序列的意思,现已扩展为由其衍生的任何重复的或变异的序列。 Core (Sequence): The original is for an exact match (conservative) core sequence meaning has been extended for any duplicate or its derived sequence variation.

保守核心(序列):在不同原点或部位的两个或多个微小随体的重复单位之间的,能被 Conserved core (sequence): repeating units between two different parts of one or more origin or minisatellite, and can be 定为实质上的或完全匹配的序列。 Or as a substantially exact match sequence.

重复(序列):一个给定的核心序列或含有该核心序列的完全地或不完全地重复的序列。 Repeat (Sequence): A given core sequence or completely the core sequence incomplete or contain repeated sequences.

限定核心(序列):在其自身长度内,与式(2)至(8)中的一个序列呈现完全一致性的(保守的)序列。 Limited Core (Sequence): in its own length, and the formula (2) to (8) presented in a sequence of complete consistency of (conserved) sequences.

变异的(核心序列): Variation (core sequence):

一个与限定的核心序列不同到一个较小程度(>50%同源性)的实际的核心序列。 A to a lesser extent (> 50% homology) with the actual core sequence different from a sequence defined by the core.

完善的重复(序列):一个给定之核心序列或含该核心序列之片段的精确地串联重复的序列。 Perfect repeat (SEQ): a given core sequence or of a fragment containing the core sequence of the tandem repeat sequences precisely.

不完善的重复(序列):一个序列,其中至少一个单位在碱基置换中和/或长度上不同于至少一个其它单位。 Imperfect repeat (SEQ): A sequence, wherein at least one unit of at least one base substitution is different from the other unit and / or length. (在一个探针序列中普通地至少有三个串联重复,其中一般至少会有一个限定的核心序列,并且至少有一个变异体)。 (In a probe sequence common to at least three tandem repeats, which typically have at least one defined core sequence and at least one variant).

%同源性:在比较有同样长度的两个序列时,序列的碱基对(bp)数目减去其中被置换的数目后,占序列bp数目的百分数。 % Homology: after when comparing two sequences of the same length, the nucleotide sequence of pairs (bp) is replaced by the number of the number which is subtracted, representing the sequence number of bp percentage.

核苷酸(nt)和碱基对(bp)在使用上是同义的。 Nucleotides (nt) and base pair (bp) in the use of synonymous. 两者均可指DNA或RNA。 Both can refer to DNA or RNA. 缩写字头C、A、G、T,习惯上用于代表(脱氧)胞嘧啶核苷、(脱氧)腺嘌呤核苷、(脱氧) Abbreviations prefix C, A, G, T, customarily used to represent the (deoxy) cytidine, (deoxy) adenosine, (deoxy) 嘌呤核苷,以及脱氧胸腺嘧啶核苷或尿嘧啶核苷。 Purine nucleosides, and thymidine or uridine.

串联重复序列(人工合成的或天然分离的)可以是完善的重复,但最好是不完善的重复。 Tandem repeat (synthetic or natural separation) may be perfect repeat, but preferably is imperfect repeat. 较好地是至少两个重复序列是保守核心序列的不完善的重复。 Preferably at least two repeats are imperfect repeat consensus core sequence. 在探针序列中,至少有三个重复较好,更好是至少有七个重复。 In the probe sequence, preferably at least three repeat, more preferably at least seven repeat.

探针的产生可包括用克隆化方法分离天然的微小随体,并用DNA序列分析法 Generating a probe may include natural cloning method minisatellites isolated, and DNA sequence analysis using 定之。 Prescribed. 也可包括切出所需要的核心并继之将其转化为首尾相接的重复序列,或者引起与不同起源的核心片段的不相等交换。 May also include a cut out required core and followed to convert it into end to end repeat sequences, or causing unequal exchange with core fragments of different origins. 还可包括多核苷酸的克隆化。 May also include cloning of the polynucleotide.

另一方面,构建步骤可包括已 On the other hand, has been constructed step may include 定的保守的核心序列或其片段。 Given the conservative core sequence or a fragment thereof. 保守的核心序列最好不少于6bp,且最好含有16个以上的bp。 Conserved core sequence preferably not less than 6bp, and preferably contain more than 16 bp. 之后构建合成之核心的串联重复序列。 After building the core synthesis of a series of repeats.

自然,多核苷酸可以是一系列不同次数的成功或部分成功的中间体克隆操作的产物,可包括天然或合成起源的片段,从而最终的多核苷酸可携带很少类似于亲代微小随体的序列。 Naturally, the polynucleotide may be a product of a series of different number of successful or partially successful intermediates for the cloning operation, may include fragments of natural or synthetic origin, whereby the final polynucleotide may carry little similar parent minisatellite sequence.

本发明的探针用于以下领域:1、人类的父系或母系检验。 The probe of the present invention used in the following areas: 1, paternal or maternal human testing.

2、在移居争议及继承争议等中的家系团体变异。 2, the family moved to the dispute and groups such as the variation in inheritance disputes.

3、孪生子的杂合性试验。 3, twins heterozygosity tests.

4、对人类近亲成婚的检验。 4, testing for human kin married.

5、人类的一般谱系分析。 5, the general human pedigree analysis.

6、对人类遗传疾病的座位的 6, the seat of human genetic diseases 定,从而能够构建特异的探针,以检定遗传缺陷。 Fixed, specific probes can be constructed to test the genetic defect.

7、法医学(a)对得自强奸受害者身上的精液样品的指纹法分析; 7, forensic (a) analysis of the obtained self-rape victim fingerprinting semen samples;

(b)对得自被沾染的衣服的血液、头发和精液的指纹法分析; (B) right from being contaminated clothing and blood, hair and semen fingerprint analysis;

(c)人类尸体的 (C) the human body 定。 Fixed.

8、细胞嵌合性研究。 8, cell chimerism studies. 如骨髓移植后继之产生的供体抗受体细胞。 Anti-receptor cells such as bone marrow transplants subsequent generation of donor.

9、家畜养殖和谱系分析/认证。 9, livestock breeding and pedigree analysis / certification. (这可能包括例行控制和纯种动物的核查,以及赛马及狗的繁育等诉讼案例中进行谱系核实)。 (This may include litigation cases routine control and verification of purebred animals, as well as horse and dog breeding, etc. carried out to verify the pedigree). 还提供遗传标志,其可显示与有经济意义的遗传特征有关。 Also provides genetic markers, which can be displayed with the economic significance of the genetic characteristics related.

10、对培养的动物细胞系进行常规质量控制,检查纯细胞系的污染和进行常规 10, of cultured animal cells routine quality control checks pollution pure cell lines and for routine 定工作。 Set to work.

11、进行肿瘤细胞和肿瘤之分子异常的分析。 11, tumor cells and tumor molecular analysis of anomalies.

12、预测由植物得到的多核苷酸或探针在植物培养中所具有的潜在应用价值。 12, predict the potential value of a polynucleotide or a probe obtained by a plant in a plant culture have.

对附图的简要说明:图1是图解表示制备肌红蛋白基因的33bp重复序列的过程,包括将其插入质粒中并使之克隆化。 Brief description of the drawings: Figure 1 is a schematic showing the preparation of the myoglobin gene 33bp repeating the process sequence, including the inserted plasmid and the cloning.

图2是与各种DNA探针杂交的基因组DNA片段的放射自显影照片影印件,也显示相关个体的谱系,这些个体的DNA是以两个放射自显影图谱 Figure 2 is a DNA probe hybridizes with various radiation genomic DNA fragments autoradiograph photocopy, also shows the pedigree of related individuals, these are the two DNA individuals autoradiographs 定的。 Given.

图3显示用本发明的三个不同探针探查的3个非亲属个体之DNA样品的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 3 shows three different probes of the invention with a probe of the three DNA samples of unrelated individuals autoradiographs.

图4显示用本发明之探针探查的9个个体之DNA样品的放射自显影图谱,9个个体中有的有亲缘关系,并且,其中有两个是同卵双生的。 Figure 4 shows the probe of the present invention exploration of nine individual DNA samples of autoradiographs, nine individuals have some kinship, and two of which are identical twins.

图5显示用本发明之探针探查的2份人的和17份动物的DNA试样的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 5 shows the radioactive probe and the probe of the present invention, 2 parts of 17 animals were DNA samples autoradiography maps.

图6显示一系列依据本发明之方法探查的,卷入移居争议的Chanaian家系成员之DNA试样的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 6 shows a series of method according to the present invention the probe, the radiation involved in the dispute DNA Chanaian moved to family members of the autoradiography sample spectrum.

图7显示受种经纤维瘤影响的具血缘关系个体的DNA试样的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 7 shows the radiation by the species affected by fibroids kinship with individual DNA samples autoradiography maps.

图8显示Gujerati谱系之DNA的放射自显影图谱,用以检查微小随体片段的可能的共遗传和胎儿血红蛋白(HPFH)的遗传稳定性。 Figure 8 shows the spectrum of the DNA of Gujerati autoradiographs for checking minisatellite fragments of possible co-genetic and fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) genetic stability.

图9a和9b是一个大谱系中HPFH的遗传和各种微小随体遗传的遗传学图解。 Figures 9a and 9b are illustrated in a large pedigree genetics and genetic HPFH various minisatellites inheritance.

图10为图解说明人造微小随体的克隆和制备。 Figure 10 is a diagram illustrating cloning and preparing an artificial minisatellite.

图11显示一系列用本发明之探针探查的两个非血缘关系胎盘的DNA样品的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 11 shows a series of probes of the invention with two unrelated probe placental DNA sample autoradiographs.

图12显示一大家系中一系列具血缘关系个体的DNA试样的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 12 shows the radiology department of a series of people with kinship individual DNA samples autoradiography maps.

图13显示用两种不同探针检测双生个体得到的各种DNA条带的放射自显影。 Figure 13 shows two different probes for the detection of various twin individual DNA bands obtained autoradiograph.

图14为用双股和单股探针得到的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 14 for the use of double-stranded and single-stranded probe resulting autoradiographs.

图15和图15A是得自法医试样的DNA指纹图的放射自显影图谱。 Figures 15 and 15A is obtained from forensic samples radiation DNA fingerprint pattern of autoradiography.

图16显示得自一个狗家系的DNA指纹图的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 16 shows from a dog pedigree DNA fingerprints of autoradiographs.

图17显示得自一个短毛家猫家系的DNA指纹图的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 17 shows the radioactivity since a short-haired domestic cat pedigree of DNA fingerprinting patterns of autoradiography.

图18显示用两个不同探针得到的各种羊的DNA指纹图的放射自显影。 Figure 18 shows the use of two different radioactive probes obtained various sheep DNA fingerprints of autoradiography.

图19显示三个不同的猪的DNA试样的指纹图的放射自显影。 Figure 19 shows the radiation diagram of the three different fingerprint pig DNA sample autoradiography.

图20显示一个乳牛家系和非该系的牛的DNA指纹图的放射自显影。 Figure 20 shows a pedigree and non-dairy cattle in the department's DNA fingerprint of autoradiography.

图21相似于图20,为使用一种不同探针的放射自显影图谱。 Figure 21 is similar to FIG. 20, is to use a different probe of autoradiographs.

通过与肌红蛋白33bp重复探针“PAV33.7”杂交,筛选在噬菌体λL47。1中克隆的人类DNA之10-20kb Sau3A部分的人类基因组文库。 Through human genomic library 10-20kb Sau3A part of human DNA and myoglobin 33bp repeat probe "PAV33.7" hybrid screening phage clones λL47.1 in. 在3×10'个重组体文库中,至少 At 3 × 10 'recombinants library, at least 别出40个强弱不等的杂交噬斑。 Do the hybridization intensity ranging from 40 plaques. 随意选择8个阳性噬斑进行纯化(λ33.1-15),并使用噬菌体DNA的Southern法印迹分析表明,各重组体中的杂交DNA定位在重组体的一个独特的短(0.2-2kb)区内。 Randomly select eight positive plaques was purified (λ33.1-15), and phage DNA using Southern blot analysis method showed that the recombinants hybridized DNA positioned in a unique short (0.2-2kb) region recombinants inside. 序列分析表明,8个重组体均各含有一个3-29串联拷贝的重复序列组成的微小随体,其长度范围从λ33.15的16bp,到λ33.4的64bp。 Sequence analysis showed that all eight recombinants containing minisatellite 3-29 tandem copies of a repeat sequence consisting of a length ranging from λ33.15 of 16bp, to λ33.4 of 64bp. 大多数微小随体含有整数的重复。 Most minisatellites contained an integer of repetition. 在λ33.6,37bp重复本身是由基本的12bp单位的衍生的三聚体构成的。 Repeat λ33.6,37bp itself is derived from the basic unit of 12bp trimer formed. 正如由每个微小随体两侧的克隆特异性DNA序列所判定的,每个λ33重组体代表人类基因组的一个不同的区域。 As the specific DNA sequence of each cloned minisatellite both sides of the determined, each λ33 recombinant human genome represents a different area.

8个克隆化的微小随体区定位在0.5-2.2kb HinfIDNA片段之内,比多态的2-6kb DNA片段小,后者可由PAV33.7在HinfI降解的人DNA中测得。 Eight cloned minisatellite region positioned within 0.5-2.2kb HinfIDNA fragments, smaller than the polymorphic 2-6kb DNA fragments, which may be PAV33.7 human DNA degradation in HinfI measured. 为了确定是否任何克隆化的微小随体区也是多态的,可由每个微小随体的适当的M13亚克隆制备32P标记的单股DNA探针,并在高特异条件下与14个无血缘关系的高加索血缘英国人DNA HinfI降解物杂交。 To determine whether any of the cloned minisatellite region is polymorphic, prepared by the appropriate 32P-labeled M13 subclones of each minisatellite single-stranded DNA probe, and under conditions of high specific relationship with the 14 unrelated Caucasian descent British hybridized DNA HinfI degradation. 典型的杂交图谱显示,在这些杂交条件下,每个探针决定一个人类基因组的独特区域,且其中的三个是高多态性的。 Typical hybridization patterns show that under these hybridization conditions, each probe decide a unique region of the human genome, and three of which are highly polymorphic.

上述制备程序的细节将在实施例中给出。 Details of the above preparation procedure will be given in the examples.

现参照上面所给出的多核苷酸的定义,将其确定为通式H.(JCK)nL (8) Referring now polynucleotide definition given above, it is determined to be of the general formula H. (JCK) nL (8)

其中C代表核心序列,其它符号的定义如前。 Wherein C represents a core sequence, and other symbols are defined as before. 在所有这些定义中,一个单位的核心序列与下一个可以是相同的或不相同的。 In all of these definitions, the core sequence of the next one unit may be the same or different. 例如,与作为整体应用于重复单位的完全符合序列相比,其可含有一个或两个额外的核苷酸,缺少一个或两个核苷酸,或者有1至4个核苷酸有差异。 For example, compared with the repeating units as a whole applied in full compliance with the sequence, which may contain one or two additional nucleotides, missing one or two nucleotides, or has one to four nucleotides are different.

可以用各种方式限定核心。 Core can be defined in various ways. 参照能使核心序列被 Make reference to the core sequence is 定的方法,可得到一般定义。 Predetermined method, a general definition. 基因组DNA的微小随体与序列GCAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2)差不多。 Minisatellites and genomic DNA sequences GCAGGTGGGCAGGAXG (2) the same. 将取自表现出与某一个X核苷酸有最大同源性的最小随体的X核苷酸长序列作为核心序列,后者则是选自所有可能的含有式(2)的X核苷酸长序列的。 X nucleotide long sequence taken from the maximum homology exhibited an X and a minimum with the nucleotide sequence as a core member, the latter is selected from all possible contain the formula (2) X-nucleoside acid-long sequence. 当然,这就表明,核心的定义是很窄的,并应得到1个或几个具6核苷酸长度的核心,1个或几个具7核苷酸长度以至达到16核苷酸长度的核心,(这里说“几个”是因为在有些情况下,会有1个以上的最大的,即有100%同源性的序列)。 Of course, this shows that the core is defined very narrow, and should be one or a few nucleotides in length, with the core 6, one or a few nucleotides in length, even with 7 to 16 nucleotides in length core, (here that "a few" because in some cases, there will be one or more of the maximum, i.e., have a 100% homology). 为了反映如此限定的核心序列中的变异被发现的可能性,即假定所有n个重复单位与上面所定义的核心相比,平均至少有70%同源性。 In order to reflect the possibility of such a defined core sequence variation was found, i.e., assume that all n repeating units as compared to the core as defined above, an average of at least 70% homology. 任何邻侧序列,即J和K,在重复单位中都不计入同源性,只作核心间的单独的比较。 Any sequence adjacent side that J and K, are not included in the repeating units of homology, only for a single comparison between core. 所限定的核心可有不同的长度,并可能是“混合的”,即有些重复单位与所说的式(2)的GGGCAGGAXG是同源的,而别的则与所说的式(3)的GGGCAGGTGG是同源的。 As defined in the core may have different lengths, and may be "mixed", i.e. some with said GGGCAGGAXG repeating units of formula (2) is homologous, while the other with said formula (3) GGGCAGGTGG are homologous. 因此,变异体应从与(core)n同源,而不一定与“core”本身同源的意义上来考虑。 Therefore, variants should be with (core) n homologous, but not necessarily with the "core" meaning homologous itself up for consideration.

前面所限定的“第一”定义是由上述考虑得的,但在式(2)至式(5)的情况下,如将核心限定为由6至最大12-16bp的任何长度的序列,则可以简化。 Previously defined "first" is defined by the above considerations too, but in the case of formula (2) to (5), as the core sequence of any length limited to a maximum of 6 12-16bp of the grounds, the can be simplified. 对于变异体亦有相似规定。 For variants are also similar provisions.

“第二”定义是从连续杂交步骤之角度来限定核心,其中每一步骤都能产生额外的微小随体片段。 "Second" is defined from the perspective of successive hybridization steps of the core is defined, wherein each step can produce additional minisatellite fragments. 可以很容易地看出,对人基因组DNA的完全文库进行足够数目的杂交,检定足够数目的杂交片段,由其制备的探针用来再次探查基因组,如此下去,理论上可进行无数次、应能在微小随体DNA中广泛表现的保守核心序列的范围上达到。 You can easily see, for complete human genomic DNA library was a sufficient number of hybrids, test a sufficient number of hybridizing fragments produced by the probe to probe the genome again, and so on, in theory, can be carried out numerous times, should reaches the upper range widely in performance minisatellite core conserved DNA sequences. 实际上,不可能期望使这些操作极大规模地进行许多次,以得到足够广泛的保守核心区,因而在该定义中,只包括三次探查操作。 In fact, these operations can not be expected to make a great scale that many times, to obtain a sufficiently wide consensus core region, which in this definition, includes only three probing operation.

在“第三”定义中,W代表核心并顾及了一广泛分割的保守核心区的可能性,其中变异不超过25%(即16个核苷酸中有4个变异)。 In the "third" definition, W represents the core and take into account the possibility of a wide range of conservative split core area, where the variation does not exceed 25% (ie, 16 nucleotides in 4 variation). 按此定义,具有约16核苷酸的核心区,可能的变异达25%,则核心W即被核定为在该区域内至少有6个连续核苷酸的序列。 According to this definition, with about 16 nucleotides of the core area, the possible variations of 25%, i.e. approved for the core W in the region of at least 6 consecutive nucleotides.

“第四”定义中包括再次限定由研究合成的多核苷酸所得到的保守核心序列通式(6)。 The "fourth" definition includes Synthesis defined again by a polynucleotide obtained conserved core sequence of the general formula (6).

这些研究导致进一步限定较短的核心序列。 These studies led to further define shorter core sequences.

较完善的是这样的连续(5′→3′)序列:PGGGCWG (7)保留在所有的重复单位中,P和W具有在上述第四定义中所给定的意义。 Better is this continuous (5 '→ 3') sequence: PGGGCWG (7) remains in all repeating units, P and W having the above-described fourth definitions given significance. P最好是T,W最好是A。 P is preferably T, W is preferably A.

另外,连续(5′→3′)序列TGGGCA (8) In addition, continuous (5 '→ 3') sequences TGGGCA (8)

被保留在所有重复序列中为较好。 Is reserved for the good of all repeat sequence.

根据本发明的另一个方面,本发明提供了包括连续的5′→3′核心序列GGPGGGCWGGWXG (9)或其变异体的至少3个重复序列的多核苷酸(式中P不等于G,W=A或T,X=A或G),条件是在所有重复中,总的实际核心序列与有同样重复数目的序列(7)所限定的总的“真正”核心序列,至少有70%同源性,以及互补于上述序列的多核苷酸。 According to another aspect of the present invention, the present invention is provided comprising a continuous 5 '→ 3' core sequence GGPGGGCWGGWXG (9) or a variant thereof is at least three repeats of the polynucleotide (where P = not G, W = A or T, X = A or G), provided that the total "true" core sequences in all repeats, the total actual core sequences and the number of repetitions of the sequence have the same (7) defined by at least 70% homologous resistance, and a complementary sequence to the above polynucleotide.

在上述所有定义中,核心至少为6个核苷酸长,较好是至少有7或8个核苷酸,最好是12个或更长些,如14或16个核苷酸。 In all the above definitions, the core is at least 6 nucleotides in length, preferably at least 7 or 8 nucleotides, more preferably 12 or more, such as 14 or 16 nucleotides. 式(2)的序列GGGCAGGAXG(该末端10个核苷酸在3′端)是一个高度保守的序列,并且看来是特别有应用前途的。 Sequence GGGCAGGAXG formula (2) (the end 10 nucleotides at the 3 'end) is a highly conserved sequence, and appears to be particularly promising application. 该序列较好是至少包含6个核苷酸,最好是包含所有的10个核苷酸。 The sequence preferably comprises at least 6 nucleotides, preferably 10 nucleotides containing all.

变异体核心较好地是至少有75%同源性,更好是至少有80%或85%的同源性。 Variants core is preferably at least 75% homology, more preferably at least 80% or 85% homology.

各重复单位内的两侧序列J和K最好在每侧删去或保留短的即0、1或2个核苷酸,并且J和K合在一起不应超过20,最好是15个核苷酸。 J and K on both sides of the sequence of the repeating units is preferably on each side of the deletion or retain short i.e. 0, 1 or 2 nucleotides, and J and K together should not exceed 20, preferably 15 nucleotides. 在一个重复单位内的J+core+K的核苷酸总数不超过36,较好地是不超过31,最好不超过25。 In a repeating unit of J + core + K is the total number of nucleotides not more than 36, preferably is not more than 31, preferably not more than 25.

重复单位n的数目至少为10,通常是10-40,但原则上n可以是任何数目,至少可达到10,000。 The number of repeating units n is at least 10, usually 10 to 40, but in principle n can be any number, at least up to 10,000.

两侧序列H和L是无关紧要的,可以删去或可以任何核苷酸数目存在,如可达20,000个核苷酸,但用这样一个长探针工作,一般不会是很敏感的。 Both sides of the sequence H and L are irrelevant, and could be deleted or may be any number of nucleotides, such as up to 20,000 nucleotides, but with such a long probe working, is generally not very sensitive . 即使当重复序列是SS-DNA时,它们亦可含有ds-DNA。 Even when the SS-DNA repeat sequences, they also contain ds-DNA.

可使用任何已知的探查技术进行 Using any known detection for 定,其中最常用的是,采用不切断串联重复序列的限制性内切酶(一种或多种)切断试样DNA,或者只切断到并不影响其被探查的程度。 Set, which is most commonly used within the tandem repeat without cutting restriction enzyme (one or more) cutting a sample DNA, or to cut off not only affect the degree of which is probed.

下述实施例将进一步阐明本发明。 The following examples will further illustrate the present invention. 所有温度均为℃表示。 All temperatures are expressed ℃.

实施例1(1)含有人肌红蛋白基因的长的串联重复序列的探针的构建这个探针的构建包括在图1中,用图解形式已作了说明。 Construction of long tandem repeats of the probe of Example 1 (1) containing the human myoglobin gene construct comprising the probe in Figure 1, with a diagrammatic form has been described. 图中构建过程分为5个步骤,分别表示为(a)至(e)。 Fig build process is divided into five steps, denoted as (a) to (e). P.Weller等人首次对肌红蛋白基因(a)进行了描述(EMBO,J.3,439-446,1984)。 P.Weller, who for the first time on the myoglobin gene (a) has been described (EMBO, J.3,439-446,1984). 文章中讲到,此基因在它的第一个内含子上有一个区域,其内含子由以几乎完全相同的9个核苷酸序列(在图1中用r表示)为两侧的33个核苷酸序列的四次重复序列组成。 Article mentioned, this gene in its first intron has a region, which is nearly identical to the intron 9 from nucleotide sequences (indicated by r in FIG. 1) is on both sides 33 nucleotide sequence consisting of four repeats. 上述的这个区域以169bp HinfI片段(b)形式分离得到,然后进行末端修复,再克隆到Puc 13质粒上进行扩增(见J.Vieira等人,Gene 19,259-269,1982)。 The above-described area to 169bp HinfI fragment (b) in the form of isolated, and then the end of the repair, and then cloned into the Puc 13 plasmid amplification (see J.Vieira et al., Gene 19,259-269,1982). 用限制性内切酶AvaⅡ(A)对第三个或第四个重复进行切割分离,得到单体。 Endonuclease AvaⅡ (A) with the restriction of the third or fourth repeated singulation, to obtain a monomer. (在第一和第二个重复中,单个核苷酸的取代消除了这个酶切位点,进而产生了一个新的DdeⅠ(D)位点)。 (In the first and second repeats, a single nucleotide substitution to eliminate this restriction site, and thus produces a new DdeⅠ (D) site). 将33个核苷酸的单体通过不相同的AvaⅡ粘性末端连接,产生首尾相连的多聚体(d),其重复单位的数目(n)是未知的。 The monomer 33 nucleotides by different AvaⅡ sticky end ligation, generating multimers (d) end to end, the number (n) of repeating units of which is unknown. 通过琼脂糖凝胶电泳(制备电泳),分离到至少含有10个重复的多聚体,再进行末端修复,连接到Puc 13的SmaⅠ切点,在大肠杆菌JM83中进行克隆(参见J.Vieira等人,文献同上述)。 By agarose gel electrophoresis (Preparation electrophoresis), was isolated containing at least 10 repeating multimers, then the end of the repair, connected to Puc SmaⅠ tangent point 13, cloned in E. coli JM83 (see J.Vieira etc. people with the above literature). 所得到的质粒定名为PAV33.7(e)。 The resulting plasmid was named PAV33.7 (e). 其中的多聚体DNA插入结构通过下述方法加以证实:用BamHⅠ和Eco RⅠ在多点接头处把插入片段切除,再用α-32P-dCTP在Bam HⅠ位点填入进行标记,用Ava Ⅱ部分酶切。 Wherein the multimeric DNA insert structure to be confirmed by the following method: using BamHⅠ and Eco RⅠ in the multi-joint insert excised, then α-32P-dCTP in Bam HⅠ fill sites are marked with Ava Ⅱ partial digestion. 在2%的琼脂糖凝胶上电泳,可以分辨出被标记的部分酶解产物。 On a 2% agarose gel electrophoresis can distinguish partial hydrolysates are marked. 结果发现PAV33.7中的767bp BamHⅠ-Eco RⅠ片段上含有33bp单体的23个重复的序列(见图中(e))。 The results showed that 23 sequences 33bp repeat monomer (see the (e)) containing PAV33.7 the 767bp BamHⅠ-Eco RⅠ fragment.

(2)用肌红蛋白的33bp重复序列作探针,筛选得到的人类基因组中微小随体区域的序列分析克隆噬菌体λL47.1中的10-20Kb人DNA片段的基因库(参见P.Weller等人,文献同上;WAMLoenen等人,Gene 20,249-259,1980),并用体外32P标记的方法(P.Weller等人,文献同上)标记已与上述步骤(1)中所述的767bp PAV 33.7插入片段杂交而筛选的噬斑。 (2) with a 33bp repeat sequence of myoglobin as a probe, the sequence of the human genome was screened in minisatellite regions analyze gene clone libraries of phage λL47.1 10-20Kb human DNA fragments (see P.Weller etc. al., supra; WAMLoenen et al., Gene 20,249-259,1980), in vitro methods and 32P-labeled (P.Weller et al., supra) have been labeled (1) in the above-mentioned step of 767bp PAV 33.7 insert plaque hybridization screening. 纯化筛选得到的8个阳性噬斑,产生的重组体分别命名为λ33.1-15。 Purification screened eight positive plaques, recombinantly produced were named λ33.1-15. 每个这样的噬菌体DNA用单一的酶HinfⅠ或HaeⅢ进行酶切,通过1.5%琼脂糖凝胶电泳,用PAV33.7 DNA进行Sauthern法印迹杂交,检测33bp重复相关序列。 Each such phage DNA with a single enzyme or HaeⅢ HinfⅠ was digested by 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis, performed Sauthern with PAV33.7 DNA blot hybridization method, the detection 33bp repeat related sequences. 每一个重组体均可检测出单个的“λ33-阳性”HinfⅠ和HaeⅢ片段,但λ33.4和11则例外,它们没有可检出的阳性HaeⅢ片段(因为这些重组体中HaeⅢ位点存在于重复区域中)。 Each recombinant could be detected in a single "λ33- positive" HinfⅠ and HaeⅢ fragments, but except for λ33.4 and 11, which have no detectable positive HaeⅢ fragment (because these recombinants HaeⅢ sites are present in duplicate area). 用凝胶制备电泳分离λ-33阳性的Hinf Ⅰ和Hae Ⅲ片段,如必要时再作末端修复,平头连接到双链DNA M13mp8的Sma Ⅰ位点上(J.Messing等人,Gene 19,269-276,1982)。 The Sma Ⅰ sites separated by gel electrophoresis Preparation λ-33 positive Hinf Ⅰ and Hae Ⅲ fragment, if necessary when further end repair, flat head is connected to the double-stranded DNA M13mp8 (J.Messing et al., Gene 19,269 -276,1982). 通过转化到大肠杆菌JM 101中分离出正的单链M13重组体,再用双脱氧核苷酸末端终止法测定序列。 By transformation into E. coli JM 101 are separated single-stranded M13 recombinant, and then the dideoxynucleotide chain termination assay sequence. 所有λ33阳性的片段都含有一个串联的重复区域。 All λ33-positive fragments contain a series of repeat region. 在某些情况下,这些区域能够直接进行序列分析。 In some cases, these regions can be directly subjected to sequence analysis. 在另外一些情况下,重复区域离开作序列分析的引物位点太远,需要用限制性内切酶酶切缩短M13上的插入片段后再进行序列分析。 In other cases, the repeat region left primer sites for sequence analysis too far, the need to use restriction enzyme digestion on the shorter insert M13 then subjected to sequence analysis.

λ33阳性的片段结构用下面8个图的形式表示,并分别定名为λ33.1,33.3,33.4,33.5,33.6,33.10,33.11和33.15。 λ33-positive fragments structure chart with the following eight forms of representation, and named λ33.1,33.3,33.4,33.5,33.6,33.10,33.11 and 33.15 respectively. 实际上所用的限制性内切酶和片段的核苷酸长度是:λ33.1:HaeⅢ,2000;33.3:HinfⅠ,456;33.4:HinfⅠ,2000;33.5:HinfⅠ,1600;33.6:HaeⅢ,720;33.10:HaeⅢ,720;33.11:Hinf Ⅰ,1020;λ33.15:HinfⅠ,1220。 Endo actually used restriction enzymes and fragments of nucleotides in length are: λ33.1: HaeⅢ, 2000; 33.3: HinfⅠ, 456; 33.4: HinfⅠ, 2000; 33.5: HinfⅠ, 1600; 33.6: HaeⅢ, 720; 33.10: HaeⅢ, 720; 33.11: Hinf Ⅰ, 1020; λ33.15: HinfⅠ, 1220. 每个图在它的方框的上方用大写字母显示了碱基的重复顺序。 Each figure in the box above it in capital letters show the repetitive sequence of bases. “重复”在碱基的数目上并不是固定不变的,碱基的取代会使有些重复不一样。 "Repeat" in the number of bases is not fixed, the nucleotide substitution will not repeat some of the same. 因而,在方框的上部所显示的重复序列是一个保守序列(con),它与已知的大部分序列是一致的。 Thus, repetitive sequences in the upper part of the box shown is a consensus sequence (con), it is most consistent with the known sequence. 方框内表示了重复顺序和保守序列的不同之处。 The box shows the differences between the repeat sequence and conserved sequences. 方框中空白部分意味着两者是一致的。 Blank box means that the two are part of the same. 方框中碱基符号A、C、G、T表示在保守序列中它上面所显示的碱基被那个碱基所取代。 Box symbols bases A, C, G, T represent bases that shown above is substituted in the nucleotide sequence conserved. X为A或G,Y为C或T,一为与保守序列比较后所缺失的核苷酸。 X is A or G, Y is C or T, a comparison with the consensus sequence for the missing nucleotides. >>><<<(人字形)符号表示它的序列还没有作出,虽然从序列胶的放射自显影中可以很清楚地看出,这样的序列是保守顺序的“重复”(当然用“重复”这个术语,按上述的同样近似方式使用的)。 >>> <<< (Herringbone) symbol sequence has not made it, although you can clearly see from the sequence gel autoradiography, such sequences are conserved sequence of the "Repeat" (of course, with the "repeat "The term, in the same manner as described above using the approximation). 片段λ33.3、33.5、33.10、33.11、和33.15的全部序列已被测出,其它的还只是部分测出。 Fragment λ33.3,33.5,33.10,33.11, and the entire sequence has been measured out 33.15, the other is just part of the measure. 在方框的左边“con”底下所列的数目,是这些序列的重复序数。 In the box to the left of the "con" under number listed is the number of repeats of these sequences. 这一排底部的数目是重复的次数。 The bottom row is the number of repetitions. 由此,λ33.1就含有62个核苷酸(nt)序列(如方框上方大写字母所述)的26次重复。 Thus, λ33.1 contains 62 nucleotides on (nt) sequences (e.g., the upper block capital letters) of 26 repetitions. 每一个图的顶部和底部所示的序列是分别相应于重复区域的5′和3′端的两侧序列,它们是不重复的。 Each sequence diagram is shown in the top and bottom, respectively, corresponding to the sequence of the repeat region of the 5 'and 3' ends of both sides, they are not repeated. 换句话说,这个结构类似于随机的共聚体的结构,由两侧的序列代表,其中出现其多聚体区域单位,则由串联重复序列代表。 In other words, this structure similar to the structure of a random copolymer, representatives from both sides of the sequence, wherein the multimer region which appears units, by tandem repeats representative.

(3)由每一个λ33阳性片段的重复序列所共有的并位于其内部的一个共同的短“核心”序列的发现和 (3) a repeating sequence of each λ33-positive fragment common to find and located inside a common short "core" sequence and 定每一个区域的重复序列与PAV33.7中肌红蛋白33bp的重复序列比较,再用点基质分析法与它的反向互补序列进行比较。 Scheduled repeats each region compared with repeats PAV33.7 myoglobin 33bp and then point matrix analysis method and its reverse complementary sequence comparison. 很明显,在肌红蛋白33bp重复序列和λ33阳性片段的保守重复序列之间有一个序列很相似的单一的很小的明确区域。 Obviously, in the myoglobin 33bp repeat with a single well-defined zone of a sequence very similar small repeat sequences between conserved and λ33-positive fragments. 所有8个λ33片段的重复序列中都具有同样的这个区域。 Repeat sequences of all eight λ33 fragments thereof have the same region. 这一区域即称为“共同核心”。 This area is known as the "common core." 下列图表即是对此所进行的比较。 The chart below compares this that is conducted.

共同核心区域长度为16个核苷酸,在方框上部以大写字母示出。 The common core region of 16 nucleotides in length, in the upper part of the box is shown in uppercase letters.

λ33.5gagctaatgtttcgggggctgcactgggtcatgtgagtaatcatgagggccon YGGGCAGG-AGGGGGAGG λ33.5gagctaatgtttcgggggctgcactgggtcatgtgagtaatcatgagggccon YGGGCAGG-AGGGGGAGG ccagtatcctgggaattcgtaatcatggtcatagctgtttcctgtgtgaa ccagtatcctgggaattcgtaatcatggtcatagctgtttcctgtgtgaa

λ33.15ggtggttttoaagaaagctttoatgcaatttgctttaaatgttaggaaacon GAGGTGGGCAGGTGGA λ33.15ggtggttttoaagaaagctttoatgcaatttgctttaaatgttaggaaacon GAGGTGGGCAGGTGGA aatacctacagatgaggtgtgtgcttattctctgtgoaagatttcagagt aatacctacagatgaggtgtgtgcttattctctgtgoaagatttcagagt

图表中显示了上述步骤Ⅱ中所确定的每个保守序列的全序列。 Diagram shows the complete sequence of each of the above conserved sequences identified in step Ⅱ. 这些是从人基因组DNA中分离到的肌红蛋白33bp探针和λ33-阳性片段内串联重复的部分。 These are tandem repeats of the genomic DNA isolated from human myoglobin in the probe and λ33- positive 33bp fragment portion. 图表中再次显示的X是A或G,Y是C或T,一为缺少一个核苷酸。 Chart displayed again X is A or G, Y is C or T, one for the lack of a nucleotide. 可以看出这16个核苷酸的大部分是一致的,其中几个是完全一致的(100%);第9个“X”符合A或G的变动范围。 Most of this can be seen is consistent with 16 nucleotides, and a few are completely identical (100%); Section 9 "X" in line with the range of variation of A or G. 这9个核苷酸在其底部划了一条线,以显示为共同核心区域的那些核苷酸。 This nine nucleotides in the bottom draw a line to show that the common core region of the nucleotide. 共同核心区域的两侧是以小写字母表示的串联重复序列之残基。 Both sides of the common core region are the residues of tandem repeats small letters. 每一个保守的重复序列的起点和终点由符号 Start and end of each repeat sequence conserved by the symbol 表示;在33.4和λ33.15中,重复序列中的核苷酸数目是不完整的,因而用不同的符号 Represents; at 33.4 and λ33.15, the number of repeated nucleotide sequence is not complete, and therefore with different symbols 来表示这些分开的重复序列的起点和终点。 To indicate the start and end of these separate repeats. 也可以想象到,只有通过复杂的分析方法才可能 Also conceivable only through sophisticated analytical methods it may 定出共同的核心区域,因为它们经常不是以完整的形式存在于λ33-阳性片段的一个单一的保守序列内。 Set common core region, because they often are not present in the complete form in a single λ33- positive fragments conserved sequences. 而是可能横跨肌红蛋白基因33bp重复的两个连续序列。 But probably across the myoglobin gene 33bp repeat of two consecutive sequences.

为了说明本发明中所表示的多聚核苷酸的成分,下表列出了有关的各种决定因子。 To illustrate polynucleotide component in the present invention represented by the following table identifies the various determinants.

(4)用独立的λ33-阳性片段为探针进行杂交,可检定多态性的人类基因组DNA片段参见图Ⅱ,由白细胞中制备DNA,所用白细胞是取自高加索血统的英国人(1-6)的随机样品以及一个大的亚洲后裔英国人家系之某些成员(7-18)。 (4) with a separate λ33- positive fragments as probes for hybridization can test polymorphic human genomic DNA fragments see Figure Ⅱ, prepared from leukocytes DNA, the white blood cells are taken from the British Caucasian descent with (1-6 ) as well as some members of a random sample of people tie a big British Asian descent (7-18). 为了方便起见,家系中用方块代表男性,用园圈代表女性,用线条表示他们之间的姻缘关系,配偶之间的双线表示第一个第一代堂(表)兄弟姊妹之间的两个有血缘关系之成员的婚姻。 For convenience, the family used the box for male, female representatives with circles with lines indicate the marriage relationship between them, the two lane between spouses represent the first generation of the first church (table) between brothers and sisters members of a kinship of marriage. 用Hinf Ⅰ降解10μgDNA样品,经过20cm长的琼脂糖凝胶电泳,原位变性,印迹转移到硝酸纤维滤膜(Sartorius产品)上。 With Hinf Ⅰ degradation 10μgDNA sample, 20cm long after agarose gel electrophoresis, denatured in situ, blotted onto nitrocellulose filter (Sartorius product) on. 从含有微小随体(串联重复)区域的M13重组体制备单链32P标记的杂交探针。 From the M13 minisatellite containing recombinant system (tandem repeat) region prepare single-stranded 32P-labeled hybridization probes. 下文将述及所用的精确之探针。 Hereinafter referred to precisely the probes used. 试验程序如下:将大约0.4μg M13单链DNA与4ng17-mer序列分析引物进行复性(MLDuckworth等人,Nucleic Acids Res.9,1691-1706,1981)。 The test procedure is as follows: Approximately 0.4μg M13 single-stranded DNA and sequence analysis 4ng17-mer primer annealing (MLDuckworth et al., Nucleic Acids Res.9,1691-1706,1981). 反应于60℃下,在10μl10mM MgCl2,10mM Tris-Hcl(pH8.0)中进行30分钟。 The reaction was at 60 ℃ for 30 minutes at 10μl10mM MgCl2,10mM Tris-Hcl (pH8.0) in. 再加16μl 80μMd ATP,80μMd GTP,80μM dTTP,10mM Tris-HCl(pH8.0),0.1mMEDTA加3μl(30μCi)α-32P-dCTP(3000Ci mmole1)和1μl(5单位/μl)Klenow片段(Boehringer产品),于37℃保温15分钟以延长引物。 Plus 16μl 80μMd ATP, 80μMd GTP, 80μM dTTP, 10mM Tris-HCl (pH8.0), 0.1mMEDTA plus 3μl (30μCi) α-32P-dCTP (3000Ci mmole1) and 1μl (5 units / μl) Klenow fragment (Boehringer product), incubated at 37 ℃ 15 minutes to extend the primer. 加25μl 0.5mMd CTP,再于37℃保温15分钟,以追补完成延长引物的过程。 Add 25μl 0.5mMd CTP, and then incubated for 15 min at 37 ℃, in order to prolong the process of catch-up complete primer. (“追补”的意思是添加dNTP的混合物,以完成M13单链DNA模板的双链DNA环)。 ("Catch-up" means adding a mixture of dNTP to complete the M13 single-stranded template DNA double-stranded DNA loop). 在插入片段或在远离插入片段的M13多点接头上的某个合适的限制性内切酶位点切断DNA,再加十分之一体积的15MNaOH,0.1MEDTA以使之变性,通过1.5%低熔点琼脂糖凝胶(Sea Plague产品)电泳回收从引物延长的32P标记的单股DNA片段。 Cut in the insert or away from the insert fragment in the M13 multi-linker at a suitable restriction enzyme sites cut DNA, together with one-tenth volume of 15MNaOH, 0.1MEDTA to denatured by 1.5% low melting point agarose gel (Sea Plague product) is recovered from the electrophoresis of the 32P-labeled primer extension of single-stranded DNA fragment. 切割下来的条带(比活>109cpm/μgDNA)在加入1mg碱降解的人胎盘DNA载体(在0.3MNaOH,20mM EDTA中,于100℃剪接处理5分钟,之后用HCl中和)后,于100℃熔化,再直接加到杂交袋中。 Cutting down strips (specific activity> 109cpm / μgDNA) adding 1mg of human placental alkaline degradation vector DNA (in 0.3MNaOH, 20mM EDTA, and splicing at 100 ℃ for 5 minutes, then neutralized with HCl) was at 100 ℃ melting, and then added directly to the hybridization bag. 其中载体DNA的作用也是遏止其与重复的DNA序列进行任何次级杂交。 Effect of which is to curb vector DNA with repetitive DNA sequences in any secondary hybridization.

所用的精密探针是:(A)33.1,为含有微小随体(为62个核苷酸顺序的26次重复,即等于1612个核苷酸)加上大约350个核苷酸的两侧翼人DNA的大约2000nt Hae Ⅲ亚克隆片段;(B)33.4,为含在一个2015nt Hinf Ⅰ片段内的微小随体之近邻引物侧上的659nt非微小随体EcoRⅠ片段;(C,D,E)33.15,为592nt的亚克隆片段,其含有λ33.15微小随体序列(16nt序列的29次重复,如上所显示的,平均有二个核苷酸与共同核心区域不同)和128nt的边缘的人DNA。 Precise probes used were: (A) 33.1, containing minisatellite (The 62 nucleotide sequence is repeated 26 times, i.e., equal to 1612 nucleotides) plus the approximately 350 nucleotides flanking human About 2000nt Hae Ⅲ subcloned fragments of DNA; (B) 33.4, containing non-minisatellite EcoRⅠ 659nt fragment primer on the side of neighbors within a 2015nt Hinf Ⅰ fragments of minisatellite; (C, D, E) 33.15 people, for 592nt subcloned fragment containing λ33.15 minisatellite sequence (29 repeats 16nt sequence, as shown above, the average two nucleotides different from the common core region) and the edge of the 128nt DNA .

按照AJJeffreys等人(Cell 21,555-564,1980)的方法进行杂交,所不同的只是用6%(W/V)PEGC(聚乙二醇)6000代替硫酸葡聚糖,以减少背景标记。 Hybridization according AJJeffreys et al (Cell 21,555-564,1980) method, except that with 6% (W / V) PEGC (polyethylene glycol) 6000 instead of dextran sulfate, in order to reduce background labeling. 滤膜A和B在0.5×SSC中65℃杂交过夜,再于65℃,在0.2×SSC中洗涤。 Membrane A and B in 0.5 × SSC in 65 ℃ hybridized overnight, then at 65 ℃, and washed in 0.2 × SSC. 滤膜CE在1×SSC中于65℃杂交,并洗涤。 CE filter at 65 ℃ hybridization in 1 × SSC and washed. 使用一种快速有效的增感屏,在-80℃F使滤膜自显影1-3天。 Using a fast and effective intensifying screen at -80 ℃ F The filters autoradiography 1-3 days.

图Ⅱ还显示重复的核心探针33.15,确定了在用Hinf Ⅰ降解后的人DNA中杂交片段的一个极为复杂的分布图。 Figure Ⅱ also shows repeated core probe 33.15, identified by an extremely complex profile with Hinf Ⅰ after degradation of hybridizing fragments in human DNA. 从中只能很好地分辨出最大(4-20Knt)的HinfⅠ片段,从杂交结果产生单个探针专一的DNA“指印”这一点来说,这些片段是具有极端多态性的。 Only well resolved from the maximum (4-20Knt) of HinfⅠ fragment, a single probe to generate a specific DNA "fingerprint" that results from hybridization, these fragments having extreme polymorphism.

家系分析肯定了这种极端多态性的变异。 Pedigree analysis confirmed the extreme polymorphic variation. 其变异大到使所有个体、即使在第一代堂(表)兄弟(姊妹)间结婚后的单个血缘亲属内也能得以区分(图Ⅱ中16-18)。 Its great variation to all individuals, even within a single blood relatives in the first generation of the Church (table) brothers (and sisters) among married can also be distinguished (Figure Ⅱ 16-18). 图Ⅱ中(D,E)的家系显示大部分HinfⅠ大片段均能由每个亲代传给某些后代。 FIG Ⅱ in (D, E) shows that most of the families HinfⅠ large fragment can pass by each parent in some progeny. 因而可认为这些片段中的大部分是以杂合状态存在的,这些大的高可变片段的杂合性可能接近100%。 Therefore be considered in most of these fragments are present in the heterozygous state, heterozygosity of these large hypervariable fragments may be close to 100%. 相反地,子代中的所有这些片段都能够在这个或那个亲代中追索到(只有一个例外),因而提供了一系列可稳定遗传的遗传标记。 Conversely, all of the offspring of these fragments are able in this or that recourse to the parent (with one exception), thus providing a series of stably inherited genetic markers. 没有一条带是专一地由父亲传给儿子或由父亲传给女儿的(见图Ⅱ中滤膜D)。 No one band is exclusively from father to son or from father to daughter (see Figure Ⅱ in membrane D). 这还要分别排除Y和X 接,并且意味着这些微小随体片段从起源上看主要是来自常染色 的。 It also ruled out Y and X, respectively, connected, and means that these minisatellite fragments originate mainly from the point of view from often dyed. 现在还不知道这些DNA片段在常染色体系统中的来源,它 并不是从一个常染色体的简单的特定区域来的。 It is not known in these sources of DNA fragments autosomal system, it is not from a specific region of a simple autosomal come. 代之的是能够鉴 在子代中分立的一些亲代片段对(见图Ⅱ中滤膜D),更确切地 ,即如果至少有一个AB或-后代,则在一个亲代(且不存 另一个亲代)中的一对AB带不能是等位的;A-或B-重组 的存在,进一步确证了A和B之间缺乏紧密链锁。 Replaced by the number of parental fragments can Kam in progeny of separate (see Figure Ⅱ the filter D), more precisely, that is, if there is at least one AB or - descendant in a parent (not deposit another parent) a pair of tape can not be allelic AB; the presence of A- or B- recombinant, further confirmed the lack of close chain between A and B. 仔细检查一 D中所示的家系之原始自显影胶片,按这些标准看,其中至 条可分辨的带是在母亲中,而其中的8条带是母系非等位基 并且是非紧密链锁的。 Carefully check the original pedigree of D shown in a self-developing film, according to these criteria to see, where to strip distinguishable bands in mothers, and one of eight bands are maternally non-allelic and non-tight chain of . 而另外的两条带则可能是与8条非链 之一等位的。 The other two bands is probably one of the eight non-chain allelic. 在分析的有限数目的后代中,只观察到了A- 后代,虽然这样一个小的样本数不足以证明这些成对的片段是某个位点的等位基因。 In a limited number of offspring analyzed, only observed A- offspring, although such a small number of samples is not sufficient to prove that the pairs of fragments are alleles of a locus. 结论是:核心探针至少能同时在几个间隔很远的非链锁的高可变位点上给出非常有用的信息。 Conclusion: at least the core of the probe and gives very useful information on several intervals far unlinked hypervariable loci. 这个结论将在实施例8中作更详细地检验。 This conclusion would be tested in more detail in Example 8.

相反地,另外两个探针(图Ⅱ,滤膜A和B)与本发明是不一致的,只给出一条或二条带,很显然不能同时检测出许多不同的多态性区域,因而也就不具有一般的诊断价值。 In contrast, the other two probes (Figure Ⅱ, filters A and B) is inconsistent with the present invention, given only one or two bands, it is clear that can not be detected in many different polymorphic regions and, therefore, does not have a general diagnostic value.

实施例2使用探针中附加的、改变后的变异体(核心)来探测人DNA中新的超可变区按实施例1第四步骤的相似方法制备由克隆的λ33阳性片段衍生的另外两个探针,即λ33.5和λ33.6。33.5探针是由在M13mp8和克隆的308nt DNA片段组成的,并包含如前所述之保守序列的14次重复,亦即为共同核心序列的17nt长变异体,连同70nt的两侧翼人DNA。 The other two probes used in Example 2 additional, variant (core) after the change to detect human DNA in the new hypervariable region a fourth step according to a similar method to Example 1 was prepared derived from cloned λ33-positive fragments of probes, i.e. λ33.5 and λ33.6.33.5 probe is cloned in M13mp8 and 308nt DNA fragments and contains 14 repeats of the consensus sequence as previously described, i.e., the common core sequence 17nt long variants, together with 70nt the flanking human DNA. 33.6探针则包括37nt的18个重复序列,而后者本身又是由共同核心序列被缩短了大约12nt的3次重复加上在其5′末端的一个附加的TC所组成的。 33.6 probes include 18 repeats 37nt, and the latter in turn in the common core sequence itself is shortened approximately 12nt of 3 repetitions plus an additional 5 'terminus TC thereof. 18×37nt重复部分由95nt人DNA加在两侧。 18 × 37nt repeat part of human DNA by 95nt added on both sides. 37nt序列的结构可表示为:TGG AGG AGG GGCTGG AGG AG GGC(或TGG AGG AGG GC)TCCGG AGG AGG GGC该探针同样被克隆在M13mp8上。 Structure 37nt sequence can be expressed as: TGG AGG AGG GGCTGG AGG AG GGC (or TGG AGG AGG GC) TCCGG AGG AGG GGC This probe also was cloned in M13mp8.

下面描述该探针的11个核苷酸的保守序列AGGGCTGGAGG。 The following describes the conserved sequence AGGGCTGGAGG 11 nucleotides of the probe.

两个探针均按照实施例1中第四步骤的方法进行32P标记,对一组14个不相关的高加索人的DNA作杂交。 Two probes are in accordance with the method of Example 1 in the fourth step was 32P-labeled, for a group of 14 unrelated Caucasians DNA for hybridization. 两个探针均检测到了一系列复杂的杂交片段,其中有许多显现出极端的多态性变化。 Two probes were detected in a complex series of hybridizing fragments, many of which show extreme polymorphic variation. 其中有几个片段是以前用33.15所未能检测到的,而在这里用33.5检测到。 There are several fragments previously used 33.15 undetected, but here detected by 33.5. 而用33.6探针则检测到了一系列几乎完全新的微小随体。 The 33.6 probe detected a series is almost completely new minisatellites. 这些微小随体的正确遗传已经被谱系分析所证实(见实施例8)。 Correct genetic These minisatellites have been confirmed by pedigree analysis (see Example 8).

下述实施例将进一步阐明并例证本发明。 The following examples will further illustrate the present invention and examples.

用识别核苷酸之4个碱基对的限制性内切酶可较好地完成对样品DNA的降解。 With the four base pairs of the restriction enzyme recognition nucleotide can preferably complete degradation of the sample DNA. 业已发现,最长的高可变片段的DNA指纹型与所用的识别4bp的限制性内切酶无关。 It has been found that, irrespective of the enzyme DNA fingerprinting type longest hypervariable fragments is compatible with the identification of restriction 4bp. 这便有力地说明了这些大片段并不是由较长的微小随体来的,但提示每个大片段都含有一个完整的长的同源微小随体,其中没有限制性内切酶酶切位点,而两侧接有含正常高密度4bp裂解位点的人DNA序列。 This has strongly suggests that these large fragments are not made longer minisatellite come, but suggested that the large fragment each contains a complete long homologous minisatellite, wherein the restriction endonuclease cleavage site not point, and the sides connected with a human DNA sequence containing the normal high density 4bp cleavage site. 这与前面几个实施例中所得出的结果是一致的,而且实施例8中表明,大部分这些大的微小随体片段是非链锁的,在谱系中是独立分离的。 This embodiment results with the first few examples of the results are consistent, and Example 8 showed that most of these large minisatellite fragments of non-chain, in the lineage are independently separate.

一个特别体现本发明的实例是在分别产生两个不同的指纹图谱的杂交中,使用两个不同的探针,使DNA的样品呈现为“双指纹的”,例如可使用得自λ33.15和33.6的探针。 A particular example of the present invention is embodied in two different hybridization were generated fingerprints using two different probes, the sample DNA is rendered as "double fingerprint", for example, using the product from λ33.15 and 33.6 probes. 借助这一方法,可进一步降低本来已很低的两个不相关个体间出现同样指纹图的可能性。 With this method, can further reduce the possibility of the same fingerprints of the already low between two unrelated individuals appear. 例如,实施例4表明,忽略掉其长度短于4bp的不能完全分辨的杂交DNA片段,这种可能性可低至10-19本发明还包括一个父系检验方法。 For example, Example 4 shows that, ignoring its length shorter than the not fully resolved the hybridized DNA fragments 4bp, this possibility may be as low as 10-19 paternal present invention further includes a test method. 子代中的多态性微小随体约一半是来自父亲的,而这些父系片段则可通过比较父亲和子代的DNA指纹图来 Offspring minisatellite polymorphism about half from the father, and these fragments can paternal father and offspring by comparing the DNA fingerprinting to 定。 Fixed. 所有这些父系片段通常存在于父亲的DNA中。 All of these paternal fragments are commonly found in the father's DNA. 可以作以下估计:如使用探针33.15和长度至少为4Kb的DNA片段,假如父亲的凑巧具有所有6个在子代中典型鉴定的父系专一性DNA片段,则这一可能性(几率)为10-5数量级,而使用两个探针,即33.6和33.15,则这种可能性降低为10-8数量级。 You can make the following estimate: If using a probe and a length of at least 33.15 4Kb DNA fragment, if the father happened to have all six identified in offspring typical paternal specific DNA fragments, then this possibility (probability) for 10-5 order of magnitude, while the use of two probes, i.e., 33.6 and 33.15, the possibility is reduced to the order of 10-8. 当然,精确的几率将取决于精细的分辨率和所得到的DNA型式的复杂性。 Of course, will depend on the exact probability of the fine resolution and the obtained DNA pattern complexity. 如果再对另外的小于4Kb的父系片段进行分析或者使用第三个探针,这一几率会得到进一步改善。 If we on the other paternal fragments less than 4Kb analysis or use a third probe, the odds will be further improved.

可从一洲人血中迅速地分离出足够作DNA指纹分析的DNA(0.5-5μg)。 Can be isolated from a human blood rapidly continent DNA fingerprinting analysis of DNA (0.5-5μg) enough to make. 从而,可以从随机的一个个体小组中产生DNA指纹图型,该小组包括两个其DNA已作过指纹分析的人,加上两个姐妹。 Thus, it can be generated from a random group of individuals in a DNA fingerprint patterns, the group includes two of its DNA fingerprint analysis has been made of people, plus two sisters. 两个前已定性的个体必须能很容易且很清楚地根据其DNA指纹图比较 Two before the individual must be able to qualitatively easily and clearly based on their comparative DNA fingerprinting 定出来,正如两个共同占有一样多的微小随体片段的姐妹一样。 Set out, as much as two common ownership of minisatellite fragments sisters.

可由一个特定个体的不同的细胞中提取DNA,而得到同样的指纹图型。 May be a different cell specific individual extracted DNA, obtained by the same fingerprint pattern. 因而精子和血液的DNA指纹图是不可区分的,这正如得自同合子双胞胎的指纹图。 Thus sperm and blood DNA fingerprints are indistinguishable, which, as derived from the same zygote twins fingerprints. 再者,这种指纹型可被稳定地保留在培养的细胞中,这可通过比较血液的DNA指纹型和同一个体来的类原淋巴细胞株转化的Epstein-Barr病者DNA的指纹型而得到证明。 Furthermore, this type of fingerprinting can be stably retained in cultured cells, which may be by comparing the DNA fingerprints of blood type and the same individual classes of lymphocytes to the original fingerprint-type strains transformed by Epstein-Barr disease DNA is obtained proof.

本发明可应用于动物,其中包括大多数哺乳动物,鸟类、两栖类以及鱼类。 The present invention can be applied to animals, including most mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. 例如鸡、仓鼠、兔、小鼠、麻雀、茶隼、蛙、蝾螈和鱼。 Such as chickens, hamsters, rabbits, mice, sparrows, kestrels, frogs, salamanders and fish. 就鸡来说,可产生一个很复杂的、连成一片的DNA杂交片段部分。 On chicken, it can produce a very complex, even as part of a fragment of DNA hybridization. 用HaeⅢ降解即可消除这个成片的杂交现象,而得到一个“清晰”的指纹图。 This degradation can be eliminated by HaeⅢ into a piece of hybrid phenomenon, and get a "clear" the fingerprints. 可见,鸡DNA中很可能也含有一个长的含有核心序列的随体,其重复单位中含有一个或多个HaeⅢ酶切位点。 See, chicken DNA is likely to also contain a long minisatellite core sequence containing, in its repeating units contain one or more restriction sites HaeⅢ. 因而也可用HaeⅢ切断之,使之缩小成一些非常小的DNA片段,以致在DNA电泳时可以迁移到凝胶底部以外。 Thus the cut may also be HaeⅢ so reduced to some very small DNA fragments, so that when the DNA electrophoresis migrated beyond the bottom of the gel. 在其它的一些动物中,有时也可能出现这种连成片的条带,如用一些能切断较长片段的适当的酶来降解DNA,也能够分辨出这些条带。 In other animals, this may occur sometimes even into the film strip, such as a longer fragment can be cut with a number of appropriate enzymes degradation of DNA, it is possible to distinguish between these strips.

以下列举的另一个实施例中,所用温度也以℃表示。 Another embodiment exemplified below, the use of temperature to ℃ expressed.

实施例3按照AJJeffreys所述的方法(Cell 18,1-10 1979)由新鲜的人胎盘组织中分离DNA。 Example 3 AJJeffreys described method (Cell 18,1-10 1979) isolated from fresh human placenta DNA. 这里所用的3个个体的胎盘标号为1-3。 As used herein three individuals placental numbered 1-3. 将8μg DNA样品用Hinf Ⅰ和/或Sau 3A酶进行酶切,在反应体系中加入4mM三氯亚精胺可使酶切更为彻底;之后用苯酚抽提,乙醇沉淀并回收,在20cm长的0.6%琼脂糖凝胶中电泳24小时(电压为30V),直到小于1.5Kb的DNA片段全部泳出凝胶为止。 The 8μg DNA sample Hinf Ⅰ and / or restriction enzyme Sau 3A, was added trichloromethyl 4mM spermidine amine in the reaction system can more thoroughly digested; After phenol extraction, ethanol precipitation and recovered, in 20cm long 0.6% agarose gel electrophoresis for 24 hours (voltage of 30V), until all DNA fragments less than 1.5Kb bathing the gel. 之后通过吸印法将DNA转移到Sartorius硝酸纤维素滤膜上。 By blotting after DNA was transferred to nitrocellulose membranes Sartorius. 按实施例1之步骤4中所述的方法制备高比活(109cpm32P/μg DNA)单股M13DNA探针。 The procedure of Example 1 was prepared as described in the embodiment 4 of high specific activity (109cpm32P / μg DNA) single stranded M13DNA probe. 所用的精确探针是:(a)包含220nt HaeⅢ DNA片段的33.5探针。 Precise probes used are: (a) contains 33.5 220nt HaeⅢ DNA fragment probe. 该片段是由33.5微小随体(即17nt×14次重复)的绝大部分加上大约60nt的两侧翼人DNA所组成。 The fragment is 33.5 minisatellite (ie 17nt × 14 repetitions) plus the vast majority of people on both sides of the wing about 60nt DNA of the composition. 该探针亚克隆在M13mp8的Sma Ⅰ位点上;(b)亚克隆于M13mp8的SmaⅠ位点的33.6探针。 The probe was subcloned in M13mp8 the Sma Ⅰ site; (b) was subcloned into M13mp8 of SmaⅠ sites 33.6 probes. 这一探针由一个720nt的HaeⅢ片段组成。 This fragment of a probe by HaeⅢ 720nt composition. 该HaeⅢ片段包括微小随体加上邻近的50nt的人DNA;(c)与实施例1之第4步骤中所述相同的33.15探针,为一个592nt的PstⅠ-AhaⅢ片段,其包含微小随体加上128nt的两侧人DNA,亚克隆到经PstⅠ和SmaⅠ双酶切的M13mp19DNA中。 The HaeⅢ fragments include minisatellite plus adjacent 50nt human DNA; (c) the fourth step of Example 1 in the same 33.15 probe embodiment, for PstⅠ-AhaⅢ a 592nt fragment, comprising minisatellite 128nt plus people on both sides of DNA, subcloned into by PstⅠ and SmaⅠ M13mp19DNA in double digested. 有关Southern印迹杂交和滤膜于65℃在1×SSC中进行洗涤的方法,已在实施例1之步骤4中述及。 For Southern blot hybridization and washing filters at 65 ℃ in 1 × SSC. The method has been mentioned in step 4 of Example 1 embodiment. 滤膜在室温条件下放射自显影4天,不必使用增感屏。 Filters were autoradiographed at room temperature for 4 days without the use of intensifying screens.

每个探针产生一种不同的片段图形(模式),图形的复杂变化并不依赖于用于识别四核苷酸的限制性核酸内切酶。 Each probe produced a different fragment pattern (mode), the complex does not depend on the variation pattern for identifying the tetranucleotide restriction endonuclease. 图3显示所得到的图形。 Figure 3 shows the pattern obtained. 可以采用HinfⅠ加Sau 3A进行双酶切的方法来分辨小于4000bp长的多态性片段,这种本底杂交的消除大概是由于相对分叉和恒定不变的HinfⅠ微小随体片段在一个或多个重复单位中积聚了Sau3A酶切点。 Add Sau 3A may be employed HinfⅠ double digestion method to distinguish polymorphic fragments less than 4000bp long, which hybridize to eliminate background presumably due to the relatively constant HinfⅠ bifurcation and minisatellite fragments in one or more repeating units accumulated Sau3A restriction point. 在双酶解中,探针33.15测出的每一样品中可分辨的多态性片段数,可由大约15增加到大约23,代价是要损失大约20%的长的单酶切微小随体片段,而推测在大部分或全部重复单位中都带有Sau3A酶切点。 Number of polymorphic fragments in double digestion, each sample was measured by the probe 33.15 can be resolved, by about 15 to about 23, at the expense of loss of about 20% of the long single minisatellite fragments digested , and speculated that most or all repeat units are presented with Sau3A restriction site.

实施例4由20个不相关联的高加索后裔英国人中随机抽样,取其血细胞DNA样品8微克,用HinfⅠ酶切,之后用微小随体探针33.6或33.5按实施例3中所述的方法作Southern印迹杂交。 Example 4 random Caucasian descent from the British 20 not associated, whichever blood cell DNA samples 8 micrograms digested with HinfⅠ, followed by minisatellite probes 33.6 or 33.5 by the method described in Example 3 Southern blot hybridization. 每一DNA印迹(个体A)与相邻凝胶泳道中的图形(个体B)相比较。 Each DNA blots (individual A) compared with the adjacent gel lanes graphics (individual B). 记录那些在A中存在而在B中显然不存在的条带数目,加上那些在B中有着大致相似放射自显影强度的共迁对应条带的数目。 Record the number of strips that exist in A and in B apparently does not exist, plus those with a total of roughly similar autoradiographic intensity corresponding to the move of the developing band number in B. 下表中给出所有各对比较结果的平均数。 The following table gives the average of all comparison results of the respective pair. 有一小部分(约6%)在A中有微弱杂交的附加片段,在B中亦有强杂交的片段与之相对应。 A small portion (about 6%) of additional weakly hybridizing fragments in A, in B is also strongly hybridizing fragment corresponding thereto. 在这种情况下,由于不能确定这些条带是否在A和B中均存在,因此将这些片段忽略不计。 In this case, since the strips can not be determined whether A and B are present, so these fragments are negligible. 如果A和B中共迁移区带总是表现为同一随体位点上的相同等位基因,那么一个等位基因在A中存在同时也在B中存在的平均几率×即与平均的等位基因频率(纯合性)q×X=2q-q2(q=1-(1-X)1/2)有关。 If A and B CPC migration zone always showed the same position with the same point on the allele, so also in the presence of a B allele present in the average probability × i.e. average allele frequency in A (homozygosity) q × X = 2q-q2 (q = 1- (1-X) 1/2) concerned. 但是实际上,A和B中的共迁移条带的(未知)比例会受到来自微小随体之那一位点的偶然性控制,因而对平均等位基因频率和纯合性的估计是最大值的,并且取决于微小随体片段的电泳分离情况。 But in fact, co-migration of the A and B bands (unknown) proportion will be controlled from the chance that the minisatellite locus, and thus the mean allele frequency and homozygosity estimate is a maximum value of , and depending minisatellite fragments electrophoretically separated situation.

表1中所显示的几率与所示DNA的不同片段之长度相关联。 Table 1 show the different length fragments probability associated with the DNA shown. 欲得到对应于指纹图中最清楚部分的总的几率,即所有大于4Kb的DNA的总几率,则必须将3个图结合起来分析。 To get the fingerprint corresponds most clearly part of the overall probability that all the DNA of more than 4Kb total probability, it must be combined with three chart analysis. 例如,用探针33.15在个体A同时也在个体B中所检测到的所有片段的平均几率为0.082.9×0.205.1×0.276.7=3×10-11。 For example, with the probe 33.15 in individual A also in the average probability of the individual B of all detected fragments of 0.082.9 × 0.205.1 × 0.276.7 = 3 × 10-11. 而以探针33.15和33.6两者检测,在A也在B中存在的所有片段的几率为5×10-19。 And with both probes 33.15 and 33.6 detected, the probability of B in A is also present in all segments of 5 × 10-19.

实施例5本实施例说明DNA指纹的体细胞稳定性和它们在父系试验中的应用。 Example 5 Example illustrate the stability of body cells and their DNA fingerprinting used in paternal Test.

用EB病毒转化的类淋巴母细胞株于液氮中储存,两年后于液体培养条件下重新建株。 With EB virus transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines in liquid nitrogen storage, two years after re-built liquid culture strains. 用生理盐水将这些培养的淋巴细胞洗两次,按AJJeffreys的方法(Cell 18,1-10,1979)制备淋巴细胞和白细胞的DNA。 These cultures with saline lymphocytes were washed twice, by AJJeffreys method (Cell 18,1-10,1979) Preparation of lymphocytes and leukocytes DNA. 以相似方法制备精子DNA,不同的只是从精液中收集的精子在用SDS溶解之前先用1M2-巯基乙醇溶液于室温下处理5分钟。 In a similar manner was prepared sperm DNA, except that sperm collected from semen were dissolved with SDS prior to first use 1M2- mercaptoethanol was treated at room temperature for 5 minutes. 按实施例3中所述的方法制备DNA指纹图谱,以5μgDNA样品经用HinfⅠ酶切后与探针33.6(a)或33.15(b)杂交。 By the method described in the embodiment 3 was prepared DNA fingerprinting to 5μgDNA samples were digested after HinfⅠ probe 33.6 (a) or 33.15 (b) hybridization.

实施例6本实施例具体阐明用于检测各种脊椎动物DNA中高多态性区域之新探针的使用方法。 Example 6 This example illustrate specific probe detected a new variety of vertebrate DNA highly polymorphic area for use.

分别由鸡、麻雀和茶隼的血中、兔和小鼠的肝脏,人的胎盘,以及青蛙和鱼的尸体中制取DNA样品。 Respectively, by the blood of chickens, sparrows and kestrels, the liver of rabbits and mice, human placenta, as well as the bodies of frogs and fish prepared to take DNA samples. 每份DNA样品各取8μg以HinfⅠ酶切,但鸡的DNA则用HaeⅢ酶切。 Each DNA sample from each 8μg to HinfⅠ digested, but the chicken's DNA is digested with HaeⅢ. 将限制性内切酶的降解产物用0.6%琼脂糖凝胶电泳分离并作变性处理,之后转移到Sartorius硝酸纤维素滤膜上,按前述方法与人微小随体探针33.15杂交。 The restriction endonuclease degradation products using 0.6% agarose gel electrophoresis and as a denaturation treatment, and then transferred to Sartorius nitrocellulose, as described previously with the human minisatellite probe 33.15 hybridization. 杂交后于65℃在1×SSC溶液中清洗。 Hybridization wash after 65 ℃ in 1 × SSC solution. 图5中显示用下列样品所作杂交的结果:1,2:无关联的人类胎盘DNA。 Figure 5 shows the results by using the following samples were hybridized: 1,2: unrelated human placental DNA.

3:兔DNA,为得自Alaska和Vienna白兔的第一杂交子代。 3: rabbit DNA, were obtained from Alaska and Vienna rabbits first hybrid offspring.

4:兔DNA,Alaska种。 4: rabbit DNA, Alaska species.

5,6:小鼠DNA,取自两个希腊野生鼠。 5,6: mouse DNA, taken from two Greek wild mice.

7:小鼠DNA,来自近亲繁殖种DNA-2。 7: mouse DNA, from inbreeding species of DNA-2.

8:小鼠DNA,来自近亲繁殖种C57/BL10。 8: mouse DNA, from inbreeding species C57 / BL10.

9,10:鸡DNA,用HaeⅢ消化。 9,10: chicken DNA, with HaeⅢ digestion.

11,12:麻雀DNA。 11, 12: Sparrow DNA.

13,14,15:茶隼DNA。 13,14,15: Kestrel DNA.

16,17:蛙(Xenopus tropicalis)DNA。 16,17: frog (Xenopus tropicalis) DNA.

18,19:鳞鱼类DNA。 18,19: fish scales DNA.

正如从图中可以看出的,几乎所有受试脊椎动物样品均得到了清晰可见的DNA指纹图谱,这一结果与人类DNA指纹图谱一样,虽然是多信息的。 As can be seen from the figure, nearly all vertebrates tested samples were obtained DNA fingerprints are clearly visible, this result with the same human DNA fingerprints, although more information.

虽然杂交强度较小,但用HinfⅠ酶切的鸡DNA也能产生一个很复杂的但条带不清的杂交结果(未显示出)。 Although smaller hybridization intensity, but chicken DNA cleaved with HinfⅠ can produce a very complex but clear hybridization bands (not shown). 然而,当用HaeⅢ酶切时即可消除这种条带间的混杂现象,从而得到非常清楚的多态性指纹图形。 However, when mixed with HaeⅢ digested This phenomenon can be eliminated between the strips, thereby obtaining a very clear fingerprint pattern of polymorphism.

与野生鼠相比,两个纯系鼠的指纹图谱则较简单些,对此,是前已预计到的,因为在野生鼠中大多数高可变微小随体位点是杂合性的而在纯系小鼠中则是纯合性的,所以纯系鼠中杂交DNA片段的数目要减半。 Compared with wild-type mice, two inbred mouse adhesion of the fingerprint in relatively simpler, which is expected to before, because in the majority of wild mice hypervariable minisatellite point position is heterozygous inbred mice are homozygous, so the number of inbred mice hybridized DNA fragments to be halved.

下面的实施例将进一步阐明上述特殊探针的应用。 The following examples will further illustrate the application of the above specific probe.

实施例7本实施例述及DNA指纹图分析技术在解决移民问题诉讼案中的应用,如用常规的遗传学方法来解决这方面的问题,虽有可能,但也是十分困难的。 EXAMPLE 7 embodiment mentioned DNA fingerprint analysis technology to solve the immigration issue in the lawsuit, such as using conventional genetic methods to solve this problem, although possible, but it is also very difficult.

案例涉及一个生于英国的加纳男孩,这个孩子后来移居加纳与父亲团聚,之后又单独返回英国与他的母亲,兄弟和两个姐姐在一起生活。 Case involving a British born Ghanaian boy, the child was later reunited with his father moved to Ghana, and later returned to England alone with his mother, brother and two sisters live together. 然而,有证据表明他可能是一个冒名顶替的无亲缘关系的孩子,或者住在加纳的某一个姨妈的儿子。 However, there is evidence that he was an impostor might be unrelated children, or live in a certain son of Ghana's aunt. 结果,当时不允许这个孩子在英国定居。 As a result, the child was allowed to settle in the UK. 在家庭律师的要求下,对其进行了指纹图谱分析,以确定该男孩的母亲是谁。 Under the requirements of the family lawyer, fingerprint analysis was carried out to determine who is the boy's mother. 由于既不可能对其父亲,也不可能对其母亲的姐妹作出指纹图分析,这就使问题变得很复杂。 Because neither his father, nor make a fingerprint analysis of their mother's sister, which makes the problem becomes very complicated. 甚至当认定了母亲,即认定这个男孩是她的儿子时,她也无法确定孩子的父亲是谁。 Even when the mother finds that finds the boy is her son, she can not be sure who the father is. 因此,只能对这一家族中在英国的成员(即母亲M,兄弟B,两个姐姐S1和S2,以及这个有疑问的男孩X)进行血细胞DNA样品的指纹图分析。 Therefore, the only member of the family (ie mother M, brother B, two sisters S1 and S2, and the boy in question X) in the UK were blood cell DNA fingerprinting analysis of the sample. 用前面介绍的33.6和33.15这两个微小随体探针作Southern印迹杂交,每一个探针可检测人DNA中的一系列不同的高可变微小随体。 33.6 and 33.15 with two minisatellite probes described above Southern blot hybridization, each probe can detect human DNA in a series of different hypervariable minisatellites.

将从母亲(M),有疑问男孩(X),他的兄弟(B),姐姐(S1,S2)和另一个无关个体(u)的血细胞中制备的DNA各取8μg,用HinfⅠ酶切,作0.7%琼脂糖凝胶电泳并与两种探针作Southern印迹杂交。 From the mother (M), there are questions about the boy (X), his brother (B), DNA sister (S1, S2) and another unrelated individual (u) of blood cells prepared from each 8μg, with HinfⅠ digested for a 0.7% agarose gel electrophoresis and the two probes for Southern blot hybridization. 图6中给出了所作放射自显影的结果。 Figure 6 shows the results by autoradiography. 存在于母亲(M)的DNA指纹图中的片段用短平线表示;在M中不存在,但至少存在于一个确认的亲属中的父系片段用长线表示。 Present in the mother (M) in the DNA fingerprint fragments indicated by short horizontal lines; in M does not exist, but there is at least an acknowledgment of relatives on the paternal fragments represent the long-term. 用小点标示已遗传给X的那些母系和父系片段。 Marked with a small dot to those who have inherited maternal and paternal X of fragments. X的DNA指纹图中不包含任何外加的酶切片段。 The DNA fingerprints of X contain no additional restriction fragments of. 记录下来自不同暴光时间的原始放射自显影胶片上的全部条带。 Under the original recording radiation exposure from different times since the developed film of all stripes. 对那些部分酶解的微弱杂交的条带,特别是那些走到凝胶底部而不能可靠记录下来的条带,则忽略不计。 Hybridization of the weak partial digestion of those bands, especially those who went to the bar at the bottom of the gel and can not be reliably recorded tape, then negligible.

第一步是从高可变片段的杂交图形中确定出X的父系。 The first step is to determine the paternal X hybrid graphics from high variable fragment. 虽然无法检测男孩父亲的DNA,但至少可以通过对三个已确认亲属(B,S1S2)中某一个的检测,重现出母系(M)中所没有的父系特异的DNA片段的指纹图。 Although the boy's father, DNA can not be detected, but at least three have been confirmed by relatives (B, S1S2) in one of the detection, reproduce maternal (M) that are not specific to the paternal DNA fingerprint fragments. 发现39条父系条带中差不多有一半存在于X的DNA指纹图中。 Found 39 paternal bands present in almost half of the DNA fingerprints of X. 因为这些DNA条带在无关个体的DNA指纹图中(见图6,个体u)几乎均不出现,这便有力地证明了X和B、S1及S2有同一个父亲。 Because these DNA bands in the DNA fingerprints of unrelated individuals (see Figure 6, the individual u) almost not appear, it will be strong evidence of X and B, S1 and S2 have the same father. 除掉这些父系特异的条带之后,X还有40条指纹带,而这40条带均存在于M中,这就反过来证明了M是X的母亲。 Get rid of these specific pieces after paternal band, X band as well as 40 fingerprints, which are present in 40 M in the band, which in turn proves M is X's mother. 因此,X、B、S1和S2确为同胞兄弟姊妹。 Therefore, X, B, S1 and S2 indeed brothers and sisters.

前面已经谈到,对于北欧人来说,一个个体的DNA指纹的某一片段在另一个随机选择个体中出现的平均几率大约是0.2,那么,对这个父亲和M的相应估计应是0.26,这就确定了加纳人和北欧人之间在DNA指纹图的变异性上没有明显的差别。 Already mentioned, for Nordic people, a certain segment of DNA fingerprints of individuals selected randomly in an average probability of another occurring in the individual is about 0.2, then, the corresponding estimated that the father and M should be 0.26, which it is determined that no significant differences in the DNA fingerprint of the variability between Ghana and the Nordics. 在下面的几率估算中,只是做最保守的推算,即所有条带均具有同一的几率0.26(有关定量分析如下)。 In the following probability estimates, just do the most conservative projections, all the bands that have the same probability of 0.26 (for quantitative analysis below).

第一个问题是,是否X与这个家族有亲缘关系。 The first question is whether X has kinship with the family. X的DNA指纹图中包含了61条可记录的片段,所有这些片段也可见于M和/或父亲的样品中。 The DNA fingerprints of X contain 61 records fragments, all of these fragments are also found in M / or a sample and the father. 如果X是与他们无亲缘关系的,那么他的每一条片段在该双亲中出现的几率是1-(1-0.26)2=0.45;从而M和/或这个父亲凑巧能够具有X的所有61条带的几率则是0.4561=7×10-22。 If X is unrelated to them, then the chances of him appearing in every segment of the parents is 1- (1-0.26) 2 = 0.45; thus M and / or the father happened to be able to have all 61 of X probability zone is 0.4561 = 7 × 10-22. 显然X是这个家庭的亲属。 Clearly X is the family's relatives.

第二个问题是,是否有这种可能:即有一位不相干的妇女(但不是M)是X的母亲。 The second question is whether there is such a possibility: that there is an unrelated woman (but not M) is X's mother. 在X的DNA指纹图中有40条带是“母系”片段。 There are X's in the DNA fingerprints of 40 with a "maternal" fragments. 我们推测,在这40条“母系”片段中约有25条是由母亲特异遗传的,余下的片段则可能是来自母亲也可能是来自父亲,而不能作为M的母系证据。 We speculate that in this 40 "matriarchal" fragment, about 25 specific inherited from the mother, and the remaining fragments may be from the mother may be from the father, not as evidence of M matrilineal. 在X中的所有25条母系专一性片段也均存在于M中。 All 25 maternal-specific fragments in X are present in M and also. 因此,M与X无关但偶然地带有这全部25条片段的几率为0.2625=2×10-15。 Therefore, M and X is independent but occasionally Strip probability that all 25 segments of 0.2625 = 2 × 10-15. 从而可见X和M一定是有亲缘关系的。 Thus seen X and M must have kinship relations.

最后一个问题,也是最难的一个问题,即是否M的某个姐妹(这里对她不可能作出DNA指纹分析)是X的母亲(当然,X的父亲还应是M的丈夫)。 One last question, a question is the most difficult, that is, whether M is a sister (here she can not make DNA fingerprinting) is X's mother (of course, X's father should be M's husband). 如果一条带在任意两个人的样品中都出现的平均几率是0.26,那么一个个体的某一条带也出现于他的一个亲属中的对应几率便是0.62。 If the average probability of a band at any two people are present in the sample is 0.26, then an individual of a single band also appeared in one of his relatives corresponding probability is 0.62. 因而假定M是X的真正母亲的姐妹,而且凑巧带有所有25条X的母系专一性条带这种可能性便是0.6225=3×10-6。 Therefore assume M is a real mother of X's sister, and the coincidence with the maternal-specific pieces all 25 X with this possibility is 0.6225 = 3 × 10-6. 因此,我们得出结论:M无疑是X的生身母亲。 Therefore, we conclude that: M is undoubtedly the X's birth mother. 将这一研究证据提供给移民局之后,他们撤销了原先对X不利的判决,允许他定居英国,认定他是这个家庭的成员。 After this study provide evidence to immigration, they revoked the original X-adverse judgment, allowing him to settle in England, found that he was a member of the family.

这一棘手的案例证明即使是在关键的家庭成员不在的情况下,DNA指纹图分析方法是如何提供有关家庭成员间血亲关系的明确而积极的证据的。 This case demonstrates that even tricky in the case of absence of key family members, DNA fingerprinting analysis is how to provide genetic relationships among family members about the clear and positive evidence. 在本案例中,由于X和他的兄弟姐妹有同一个父亲,并且这位父亲并没有将自己的任何DNA条带单独地遗传给X(平均起来,父系条带的1/16会被传递下去),问题便因这一事实而得以简化。 In this case, since the X and his siblings have the same father, and the father did not own any DNA bands individually inherited X (average, paternal bands will be passed on 1/16 ), due to the fact that the problem would be simplified. 这种X独有的片段,虽然明显地削弱了X和M之间血缘关系的证据可信性,但实际上仍不会使DNA指纹分析毫无意义。 This unique fragment X, though obviously weakened the evidence kinship between X and M's credibility, but in fact still makes no sense DNA fingerprint analysis. 除了25条母系特异的片段之外,X不大可能具有5条以上的这种父系片段。 In addition to the maternal-specific fragments 25, X is unlikely to have such paternal fragments of more than five. 倘若X和M之间没有亲缘关系,或者M是X的姨妈,则30条特异带中至少有25条是未配对的,其凑巧在X和M之间配对的几率将分别是9×10-3和8×10-11。 If there is no genetic relationship between X and M, or M is X's aunt, the 30 specific bands have at least 25 are unpaired, which happened in the pairing between X and M are the chances will be 9 × 10- 3 and 8 × 10-11. 在大多数类似的情况下,这一DNA指纹分析法可对血缘关系方面所遇到的疑难问题提供明确有力的支持或反对的证据。 In most such cases, the DNA fingerprinting analysis of the difficult problems can be encountered in aspects of the relationship of blood to provide clear evidence of strong support or opposition. 当然,一般说来,对于父系不清的案例,或者是那些想想通过移居重新团聚而遇上麻烦的家庭,所有家庭亲属都需接受DNA指纹分析;DNA指纹分析方法对这类问题差不多都能解决。 Of course, in general, for the paternal unclear cases, or those that think reunited by settlers and families in trouble, all the family relatives are required to undergo DNA fingerprinting analysis; DNA fingerprinting analysis of these issues can be almost resolved.

DNA指纹图的定量分析在M中可记录下61条DNA片段,与之对照,由父亲特异地遗传的片段是39条。 Quantitative analysis of DNA fingerprinting in M can record 61 DNA fragments, by contrast, specifically genetic fragments from his father is 39. 父亲的杂合DNA片段中,有1/8是不能传给B、S1和S2的,这样一来对父系特异的片段数目的准确估计应是39×8/7=45。 Father's heterozygous DNA fragments, 1/8 is not passed B, S1 and S2, so that an accurate estimate of the number of paternal-specific fragments should be 39 × 8/7 = 45. 因为M和父亲的DNA指纹图中片段的总数应大致相等,那么在M中存在,同时父亲也具有的片段数目应是~(61-45)=16。 Because the total number of M and the father of DNA fingerprinting in the segment should be roughly equal, then in the presence of M, while the father also has a number of fragments should be ~ (61-45) = 16. 因此,在M和父亲中共有的条带的平均几率(×)是16/61=0.26,这与以前对北欧人作随机抽样分析所估算出来的几率(X=0.2,参见实施例2)是一致的。 Therefore, the average probability of M and father CPC some bands (×) is 16/61 = 0.26, which previously made on the Nordic random analysis estimated the probability of (X = 0.2, see Example 2) consistent.

正如对杂合的条带所预期的那样,45条父系带中大约有一半可遗传给B、S1和S2(分别是18、24和18条)。 As for heterozygous bands are expected, with approximately 45 paternal half heritable to B, S1 and S2 (respectively 18, 24 and 18). M的61条带中有多于半数的带传给了B、S1和S2(分别是32、38、和39条,平均为36.3条),这也与预计的结果相同。 M's 61 bands have passed more than half of the band B, S1 and S2 (respectively 32, 38, and 39, with an average of 36.3), which is also expected the same results. 因为M的条带中有些是父亲也有的,因此可传递给大多数或全部的子女。 Because M bands in some of his father and some, it can be transferred to most or all of the children. 如果M的DNA指纹图含有几条传给所有子女的共有条带,加上(61-n)条只传给半数子女的杂合条带,则n+0.5(61-n)=36.3(其中n=12),这与M和父亲两者有共同的16条带的估计结果是相一致的(见前述)。 If M's DNA fingerprints contain a total of several bands passed all children, plus (61-n) shall pass only half the children heterozygous bands, the n + 0.5 (61-n) = 36.3 (where n = 12), which both M and father of 16 common estimation results are consistent with (see above).

X的DNA指纹图谱是由21条父系专一性遗传条带加上40条与M共有的遗传条带组成的。 DNA fingerprinting is the X band consisting of 21 specific genetic paternal bands plus 40 and M common genetic bar. 有两种方法可以估算出母系专一性条带所占的比例,而这些条带是父亲所没有的。 There are two ways to estimate the maternal-specific bands proportion of these bands is the father does not have. 首先第一种方法,母系专一的条带数目与父亲专一条带的数目相等,即45/2=22.5。 First, the first method, equal to the number of maternal-specific bands and the number of father specifically a band, i.e., 45/2 = 22.5. 其次第二种方法,即40条母系带中(在X的DNA指纹图中的),将有几条(~12)见于母系/父系带中,剩下的28条是母系专一的带。 Secondly, the second method, namely 40 matrilineal band (in X's DNA fingerprint figure), there will be a few (~ 12) found in maternal / paternal band, the remaining 28 are maternal-specific bands. 因此,X由他的母亲专一获得的条带便是大约25条。 Therefore, X by specific pieces of his mother is about to get the belt 25. 共有条带的几率:某个个体中的一个片段能与另一随机个体中某一具有相似电泳迁移率和放射自显影强度的条带相匹配,将这种几率定为X(X=0.2-0.26,见前述)。 Total probability strips: an individual one fragment with another in a random individuals having similar electrophoretic mobility and autoradiographic intensity bands match, the probability of this set is X (X = 0.2- 0.26, see above). 大的随体片段则很少是共有的,这可能是因为具有较低的等位基因频率和较好的电泳分离行为之故。 With large fragments are rarely shared, it may be because it has a low allele frequencies and better electrophoretic separation acts. 因此,共有这一片段的几率是与杂合性相关联的。 Thus, a total probability This fragment is associated with the heterozygous phase. 因为几乎所有的片段的遗传都是相互独立的,所以全部几个片段在一个个体中存在同时也在另一随机个体中存在的最大几率是Xn;而X中的任何异源性都会使这一几率减小。 Because almost all of the genetic fragments are independent of each other, so all of a few fragments exist also in another random individual maximum probability exists that Xn in an individual; and X any heterologous will make this probability decreases. 血缘关系成员间所共有的条带:如果共有条带总是代表同一高可变位点的同一某位基因,则X是与平均等位基因频率q×X=2q-q2相关的。 A total of kinship among members of bands: If there were bands always represent the same same hypervariable loci of a certain gene, then X is the mean allele frequency q × X = 2q-q2-related. 由此可做如下表示,即某一个体的一条确定的带也存在于他(或她)的亲属中的这种几率为(4+5q-6q2+q3)/4(2-q)。 Thus do expressed as follows, i.e., an individual of a determined band is also present in his (or her) relatives of this probability is (4 + 5q-6q2 + q3) / 4 (2-q).

如果X=0.26,则q为0.14则存在于第一亲属也存在于第二亲属中的条带的预期比例是0.62。 If X = 0.26, q is 0.14 is present in the first relatives is also present in the expected ratio of the second-degree relatives of bands is 0.62. 如果假定由随机个体所占有的条带绝不是完全相同的等位基因,即是说如果假定许多微小随体均具有相同大小的等位基因,则这一几率要稍为降低。 If it is assumed by the random individual bands occupied by no means identical alleles, that is if it is assumed many minisatellites have alleles of the same size, then the probability for a slightly lower.

DNA指纹图在遗传疾病之分析中的应用为了确定使用DNA指纹图进行人类链锁分析,特别是研究大谱系中与疾病位点共分离的高可变DNA片段的应用可行性,而对两个大家系的DNA指纹图进行了研究,一个是做了有关神经纤维瘤的分离研究,一个另做了有关胎儿血红蛋白的遗传保守性的研究,后者显然是由不与β珠蛋白基因簇链锁的一个常染色体显性基因所决定的。 Application of DNA fingerprinting analysis of genetic diseases in order to determine the use of DNA fingerprinting analysis conducted human chain, especially on large lineages that co-segregate with the disease locus hypervariable DNA fragments application feasibility, while two DNA fingerprinting system we studied, one is doing a separate study of neurofibromatosis, a separate study done conserved genetic fetal hemoglobin, which obviously is not the β-globin gene cluster chain an autosomal dominant gene of the decision.

实施例8受神经纤维瘤感染的家系成员之DNA指纹图中高可变微小随体片段的分离用HinfⅠ酶切后的血细胞DNA样品经35cm长的0.7%琼脂糖凝胶电泳分离,之后与微小随体探针33.6和33.15进行Southern印迹杂交。 8 member of the family by neurofibromas infection DNA fingerprints embodiment hypervariable minisatellite fragments were separated by 0.7% agarose gel electrophoresis after digestion HinfⅠ blood cell DNA samples were 35cm long, after the minisatellite body probes 33.6 and 33.15 Southern blot hybridization. 图7中显示了未受感染的父亲(F)、五个儿子(S)和六个女儿(D)的DNA指纹图形,对受感染的母亲则未能进行研究。 Figure 7 shows the uninfected father (F), five sons (S) and six daughters (D) of DNA fingerprint patterns of infected mothers are unable to carry out research. 受多发性神经纤维瘤影响的后代指定为(+);其余的子代成员没有神经纤维瘤的特征。 By neurofibromatosis affect offspring designated as (+); the remaining members did not neurofibromatosis offspring characteristics. 也指明了已分辨出的父系(●)和母系(○)杂合DNA片段,直接由用短、中和长时间暴光的原始放射自显影胶片记录它们分离到子代中的片段数目,结果只记录了各各子代中位置和相对强度与亲代中的相匹配的这些DNA片段。 Also indicates how to distinguish the paternal (●) and maternal (○) heterozygous DNA fragments directly from the short, medium and long exposures of the original autoradiograph film recorder they are separated into a number of fragments progeny, Results Calvary progeny recorded position and relative intensities of the parent match these DNA fragments. 将分离AB或一一到子代中的DNA片段的链锁对AB用一条实线相连;而分离成A-和B-的等位基因则以虚线相连。 AB or separated one by one into the chain progeny DNA fragment of AB are connected by a solid line; separated into A- and B- allele then being broken lines. 在与神经纤维瘤的偶合中,显示出链锁证据的一个母系片段用星号标记;所有六个受影响的子代都继承了这个片段,五个未受影响的孩子中有四个没有这条带,因而这条带和神经纤维瘤的遗传之间有10/11的一致性。 In coupling with neurofibromatosis, showing evidence of a maternal fragment chain marked with an asterisk; children of all six affected offspring have inherited this fragment, five unaffected in four did it bands, so there is consistency between the genetic 10/11 this band and neurofibromatosis.

材料和方法DNA分离用等体积1×SSC(SSC,柠檬酸钠盐水,0.15MNaCl15mM柠檬酸三钠,PH7.0)稀释新鲜血液,在Histopaque-1077(Sigma产品)上铺层并离心收集有核细胞。 Materials and Methods DNA was isolated with an equal volume of 1 × SSC (SSC, citrate salt water, 0.15MNaCl15mM trisodium citrate, PH7.0) diluted with fresh blood, in Histopaque-1077 (Sigma product) layer was collected by centrifugation and spread nuclear cells. 亦可将冷冻的血液在2倍体积1×SSC中融化,以10,000g离心15分钟,沉淀出有核细胞和细胞核。 Can be frozen in 2 volumes of blood 1 × SSC melted, centrifuged at 10,000g for 15 minutes to precipitate the nucleated cells and nuclei. 依Jeffreys,AJ所述的方法(Cell 18,1-10,1979)制备高分子量DNA。 The method according to Jeffreys, AJ described (Cell 18,1-10,1979) preparation of high molecular weight DNA.

Southern印迹分析于37℃将5μg人DNA样品用20单位HinfⅠ降解2小时(降解过程须在有4mM三氯亚精胺的条件下进行)。 Southern blot analysis at 37 ℃ will 5μg human DNA sample with 20 units HinfⅠ degradation 2 hours (in the case of the degradation process shall trichloro 4mM spermidine conditions). 用酚提取法和乙醇沉淀法回收被酶解的DNA。 By phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation recovering digested DNA. 将用限制性内切酶酶切的产物溶于16μlH2O和4μl凝胶上样液(12.5%ficoll 400,0.2%溴酚兰,0.2MTris乙酸盐,0.1M乙酸钠,1mMEDTA,PH8.3)及2μl浓度为5mg/ml的溴乙锭混合物中,并加于水平琼脂糖凝胶(0.7%SigmaⅠ型琼脂糖,溶于40mMTns乙酸盐,20mM乙酸钠,0.2mMEDTA,0.5μg/ml溴乙锭(PH8.3)中,凝胶厚0.7cm,长20cm或35cm)上。 The enzyme digestion with the restriction product was dissolved 16μlH2O and 4μl gel loading solution (12.5% ficoll 400,0.2% bromophenol blue, 0.2MTris acetate, 0.1M sodium acetate, 1mMEDTA, PH8.3) and 2μl concentration of 5mg / ml ethidium bromide in the mixture, and applied to a horizontal agarose gel (0.7% SigmaⅠ agarose, dissolved 40mMTns acetate, 20mM sodium acetate, 0.2mMEDTA, 0.5μg / ml bromoacetate ingot (PH8.3), the gel thickness 0.7cm, length 20cm or 35cm) on. 平衡10分钟后,以2V/cm的电压电泳24-48小时,直到所有小于1.5Kb的DNA片段均泳出凝胶为止。 After 10 minutes, the balance to 2V / cm voltage electrophoresis 24-48 hours, until all DNA fragments less than 1.5Kb are bathing the gel. 将DNA吸印转移到硝酸纤维素滤膜(Sartoriccs产品,孔径大小为0.45μm)上。 The DNA was transferred onto a nitrocellulose blotting membrane (Sartoriccs product, pore size 0.45μm) on. 由人的微小随体M13重组体33.6和33.15制备32P标记的单股DNA探针,按常规方法于65℃在1×SSC中进行Southern印迹杂交,并做放射自显影。 Single-stranded DNA probe from the human minisatellite M13 recombinants 33.6 and 33.15 Preparation of 32P-labeled, by a conventional method at 65 ℃ Southern blot hybridization in 1 × SSC in, and do autoradiography.

在BBC B型微机上进行分离数据的存储和链锁分析。 Separation data on BBC B microcomputer store and chain analysis.

表3总结了一种经纤维瘤家系中的微小随体标志。 Table 3 summarizes a fibroma pedigrees by minisatellite flag.

已记下的不同的位点数(c)是由nab得到的。 Have noted different loci (c) is obtained by nab. 完整的DNA指纹图谱(包括未分辨出的,因而也是未印记下来的片段)是由N个杂合子位点(2N片段)得到的。 Complete DNA fingerprinting (including unresolved out and, therefore, did not mark down segment) is composed of N heterozygous loci (2N fragments) obtained. 假定已印记的(nb)个不同片段是DNA指纹图谱中2N个条带的随机样,则是由已知探针检测而估计出的高可变区域总数,并与下列公式算得的等位基因对数目有关:N= 1/2 〔 ((nb)(nb-1))/(2a) +1〕 Assuming that mark (nb) is a random sample of different fragments of DNA fingerprinting in 2N bands, it is the total number of hypervariable region probed by the known and estimated and calculated with the following formula allele For the number: N = 1/2 [((nb) (nb-1)) / (2a) +1]

为了研究超可变片段的传递频率(图7),将探针33.6和33.15检测到的片段数(其为印记的几个中的,其为被精确地转移到11个有亲缘关系个体中的r个儿童者),与通过假定有50%传递的二项式分布式(11Cr)/(211) 得出的数目相比较(见表4)。 In order to study the frequency of hypervariable fragments pass (Fig. 7), the probes 33.6 and 33.15 detect the number of segments (a few of which the stamp, which is to be precisely transferred to 11 closest relatives of individuals children who r), and assuming 50% of the number of passes through the binomial distributed (11Cr) / (211) obtained is compared (Table 4). 存在于所有儿童中的可能来自纯合子位点的片段则可忽略不计。 Present in all children fragments may come from homozygous loci may be negligible. 不能传递到任何儿童的母系片段是不能被印记的,这是因为母系DNA不能得以利用。 Maternal fragment can not be passed to any child can not be imprinted because maternal DNA can not be used. 表4中也列出了平均传递频率(±S、E、M)。 Table 4 also lists the average pass frequency (± S, E, M).

片段AB对之间的链锁关系,是通过印记对AB(AB或-)一致的子代数目来研究的,使用父系或母系片段的所有可能的配对比较。 Of linkage between pairs of fragments AB, through imprinting of AB (AB or -) consistent with the number of offspring to study, using all possible pairwise comparisons of paternal or maternal fragments. 这些片段是首先排除了等位基因和有链锁关系的条带(即分离各亲代中的C位点,参见表3,给出(C(C-1))/2 个配对比较)。 These fragments are first excluded alleles and has a strip of linkage (i.e., separating each of the parent C locus, see Table 3, to give (C (C-1)) / 2 paired comparison). 落入零或11个儿童类别中的片段对,分别代表等位基因或紧密链锁的基因对;根据定义,没有那一对会同时列入这两个类中。 Fall into the category of zero or 11 children in fragments, representing alleles or closely chain gene pairs; by definition, do not have the pair will also be included in these two classes. 将观察到的分布与推算的分布作了比较,假如所有的C位点都是非链锁的,在此情况下,确切给出了r个(AB或-)后代的配对比较的数目,可由二项分布式(11Cr)/(211) · (C(C-1))/2 得出。 The distribution of the observed distribution is compared with the projections, if all of the C loci are unlinked, in this case, exactly a given r (AB or -) offspring number of pairwise comparisons, by two Distributed item (11Cr) / (211) · (C (C-1)) / 2 derived. 该分布与假定C位点是均一成簇的并且有均一间隔的推算数进行比较,则上述C位点也是被重组频率θ(10,20或30cM分离)分离的相邻位点。 This distribution assumes that C sites are clustered and have a uniform number of uniformly spaced projections are compared, the above C is the frequency of recombination site is adjacent sites θ (10,20 or 30cM separation) separated. 因此,该簇将散布于(C-1)ψ个图谱单位,其中ψ=-1/2|n(1-2θ)。 Thus, the cluster will spread in (C-1) ψ map units one, where ψ = -1 / 2 | n (1-2θ). 对于C位点(随机地从一个或另一个等位基因取样的),可由下列公式给出11个有亲缘关系的r(AB或-)个子代的配对比较数:&Sigma;i = C - 1i = 1(C - i) · Cr11〔Xi11 - r( 1 -Xi )r+ Xlr(1 - Xi)11 - r2〕]]> For the C locus (randomly sampled from one or the other allele), and by the following formula gives 11 closest relatives r (AB or -) progeny number of pairwise comparisons: & Sigma; i = C - 1i = 1 (C - i) · Cr11 [Xi11 - r (1 -Xi) r + Xlr (1 - Xi) 11 - r2]]]>

其中xi是两个相隔i个基因图谱单位的基因位点间的重组分数;Xi则是由基因图谱函数算得的:Xi= 1/2 (1-e-2iψ)结果DNA指纹图探针该项研究中所用的两个微小随体杂交探针已在其主要应用方面作了充分的描述。 Where xi is the fraction of the two spaced recombinant gene loci i map units between the; Xi is calculated by the genetic map function: Xi = 1/2 (1-e-2iψ) Results DNA fingerprint probes that Two minisatellite hybridization probes used in the study has been fully described in the main application. 探针33.15含有各为16bp的核心序列变异体26次重复片段的克隆的人微小随体。 Containing each probe 33.15 16bp variant of the core sequence is repeated 26 times cloned fragments of human minisatellites. 探针33.6中微小随体的重复单位是重复序列之最保守的11bp3′端分出的三聚体,并且重复18次。 Repeating units in the minisatellite probe 33.6 is repeated the most conservative 11bp3 'ends separated trimer sequences, and repeated 18 times. 该核心和探针重复单位的序列是:A核心 GGAGGTGGGCAGGAGG33.15 AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG33.16 AGGGCTGGAGG探针33.6和33.15在序列和重复长度上的差异导致在检测人DNA HinfⅠ酶切片段中长的高可变微小随体时呈现不同的图形。 Sequence of the core and probe repeat unit are: A core GGAGGTGGGCAGGAGG33.15 AGAGGTGGGCAGGTGG33.16 AGGGCTGGAGG probes 33.6 and 33.15 differences in the sequence and repeating length results in detection of human DNA HinfⅠ fragment long hypervariable minisatellite graphics show different body. 在DNA片段连同小的两侧DNA中,通过释放长的串联重复的微小随体,这个4bp限制性内切酶使可见微小随体的分辨率增至最大限度。 In the DNA fragments together with DNA on both sides of the small, by releasing long tandem repeat minisatellites, the 4bp restriction endonuclease make visible minisatellite increased to the maximum resolution.

大的亲缘关系群体中的DNA指纹图分析为了研究个体微小随体DNA片段的分离,对包括11个英国人个体的大的亲缘关系家系进行了关于神经纤维瘤(Von Reckling hausen氏病)的分离研究。 Large kinship group in order to study the DNA fingerprint isolated individual minisatellite DNA fragments, including 11 Britons individual large kinship families were separated on neurofibromatosis (Von Reckling hausen's disease) the study. 神经纤维瘤是一种与未梢和中枢神经系统肿瘤有关的常染色体显性疾病,目前尚没有找到与这种疾病相联系的遗传标记。 Neurofibromatosis is a kind and did not shoot, and central nervous system tumors associated with autosomal dominant disorder, is still not found the disease associated with genetic markers.

将使用探针33.6和33.15检测的11个(6个受影响的,5个未受影响的)血细胞DNA指纹图与他们未受影响的父亲DNA指纹图进行比较(见图7)。 The use of probes 33.6 and 33.15 detect 11 (6 affected, 5 unaffected) blood cell DNA fingerprints with their unaffected father DNA fingerprints were compared (see Fig. 7). 通过在长度为35CM琼脂糖凝胶中电泳分离,使得对微小随体DNA片段的分辨达到最大程度。 35CM length by agarose gel electrophoresis separation, makes minisatellite DNA fragments resolved achieve the greatest degree.

因为许多高可变微小随体特别是最大的DNA片段具有低等位基因频率,并且如所预测其很少为无亲缘关系的个体所共有,所以,在神经纤维瘤家系成员中许多这样的片段是以杂合状态存在的,并且只传给某些后代。 Because many hypervariable minisatellite especially the largest DNA fragments with low allele frequencies, and, as predicted by its few unrelated individuals is common, so in neurofibromatosis family members in many of these fragments is present in the heterozygous state, and is transmitted only to some of the offspring. 尽管受影响的母亲与DNA是不可得到的,但母系所得到的微小随体片段可以很容易作为存在于某些子代但不是来自父系的片段得以被 But not fragment from paternal offspring despite the affected mother and DNA are unavailable, but maternal minisatellite fragments can be easily obtained as to be present in some 定。 Fixed. 使用探针33.6和33.15,有可能分离出这个亲缘关系群体中的41个父系和32个母系DNA片段(见图7,表3)。 Using probes 33.6 and 33.15, it is possible to isolate the affinity group of 41 paternal and 32 maternal DNA fragments (see Fig. 7, Table 3). 还存在有大量的其它多态性片段,但这些都是电泳时跑出凝胶之外的,或者是未被完全分辨的,以及因此而不容易被印记下来的。 There are a large number of other polymorphic fragments, but these are beyond the run out of the gel, or has not been fully resolved, and thus not likely to be imprinted down during electrophoresis.

杂合子父系DNA片段中平均有53%传给了子代。 Heterozygous paternal DNA fragments on average 53 percent passed the offspring. 相似地,母系片段则显示48%传递,这再次表明与1∶1分离相符(表4)。 Similarly, maternal fragment displays 48% transmission, which again shows the ratio of 1:1 consistent separation (Table 4). 再者,接受了每种片段的孩子的数遵循二项式分布,其中传递到11个有亲缘关系的r个孩子的父系片段的比例是(11Cr)/(211) (表4)。 Furthermore, each child received a number of fragments follow a binomial distribution, which is passed to the ratio of 11 have a genetic relationship of r children's paternal fragments are (11Cr) / (211) (Table 4). 从而得出结论:对亲代条带的印记,特别是对那些较小的并且分辨不太好的片段的印记,并不会受到两个或多个迭加带的分离这种可能情况的显著影响,后者可给出一个明显的≥75%的传递频率。 Leading to the conclusion: of parental bands mark, especially for the smaller and less well-resolved fragments imprint, and not significantly affect the separation of two or more superimposed bands of such possible situations , which can give a significant ≥75% of the transfer frequency. 所有亲属中正确的父子和母子关系也是通过这些DNA指纹图谱确证的。 Father and mother-child relationship right all relatives also confirmed by DNA fingerprinting of these.

通过这大的亲缘关系家系中所有父系和母系DNA片段的分离图形的配对比较,有可能 Through this great kinship pedigrees separate graphics paired all paternal and maternal DNA fragments comparison, it is possible 定出片段的等位基因对和在偶联中显出紧密链锁关系的对(在该亲缘关系中已知条带对的共分离的可能性为1/1024)。 Set fragment chain alleles and show the close relationship between the pair in the coupling (the possibility that kinship known bands of the total separation of 1/1024). 可用两种探针检测父系和母系片段之几个等位基因对(图7)。 There are two probes for the detection of several maternal and paternal allele fragments (Figure 7). 探针33.6也检测了父系和母系中片段的一个链锁对。 33.6 probe also detected a chain of paternal and maternal fragments right. 在一个第二谱系中发现了一个相似的链锁(见下述),这就提出至少有一个杂交到探针33.6上的高可变区是长的微小随体/随体,其中含有HinfⅠ的酶切位点(S),因而酶解产生了作为谱系中微小随体“单倍型”的共分离的两个或多个片段。 In a second lineage found a similar chain (see below), this raises at least one variable region of the probe hybridized to a high 33.6 on long minisatellite / satellite, which contains HinfⅠ of restriction sites (S), thus hydrolysis produces two or more fragments as lineage minisatellite "haplotype" total separation. 使用探针33.15所印记的多态性DNA片段没有一个存在于由探针33.6检测的一组片段中;任何与两种探针相杂交的这种片段都能有相等大小的条带被检测到,这些片段是由同一亲代传给同一孩子的(即为“链锁的”)。 Using a probe 33.15 print polymorphic DNA fragment does not exist in a detected by probes 33.6 fragment in a group; any of these fragments hybridized with a probe can have two equally-sized strips are detected These fragments are passed by the same parent the same child (that is, "unlinked"). 因而,这两种探针基本上可以与完全不同的人类微小隋体的亚组相杂交。 Thus, these two probes basically completely different subgroups with small Sui human body phase hybridization.

通过排除等位基因和链锁片段,可以得出如下结论:即在父亲和母亲的DNA指纹图谱中分别印记了34和25个不同的位点(表3)。 By excluding allele and chain segments, we can draw the following conclusions: that the father and mother of the DNA fingerprints were stamped 34 and 25 different sites (Table 3). 对于~80%的位点,只分辨出两个等位基因中的而且第二个等位基因有可能定位在较短微小随体片段的分辨很差之复合体中。 For ~ 80% of loci, only to distinguish the two alleles and the second allele may be located in the poorly resolved shorter minisatellite fragments composite body. 这一点就暗示了微小随体等位基因长度上一定存在着很大的差异,这可能是由于这些串联重复区域中的不均等交换所造成;图7中所 This implies a minisatellite allele length on certain there are significant differences, which may be caused due to the tandem repeat region of the unequal exchange; Figure 7, the 定的几个等位基因对并没有真正地显示出明显的长度差异。 Given several alleles did not really show a significant difference in the length. 根据能配对到等位基因中的条带的比例,可以估计到由探针33.6和33.15所测到的整个DNA指纹图中存在的杂合子位点的总数,大约为43-66,其中的大约一半可在父亲和母亲指纹图中被印记(表3)。 According to the proportion of alleles can be pairs of strips, it can be estimated by the heterozygous locus probes 33.6 and 33.15 sensed entire DNA fingerprints exist in the total number of about 43-66, which is about father and mother in half fingerprints are imprinted (Table 3). 确定这个家系中父系和母系片段之间的等位性是不可能的。 Determine the allelic pedigrees between paternal and maternal fragments is impossible.

所印记的所有父系位点都是常染色体的,并且没有显示专一地传给女儿(X链锁)或儿子(Y链锁)。 All sites are paternal imprint are autosomes, and did not show exclusively to daughter (X chain) or son (Y chain). 此外,父系DNA片段的所有的对AB显然是独自地分离到子代中的,以得到平均相等数目的(AB,-和A-,-B)后代;精确的数目可由无链锁位点的二项式分布估算出来(表4)。 In addition, all apparently alone paternal DNA fragments separated on to the progeny of AB, to give an average equal numbers of (AB, - and A -, - B) progeny; by the exact number of non-chain loci binomial distribution estimated (Table 4). 母系DNA片段也具有相似的行动。 Maternal DNA fragment has a similar action. 更为详细的分析结果提示,这些位点间最小的位点对位点间隔一定是≥30cM(46个基因图谱单位);任何更紧密间隔都会产生很大数目的倾向共分离的(偶联链锁)或作为假等位分离的(相斥链锁)片段对(表4)。 A more detailed analysis showed that the minimum between these loci site for site spaced a ≥30cM (46 genes map units); any more will have a large number of closely spaced tends to cosegregate (conjugated chain lock) or as a false allelic separation (repulsion chain) fragment (Table 4). 因此可分辨的最小随体位点一定至少伸展到3000cM长人基因组的一半,而且一定散布到许多或全部的人常染色体。 Therefore, the minimum resolvable points with the position at least to a certain extend long half 3000cM human genome, but must spread to many or all people autosomes.

在与神经纤维瘤的联系中,一个母系微小随体片段(图7)表现出很弱的链锁关系,有10/11孩子的这个片段和疾病是相符合的(θ=10cM,P=0.006)。 In connection with neurofibromatosis, one maternal minisatellite fragments (Figure 7) showed weak chain relationship with the child's 10/11 this clip and disease are consistent (θ = 10cM, P = 0.006 ). 然而,因为印记了25个不同的母系位点,便存在这样一种可能性:即这些位点中至少一个上的等位基因凑巧显示出偶联或相斥链锁,而其被观察到的程度很高(P=0.24)。 However, since the mark of 25 different maternal loci, then there is a possibility: that these sites happened on at least one allele showed chain coupling or repulsion, and it is observed a high degree (P = 0.24).

实施例9一个扩展谱系的DNA指纹图谱:可能的HPFH的链锁关系对DNA指纹图谱的分析扩散到一个Gujerati亚洲人的四代四系,该家谱按照β-地中悔贫血症和胎儿血红蛋白(HPFH)的遗传稳定性分离。 Example 9 an extended spectrum of DNA fingerprinting: possible relationship HPFH chain of DNA fingerprinting analysis of spread to a four-generation Asians Gujerati four lines, the genealogy regret anemia and fetal hemoglobin land in accordance with β- ( HPFH) genetic stability of separation.

图8A和8B中显示出的标志分离图形的放射自显影是按下述方法制备的。 Figure 8A and 8B show the graphic signs isolated autoradiogram was prepared as follows.

用HinfⅠ酶切10μg血细胞DNA的样品,按照图7中所述的方法,使用探针33.6(A)或33.15(B)制得DNA指纹图谱。 HinfⅠ digested with 10μg blood cell DNA samples, according to the method described in Figure 7, using probe 33.6 (A) or 33.15 (B) to obtain DNA fingerprinting. 在相对短(20cm)的琼脂糖凝胶中完成电泳分析。 Completed in a relatively short (20cm) agarose gel electrophoresis. 个体之间的关联如图9中所示。 Between individuals associated as shown in FIG. A,高可变片段a、b和c是密切链锁的,并且整个的存在或不存在于该家系的每个个体中。 A, hypervariable fragments a, b and c are closely chain, and the whole of the presence or absence of each individual in the pedigree of. B,条带g和HPFH(H)共分离。 B, bands g and HPFH (H) were isolated. 个体Ⅳ7和Ⅳ8是完全相同的双胞胎并且具有不能区分的DNA指纹图谱。 Individual Ⅳ7 and Ⅳ8 are identical twins and have indistinguishable DNA fingerprints.

材料和方法如实施例8中所述。 Materials and methods are as described in the eighth embodiment.

图9A和9B中显示出共分离分析的结果。 Figures 9A and 9B show the results of the analysis were isolated.

在图9A中,筛选出分离到子代Ⅲ1-11中的来自Ⅱ4的30个高可变片段和来自Ⅱ5的27个片段。 In Figure 9A, isolated progeny Ⅲ1-11 screened in 30 hypervariable fragments from Ⅱ4 and 27 fragments from Ⅱ5 of. 其可能有亲代片段的对B的链锁关系;再进一步在其它亲属中检测显示至少6/7(AB-)子代有链锁关系的例子。 It may have on the relationship between the parent chain B fragments; other relatives further tests showed at least 6/7 (AB-) offspring have examples of linkage. 结果表明有两个最清楚的有链锁关系的例子(af,片段af存在于一个个体中;,片段不存在)。 The results show that there are two clearest examples of linkage have (af, af fragments present in an individual;, fragment absent). 片段ac和e、f各自显示了完好的共分离;片段e则趋向与ac共分离,但亲属Ⅳ1-4是非信息的,而完全相同的双胞胎Ⅳ7,8是重组的,并遗传给了ac但未遗传给d。 Fragments ac and e, f each show were isolated intact; fragments were isolated and tended e ac, but the twins are non-relatives Ⅳ1-4 information, and exactly the same Ⅳ7,8 reorganization and passed on to the ac but not passed on to d. B,β-地中悔贫血特征( B, β- regret to the characteristics of anemia ( )、HPFH(H)和微小随体片段g的遗传性。 ), HPFH (H) and minisatellite fragment g hereditary. 每个个体如果表现出>1%的HbF(正常)或>3%的HbF(β-地中悔贫血特征),则作为有HPFH被印记下来。 If each individual showed> 1% of HbF (normal) or> 3% of HbF (β- regret to the characteristics of anemia), then as there HPFH is stamped down. HPFH和β-地中悔贫血特征独自地分离在Ⅲ1-11和Ⅳ5-8中,且通过非链锁的位点来确定。 HPFH and β- regret to the characteristics of anemia alone and isolated in Ⅲ1-11 Ⅳ5-8, and the chain is determined by the non-sites. 在被检测的个体中片段g很好地与HPFH共分离。 G fragments were isolated in good to be detected in individuals with HPFH.

结果如图9A中所示,HbF的升高是β-地中悔贫血特征的独立传递,并且很显然是由不与β-珠蛋白基因簇链锁的一个常染色体显性位点决定的。 The results shown in Figure 9A, HbF increased β- to independently transfer characteristics of anemia in regret, and it is clear that by not β- globin gene cluster with an autosomal dominant chain loci decision. Gianni等人(EMBO J.2,921-925,1983)报告了一个相似的萨丁尼亚岛人的家系。 Gianni et al (EMBO J.2,921-925,1983) reported a similar Sardinia human pedigrees.

图8A和8B中,在祖父(Ⅱ4)中印记了30个可变片段,在祖母(Ⅱ5)中印记了27个片段。 8A and 8B, the grandfather (Ⅱ4) in 30 variable fragments stamped, stamped 27 fragments grandmother (Ⅱ5) in. 对他们七个子代的研究表明,这些片段来自至少22个不同的非链锁的父系和18个母系常染色体位点,本例使用了描述神经纤维瘤家系时所用的标准。 Seven of their offspring study shows that these fragments from at least 22 different paternal non-chain and 18 maternal autosomal loci, this example uses when describing neurofibromatosis pedigree criteria used. 其余的DNA片段显示了等位性或与其它片段相链锁的证据,但还不能给出这个小的血缘关系的证据(一个给定的亲代DNA片段的对具有1/64偶然被传递的机会,其为互相链锁的或是作为等位基因)。 The rest of the DNA fragment shows allelic or other fragment of chain of evidence, but can not give this evidence little kinship (a given parental DNA fragment has a 1/64 chance of being passed by chance , which is another chain of or as alleles). 在该家系的其它成员中找到了链锁关系的进一步证据,图8和9中显示出两个最强的链锁的实例。 Further evidence of linkage found in other members of the pedigree in FIG. 8 and 9 show an example of the two strongest unlinked. 探针33.6检测到的片段a、b年c以很好的来自Ⅱ4的链锁关系被传递给孩子(Ⅲ1-11)并进而传递给孙子(Ⅳ1-8);在14个提供信息的后代中没有看到重组体(三条共分离带的P=4×10-9)。 33.6 probe detected fragments a, b to c in good relationship Ⅱ4 chain from being passed to the child (Ⅲ1-11) and further transmitted to the grandchildren (Ⅳ1-8); in 14 informative progeny did not see the recombinant (three were isolated with the P = 4 × 10-9). 正如上面所讨论的,这一发现提示:片段ac代表得自一个单一高可变区的微小随体“单倍型”。 As discussed above, this finding suggests that: ac fragment derived from a representative single hypervariable minisatellite regions "haplotype." 由探针33.15所检测出的条带d也显示与条带ac相链锁的证据;然而,因为双亲均携带片段d,所以一组亲缘关系个体(Ⅳ1-4)是非信息的,而另一组(Ⅳ5-8)则含有一个重组体(完全相同的双胞胎Ⅳ7,8)。 33.15 detected by the probe strip d also show evidence of the strip phase ac chain; however, because parents are carrying fragment d, so a group of kinship (Ⅳ1-4) non-information, while the other group (Ⅳ5-8) then contains a recombinant (identical twins Ⅳ7,8). 因此条带d和ac簇之间链锁的迹象是不明显的(θ=10cM,P=0.01)。 So sign strip between d and ac cluster chain is obvious (θ = 10cM, P = 0.01). 母系条带e(由33.6测得)和f(由33.15测得)也显示了在Ⅱ4和Ⅱ5的后裔及其它相关亲属Ⅲ15-20和Ⅳ17-22中的密切链锁关系(20个携带信息的后代,没有重组体,θ=0cM,P=10-6)。 Maternal strip e (measured by 33.6) and f (measured by 33.15) also showed a close relationship between chain and Ⅱ5 Ⅱ4 descendants and other relatives Ⅲ15-20 and related Ⅳ17-22 in (20 carries information progeny, no recombinants, θ = 0cM, P = 10-6). 因为探针33.6和33.15决定不同组的微小随体并且不对片段e和f产生交叉杂交,因此这些片段可代表两个不同的常染色体微小随体区域之间的确切之链锁关系。 Since probes 33.6 and 33.15 determine different sets of minisatellite fragments e and f and does not cross-hybridize, these fragments may represent the exact relationship between the chain two different autosomal minisatellite regions. 最后,两个链锁群(片段ac和ef)并不是同一区域的等位基因。 Finally, two chain groups (fragments ac and ef) are not alleles of the same region. 体Ⅲ1是一个携带父系ac簇和母系ef对的复合的杂合子,这两个片段簇均传给它的四个孩子中的两个,从而确证它们不是作为等基因分离的,而一定是由两个非链锁的高可变区域衍生的。 Ⅲ1 body is a portable paternal and maternal ef ac cluster on the compound heterozygotes, the two fragments are passed to it four clusters of two children, so they are not as conclusive evidence, such as gene isolation, but must be made Two non-high chain variable region derived.

没有任何母系(Ⅱ5)微小随体片段显示对β-地中悔贫血特征的显著链锁关系,因而也就与染色体11上β-珠蛋白基因簇没有紧密联系。 No maternal (Ⅱ5) minisatellite fragments show to the regret of β- anemia characterized by remarkable chain relationships and, therefore, with the chromosome 11 β- globin gene cluster are not closely linked. 相反地,在七个子代和孙子的三个携带信息之亲属中有一个长度为8.6Kb的母系片段与HPFH共分离(图9)。 Conversely, three of the seven offspring and grandchildren carry information of relatives has a length of maternal 8.6Kb fragment were isolated and HPFH (Figure 9). 在12个后代中没有看到重组体,提示有密切链锁关系(θ=0cM,P=2×10-4)。 In the 12 recombinant offspring do not see, suggesting a close relationship chain (θ = 0cM, P = 2 × 10-4). 即使是研究了Ⅱ5中的17个位点,这种链锁仍是明显的印记的17个位点中至少一个的等位基因碰巧与HPFH共分离的几率是0.004)。 Even studied Ⅱ5 the 17 loci, this chain is still 17 distinct loci in imprints of at least one allele happens to co-segregate with HPFH chance is 0.004). 进一步核对发现Ⅱ5中的片段g是一个单一的微小随体等位基因,并且用Sau3A代替用HinfⅠ酶切,研究了图9中所示的所有个体的DNA指纹图谱,其中没有看到迭加的分离DNA片段;每个阳性(正的)指纹图谱都含有一个大小相似于片段g的相应的Sau3A片段(8.2Kb对8.6Kb),这正是所预料的单一微小随体片段的长度。 Further checking found Ⅱ5 fragment g in a single minisatellite allele, and digested with Sau3A instead of using HinfⅠ studied DNA fingerprints of all individuals shown in Fig. 9, which do not see the superimposed DNA fragments were separated; each positive (positive) fingerprints are similar in size to contain a corresponding Sau3A fragment g fragment (8.2Kb of 8.6Kb), which is the expected length of a single minisatellite fragment.

讨论人类家系分析显示,由微小随体探针检测的DNA指纹图谱即使在对家系中的一个或另一个亲代不能进行研究的情况下,亦可很可靠地用于研究多杂合性DNA片段的分离。 Discuss human pedigree analysis, by minisatellite probe DNA fingerprints detected even in the case of the family of one or the other parent can not be studied, it can be reliably used to study multiple heterozygous DNA fragments separation. 使用两种这类探针有可能分析同时存在于一个单一个体中的多达34个高可变区,在人类遗传学中,这种方法所得到的各代遗传标志的比率远远高于用常规方法,包括PFLP所获得的比率。 Such use of two probes is possible to analyze simultaneously exist in a single individual up to 34 hypervariable region, in human genetics, the ratio obtained by this method for each generation is much higher than with genetic markers conventional methods, including the ratio PFLP obtained. 正如通过分析两个家系中所发现的链锁关系的实例所表明的,利用可变微小随体片段的稳定遗传性加上个体片段的低群体频率,即可使之非常适于作链锁分析。 As examples of chain by analyzing the relationship between the two families found in the shows, the use of variable minisatellite fragments of genetic stability combined with low population frequency of individual segments, you can make it very suitable for use as a chain analysis . 我们应强调指出,虽然这些高可变微小随体可能是重组热点,但估计出现在长微小随体上的不均等交换的比率并不足以明显地扰乱微小随体位点和邻近基(如疾病位点)之间的链锁。 We should emphasize that, although these hypervariable minisatellites may be recombination hotspots, but unequal estimate appeared on the long minisatellite exchange rate is not sufficient to significantly disrupt the tiny points with the position and the adjacent base (such as disease-bit dot chain) between.

估计由微小随体探针33.6和33.15一同检测到的高可变区域的数目大约是60个。 The estimated number of hypervariable region by minisatellite probes 33.6 and 33.15 detect together to about 60. 在一个给定的DNA指纹图谱中,至少可分辨出大约半数这些区域中的两个等位基因之一,因而可认为存不同的DNA指纹图谱中,所检测的位点的谱并不是完全相同的。 In a given DNA fingerprint, the at least one could distinguish between two alleles of about half of these regions, which can be considered deposit different DNA fingerprints, the spectrum is not identical to the detected loci a. 这些区域中的大多数或所有的遗传学上都是非链锁的,因此必须是散布在人基因组的绝大部分。 These regions are most or all of the genetically unlinked, and must therefore be scattered in the vast majority of the human genome. 尚不明瞭它们的精确定位,而必须等到克隆和对个体的高可变微小隋体位点进行区域性定位后才能知道。 Their exact location is not clear, but must wait until after the cloning and high variable individual tiny point for regional positioning Sui position to know. 令人不好理解的是,就所研究的谱系来说,在X或Y染色体上还没有找到微小随体。 It is well understood, it is studied lineage, in the X or Y chromosome has not been found minisatellites. 我们估计在神经纤维瘤家系的父亲中,以及在HPFH家系中的个体Ⅱ4所印记的大约43个不同位点可能属于性链锁的。 We estimate that the father of the neurofibromatosis family in, and about 43 different sites in the HPFH pedigree individual Ⅱ4 of the print may belong to the chain. 因为X和Y染色体一同构成男性基因组的~5%,那么43个随机散布的位点均不留在这些染色体上的几率便是(0.95)43=0.1;因此明显地缺乏性联微小随体是并不重要的。 Because X and Y chromosomes together constitute ~ 5% of the male genome, the 43 randomly dispersed loci not remain on probability these chromosomes is (0.95) 43 = 0.1; therefore the apparent lack of sex-linked minisatellites is is not important.

正如前面关于神经纤维瘤和HPFH的链锁的例子中所显示的,这些散布的高可变微小随体区域很适于寻找与疾病位点相联系的标记。 As previously described with respect neurofibromas and HPFH the chain shown example, these dispersed hypervariable minisatellite region is adapted to find markers with disease loci associated. 与常规的单一位点遗传学分析方法不同,不能将无关的小家系之间的链锁关系数据集中在一起,因为一个不同的微小随体等位基因不可能与各家系中的疾病位点相关联。 Conventional single locus genetic analysis methods, can not be focused on the relationship between the data chain of small independent family together, because a different minisatellite allele impossible with various lines of disease sites associated. 因此,DNA指纹图谱只适于研究一个扩展的家系以及更可靠的是在一个单一大家族中的显性遗传病的链锁关系。 Thus, DNA fingerprinting is only suitable for research as well as an extended family of linkage is more reliable in a large family of single dominant genetic disease.

至此,在一个个体中已印记了用探针33.6和33.15检测的多达34个常染色体高可变区。 Thus, in one individual has been stamped with the probes 33.6 and 33.15 detect up to 34 autosomal hypervariable region. 假定微小随体的随机散布遍及3000cM长的人类链锁关系图谱,则这些位点中至少一个与一种已知疾病位点(在10cM以内)密切相联的或然性为20%。 Assume random minisatellite spread throughout 3000cM long human chain relationship map, then at least one of these sites with a known disease loci (within 10cM) closely linked probability of 20%. 对于扩展的家系如HPFH家系来说,因为大多数位点中只有一个等位基因是可印记的,所以这一几率降低为~10%,而且对于检验链锁关系,这个等位基因必须是以偶联式与疾病位点和连结。 For extended pedigrees such as the HPFH family, the majority of sites since only one allele is imprinted, so this probability is reduced to 10%, and for the test of linkage, this allele must be based on Coupling type and disease sites and links. 为了提高这些几率至50%以上,则需要在单一大的亲缘关联中印记出>104个高可变位点,而在扩散的谱系中则须印记出>208个位点。 In order to increase the chances of more than 50%, you need to associate a single large genetic imprint in the> 104 hypervariable loci, and the diffusion of lineage shall stamp out> 208 sites. 这些数目实际上已超过了迄今所用的两种微小随体探针所检测到的位点总数。 These numbers actually exceeds the total number of two minisatellite locus probes used so far detected. 然而,探针33.6和33.15基本上是检测总体上不同的两组高可变区,这就提示含有各种核心序列变体的人类微小随体的总数可能是很大的。 However, probes 33.6 and 33.15 detect essentially are generally two different hypervariable regions, which suggests the total number of human minisatellites containing various core sequence variants may be significant.

在使用限定的单一位点标记进行的常规人族谱系分析中,一个标记和一种疾病之间的链锁关系证据通常是直据给出疾病基因的大致的基因组定位,并且可通过分析外加的谱系来进一步证实。 In conventional human pedigree analysis using defined genealogy a single site in the markers, evidence of linkage between a marker and a disease is generally straight given disease gene according to genomic positioning substantially, and can be applied by analyzing the pedigree to be further confirmed. 对DNA指纹图谱来说反题是正确的。 For DNA fingerprinting for antithesis is correct. 对于一个高可变DNA片段与一种疾病之间的可能的链锁关系,可通过用制备凝胶电泳和克隆化分离该片段来进一步分析。 For a possible chain hypervariable DNA fragment and the relationship between a disease, can be isolated by preparative gel electrophoresis and cloning of the fragment to further analysis. 之后可由分离出的微小随体设计位点特异性杂交探针,可使用直接连有端侧微小随体的独特序列DNA片段,或者在高度严格杂交中使用整个微小随体。 Design of minisatellite locus-specific hybridization probes may be isolated after, can be used directly connected to the end of the unique sequence of minisatellite DNA fragments, or by using the entire minisatellite in high stringency hybridization. 在扩展其它家系中链锁关系数据,以及定位人基因组内的微小随体,可以使用这种位点特异性探针。 In relation to other family extension chain data, and minisatellite positioning within the human genome, you can use this site-specific probes. 这一探索性研究目前已通过克隆显然与Gujerati家系中HPFH位点相联的8.2Kb Sau 3A微小随体片段得到进一步证实。 This exploratory study has apparently obtained by cloning 8.2Kb Sau 3A minisatellite fragments Gujerati pedigrees HPFH sites linked further confirmed.

如上所述,探针33.5,33.6和33.15,每个都包含一个人类微小随体,而各微小随体又由核心序列的不同变异体所组成,故可制得出不同的DNA指纹图谱,进而用于检测人类和其它脊椎动物DNA中的不同组的高可变微小随体区域。 As described above, the probe 33.5,33.6 and 33.15, each of which contains a human minisatellite, and each in turn by a different minisatellite core sequence variants of the composition, it can be made of different DNA fingerprints obtained, and then for the detection of human and other vertebrate DNA of different groups hypervariable minisatellite regions. 特别是,由于每种探针中所存在的重复核心的长度及准确序列上的差异,使得探针33.6和33.15可检测到很大的或者完全不同的两组微小随体(参见第三项应用及AJJeffreys,V.Wilson,SLThein;DJWeatherall和BAJPonder等人的“DNA'fingerprints'and linkage analysis in human pedigrees”)。 In particular, due to differences in length and precise sequence of each probe present in duplicate on the core, so that the probes 33.6 and 33.15 can be detected greatly or completely different groups minisatellites (cf. the third application and AJJeffreys, V.Wilson, SLThein; DJWeatherall and BAJPonder et al., "DNA'fingerprints'and linkage analysis in human pedigrees").

为了使用核心序列其它变体的串联重复来检测外加高可变区域的可行性,而制备了一系列合成的微小随体。 In order to use other variants of the core sequence of tandem repeats of the feasibility to detect additional hypervariable region, and prepared a series of synthetic minisatellites.

实施例10人造微小随体的合成和克隆图10中概括了制备多核心探针的研究,图解说明了制备大肠杆菌的交换热点起始因子序列(Chi,GCTGGTGG)的克隆化的串联重复。 Example 10 Synthesis and cloning of FIG artificial minisatellite summarized in Example 10 Preparation of multi-core probes, illustrating the preparation of E. coli cloning tandem exchange hot initiation factor sequence (Chi, GCTGGTGG) repeated. 步骤中包括使用标准DNA技术制备多聚-Chi探针,这些步骤是:1.按照HWDMattheg等人(EMBO J.3,801-805,1984)以及DGBrenner与WVShaw(EMBO J.4,561-568,1985)的方法制备含串联重复序列的合成的寡聚核苷酸,串联重复为长8个核苷酸的Chi序列。 The step comprises preparing a multimeric -Chi probe using standard DNA techniques, these steps are: 1 according HWDMattheg et al (EMBO J.3,801-805,1984) and DGBrenner with WVShaw (EMBO J.4,561-568 , synthetic oligo 1985) was prepared containing nucleotide tandem repeats, tandem repeats of Chi sequence length eight nucleotides. 同时还合成了含有Chi的互补序列二聚体的第二个寡聚核苷酸。 Also synthesized oligonucleotides comprising a second complementary sequence Chi dimer.

2.于37℃,在10mM MgCl2,10mM Tris-HCI(PH8.0)中使这两种寡聚核苷酸一起退火,以产生一个短的单股DNA片段。 2. at 37 ℃, annealed together in 10mM MgCl2,10mM Tris-HCI (PH8.0) manipulation of these two oligonucleotides, to produce a short single-stranded DNA fragment. 选择第二个寡聚核苷酸的序列,以产生出在5′端伸出长度为3个核苷酸的退火的分子,以适用于头对尾连接。 Select the second oligonucleotide sequence, to produce the 5 'end of the extended length of the molecule three nucleotides annealing, to apply to the head-to-tail connections.

3.用T4多核苷酸激酶加上ATP,使5′末端磷酸化。 3. using T4 polynucleotide kinase plus ATP, the 5 'ends phosphorylated.

4.用T4DNA连接酶加上ATP,使退火的DNA片段以头对尾的方式连在一起,以产生一个重复的Chi多聚体。 4. T4DNA ligase plus ATP, annealing of DNA fragments in a head-to-tail connected together, to generate a repeated Chi polymer.

5.通过1.5%琼脂糖凝胶电泳,按大小分离连接好的多聚体,并于DE81滤纸上经电泳分离长度大于150碱基对的多聚体(Dretzen,G.,Bellard,M.,Sassone-Corri,P.&amp;Chambon,P.,Anal.Biochem.112,295-298,1981)。 5. through a 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis, isolated by size ligated multimers, and in DE81 filter paper separated by electrophoresis on a length greater than the multimer (Dretzen, G., Bellard, M 150 base pairs., Sassone-Corri, P & amp;. Chambon, P., Anal.Biochem.112,295-298,1981).

6.使用大肠杆菌DNA聚合酶I的Klenow片段通过填补修复使回收的长多聚体成为平头,并且连接到M 13mp 19RF DNA的Sma Ⅰ位点中(J.Messing &amp; J.Vieira,Gene 19,269-276,1982)。 6. Use of E. coli DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment to fill the repair by the recovered long polymers become blunt, and is connected to the M 13mp 19RF DNA of Sma Ⅰ sites (J.Messing & amp; J.Vieira, Gene 19 , 269-276,1982). 将连接的DNA转化到大肠杆菌JM101中并由个别的白斑中分离单股噬菌体DNA。 The ligated DNA was transformed into E. coli JM101 in white by separating the individual single-stranded phage DNA.

7.使用二脱氧(核苷酸方法(MDBiggin,TJGibson &amp; HFHong,Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 80,3963-3965,1983)对每个克隆的分离体的DNA插入片段进行序列分析,以确定多聚插入部分的长度、定向和序列。结果找到一个重组的M13噬菌体,定名为M13.core A,它包含了在成熟的单股DNA中定向为5′→3′的Chi序列的50次串联重复〔即是说该插入片段是多聚(Chi),而不是多聚(Chi的互补序列)〕。 7. Use dideoxy (nucleotide method (MDBiggin, TJGibson & amp; HFHong, Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA 80,3963-3965,1983) DNA insert of each clone was subjected to sequence analysis of isolates, to identify multimeric insertion length, orientation and sequence portion of a result found a recombinant M13 phage named M13.core A, which contains 50 in the mature single-stranded DNA is oriented 5 '→ 3' sequence of Chi In other words, the second tandem repeat [insert is poly (Chi), not poly (Chi complementary sequence)].

8.通过引物伸展方法制备32P标记的单股杂交探针,……实施例11至15五个进一步的新的人工小随体的制备使用上述技术,合成了五个核心序列的进一步的变体,并象M13中的多核心重组体一样进行克隆,得到了M13。 8. A single-stranded hybridization probe was prepared by primer extension 32P-labeled, Examples 11-15 Preparation of five further new artificial minisatellites using the above techniques, synthetic core sequence of five further embodiments of a variant ...... and the multi-core as M13 recombinant clone as obtained M13. 核AF的重组体。 AF of recombinant nuclear. 选择这些核心变体,是基于它们与核心的长度和精确序列两方面都不同。 Choose these core variants, is based on the length and precise sequence of the core they both are different. 表5概括了M13.核心AF克隆的重复序列,并与核心序列和记述在前面实施中已使用过的探针33.5,33.6和33.15作了比较。 Table 5 summarizes the M13. Repeats cloned AF core, and with the core sequence and described in the implementation of the previous probes have been used compared 33.5,33.6 and 33.15. 核心序列中最不易变异的碱基在下面用横线标出。 Core sequence variation of the most difficult bases marked with a line below. 载体M13mp19中的每个插入的定向也已给出(→,插入为多体(核);←,插入为多体(核)的互补序列)。 The directional vector M13mp19 each insert has also been given (→, inserted as multi-body (core); ←, inserted as multi-body (nucleus) of the complementary sequence). 用小写字母给出的碱基表明它与核心序列不同。 Lowercase bases given that it and the core sequence is different. 每个序列的简要特性被概括在“评注”中。 Brief characteristics of each sequence is summarized in the "commentary" on.

实施例16M13.核AF与用HinfⅠ降解的人类DNA的杂交在最初的筛选中,用探针33.15和M13.核AF中的每一个探针与两个非相关个体的DNA降解物杂交。 16M13. Nuclear AF hybridized with human DNA HinfⅠ degradation in the initial screening, a probe 33.15 and M13. Nuclear AF Each probe with two non-related individuals hybridized DNA degradation embodiment. 按照主要实施中所描述的方法,将来自于两个非相关胎盘的8微克DNA样品用HinfⅠ降解,通过0.7%的琼脂糖凝胶电泳,用Southern法转移印渍,并与每一个用32P标记的探针杂交。 Following the procedure described in the main embodiment, will come from two non-related placenta 8 micrograms DNA sample HinfⅠ degradation, by 0.7% agarose gel electrophoresis, transferred by Southern blotting method, and with each one labeled with 32P The probe hybridization. 放射自显影结果见图11。 Autoradiography results shown in Figure 11. 所有探针从每个个体中都检测出了多DNA断片。 All probes are detected from each individual DNA fragments out more.

结果探针B、C和D三者都检测出了在两个个体之间具实质区别的DNA断片的指纹图谱;虽然某些断片被不止一个的探针检出,并在某种程序上与探针33.15所检出的高可变断片系列相覆盖,探针与探针之间的指纹图谱还是有差异。 Results probes B, C and D all of which are detected in individuals with essential difference between the two fragments of DNA fingerprint; although certain fragments detected by more than one probe, and in some programs and 33.15 probes detected with high variable fragment series covering, fingerprints between the probe and the probe is different. 我们由此认为探针B至D都适用于DNA指纹图谱法,并且,它们将一起扩展能从人类和其它脊椎动物中检出的高可变小随体的数目。 We thus believe that the probe B to D are suitable for DNA fingerprinting method, and together they will expand from humans and other vertebrates detected with high variable number of small bodies. 此处的意义在于,用核C获得的成功的指纹图谱,仅包含了核心序列中心部位最为保守的7碱基对片段。 Meaning here is that the successful fingerprint obtained with core C, a core sequence contains only the central portion of the most conserved 7 base pair fragment.

核心的进一步截短产生了具6碱基对重复的核E,它完全改变了 Further truncated core produced a six base pair repeat of nuclear E, it completely changed

DNA指纹图型,揭示出在试验的两个个体中最具共性的一套断片(即:这些断片不呈现极端多形态变异)。 DNA fingerprint patterns, revealing the most common in both the individual trials in a fragment (ie: These fragments do not exhibit extreme polymorphic variation). 因此,核E作为DNA指纹图谱分析的探针,不大可能会象前面用过的探针33.5,33.6和33.15有用。 Therefore, nuclear E as a probe DNA fingerprinting analysis, unlikely as previously used probes 33.5,33.6 and 33.15 useful. 这也表明对于一般的成功的DNA指纹图谱分析来说,实际可行的最小量要求是核心序列的7个碱基对。 It also shows that for the average successful DNA fingerprinting analysis, the practical minimum amount requirement is seven nucleotide core sequence pairs. 核心中心部位最保守区域的分裂(M13.核F),也似乎降低了DNA指纹图型的复杂性和变异性。 Split (M13. Nuclear F) most conserved core region of the central portion, also appears to reduce DNA fingerprint pattern complexity and variability.

M13.核A(poly Chi)产生了一个新的和高密度型的杂交DNA断片。 M13. Nuclear A (poly Chi) produces a new type of high density and hybridizing DNA fragments. 这些断片中的许多都很大(大于15,000碱基)和难于溶解,并很可能从偶然含有HinfⅠ切割点的常规的长随体序列中衍生出来。 Many of these off the film's large (more than 15,000 bases) and difficult to dissolve, and is likely to be derived from the conventional long with sequences containing HinfⅠ accidentally cut point. 有些DNA断片呈现出个体可变异性。 Some DNA fragments showing heterosexual individual variable.

实施例17核A的进一步检测M13.核A的生成型在受神经纤维瘤感染的家族中进行了进一步分析,该家族用探针33.6和33.15也已表现出广泛的特征(参见实施例8和图7)。 Further M13 detected nuclear A of Example 17. A generated in the nuclear family by neurofibromatosis infection were further analyzed in the family with probes 33.6 and 33.15 also showed a wide range of characteristics (see Example 8 and Figure 7). 图12中给出了父亲(父),六个女儿(女)和五个儿子(儿)的DNA HinfⅠ的降解物的DNA指纹图谱。 Figure 12 shows the father (Father), six daughters (female) and five sons (children) of DNA HinfⅠ the degradation of DNA fingerprinting. 受到神经纤维瘤-一种常染色体显性遗传性癌症-感染的个体以“+”标记;受感染母亲的DNA不能得到。 By neurofibromatosis - an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer - infected individuals with a "+" mark; DNA of infected mothers can get. 父系的(·)和母系的(o)分离谱带在图中标明。 Paternal (·) and maternal (o) separating bands marked in the figure. 由实线连接的谱带是相联系的,由虚线连接的谱带为等位基因的分离。 Band connected by a solid line is linked, by a broken line connecting band is separated alleles. 用(×)标记的谱带已在前面用探针33.15检出过。 With (×) mark in front of the band has been detected by the probe 33.15.

结果与用探针33.6和33.15所获得的DNA指纹图谱不同,变异水平相对较低,许多断片被遗传给所有的后代(即:这些断片在人类中很常见,并不稀少,它们常以纯合子状态存在)。 Results and probes 33.6 and 33.15 obtain DNA fingerprints of different mutation levels are relatively low, and many fragments are passed on to all future generations (ie: These fragments are common in humans, is not rare, they often homozygous state exist). 父系的6个杂合子和母系的9个杂合子分离谱带可在11个其血缘关系的子女中得到。 6 heterozygous paternal and maternal heterozygous nine separate bands available in 11 children in their kinship. 父系中的一个谱带和母系中的一个等位基因对的谱带前面已用探针33.15检出过。 In front of a paternal and maternal bands in one allele of the band has been detected with the probe 33.15. 排除等位基因和联系对的谱带后,与前面得到的34个父系和25个母系位占相比较,剩下父系中2个新位点和母系中6个新位点我们在前面既没有用探针33.6、也没有用探针33.15得到过。 After the exclusion of alleles and ties to the band, accounting compared with the previously obtained 34 paternal and maternal 25-bit, and the remaining two in the paternal and maternal new sites in six new sites we have neither in front probe 33.6, did not get through the probe 33.15. 因此,探针poly Chi在人类基因分析中的应用是有限的。 Thus, poly Chi probe used in the analysis of human genes is limited.

实施例16和17的结果证实了前面18页上的主要实施中讨论过并在表5中最上一行用横线标出的九个优势核苷酸的重要性。 The results of Examples 16 and 17 confirm the front of the main embodiment on page 18 and discussed the importance of one row in Table 5 with a line marked advantage nine nucleotides uppermost. 它们对于证实主要实施中做出的预测也极有帮助:即对于一个成功的探针核,六个核苷酸的最小序列是必需的。 They confirmed for the prediction made in the main embodiment is also very helpful: i.e., for a successful probe core, the minimum sequence of six nucleotides is necessary. 因此,核E具最小实用体的典型性,并且,其它的六核苷酸序列也有可能会勉强显示出改进的实用性,如后面讨论的TGGGCA序列。 Therefore, the smallest practical nuclear body E having typical, and, the other six nucleotide sequences also may barely exhibit improved usability, such as the sequence TGGGCA discussed later. 在我们的研究主体中,上升至七个核苷酸是极引人注目的。 In our study the body, up to seven nucleotides is very noticeable.

在定义有用核心序列的实质的尝试中,上述用以表明两种可选择核酸的变异子X和Y,可被有益地扩展到如下述的完全符合逻辑的一组:X=A或G P=非GY=C或T (Q=非A)W=A或T (R=非C)V=C或G (S=非T)(O=任何一个)()=没有被利用下面的讨论中。 In the attempt to define the substance useful core sequence, said means for indicating that the two sub-selectable variation of the nucleic acid X and Y, can be advantageously extended to the full as follows logical group: X = A or GP = non- GY = C or T (Q = Non-A) W = A or T (R = non-C) V = C or G (S = non-T) (O = any) () = not being used in the following discussion.

用这种符号标志,本发明的一个方面可说是包括了一个含有下列重复核序列的多核苷酸:GPGGGCWGGWXG (6)上述当然指明了最具代表性的十二核苷酸序列。 With this sign flag, one aspect of the present invention can be said to comprise a core sequence comprising the following repeating polynucleotide: GPGGGCWGGWXG (6) above of course indicates the most representative twelve nucleotide sequence. 然而,已经表明,七核苷酸的核C也有极大的实用性,为包括这个来自于上列十二核序列的带有“允许的”变异子的七核苷酸,一个方面可说是还包括了一个含有下列七核序列重复的多核苷酸:PGGGCWG (7)当然,P象在核C中一样等于T更为可取。 However, it has been shown that the seven nucleotide core C has also great practicality, from having to include the "allowed" variant sub seven nucleotides, an aspect may be said that the above twelve core sequence is further comprising the following seven core comprising a polynucleotide sequence repeats: PGGGCWG (7), of course, P as in the equal T as in core C is more preferable. 另一最有益的可能性可以是A。 Another possibility may be most beneficial A.

为清楚明晰之故,表3中还指出了百分同性度。 To clear it clear, the table also indicates the percentage of 3 homosexual degrees. 至于本实施中的人工探针,应当注意的是,重复都是严格的重复,所以小随体的同性度总的来说能够用核心序列的同性度表示。 As regards the artificial probes of this embodiment, it should be noted that the repetition is strictly repeated, so the degree of equivalence in general can minisatellite core sequence with a representation of the same sex. 对于前面在括号中已指明同性度的探针33.6,33.15和33.5,这并不是必需严格的。 For the front of the brackets has specified isotropic probe 33.6,33.15 and 33.5 degrees, this is not strictly necessary. 这是由于变异发生于重复之间。 This is due to the variation occurs between duplicate. 核F也许表示了对于实用来说同性度的最小百分数。 Nuclear F may indicate a minimum percentage for homosexual for practical degree. 然而,这种同质性的缺乏也许被存在于核心中的中心组TGGGCA (8)的断裂所夸大。 However, this lack of homogeneity may be present in the core of the central group TGGGCA (8) breaking exaggerated. 值得注意,上组存在于最为成功的探针B、C和D之中,而且在所有不及上述成功的探针A、E和F中被打断。 It is noteworthy that, on the group is present in the most successful probes B, C and D being, but was interrupted in all the above-mentioned less successful probes A, E, and F. 因此可以期望,也许能够得到具式(6)结构的,在全部同性度中最少有70%同性度的更为成功的探针。 Thus it may be desirable, may be able to obtain a formula (6) structure, in all of the same sex in at least 70% more successful probes homosexual degrees.

值得注意,式(8)中的中心六多核苷酸组TGGGCA在核E中也被打断。 It is noteworthy that, of formula (8) in the center of six nuclear polynucleotides TGGGCA E is also interrupted. 尽管从六个到七个核苷酸的长度增加可能证明是一个更具优势的特征,但也许可以期望,上示的六核苷酸的核心序列可能更为成功。 Despite the increase from six to seven nucleotides in length may prove to be an advantage of the features, but perhaps you can expect on the show's six core sequence of nucleotides may be more successful.

因此,本发明的一个方面能够说是包括一个含有核心序列TGGGCA重复的多核苷酸。 Accordingly, one aspect of the present invention can be said to comprise a core comprising a polynucleotide sequence TGGGCA repeated.

更一般地说,本发明能够说是包括这样一个方面,一种根据上述“首次”定义的,序列TGGGCA存在于所有重复序列中的多核苷酸。 More generally, the present invention can be said to include such an aspect, a method based on the "first" definition, the sequence TGGGCA is present in all repeats in a polynucleotide.

从另一方面看起来,本发明能够说是包括一种对于上述“首次”定义的多核苷酸的修饰,该多核苷酸中“核心”代表一个从式(2)给出的序列中选择出来的,以同样的5′→3′方向阅读的至少六个连续核苷酸的序列;即使所有的单位都包含序列TGGGCA,“核心”在每一个重复单位中并不必需具有相同的序列。 On the other hand it seems, the present invention can be said for a polynucleotide sequence comprising a modification of the above-mentioned "first" definition, the polynucleotide in the "core" represents a from formula (2) given selected from , at least six consecutive nucleotides in the same 5 '→ 3' direction of reading; even if all units contain the sequence TGGGCA, "core" in each repeating unit is not required to have the same sequence.

最好每个单位的剩余基因团,在整个单位长度的范围内,具有与式(6)(或最好是式(2)的顺序的至少70%的同系性。 Preferably the remaining groups of each unit of the gene, within the scope of the whole unit length, having the formula (6) (or preferably of formula (2) is at least 70% sequence homology.

分娩中双胞胎接合性的测定对双胞胎接合性的测定是十分重要的,不仅仅是用在流行病学,遗传学和产科医学的研究方面,而且也用于区别单合子双生儿和双合子双生儿的预测上,单合子双生儿或同卵双生儿一般与双合子双生儿相比较,是诞生时体重更轻些,更易患上并发症,其死亡率也较高些。 Childbirth twin zygosity Determination of zygosity of twins is very important, not just for use in research, epidemiology, genetics and obstetric medicine, but also for the difference between monozygotic twins and double homozygous twins The forecast, single zygote twins or monozygotic twins generally double homozygous twins compared to lighter weight at birth is more, more prone to complications, the mortality rate is higher more. 在白种人的新生双胞中有30%左右是异性的,因此,也就是双合子双胞,对胎盘膜的检查发现有20%的案例是单卵膜的,而这些正是单合子的,剩余的50%,总是在人口当中保持不变的比例,有同性的,具有双羊膜双卵壳的胎盘,而有可能或是单合子或是双合子的。 There's newborn twins in Caucasians in about 30% of the opposite sex, and therefore, it is the double homozygous twins, examination of the placental membranes found that 20% of cases a single egg membrane, which is the single zygote , the remaining 50% is always kept at a constant ratio among the population, have the same sex, having a double shell amniotic dizygotic placenta, and it is possible to double or single zygote or zygote. 在这些案例中,人们已经采用了各种各样的方法去测定接合性。 In these cases, people have been using a variety of methods to engage sex determination. 其中包括对一般外貌的评价,指纹鉴别,皮肤移植,味觉试验和测定遗传标志物。 These include the general appearance of the evaluation, fingerprint identification, skin grafts, taste testing and determining the genetic markers. 后者方法是最可靠的方法,并具有95-98%的准确率。 The latter method is the most reliable method, and has a 95-98% accuracy rate. 由于大多数蛋白质和抗原变种的较低的平均异型接合性,因此,就需要对上述的标志物进行大量的调研。 As most protein and antigen variants of lower average heterozygosis, therefore, it is necessary for the above-mentioned markers extensive research.

在下列实例中,用上述的小随体DNA探查物,对十二组新生双胞胎的DNA进行检验,从所取得的DNA“指纹图谱”显示了在个体之间的这样变异性,即只有单合子双生儿才显出相同的模式。 In the following examples, the above minisatellite DNA probes, the group of twelve newborn twins tested DNA, DNA from the acquired "fingerprint" shows such variability between individuals that only a single zygote twins only show the same pattern. 在七组案例中,其中用性别观测或胎盘检查的手段去测定接合性,DNA结果与上述的测定结果是一致的。 In the case of seven groups, wherein by means of sex observation or placental examination to zygosity determination results and measurement results are consistent with the above-described DNA. 在其余的五对双生子中,用两组的三联体DNA分析能够很快测定出其接受性。 In the remaining five pairs of twins, triplets with two sets of DNA analysis can be quickly determined its acceptance. 因此,据本发明的DNA探查物能够提供一个基因试验,对所有的多产怀孕情况进行接合性的正测定。 Thus, DNA probes according to the present invention can provide a genetic testing, all joined prolific pregnancy of positive determination.

例18用单链DNA探查物33.6和33.15对十二组新生双胞胎进行接合性的测定,其结果在表6详述。 Example 18 A single-stranded DNA probes 33.6 and 33.15 pairs of twelve groups of newborn twins are joined to obtain the results detailed in Table 6.

表6例妊娠时间性别 Table 6 cases of pregnancy time sex 胎盘形式 Placenta form DNA模式1 38周 女女 单卵壳 相同2 38周 男女 双卵壳 非等同3 30周 男男 双卵壳 相同4 33周 女女 单卵壳 相同5 40周 女女 双卵壳 非等同6 37周 男女 双卵壳 非等同7 32周 女女 双卵壳 相同8 34周 男女 双卵壳 非等同9 39周 男男 双卵壳 非等同10 38周 男女 双卵壳 非等同11 27周 男男 双卵壳 相同12 35周 女男 双卵壳 非等同 DNA Mode 1 female singles eggshell 38 weeks 38 weeks 2 are the same for men and women of non-identical twin eggshell male 30 weeks 3 doubles eggshell female singles 4 are the same 33 weeks 40 weeks 5 As the egg shell egg shell non-identical female doubles 637 Zhou eggshells non-identical twin men 7 32 weeks as in the eighth female doubles eggshell egg shell 34 weeks of non-identical twin men 9 39 weeks male doubles eggshell non equal to 10 men and women 38 weeks of non-identical twin egg shell 27 weeks 11 male doubles 12 is identical egg shell egg shell 35 weeks of non-identical female doubles 所有的胎盘都是双羊膜的把分娩时抽取的脐带生命维持线的血样或是在产后从每个婴儿身上抽取的周缘血样(0.5-1.0毫升),用于DNA提取法中检查胎盘以测定它们是单羊膜或是双羊膜的,以及卵壳。 All of the placenta are double amniotic childbirth life support extracted umbilical cord blood, or in the postpartum extracted from each of the babies periphery blood (0.5-1.0 ml) was used for DNA extraction method checks to determine their placenta is a single or double amniotic amnion, and egg shells. 用标准的方法(Old,JM,Higgs,DRGene analgsis.In:DJWeatherall,ed,The Thalassaemias.Methods in Haematology,Churchill Livingstone,1983)去提取DNA,并把10-15微克用Hinf Ⅰ去消化。 By standard methods (Old, JM, Higgs, DRGene analgsis.In:DJWeatherall,ed,The Thalassaemias.Methods in Haematology, Churchill Livingstone, 1983) to extract DNA, and to use the Hinf Ⅰ 10-15 micrograms to digest. 把样品通过一个22厘米长的0.6%琼脂糖凝胶,在45伏下经受~36个小时的电泳,一直到有<1.5Kb长的DNA片段已电泳出这凝胶。 The sample through a 22 cm long 0.6% agarose gel at 45 volts is subjected to electrophoresis to 36 hours, until there is <1.5Kb long DNA fragment which has a gel electrophoresis. 通过在硝化纤维素过滤器中吸干,转移出DNA,并在真空中80℃温度下烘干两个小时。 By blotting on the nitrocellulose filter, the transfer DNA, and dried in vacuo at a temperature of 80 ℃ two hours. 这单链的DNA探查物,33.15和33.6,用前面已述的32p标记。 This single-stranded DNA probes, 33.15 and 33.6, with the previously mentioned 32p mark.

其结果在图13中表示。 The results are shown in Figure 13.

在图13中,线1,2显示了在案例1中每个双生子的DNA带模式,其中采用了33.6单链小随体探查物。 In Figure 13, line 1 and 2 show in each case a twin DNA band patterns, which uses the 33.6 single-stranded minisatellite probes. 线3-19显示了用单链33.15探查物所得的“指纹图谱”:案例1,线3,4;案例2,线5,6;案例3,线7,8;案例4,线9,10;案例5,线11,12;案例6,线13,14;案例7,线15,16。 Line 3-19 shows a single-stranded probe 33.15 resultant of "fingerprint": Case 1, lines 3 and 4; Case 2, lines 5 and 6; Case 3, lines 7-8; Case 4, line 9, 10 ; Case 5, 11 and 12; Case 6, line 13, 14; Case 7, line 15, 16. 线17-19是雌(女)性-雄(男)和雌(女)性的三个三胞胎。 Lines 17-19 are female (female) sex - male (M) and female three triplets (female) nature. 把线1和线2与线3和线4进行比较,显示出即两个探查物,33.6和33.15,检测不同组的小随体带,其中的标志物大小用干碱基表示。 The lines 1 and 2 and the line 3 and line 4, it shows that is, two probes, 33.6 and 33.15 detect different sets of minisatellite band, wherein the marker indicates the size of a dry base.

在7个案例中(请阅表6),通过对双生儿的性别和胎盘膜的检查,能够容易地测定出其接合性,所有具有单卵膜的(或单羊膜的)胎盘(例如,案例1)都是单合子的,虽然只有大约50%的单合子的双生子具有单卵膜的胎盘(2)。 In seven cases (please read Table 6), by examination of the sex of the twins and the placental membrane, can be easily measured its bondability, all films having a single egg (or a single amnion) placenta (e.g., case 1) are monozygotic, although only about 50% of monozygotic twins of monozygotic film having a placenta (2). 因此,案例1中的双胞胎必须是单合子,而且用33.15和33.6探查物时却显示出相同的DNA模式(图1)。 Therefore, in case 1 must be monozygotic twins, but also with the 33.15 and 33.6 probes Shique showed the same DNA pattern (FIG. 1). 在5个案例中,双胞胎具有不同的性别,而且用33.15和33.6探查物时显示出不同的区带模式。 In five cases, twins have different sex and showed different band patterns time by 33.15 and 33.6 probes. 在案例3,5,7,9和11中,双胞胎具有相同性别,并有双卵膜的胎盘,因此,它们可能或是单合子或是双合子。 In the case of 3,5, 7,9, and 11, the twins of the same sex and placental dizygotic film, therefore, they may be either single or double homozygous zygotic. 通过DNA分析显示了两组双胞胎(案例5和9)有不同的区带模式,而且,因此是双合子的,然而在另外的三组双胞胎中(案例3,7和11)则有相同的区带模式,且显示了单合子。 By DNA analysis revealed two sets of twins (cases 5 and 9) had different band patterns, and therefore is a two zygotes, but in the other three groups of twins (cases 3, 7 and 11) will have the same area band mode, and shows a single zygote.

对两组新生的三胞胎进行了类似的研究,在这两个案例中,母亲服了致育药物,以有益于受精怀孕,而每组三胞胎显示了单一的区带模式(例如,线17-19,图13)。 For two newborn triplets conducted a similar study, in both cases, the mother served the cause fertility drugs to conceive a child benefit, and each set of triplets show a single zone model (for example, line 17-19, FIG. 13).

试验结果在图14中表示,图中的线1和2显示了采用单链33.15的结果,而线3和4显示了采用双链33.15的结果。 The test results indicated in Fig. 14, Fig. 1 and line 2 shows the results using single stranded 33.15, and lines 3 and 4 show the results using double stranded 33.15.

例19虽然单链的探查物或双链的探查物足于做出自己的诊断,然而更多的区带是通过更有放射活性的单链探查物进行区别的(图14)。 Example 19 Although the single-stranded or double-stranded probes probes sufficient to make its own diagnosis, but is performed more zones distinguished by a more radioactive single-stranded probes (Figure 14).

作为这些单链探查物的替代物,我们已经调查出采用相应的双链探查物的可能性,它们在大多数的实验室中被人们所熟悉的。 As an alternative to these single-stranded probes we have investigated the possibility of using the corresponding double-stranded probes, which are in most laboratories is the familiar. 被人们采用的双链DNA探查物有ⅰ)、双链600bp pst I-Aha Ⅲ片段,它含有自λ33.15的“核心”小随体和ⅱ)、双链720 bp Hae Ⅲ片段,它含有自λ33.6的“核心”小随体。 Been used in double-stranded DNA probes have ⅰ), double-stranded 600bp pst I-Aha Ⅲ fragment containing the "core" minisatellite and ⅱ), double-stranded 720 bp Hae Ⅲ self λ33.15 fragment, which contains Since λ33.6 "core" minisatellite. 这些都被缺口转译(nick-trans(ation)标记为特殊活性0.5-1.0×109Cpm32p/ug DNA。予杂交和杂交条件如上述的已知的标准方法中所讲述的一样,只是在这双链探查物的杂交缓冲液中,采用了1×SSC和10%葡聚糖硫酸盐。在65℃温度的1×SSC中洗涤这些滤器,并用增感屏在-70℃温度下射线自显影1-3天。 These are nick-translation (nick-trans (ation) labeled specific activity 0.5-1.0 × 109Cpm32p / ug DNA. As hybridization and hybridization conditions as described above by standard methods known to those described, but in this double-stranded probe hybridization buffer substance, using a 1 × SSC and 10% dextran sulfate at a temperature of 65 ℃ of 1 × SSC and washed in the filter with an intensifying screen at a temperature of -70 ℃ ray autoradiography 1-3 days.

对例18和19的探讨在7个案例中,人们可以独立地测定出接合性,其中DNA结果和用观察性别以及检查胎盘的方法所得到的结果是一致的。 Examples 19 to 18 and discussed in 7 cases, one can independently measured bondability, wherein the DNA results and the results with observed sex and placental examination method obtained are consistent. 在另外的5对中,可以用小随体探查物明确测定出接合性,同样地,对两组三胞胎的研究也显示出三合子。 In other five pairs, you can use minisatellite probes clear bondability measured, in the same manner, two sets of triplets study also showed three zygote.

在50%的案例中,不能用不同性别(双合子)或单卵膜胎盘(单合子)去测定出接合性,因此,必须采用基因分析法,这种试验所提供的资料与调研中的在基因地点(genetic loci)上的变形质的范围成正比的,并也与试验的地点的数目成正比。 In 50% of cases, can not use a different gender (double homozygous) or single egg membrane placenta (monozygotic) to engage determined, therefore, must be used genetic analysis method, this test with the information provided in the survey deformation qualitative gene locations (genetic loci) on the scope of proportional, and also proportional to the number and location of the test. 用多红细胞抗原和酶能够以95-98%的精确率测定出接合性,但这必须事先知道人口中的有关等位基因频率。 With multiple red cell antigen and enzyme capable of 95-98% accuracy for determination of the zygosity, but must be known about the population allele frequency. (Nylander,PPSThe phenomenon of twinning.In:Barron,SL,Thomson,AMeds.Obstetrical Epidemiology.London Academic press,1983∶143-165)。 (Nylander, PPSThe phenomenon of twinning.In:Barron,SL,Thomson,AMeds.Obstetrical Epidemiology.London Academic press, 1983:143-165). 同样地,用几种不同的DNA探查物进行对多方限制内切酶部位多形质的分析,能出现值得注意的百分比例的单接受性的“假阳性”诊断。 Likewise, several different DNA probes for analysis of restriction enzyme cutting site within the multi-polymorphism, and can occur noteworthy single acceptance percentage embodiment of "false positive" diagnosis. (Derom,C,Bakker,E.,Vlitineck,R.,Derom,R.,Van der Berghe,H.,Thiery,M.,Pearson,P.Zygosity determination in newborn twins using DNA Variants.J.Med.Genet.1985,22∶279-282)。 (Derom, C, Bakker, E., Vlitineck, R., Derom, R., Van der Berghe, H., Thiery, M., Pearson, P.Zygosity determination in newborn twins using DNA Variants.J.Med.Genet .1985,22:279-282). 据本发明的小随体探查物解决了这个问题,这是因为检测到超可变DNA片段的大量的变异性。 Minisatellite probes according to the present invention solves this problem, because a large amount of variability is detected hypervariable DNA fragments. 正如前述,在任意选择的个体之间,很少能共同具有杂交的小随体片段(也与图13中的无关联的个体比较)。 As mentioned above, optionally between individuals, rarely have in common that hybridizes minisatellite fragments (compare also with Fig. 13 unrelated individuals). 上述显示了即用两个能检测出不同组的超可变地点的探查物33.6和33.15显示相同DNA指纹图谱的两个不相关联的个体之差异是极大的(P<<10-18,见例4)。 Above shows that the two can be detected by probes 33.6 hypervariable sites of different groups of individuals and 33.15 show the difference between two identical DNA fingerprinting is not associated with significant (P << 10-18, see Example 4). 在共同享有大约它们一半片段的亲族中,遗传一致性的这样“假阳性”诊断的可能性是<10-8。 About half of them in fragments, to enjoy the family of the possibility of genetic uniformity of such a "false positive" diagnosis is <10-8. 因此,联用单链杂交探查物33.6和33.15能提供比前述的基因试验更大为精确的结果。 Thus, combined with single-stranded hybridization probes 33.6 and 33.15 provides greater than the aforementioned gene assay for accurate results. 甚至使用不能与一些由单链探查物检测的更虚弱的区带杂交的更常规的双链小随体探查物(图14),能从DNA指纹图谱取得足够的情报以降低“假单接合性”率到<10-4。 More conventional double-stranded small even can not be used with some of the more weak region detected by single-stranded probes hybridized with minisatellite probes (FIG. 14), from DNA fingerprints to obtain sufficient information in order to reduce the "Pseudomonas bondability "rate to <10-4.

这种测定接合性方法的另一个优点是在分析时只需用少量的样品。 Another advantage of this method of zygosity determination is in the analysis of only a small amount of sample. 半毫升的周缘血或脐带血总能提供足够用的DNA。 Half ml of blood or cord blood periphery always provide sufficient with DNA. 用这种可能的简单方法,对新生的和出生后生长着的双胞胎和三胞胎进行接合性测定,使得更精确的对不同类型的多产怀孕的决定因素和作用的流行病学的研究成为可能。 Research in this simple way possible, neonatal and postnatal growth of twins and triplets joined assay, making it more precise determinants of different types of pregnancy and the role of prolific epidemiological become possible.

在下列实例中,在射线自显影中没有给出标志物分子量,但另一方面,其有效范围是1.5~20Kb。 In the following examples, the ray autoradiography molecular weight markers are not shown, but on the other hand, the effective range is 1.5 ~ 20Kb.

在法医学上应用DNA指纹图谱用小随体探查物33.6和33.15能测定出DNA指纹图谱的个体的特性,因此,在法医学上它是可适用于个体鉴别的理想的方法。 Application of DNA fingerprinting in forensic science with minisatellite probes 33.6 and 33.15 can be measured individual characteristics of DNA fingerprints, therefore, it is desirable in the forensic method applicable to individual authentication. 问题的疑难点在于DNA是否以完全没有退化的形式生存于,例如在干血或精液污斑中,以便能够分析DNA指纹图谱分析。 Difficult point of the problem is whether the DNA did not survive in the form of degradation, such as dried blood or semen stains in order to be able to analyze DNA fingerprint analysis. 为了对法医学分析样品的可能性测定的研究,已由在Aldermaston的内政部中心研究机构的Peter Gill博士进行有关DNA样品的小型研究。 In order to study the possibility of measuring the forensic analysis of samples, small studies have been conducted about the DNA samples at the Ministry of the Interior Dr. Peter Gill Aldermaston central research institutions.

例20在Gill博士进行DNA提取以前,把沾有干凝血和精液污斑的布,在室温下存放几个不同的时间(上述DNA提取是在1摩尔DNA存在下用SDS溶胞,接着用苯酚提取并用乙醇沉淀)。 Example 20 DNA extraction before Dr. Gill, stained with dry cloth coagulation and semen stains, several different times (the above-mentioned DNA extraction stored at room temperature was treated with SDS lysis in the presence of 1 mole of DNA, followed by phenol extracted and precipitated with ethanol). 同样地,可从新鲜头发根中提取DNA,而且从性交前和后所取的阴道化验标本液中提取DNA,用Hinf 1消化DNA样品,用0.8%葡聚糖凝胶进行电泳并用硝化纤维素滤器进行处理,使用我们上述的标准技术把标记32p的单链探查物33.15进行杂交。 Similarly, can be extracted from fresh hair roots in DNA, and from vaginal swabs were taken before sexual intercourse and after the extraction of DNA, DNA samples were digested with Hinf 1, with 0.8% dextran gel electrophoresis with nitrocellulose filter processing, using our standard technique described above to single-stranded 32p labeled probes were hybridized 33.15.

进行电泳的样品是:1.40微升精液污斑在布料上,4周时间。 The samples were subjected to electrophoresis: 1.40 microliters of semen stains on the fabric, four weeks time.

2.40微升新鲜清液。 2.40 microliters of fresh serum.

3.60微升新鲜血液。 3.60 microliters of fresh blood.

4.60微升血斑在布料上,4周时间。 4.60 microliters of blood stains on the fabric, four weeks time.

5.60微升血斑在布料上,2年时间。 5.60 microliters of blood stains on the cloth, two years.

6.15毛发根NB、1-6从同一个人中取的。 6.15 hair root NB, 1-6 taken from the same individuals.

7.60微升血斑在布料上,男的,新鲜的。 7.60 microliters of blood stains on the cloth, male, fresh.

8.从11抽取的阴道化验标本液,与7性交后一个小时。 8. 11 from vaginal swabs were extracted, and sexual intercourse after 7 an hour.

9.如同8,但是在性交后7个小时。 9. As 8, but seven hours after intercourse.

10.从11抽取的阴道化验标本液。 10. From the 11 vaginal swabs were extracted.

11.60微升血斑在布料上,女的,新鲜的。 11.60 microliters of blood stains on the cloth, woman, fresh.

所取得的DNA指纹图谱在图15中表示。 The DNA fingerprints obtained are shown in Figure 15. 从每个样品中提取足够用于分析的DNA(~0.5~3微克)。 Sufficient to extract from each sample analyzed DNA (~ 0.5 ~ 3 [mu] g) used. 保存直至2年的干血斑和保存直至1年的干精液斑中的DNA并没有退化。 Save up to two years of dry blood spots and save up to one year in a dry spot semen DNA and no degradation. 它的DNA指纹图谱与同一个人体中的新鲜血液和新鲜精液所取得的DNA指纹图谱是相同的。 It's with the same DNA fingerprint of a human body in fresh blood and fresh semen achieved the same DNA fingerprint. 同样地,能从少至15根头发根中取得DNA指纹图谱。 Similarly, from as few as 15 to obtain the root hairs of DNA fingerprinting.

从性交后抽取的阴道化验标本液中也同样提供了没有退化的DNA指纹图谱。 Vaginal swabs were extracted from the post-coital also provided no degradation of DNA fingerprinting. 然而,化验标本模式主要是与妇女的血模式相匹配,而不是与男的血模式相匹配,这一点说明即从化验标本中收集到的大多数DNA是来自抽取标本时剥离下来的阴道上皮细胞中,而不是来自精液中。 However, swabs mode mainly matches the pattern of women's blood, rather than match the male blood pattern, which is collected from the assay described i.e. to most DNA samples are peeled off from the samples taken when the vaginal epithelial cells rather than from semen. 然而在性交后的样品中也能检测到三个另外的非女性区带。 However, in the post-coital samples can be detected in three additional non-female zone. 这些区带与这男人的血的基本区带是相匹配的,而且肯定是从精液中衍生出来的。 These zones basic area and this man's blood is matched with, and certainly derived from semen out. 这样的区带能从性交后7个小时的样品中检测出来。 Such a zone from seven hours after intercourse samples detected.

讨论:这些初步的结果表明了,在各种的法医学的样品中DNA是能保持原样地保存下来。 Discussion: These preliminary results show that, in a sample of a variety of forensic DNA is able to be preserved intact. 因此,用于鉴别用途的DNA指纹图谱至少在某些法医学样品中是可取的。 Thus, for purposes of identification of DNA fingerprints in at least some forensic samples is desirable. 例如,从受害者衣服上的精液污斑的分析,可以对强奸犯进行正鉴别。 For example, from the analysis of semen stains on the victim's clothes, you can make a positive identification of the rapist. 由于阴道内DNA的污染,因此,从强奸受害者中抽取的阴道化验标本的分析情况也不那么肯定了;然而,在用2-DTT或巯基乙醇作为媒介对精子进行用于分离精子DNA的还原以前,用sds溶胞作用除掉这女的DNA,将形成清晰的精子DNA指纹图谱。 Because the vagina DNA contamination, therefore, drawn from analysis of the situation of rape victims in the vaginal swabs is not so sure; however, with a 2-DTT or mercaptoethanol as a medium for the isolation of sperm to restore sperm DNA Previously, sds lysis with this woman to get rid of DNA, to form a clear sperm DNA fingerprinting. 因此,用精液污斑和/或阴道化验标本的DNA指纹图谱分析将能鉴别出强奸犯。 Thus, semen stains, and / or vaginal swabs for DNA fingerprint analysis will be able to identify the rapist.

从Gill博士最近的研究结果进一步证实了,采用前述的基本分离技术,能从性交后抽取的阴道化验标本中取得清晰的精子DNA的“指纹图谱”。 From Dr. Gill Recent findings further confirmed using the aforementioned basic separation technique, after extracting from sexual intercourse in the vaginal swabs made clear sperm DNA "fingerprint."

图15A显示了从两个性交后6.5个小时抽取的阴道化验标本中取得的DNA指纹图谱(线3),其中线1显示了从男配偶的血样品中取得的指纹图谱,线2显示了从女配偶的血中取得的DNA指纹图谱,阴道化验样本中女的细胞核在基本保温的SDS/蛋白酶K混合物中完全溶胞。 Figure 15A shows the two from 6.5 hours after intercourse vaginal swabs in the extracted DNA fingerprints obtained (line 3), in which line 1 shows the blood sample obtained from the male partner's fingerprint, line 2 shows the transition from Blood female spouse acquired DNA fingerprinting, vaginal specimens in woman nuclei in basic insulation SDS / proteinase K lysis mixture completely. 精子核是不受这种处理的影响的,因此,能通过离心作用从女的组分中分离出来。 Sperm nuclei are not affected by such treatment, and therefore, separation by centrifugation from a fraction woman out. 然后把精子核用SDS/蛋白酶K/DTT混合物,进行溶胞处理。 Then the sperm nuclei with SDS / proteinase K / DTT mixture were lysed treatment.

这种分离过程显然是完全成功的。 This separation process is clearly completely successful. 从含有精液的阴道化验样本中取得的精子DNA指纹图谱,与从男配偶血中取得的指纹图谱是完全吻合的。 Obtained from vaginal specimens containing semen sperm DNA fingerprints obtained from the male spouse and blood fingerprints are completely consistent.

使用人类小随体探查物取得有重要经济价值动物的DNA指纹图谱实例21-25:从狗,猫,羊,猪,马和牛的血中制取DNA样品,用适当的限制核酸内切酶(Hinf Ⅰ,除非另外指出)消化8微克的样品,在用苯酚提取后,用乙醇沉淀重新取得限制消化液,用水再次溶解这限制消化液,在0.7%葡聚糖凝胶中电泳,进行变性,转移到Schleicher-Schuell硝化纤维素滤器中,然后如前述,用32p标记的人类小随体探查物33.6或33.15进行杂交。 Achieved with the use of human body small probes economically important animal DNA fingerprinting instance 21-25: from blood dogs, cats, sheep, pigs, horses and cattle to take DNA samples prepared with the appropriate restriction endonuclease ( Hinf Ⅰ, unless otherwise indicated) 8 micrograms of digested samples, after extraction with phenol, precipitated with ethanol regain restriction digestion, re-dissolved water which limits digest electrophoresed on a 0.7% dextran gel, denatured, transferred to a Schleicher-Schuell nitrocellulose filter and then as described above, with 32p-labeled human minisatellite probes 33.6 or 33.15 hybridization.

例21.狗用探查物33.6所取得的狗科的DNA指纹图谱是表示于图16中,电泳过的样品是:线1:比哥(Beagle)父狗线2:灵提(Greyhound)母狗线3,4,5:是以上两条狗配偶所生的“Greagle”后代幼犬(雌,雄,雌)象从人类的DNA衍生出来的复杂的DNA指纹图谱那样,从每条狗所取得的DNA指纹图谱也是复杂的。 Example 21. The dog made with probes 33.6 Section dog DNA fingerprinting is shown in Figure 16, the sample is too electrophoresis: Line 1: beagle (Beagle) parent Dog Line 2: Greyhound (Greyhound) Bitch line 3,4,5: It is more than two dogs born spouse "Greagle" offspring puppy (female, male, female) as derived from the human DNA out of the complex as DNA fingerprinting, made from each dog DNA fingerprinting is also complex. 与从父狗和母狗所取得的模式相比较(线1,2),这些DNA指纹图谱是有实质性的变异性。 And from the parent dogs and bitches achieved compared to a pattern (line 1), these DNA fingerprints are substantial variability. 所有这三条幼犬有不同的DNA指纹图谱,但每种案例都有能追溯到父狗和/或母狗的区带。 All three puppies have different DNA fingerprints, but each case has a dog can be traced back to the parent and / or bitch zone. 因此,这些DNA指纹图谱就象用在人类上一样,能适用于狗的父性鉴别化验和谱系分析。 Therefore, these DNA fingerprinting as used on humans, dogs can be applied to identify the paternity testing and pedigree analysis.

在样品1-3中的DNA是稍有退化,由此最好是降低最大区带的强度(最慢地移动),尽管有这样的退化,但仍然能容易地测定出从父体和母体到幼犬的区带的传导。 DNA in the sample 1-3 is slightly degraded, thereby preferably reducing the strength of the largest zone (the slowest moving), despite this degradation, but still can be easily determined from the matrix to the parent body and conduction bands of puppies.

例22 猫图17显示了用探查物33.6(左)和探查物33.15(右)测定的短毛家猫科的DNA指纹图谱。 Example 22 Figure 17 shows a cat with probes 33.6 (left) and probes 33.15 (right) measured in domestic shorthair feline DNA fingerprinting.

线1:母猫线2:父猫线3:猫仔探查物33.6和33.15都生成了信息的DNA指纹图谱。 Line 1: Line 2 cat: Patriofelis Line 3: cats probes 33.6 and 33.15 are generated DNA fingerprint information. 猫仔的大多数区带,能从父系或母系中获得,因此,这些DNA指纹图谱是适用于谱系分析以及对猫的个别鉴别。 Most area with cats, and from the paternal or maternal obtained, therefore, they are suitable for DNA fingerprinting analysis and individual identification of pedigree cats.

例23 羊用探查物33.6(左)和探查物33.15(右)能从各种的羊中取得DNA指纹图谱,并于图18中表示,样品有:线1:杂交繁育雌羊线2:杂交繁育雌羊线3:多尔塞特(Dorset)雌羊线4:汉普夏(Hampshire)×多尔塞特(Dorset)雌羊线5:多尔塞特雄羊可以用两种探查物从每个羊中取得它的DNA指纹图谱,这些DNA指纹图谱比人类的DNA指纹图谱更虚弱些,而且没有那么复杂,但仍然可适用于鉴别和遗传方面的用途。 Example 23 sheep using probes 33.6 (left) and probes 33.15 (right) made from a variety of sheep DNA fingerprinting, and in Figure 18 that the sample are: Line 1: cross-breeding female sheep Line 2: Hybrid Sheep breeding female line 3: Dorset (Dorset) female sheep line 4: Hampshire (Hampshire) × Dorset (Dorset) female sheep line 5: Dorset can use two male sheep from probes Each sheep get its DNA fingerprinting, DNA fingerprinting those weaker than human DNA fingerprints of these, but not so complicated, but still applicable to the identification and genetic aspects of the applications. 用探查物33.6除了比较虚弱的区带以外,还检测每只羊中的1个或2个比较强的多形的区带,这些区带是从单个的小随体地点衍生出来的,而这个地点偶而显示了对探查物33.6的高程度的同系性。 33.6 In addition to using probes with relatively weak area, it also detects each sheep in one or two relatively strong polymorphic bands, these bands are derived from a single minisatellite place out, and this Location occasionally shows a high degree of 33.6 probes homology.

例24 猪和马图19显示了从三个不同的猪(线1-3)和三个不同的马(线4-6)〔性别和品种没有具体说明〕的DNA指纹图谱。 Example 24 Pigs and horses Fig. 19 shows the transition from three different pigs (lines 1-3) and three different horses (lines 4-6) [Sex and breed not specified] DNA fingerprints. 对于每个种类来说,探查物33.6和33.15能生成具有个体-特性的DNA指纹图谱。 For each species, the probes 33.6 and 33.15 can generate a self - characteristic DNA fingerprinting. 这些DNA指纹图谱,特别是采用探查物33.15的,与人类的DNA指纹图谱相比较,就显得虚弱而且更少的区带。 These DNA fingerprinting, especially the use of probes 33.15 and with human DNA fingerprinting compared, it becomes weak and fewer bands. 但是,尽管如此,联用这两种探查物仍然适用于个体的鉴别工作。 However, despite this, combined with the two probes is still applicable to the individual identifications.

例25 牛图20显示了从奶牛科和其他牛种,用探查物33.6所取得的Hinf Ⅰ DNA消化液的DNA指纹图谱,样品如下:〔线1 人类〕线2 母牛线3 父牛线4 1和2的小牛线5 安格斯(Angus)公牛线6 弗雷希安(Fresian)公牛正象用羊,猪和马的情况一样,从上述每个动物中所取得的DNA指纹图谱是相当简单的,但却有其个体特性的。 Example 25 Figure 20 shows the cattle from cows and other cattle families with probes made 33.6 Hinf Ⅰ DNA digestion of DNA fingerprinting, the sample is as follows: [1] Human wire line 2 line 3 Parent cow cow line 4 1 and line 2 of 5 Angus calves (Angus) bull line 6 Frey Shia (Fresian) Just as with the case of sheep, bulls, pigs and horses, as these animals from each acquired DNA fingerprinting is fairly simple, but has its own individual characteristics.

图21显示了把探查物33.15用在相同的牛中,DNA的结果,个体的曲线如下标注:1.母牛 Figure 21 shows the probe used was 33.15 in the same cow, the results of DNA, the individual curves marked as follows: 1 Cow

2.父牛(公)3.1和2生下的小牛4.安格斯公牛5.弗雷希安公牛〔6 人类〕用探查物33.15生成了在Hinf Ⅰ消化的牛的DNA中的强烈的和复杂的杂交DNA区带的模式,在一个Bg|Ⅱ消化液中,这强烈信号主要是由很大的DNA片段所限制,比如,这信号是从成群的顺序或区,很可能是常规的随体DNA中衍生出来的。 2. Father of cattle (male) 3.1 and 2 4. Angus bull calf born Shia 5. Fred Bull [6] with human probes generated 33.15 Hinf Ⅰ digestion in cattle DNA in a strong and hybridized DNA complex zone patterns, in a Bg | Ⅱ digest, this intense signal is mainly limited by the large DNA fragment, for example, this signal is derived from the order in groups or zones, may be a conventional The satellite DNA derived out. 对这HinfⅠ消化液的短射线自显影暴露,显示了指向凝胶底部的区带的“阶梯”,而每梯级之间的周期性是45-50碱基对(没有显示数据),因而这强烈的信号,很可能是从其重复的单位是45-50碱基对长的随体中衍生出来的。 These short-ray HinfⅠ digestive juices autoradiography exposed, showing the point at the bottom of the gel bands of the "ladder" and periodically between each rung is 45-50 bp (data not shown), and thus it is strongly signals, is likely to be from repeating units of 45-50 base pairs in length derived from the satellite. 这种强烈信号在用PVV Ⅱ,Dde Ⅰ或Alu Ⅰ消化的奶牛的DNA中大量受到破坏。 Such a strong signal in the DNA of dairy cows with PVV Ⅱ, Dde Ⅰ or Alu Ⅰ digest large number damaged. 比如这随体DNA重复的单位,对于每个限制核酸内切酶含有1个或更多的部位,但不是对于Hinf Ⅰ或Bgl Ⅱ而言的。 For example, this satellite DNA repeat unit, for each restriction endonuclease comprising one or more nucleic acid site, but not for the purposes of Hinf Ⅰ or Bgl Ⅱ. 这些正是1.720奶牛随体的性质(E.Poschl和REStreek “Profotype sequence of bovine 1.720 Satellite DNA”J.Mol.Biol.143,147-153;1980),这随体是由46碱基对重复的单位的100,000纵列重复组成的。 These are precisely the nature of 1.720 cows with body (E.Poschl and REStreek "Profotype sequence of bovine 1.720 Satellite DNA" J.Mol.Biol.143,147-153; 1980), which along with the body by 46 bp repeat 100,000 units consisting of tandem repeats. 把这1.720重复的单位和33.6探查物重复的单位以及探查物33.15重复的单位进行比较,情况如下: Repeat this 1.720 units and 33.6 probes repeating units and repeating units 33.15 probes are compared, as follows:

由此能见到,1.720随体重复的单位包含核心重复的3′区的较完善的复制(上式用*表示),在1.720重复中的这个区与33.15的重复单位相匹配,但对于33.6来说则匹配的不佳,这点就能说明了为什么1.720随体DNA能由探查物33.15所检测,而不是由探查物33.6所检测(图20),这1.720随体重复单位(象肌红蛋白λ33小随体的重复单位)在核心的每一边上,含有太多的核苷酸(在式(1)中的H+J>15>担当据本发明的多地点探查物的作用。 Thus can be seen, 1.720 satellite repeat unit contains a more complete copy of the core repeat 3 'region (the above formula by *), in the region in the 1.720 repeat unit and 33.15 repeat matches, but 33.6 for the match is poor, this can explain why 1.720 satellite DNA is detected by the probes can be 33.15, and not detected by probes 33.6 (FIG. 20), which is 1.720 satellite repeat unit (like myoglobin repeating unit proteins λ33 minisatellite) on each side of the core, contains too many nucleotides (in the formula (1) in the H + J> 15> play a role in multi-site probes according to the present invention.

为了检测与探查物33.15杂交的奶牛小随体,把奶牛DNA用Alv Ⅰ或Dde Ⅰ进行消化,使1.720随体还原成将从凝胶底部电泳掉的46碱基对的单体,图21显示了,从小牛DNA(第3号)中为这些限制内切酶取得了消除的DNA指纹图谱,然而,几乎所有这些区带是从1.720随体DNA的变种阻断中衍生出来的,并嵌入到正常1.720DNA,其中在每个重复中已经丧失了Alv Ⅰ和Dde Ⅰ(约许是用上述的用划底线表示的一个或其他的突变,它将破坏Alv Ⅰ和Dde Ⅰ部位的重迭)。 In order to detect hybridization with probes 33.15 minisatellite cows, the cows with Alv Ⅰ DNA or Dde Ⅰ digestion, so with the body is reduced to 1.720 from the bottom of the gel electrophoresis of 46 base pairs away monomer Figure 21 shows , and from calf DNA (No. 3) was achieved within these limits enzymes eliminate DNA fingerprints, however, almost all of these bands are derived from 1.720 satellite DNA variants of blocking out and embedded into normal 1.720DNA, wherein in each repetition has lost Alv Ⅰ and Dde Ⅰ (perhaps about one or other of the above-described mutations indicated by underlining, it will undermine Alv Ⅰ and Dde Ⅰ parts overlap). 这将由下列事实来说明:a.事实上用Alv Ⅰ和Dde Ⅰ能取得相同的小牛DNA指纹图谱。 This is explained by the following facts:. A fact with Alv Ⅰ and Dde Ⅰ Mavericks can get the same DNA fingerprint.

b.最大的片段总是比更小的片段具有更强烈的杂交(因为他们含有相应的更多的1.720随体重复的单元;最大的小牛DNA片段含有这些单位中的440个)。 . b The largest fragment is always smaller fragments than a stronger hybridization (as they comprise the corresponding more 1.720 satellite repeat units; the largest calf DNA fragment containing these units in 440). 在人体中,区带强度不是连续地随着大小高增加的。 In humans, zone strength than continuously increases with the size of the high.

c.几乎所有的小牛DNA指纹图谱片段被Hha Ⅰ所切断,它在1.720重复的单位中一次切断(请见上述,没有显示数据)。 c. Almost all of the calf DNA fingerprint fragments are Hha Ⅰ by cutting, it is 1.720 repeating units once cut off (see above, data not shown).

d.这父牛(第2号)在Alv Ⅰ消化液中几乎没有杂交片段,这提示了含有这些变种重复阻断的1.720随体DNA的区已在这动物中缺失了。 d. This parent cow (No. 2) in Alv Ⅰ digestive almost no hybridizing fragments, suggesting that the region containing these variant repeat blocking 1.720 satellite DNA has been deleted in this animal.

e.这母牛(第1号)和小牛(第3号)的DNA指纹图谱是近似相同,这母牛对缺失可能是杂合的,这缺失与在公(父)牛中所看到的是一样的,而且已偶而地把这非缺失的染色体(即所有的区带)传导到这小牛上,因而,所有这些区带是相连接的,不能象在人体中所发生的那样,自由地传导到下一代中。 e. This cow (No. 1) and Dallas (No. 3) is approximately the same DNA fingerprint, which might be the missing cows heterozygous deletions and see it in public (the parent) in cattle is the same, and has occasionally to this non-deleted chromosome (i.e., all of the zones) which is conducted to the calf, and therefore, all of these bands are connected, can not be like that occur in humans as, freely transmitted to the next generation.

然而,所有五条进行试验的牛显示了不同的“随体”DNA指纹图谱模式,而且,这些异乎寻常型别的指纹图谱可以用于个体鉴别方面,虽然并不是用于提供多地点标志物信息。 However, all five cattle tested show different "satellite" DNA fingerprint pattern, and that these exotic types other fingerprint identification can be an individual, although not intended to provide multi-site marker information.

人们可以成功地操作使用某些探查物,其中在式(1)中n不需要等于3。 One can successfully operate the use of certain probes, wherein in the formula (1) n does not equal 3. 在这样的探查物中,至少有一对(J.核心(Core).K)的重复能够从至少两个不含有核心的DNA顺序的其他重复中分离。 In such probes, at least one pair (J. core (Core) .K) can be separated from the other repeating at least two non-repeated DNA sequence containing core. 因此,能够构成足够长的探查物,其中被“非核心”DNA顺序所分离的(J.Core.K)顺序成对地排列。 Thus, can be constructed sufficiently long probes, which were "non-core" DNA sequence of the isolated (J.Core.K) sequentially arranged in pairs.

International ClassificationC12Q, C12Q1/68, C12N15/00, G01N33/50, C12N15/09
Cooperative ClassificationC12Q1/6888, C12Q1/6876, C12Q2600/156, C12Q2600/172, C12Q1/683
European ClassificationC12Q1/68M, C12Q1/68B6A, C12Q1/68M10
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