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Publication numberCN101228091 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200680026516
PCT numberPCT/US2006/028276
Publication date23 Jul 2008
Filing date19 Jul 2006
Priority date22 Jul 2005
Also published asCN101228092A, EP1907316A1, US7679812, US8149497, US8218229, US20070019923, US20100147790, US20100149627, WO2007013992A1
Publication number200680026516.7, CN 101228091 A, CN 101228091A, CN 200680026516, CN-A-101228091, CN101228091 A, CN101228091A, CN200680026516, CN200680026516.7, PCT/2006/28276, PCT/US/2006/028276, PCT/US/2006/28276, PCT/US/6/028276, PCT/US/6/28276, PCT/US2006/028276, PCT/US2006/28276, PCT/US2006028276, PCT/US200628276, PCT/US6/028276, PCT/US6/28276, PCT/US6028276, PCT/US628276
Inventors克拉伦斯·徐, 杰弗里·B·桑普塞尔, 笹川照夫, 苏里亚·普拉卡什·甘蒂, 马尼什·科塔里
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Support structure for MEMS device and methods thereof
CN 101228091 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
一种微机电系统装置,其具有由被保护材料包围的牺牲材料所形成的支撑结构。 A MEMS device having a support structure surrounded by a sacrificial material is formed of the protective material. 所述微机电系统装置包含上面形成有电极的衬底。 The MEMS device includes a substrate having electrodes formed thereon. 另一电极通过腔与所述第一电极分离,并形成可移动层,所述可移动层被由牺牲材料形成的支撑结构支撑。 The other electrode through the first chamber and the movable electrode layer supported by a support structure formed by the sacrificial material separation, and forming a movable layer.
Claims(51)  translated from Chinese
1.一种微机电系统装置,其包括: 衬底,其上面形成有第一电极层; 第二电极层,其通过腔与所述第一电极层间隔开;以及至少一个支撑结构,其具有由保护材料包围的侧表面,所述保护材料防止所述侧表面暴露于所述腔,其中所述至少一个支撑结构经配置以支撑所述第二电极层。 1. A MEMS device comprising: a substrate, formed thereon a first electrode layer; a second electrode layer, the opening through which the cavity with the first electrode layer spacing; and at least one support structure having a side surface surrounded by the protective material, the protective material prevents the side surface is exposed to the cavity, wherein said at least one support structure configured to support the second electrode layer.
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15.一种微机电系统装置,其包括: 衬底,其上面形成有第一电极层;第二电极层,其通过腔与所述第一电极层间隔开;以及至少一个支撑结构,其具有由保护材料包围的侧表面,所述保护材料防止所述侧表面暴露于所述腔,其中所述至少一个支撑结构经配置以支撑所述第二电极层。 15. A MEMS device comprising: a substrate, formed thereon a first electrode layer; a second electrode layer, the opening through which the cavity with the first electrode layer spacing; and at least one support structure having a side surface surrounded by the protective material, the protective material prevents the side surface is exposed to the cavity, wherein said at least one support structure configured to support the second electrode layer. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构形成于所述第一电极层上且所述保护材料是自平面化材料。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure is formed on the first electrode layer and the protective material is a self-planarizing material. 根据权利要求2所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述保护材料包括光致抗蚀剂。 MEMS device according to claim 2, wherein the protective material comprises photoresist. 根据权利要求2所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述保护材料包括旋涂电介质。 MEMS device according to claim 2, wherein the protective material comprises spin-on dielectric. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述保护材料进一步覆盖所述支撑结构的顶表面的至少一部分,其中所述保护材料的一部分定位于可移动层与所述支撑结构的所述顶表面之间。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein the protective material covering at least a further portion of the top surface of the support structure, wherein a portion of said protective material is positioned in the movable layer and the support structure between the top surface. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述第二电极层经配置为可移动的。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein the second electrode layer is configured to be movable. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构由顶表面上的所述第二电极层与所述侧表面上的所述保护材料的组合囊封。 The MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure by a combination of said protective material on top of the upper surface of the second electrode layer and the side surface of the encapsulation. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述保护材料具有在约500人到1微米范围内的厚度。 The MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein the protective material has a thickness in the range of about 1 to 500 microns. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构包括无机材料。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure comprises an inorganic material. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构包括选自由硅、钼、钨和钛组成的群组的材料。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, and the group consisting of titanium. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构包括具有直线侧表面的钼。 A MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure comprises a straight side surface molybdenum. 根据权利要求11所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述第一电极层具有暴露于所述腔的介电顶表面。 MEMS device according to claim 11, wherein the first electrode layer is exposed to said cavity having a dielectric top surface. 根据权利要求12所述的微机电系统装置, 根据权利要求12所述的微机电系统装置, 根据权利要求12所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述介电顶表面包括二氧化硅。 A MEMS device according to claim 12, MEMS device according to claim 12, MEMS device according to claim 12, wherein the dielectric top surface comprises silica. 其中所述介电顶表面包括A1203。 Wherein the dielectric top surface includes A1203. 其中所述第二电极层包括暴露于所述腔的铝表面。 Wherein the second electrode layer comprises aluminum surface exposed to the cavity.
16. 根据权利要求1所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构可相对于所述保护材料进行选择性蚀刻。 16. The MEMS device according to claim 1, wherein said at least one support structure relative to the protective material may be selectively etched.
17. 根据权利要求16所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述至少一个支撑结构可由二氟化氙蚀刻。 17. The MEMS device according to claim 16, wherein said at least one support structure may be xenon difluoride etch.
18. 根据权利要求l所述的微机电系统装置,其进一步包括:显不器;处理器,其与所述显示器电连通,所述处理器经配置以处理图像数据; 存储器装置,其与所述处理器电连通。 18. The MEMS device according to claim l, further comprising: a substantially non; a processor electrically communicating with said display, said processor being configured to process image data; a memory means, with the in electrical communication with said processor.
19. 根据权利要求18所述的微机电系统装置,其进一步包括:驱动器电路,其经配置以向所述显示器发送至少一个信号。 19. The MEMS device according to claim 18, further comprising: a driver circuit configured to send at least one signal to the display.
20. 根据权利要求19所述的微机电系统装置,其进一步包括:控制器,其经配置以向所述驱动器电路发送所述图像数据的至少一部分。 20. The MEMS device of claim 19, further comprising: at least a part of the controller, configured to transmit the image to the driver circuit data.
21. 根据权利要求18所述的微机电系统装置,其进一步包括:图像源模块,其经配置以向所述处理器发送所述图像数据。 21. The MEMS device of claim 18, further comprising: an image source module configured to send said image data to said processor.
22. 根据权利要求21所述的微机电系统装置,其中所述图像源模块包括接收器、收发器和发射器中的至少一者。 22. A MEMS device according to claim 21, wherein the image source module includes a receiver, transceiver, and transmitter at least one.
23. 根据权利要求18所述的微机电系统装置,其进一步包括-输入装置,其经配置以接收输入数据并向所述处理器传送所述输入数据。 23. The MEMS device of claim 18, further comprising - an input device configured to receive input data to said processor transferring said input data.
24. —种制造干涉式调制器装置的方法,其包括:提供衬底,所述衬底具有形成于所述衬底上的第一电极层; 用保护材料包围至少一个支撑结构;以及在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之后在所述第一电极层与可移动层之间产生腔。 24. - The method of manufacturing an interferometric modulator device, comprising: providing a substrate, said substrate having a first electrode layer is formed on the substrate; protective material surrounding the at least one support structure; and surrounds After the support structure at least one cavity produced between the first electrode layer and the movable layer.
25. 根据权利要求24所述的方法,其进一步包括在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之前在所述第一电极层上沉积牺牲材料以及在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之后形成所述可移动层,其中产生所述腔包括在形成所述可移动层之后选择性移除所述保护材料外的所述牺牲材料。 25. The method according to claim 24, further comprising, prior to the at least one support structure surrounding said sacrificial material is deposited on the first electrode layer, and after at least one of said support structure surrounding said movable layer wherein said cavity comprises generating, after forming the movable selectively removing the protective layer of the material of the outer sacrificial material.
26. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中形成所述可移动层完成所述至少一个支撑结构的囊封。 26. The method according to claim 25, wherein the movable layer is formed to complete the encapsulate at least one support structure.
27. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中所述牺牲材料包括选自由硅、钼、钨、钛和光致抗蚀剂组成的群组的材料。 27. The method according to claim 25, wherein the sacrificial material comprises a material selected from the group consisting of silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, and the photoresist composition of the group.
28. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中包围包括:在沉积所述牺牲材料之后在所述牺牲材料中蚀刻至少一个环形开口;以及用所述保护材料填充所述至少一个环形开口以包围所述至少一个支撑结构。 28. The method according to claim 25, wherein the surround comprises: after depositing the sacrificial material is etched at least one annular opening in the sacrificial material; and said protective material is filled with at least one of said annular opening to enclose the said at least one support structure.
29. 根据权利要求28所述的方法,其进一步包括在选择性移除所述保护材料外的所述牺牲材料之后移除所述保护材料。 29. The method according to claim 28, further comprising selectively removing the protective material is removed after the sacrificial material outside of said protective material.
30. 根据权利要求29所述的方法,其中通过灰化移除所述保护材料。 30. The method according to claim 29, wherein said removing by ashing the protective material.
31. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其进一步包括在沉积所述牺牲材料之前在所述第一电极层上沉积介电材料。 31. The method according to claim 25, further comprising, before depositing the sacrificial material on the first electrode layer is deposited a dielectric material.
32. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其进一步包括在选择性移除所述牺牲材料之前在所述可移动层中形成开口。 32. The method according to claim 25, further comprising selectively removing the sacrificial material prior to forming an opening in the movable layer.
33. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中所述至少一个支撑结构由所述牺牲材料形成。 33. The method according to claim 25, wherein said at least one support structure is formed by the sacrificial material.
34. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中所述支撑结构由容易受到所述牺牲材料的选择性移除影响的材料形成。 34. The method according to claim 25, wherein said support structure by a material easily affected by selective removal of the sacrificial material being formed.
35. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中所述支撑结构和所述牺牲材料的选择性移除的部分容易通过相同蚀刻剂移除。 35. The method according to claim 25, wherein said support structure and selectively removing portions of the sacrificial material is easily removed by the same etchant.
36. 根据权利要求35所述的方法,其中所述蚀刻剂为二氟化氙。 36. The method according to claim 35, wherein the etchant is xenon difluoride.
37. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中所述保护材料具有在所述牺牲材料厚度的1/2 到2倍范围内的厚度。 37. The method according to claim 25, wherein said protective material has a thickness within the range of the sacrificial material thickness of 1/2 to 2 times.
38. 根据权利要求25所述的方法,其中选择性移除包括使用二氟化氙进行蚀刻。 38. The method according to claim 25, wherein the selectively removing comprises using xenon difluoride etching is performed.
39. 根据权利要求24所述的方法,其进一步包括在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之前在所述第一电极层上沉积牺牲材料并在所述牺牲材料上形成所述可移动层,其中产生所述腔包括选择性移除所述保护材料外的所述牺牲材料。 39. The method according to claim 24, further comprising, prior to the at least one support structure surrounding said sacrificial material is deposited on the first electrode layer and said movable layer is formed on the sacrificial material, which produces the cavity comprises selectively removing the material of the outer protective sacrificial material.
40. 根据权利要求39所述的方法,其进一步包括在沉积所述牺牲材料之后蚀刻所述可移动层。 40. The method according to claim 39, further comprising, after depositing the sacrificial material is etched the movable layer.
41. 根据权利要求40所述的方法,其进一步包括在蚀刻所述可移动层之后在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之前蚀刻所述支撑结构周围的所述牺牲材料,其中蚀刻所述牺牲材料使用经定时的蚀刻工艺。 41. The method according to claim 40, further comprising, after etching the movable layer surrounds said at least one of said support structure surrounding said etching sacrificial material prior to the support structure, wherein etching the sacrificial material timing-etch process.
42. 根据权利要求40所述的方法,其中蚀刻所述可移动层包括在所述可移动层中蚀刻多个孔口,且蚀刻所述牺牲材料包括移除所述多个孔口下的所述牺牲材料。 42. The method according to claim 40, wherein the movable layer etching comprises etching a plurality of apertures in the movable layer, and etching the sacrificial material comprises removing said plurality of apertures being under said sacrificial material.
43. 根据权利要求40所述的方法,其中包围所述至少一个支撑结构包括-在蚀刻所述可移动层和所述牺牲层之后在所述可移动层上沉积平面化材料并将所述平面化材料沉积到所述腔内;以及蚀刻所述平面化材料以包围所述至少一个支撑结构。 43. The method according to claim 40, wherein the at least one enclosing said support structure comprises - after etching the movable layer and the sacrificial layer and the planarizing material is deposited on the movable plane layer depositing material to said cavity; and etching said planarizing material to surround the at least one support structure.
44. 根据权利要求43所述的方法,其进一步包括在产生所述腔之后移除所述平面化材料。 44. The method of claim 43, further comprising removing the planarizing material after generating said cavity.
45. —种制造微机电系统装置的方法,其包括-提供衬底,其上面形成有第一电极层; 在所述第一电极层上沉积牺牲层; 在所述牺牲层中形成至少一个环形孔; 填充所述环形孔;在填充所述环形孔之后在所述牺牲层上沉积第二电极层;以及在沉积所述第二电极层之后移除环形孔外的所述牺牲层。 45. The - method of manufacturing a MEMS device, comprising - providing a substrate, a first electrode layer formed thereon; depositing a sacrificial layer on the first electrode layer; forming at least one ring in the sacrificial layer filling the annular hole;; hole after filling the annular hole in the sacrificial layer is deposited on the second electrode layer; and removing the sacrificial layer outside annular hole after depositing the second electrode layer.
46. 根据权利要求45所述的方法,其中填充所述环形孔包括在所述环形孔中沉积保护材料。 46. The method according to claim 45, wherein filling the annular hole comprises depositing a protective material in the annular hole.
47. 根据权利要求46所述的方法,其中所述保护材料为自平面化材料。 47. The method according to claim 46, wherein said protective material is a self-planarizing material.
48. 根据权利要求46所述的方法,其中所述牺牲层容易通过蚀刻剂进行蚀刻,且所述保护材料对通过相同蚀刻剂进行的蚀刻具有抵抗性。 48. The method according to claim 46, wherein the sacrificial layer is easily etched by an etchant, and etching the protective material by the same etchant resistant to.
49. 根据权利要求48所述的方法,其中所述蚀刻剂是二氟化氙。 49. The method according to claim 48, wherein the etchant is xenon difluoride.
50. 根据权利要求46所述的方法,其中所述牺牲层包括无机材料。 50. The method according to claim 46, wherein the sacrificial layer comprises an inorganic material.
51. 根据权利要求50所述的方法,其中填充所述环形孔包括在所述环形孔中沉积保护材料,且所述无机材料选自由硅、钼、钨和钛组成的群组,且所述保护材料包括光致抗蚀剂。 51. The method according to claim 50, wherein the filling the annular hole comprises depositing a protective material in the annular hole, and the inorganic material is selected from the group consisting of silicon, molybdenum, tungsten, and the group consisting of titanium, and the protective material comprises a photoresist.
Description  translated from Chinese

用于MEMS装置的支撑结构及其方法相关申请案的交叉春者本申请案主张2005年7月22日申请的第60/702,080号美国临时申请案的权利。 Cross spring by the support structure and a method for MEMS device RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims the rights of US Provisional Application of July 22, 2005 Application No. 60 / 702,080. 技术领域本发明的领域涉及微机电系统(microelectromechanical system, MEMS)。 TECHNICAL FIELD The present invention relates to microelectromechanical systems (microelectromechanical system, MEMS). 更具体来说,本发明的领域涉及干涉式调制器和制造具有用于移动层的支撑件的此种干涉式调制器的方法。 More specifically, the present invention relates to interferometric modulators and a method of manufacturing such a support member for moving the layer of the interferometric modulator. 背景技术微机电系统(MEMS)包含微机械元件、激活器和电子元件。 BACKGROUND micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. 可使用沉积、蚀刻和/或其它蚀刻去除衬底和/或己沉积材料层的部分或者添加层以形成电装置和机电装置的微加工工艺来产生微机械元件。 May be created using deposition, etching, and / or other etching away the substrate and / or have deposited material layers or that add layers to form micro-processing technology electrical equipment and electromechanical devices to generate the micromechanical element. 一种类型的MEMS装置称为干涉式调制器。 One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. 如本文所使用,术语干涉式调制器或干涉式光调制器指的是一种使用光学干涉原理选择性地吸收且/或反射光的装置。 As used herein, the term interferometric modulator or interferometric light modulator refers to a method of using the principles of optical interference selectively absorbs and / or reflects light. 在某些实施例中,干涉式调制器可包括一对导电板,其中之一或两者可能整体或部分透明且/或具有反射性,且能够在施加适当电信号时进行相对运动。 In certain embodiments, an interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both may be integral or partially transparent and / or reflective, and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. 在特定实施例中, 一个板可包括沉积在衬底上的固定层,且另一个板可包括通过气隙与固定层分离的金属薄膜。 In a particular embodiment, one plate may comprise a deposited layer on a substrate is fixed, and the other plate may comprise a stationary layer by an air gap separating the metal thin film. 如本文更详细描述, 一个板相对于另一个板的位置可改变入射在干涉式调制器上的光的光学干涉。 As described in greater detail herein, the position of one plate in relation to another can change the plate is incident on the interferometric modulator optical interference of light. 这些装置具有广范围的应用,且在此项技术中,利用且/或修改这些类型装置的特性使得其特征可被发掘用于改进现有产品和创建尚未开发的新产品,将是有益的。 These devices have a wide range of applications, and in the art to utilize and / or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products not yet developed, would be useful. 发明内容本发明的系统、方法和装置各具有若干方面,其中任何单个方面均不仅仅负责其期望的属性。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The system of the present invention, a method and apparatus each have several aspects, no single aspect which are not responsible for its desirable attributes. 在不限定本发明范围的情况下,现将简要论述其较突出的特征。 Do not limit the scope of the invention in the case, it will now be briefly discussed its more prominent features. 考虑此论述之后,且尤其在阅读题为"具体实施方式"的部分之后,将了解本发明的特征如何提供优于其它显示装置的优点。 After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading section entitled "Description of Embodiments" will understand how the features of the present invention provide advantages over other display devices. 一实施例提供一种微机电系统装置,其包含上面形成有第一电极层的衬底、第二电极以及至少一个支撑结构。 Embodiment provides a microelectromechanical systems device comprising a first electrode layer formed above the substrate, a second electrode and at least one support structure one embodiment. 第二电极通过腔与所述第一电极层间隔开。 A second electrode located apart from the first electrode through the chamber layer. 所述至少一个支撑结构具有由保护材料包围的侧表面,所述保护材料防止所述侧表面暴露于所述腔。 Said support structure having at least one side surface surrounded by the protective material, the protective material prevents the side surface is exposed to the cavity. 所述至少一个支撑结构经配置以支撑所述第二电极层。 At least one support structure configured to support the second electrode layer. 根据另一实施例,提供一种制造干涉式调制器装置的方法。 According to another embodiment, there is provided a method of manufacturing an interferometric modulator device. 提供衬底。 Providing a substrate. 所述衬底具有形成于所述衬底上的第一电极层。 Said substrate having a first electrode layer formed on the substrate. 用保护材料包围至少一个支撑结构。 With a protective material surrounds at least a support structure. 在包围所述至少一个支撑结构之后在所述第一电极层与可移动层之间产生腔。 After surrounding said at least one support structure generating chamber between the first electrode layer and the movable layer. 根据又一实施例,提供一种未释放的干涉式调制器装置。 According to yet another embodiment, there is provided an apparatus for the interferometric modulator does not release. 所述未释放的干涉式调制器装置包含上面形成有第一电极层的衬底、上覆在所述第一电极层上的牺牲层,以及可移动层。 The interferometric modulator does not release means comprises a first electrode layer formed above the substrate, overlying the first electrode layer on the sacrificial layer, and a movable layer. 牺牲层包含由保护材料包围的至少一个支撑结构,所述保护材料在支撑结构的整个侧壁表面上。 Sacrificial material surrounded by a protective layer comprising at least one support structure, the protective material on the entire surface of the side wall of the support structure. 可移动层位于牺牲层上。 Movable layer is located on the sacrificial layer. 根据另一实施例,提供一种制造微机电系统装置的方法。 According to another embodiment, there is provided a method for manufacturing a MEMS device. 提供衬底。 Providing a substrate. 在衬底上形成第一电极层。 The first electrode layer is formed on the substrate. 在所述第一电极层上沉积牺牲层。 Depositing a sacrificial layer on the first electrode layer. 在所述牺牲层中形成至少一个环形孔并接着填充所述环形孔。 Forming at least one annular aperture in the sacrificial layer and subsequently filling the annular hole. 在填充所述环形孔之后在所述牺牲层上沉积第二电极层。 After filling the annular hole depositing a second electrode layer on the sacrificial layer. 在沉积所述第二电极层之后移除环形孔外的牺牲层。 Removing the sacrificial layer outside annular hole after deposition of the second electrode layer. 附图说明从以下描述和附图(未按比例)中将容易明了本发明的这些和其它方面,附图希望说明而不是限制本发明,且其中:图1是描绘干涉式调制器显示器的一个实施例的一部分的等角视图,其中第一干涉式调制器的可移动反射层处于松弛位置,且第二干涉式调制器的可移动反射层处于激活位置。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION from the following description and drawings (not to scale) of the present invention will be readily apparent These and other aspects, drawing hope illustration and not limitation of the present invention, and wherein: Figure 1 is a graph depicting an interferometric modulator display an isometric view of a portion of an embodiment, wherein a first interferometric modulator movable reflective layer is in a relaxed position and a second interferometric modulator movable reflective layer in the active position. 图2是说明并入有3X3干涉式调制器显示器的电子装置的一个实施例的系统方框图。 Figure 2 is a block diagram of a system incorporating an embodiment of an electronic device 3X3 interferometric modulator display. 图3是图1的干涉式调制器的一个示范性实施例的可移动镜位置对所施加电压的图。 Figure 3 is a movable mirror position one exemplary interferometric modulator of FIG. 1 embodiment of the applied voltage. FIG. 图4是可用于驱动干涉式调制器显示器的一组行和列电压的说明。 Figure 4 is a set of rows can be used to drive an interferometric modulator display and column voltage. 图5A说明图2的3X3干涉式调制器显示器中的显示数据的一个示范性帧。 5A illustrates one exemplary frame of Figure 2 3X3 interferometric modulator display the display data. 图5B说明可用于对图5A的帧进行写入的行和列信号的一个示范性时序图。 5B illustrates one exemplary timing diagram can be used to write the frame of FIG. 5A row and column signals. 图6A和6B是说明包括多个干涉式调制器的视觉显示装置的实施例的系统方框图。 6A and 6B are system block diagram showing an embodiment of the apparatus comprises a plurality of interferometric modulators visual display. 图7A是图l的装置的横截面。 7A is a cross-sectional diagram of the device l. 图7B是干涉式调制器的替代实施例的横截面。 7B is a cross-sectional view of an alternative embodiment of an interferometric modulator embodiment. 图7C是干涉式调制器的另一替代实施例的横截面。 7C is another alternative interferometric modulator cross-section of an embodiment. 图7D是干涉式调制器的又一替代实施例的横截面。 7D is an interferometric modulator cross section of yet another alternative embodiment. 图7E是干涉式调制器的额外替代实施例的横截面。 7E is an interferometric modulator cross section of an additional alternative embodiment. 图8A-8C和8E-8H是说明根据一实施例的具有由牺牲材料形成的支撑结构的干涉式调制器的工序的横截面。 Figure 8A-8C and 8E-8H are according to the procedure described by the sacrificial material having a support structure for an interferometric modulator embodiment of the cross-section. 图8D是在图8A-8C和8E-8H中所示实施例的牺牲材料中在图8C所示阶段形成的开口的俯视图。 8D is a plan view of an opening in Fig. 8A-8C and sacrificial material in the embodiment in FIG 8E-8H stage shown in Fig. 8C is formed. 图9是根据另一实施例形成的干涉式调制器的横截面。 Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view of an interferometric modulator formed in accordance with another embodiment. 图IOA、 IOC和IOD是说明形成根据另一实施例形成的干涉式调制器的工序的横截面。 Figure IOA, IOC and IOD is formed according to the procedure described another embodiment of an interferometric modulator formed a cross-section. 图IOB是根据又一实施例形成的干涉式调制器的横截面。 Figure IOB is a cross-sectional view of an interferometric modulator formed in accordance with yet another embodiment. 图11A-11C是根据另一实施例形成的干涉式调制器的横截面。 Figure 11A-11C is another cross-section according to the embodiment interferometric modulator embodiment is formed. 图12A、 12C和12E-12H是说明根据又一实施例的干涉式调制器的制造中某些步骤的横截面。 FIG. 12A, 12C and 12E-12H is a diagram illustrating an interferometric modulator according to still another embodiment of the manufacture of the cross-section of some of the steps. 图12B、 12D和12I是说明在图12A、 12C和12E-12H的制造过程中某些阶段的干涉式调制器的俯视图。 FIG. 12B, 12D and 12I are illustrated in FIG. 12A, 12C and 12E-12H manufacturing process interferometric modulator plan view certain phases. 具体实施方式以下详细描述针对本发明的某些特定实施例。 The present embodiment is directed to certain specific embodiments of the invention are described in detail below. 然而,本发明可以许多不同方式实施。 However, the present invention may be embodied in many different ways. 在本描述中参看了附图,在整个附图中相同部分用相同标号表示。 Referring to the drawings in this description, the same parts throughout the drawings are denoted by like reference numerals. 如从以下描述中将了解,所述实施例可实施在经配置以显示不论运动(例如,视频)还是固定(例如,静止图像)的且不论文本还是图画的图像的任何装置中。 As will be understood from the following description, the embodiments may be implemented in any device that is configured to display whether the movement (for example, video) or stationary (eg, still image) and not paper this is a picture of the image. 更明确地说,预期所述实施例可实施在多种电子装置中或与多种电子装置关联,所述多种电子装置例如(但不限于)移动电话、无线装置、个人数据助理(PDA)、手提式或便携式计算机、GPS接收器/导航器、 相机、MP3播放器、摄像机、游戏控制台、手表、时钟、计算器、电视监视器、平板显示器、计算机监视器、汽车显示器(例如,里程表显示器等)、座舱控制器和/或显示器、 相机视图的显示器(例如,车辆中后视相机的显示器)、电子相片、电子广告牌或指示牌、投影仪、建筑结构、包装和美学结构(例如,关于一件珠宝的图像的显示器)。 More specifically, for example, may be implemented in a variety of electronic devices, or associated with a variety of electronic devices, a variety of electronic devices such as (but not limited to) mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDA) is contemplated that the embodiments , hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers / navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (eg, mileage Table display, etc.), cockpit controls and / or displays, display of camera views (for example, a vehicle rear view camera display), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures ( For example, an image of a piece of jewelry on display). 具有与本文中描述的装置类似的结构的MEMS装置也可用于例如电子切换装置的非显示器应用中。 MEMS device having means similar to those described herein can also be used such as the structure of the electronic switching means non-display applications. 根据优选实施例,干涉式调制器显示器具有由牺牲材料形成的支撑结构(例如,柱)。 According to a preferred embodiment, an interferometric modulator display having a sacrificial material forming a support structure (e.g., column). 支撑结构形成于充当牺牲层的同一材料层中,所述层经选择性蚀刻以形成干涉式调制器的光学腔。 The support structure acts as a sacrificial layer is formed on the same layer, the layer was selectively etched to form an interferometric modulator of the optical cavity. 环形开口在平面牺牲层中打开并填充有保护材料。 Annular opening open and filled with a protective material in the plane of the sacrificial layer. 保护材料(且视需要为上覆的机械层)防止在牺牲材料的"释放"蚀刻期间移除包围的牺牲材料。 Protective material (and if necessary, to the overlying mechanical layer) to prevent removal of enclosed material during the etching sacrificial "release" the sacrificial material. 受保护的牺牲材料接着充当用于机械层或可移动层的支撑件,且包围的保护材料可保留在适当位置或随后移除。 Sacrificial material protected then acts as a mechanical layer or support removable layer of protective material and surrounded may remain in place or subsequently removed. 图1中说明包括干涉式MEMS显示元件的一个干涉式调制器显示器的实施例。 Illustrated in Figure 1 includes an interferometric MEMS display an interferometric modulator display embodiment of the element. 在这些装置中,像素处于明亮状态或黑暗状态。 In these devices, the pixels are in either a bright or dark state. 在明亮("接通"或"开启")状态下,显示元件将入射可见光的大部分反射到用户。 In bright ("on" or "open") state, the display element reflects a large portion of incident visible light to a user. 当在黑暗("断开"或"关闭")状态下时, 显示元件将极少的入射可见光反射到用户。 When in the dark ("off" or "closed") state, the display element will be little incident visible light to the user. 依据实施例而定,可颠倒"接通"和"断开" 状态的光反射性质。 Depending on the embodiment may be reversed "on" light reflectance properties and "off" states. MEMS像素可经配置而主要在选定的颜色处反射,从而允许除了黑白显示以外的彩色显示。 MEMS pixels can be configured in the main color of the selected reflection, allowing a color display in addition to black and white display. 图l是描述视觉显示器的一系列像素中的两个相邻像素的等角视图,其中每一像素包括MEMS干涉式调制器。 Figure l is an isometric view depicting a visual display of a series of pixels of two adjacent pixels, wherein each pixel comprises a MEMS interferometric modulator. 在一些实施例中,干涉式调制器显示器包括这些干涉式调制器的一行/列阵列。 In some embodiments, an interferometric modulator display comprises the interferometric modulators row / column array. 每一干涉式调制器包含一对反射层,其定位成彼此相距可变且可控制的距离以形成具有至少一个可变尺寸的谐振光学间隙。 Each interferometric modulator includes a pair of reflective layers positioned at a variable and controllable distance from each other a distance to form a resonant optical gap with at least one variable dimension. 在一个实施例中,可在两个位置之间移动所述反射层之一。 In one embodiment, one of the reflective layers may be moved between two positions. 在第一位置(本文中称为松弛位置)中,可移动反射层定位成距固定部分反射层相对较大的距离。 In the first position (referred to herein as the relaxed position), the movable reflective layer is positioned from a fixed partially reflective layer, relatively large distances. 在第二位置(本文中称为激活位置)中,可移动反射层定位成更紧密邻近所述部分反射层。 (Herein referred to as the actuated position) in the second position, the movable reflective layer is positioned more closely adjacent to the partially reflective layer. 视可移动反射层的位置而定,从所述两个层反射的入射光相长地或相消地进行干涉,从而为每一像素产生全反射状态或非反射状态。 Depending on the position of the movable reflective layer, depending on the reflection of incident light from the two layers relative to long or destructively interfere, resulting in total reflection state or non-reflective state for each pixel. 图1中像素阵列的所描绘部分包含两个相邻干涉式调制器12a和12b。 As depicted in Figure 1 of the pixel array interferometric modulator section contains two adjacent 12a and 12b. 在左侧干涉式调制器12a中,说明可移动反射层14a处于距包含部分反射层的光学堆叠16a预定距离处的松弛位置中。 In the interferometric modulator 12a on the left, a movable reflective layer 14a in the optical distance stack comprising a partially reflective layer 16a in a relaxed position at a predetermined distance from the. 在右侧干涉式调制器12b中,说明可移动反射层14b处于邻近于光学堆叠16b的激活位置中。 In the interferometric modulator 12b on the right, the movable reflective layer 14b is in an actuated position adjacent to the optical stack 16b. 如本文所引用的光学堆叠16a和16b (统称为光学堆叠16)通常包括若干熔合层(fused layer),所述熔合层可包含例如氧化铟锡(ITO)的电极层、例如铬的部分反射层和透明电介质。 As cited herein optical stacks 16a and 16b (collectively referred to as optical stack 16) typically comprise several fused layers (fused layer), the fusing layer may comprise, for example, indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer, a partially reflective layer, such as chromium, and a transparent dielectric. 因此,光学堆叠16是导电的、部分透明且部分反射的,且可通过(例如)将上述层的一者或一者以上沉积到透明衬底20上来制造。 Thus, the optical stack 16 is electrically conductive, partially transparent and partially reflective, and may be adopted (e.g.) the said layer is one or more of deposited onto a transparent substrate 20.. 所述部分反射层可由例如各种金属、半导体和电介质的多种部分反射的材料形成。 The partially reflective layer may be formed of various materials such as a variety of parts of the metal, a semiconductor and a dielectric reflection is formed. 部分反射层可由一个或一个以上材料层形成,且每一层可由单一材料或材料组合形成。 The partially reflective layer can be one or more material layers, and each layer may be formed of a single material or combination of materials. 在一些实施例中,光学堆叠16的层经图案化成为多个平行条带,且如下文中进一步描述,可在显示装置中形成行电极。 In some embodiments, the optical stack layer 16 are patterned into parallel strips, and further described below, may form row electrodes in a display device. 可移动反射层14a、 14b可形成为沉积金属层(一层或多层)的一系列平行条带(与行电极16a、 16b垂直),所述金属层沉积在柱18和沉积于柱18之间的介入牺牲材料的顶部上。 The movable reflective layers 14a, 14b may be formed as a deposited metal layer (one or more) of a series of parallel strips (row electrodes 16a, 16b vertically), the metal layer is deposited on the column 18 and column 18 of deposited between the intervention on top of the sacrificial material. 当蚀刻去除牺牲材料时,可移动反射层14a、 14b通过所界定的间隙19而与光学堆叠16a、 16b分离。 When the sacrificial material is etched away, the movable reflective layers 14a, 14b by a defined gap 19 with the optical stacks 16a, 16b separated. 例如铝的高度导电且反射的材料可用于反射层14,且这些条带可在显示装置中形成列电极。 For example, highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the reflective layer 14, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device. 在不施加电压的情况下,间隙19保留在可移动反射层14a与光学堆叠16a之间, 其中可移动反射层14a处于机械松弛状态,如图1中像素12a所说明。 In the case where no voltage is applied, the gap 19 remains between the movable reflective layer 14a and optical stack 16a, with the movable reflective layer 14a in a mechanically relaxed state, a pixel 12a as illustrated in FIG. 然而,当将电位差施加到选定的行和列时,形成在相应像素处的行电极与列电极的交叉处的电容器变得带电,且静电力将所述电极拉在一起。 However, when the potential difference is applied to a selected row and column, the capacitor formed at the intersection becomes charged electrodes at the corresponding pixel row and column electrodes, and electrostatic forces pull the electrodes together. 如果电压足够高,那么可移动反射层14变形且被迫抵靠光学堆叠16。 If the voltage is high enough, the movable reflective layer 14 is deformed and is forced against the optical stack 16. 光学堆叠16内的介电层(在此图中未图示)可防止短路并控制层14与16之间的分离距离,如图1中右侧的像素12b所说明。 Optical stack dielectric layer (not shown in this figure) prevent shorting and control the separation distance between layers 14 and 16 between the pixel on the right in FIG. 1 described within 12b 16. 不管所施加的电位差的极性如何,表现均相同。 Potential difference regardless of the polarity of the applied behavior is the same. 以此方式,可控制反射像素状态对非反射像素状态的行/列激活在许多方面类似于常规LCD和其它显示技术中所使用的行/列激活。 In this way, it can control the reflective vs. non-reflective pixel pixel state status row / column actuation line in many ways similar to a conventional LCD and other display technologies used in / column actuation. 图2到5B说明在显示器应用中使用干涉式调制器阵列的一个示范性工艺和系统。 Figures 2 through 5B illustrate one exemplary process and system for an array of interferometric modulators in a display application. 图2是说明可并入有本发明各方面的电子装置的一个实施例的系统方框图。 Figure 2 is an electronic device that may incorporate aspects of the present invention is a system block diagram of one embodiment. 在所述示范性实施例中,所述电子装置包含处理器21,其可为任何通用单芯片或多芯片微处理器(例如ARM、 Pentium®、 Pentium II®、 Pentium III®、 Pentium IV®、 Pentium® Pro、 8051、 MIPS®、 Power PC®、 ALPHA®),或任何专用微处理器(例如数字信号处理器、微控制器或可编程门阵列)。 In the exemplary embodiment, the electronic device includes a processor 21, which may be any general purpose single- or multi-chip microprocessor (such as ARM, Pentium®, Pentium II®, Pentium III®, Pentium IV®, Pentium® Pro, 8051, MIPS®, Power PC®, ALPHA®), or any special purpose microprocessor (such as a digital signal processor, microcontroller, or a programmable gate array). 如此项技术中常规的做法,处理器21可经配置以执行一个或一个以上软件模块。 As is conventional in the art, the processor 21 may be configured to execute one or more software modules. 除了执行操作系统外,所述处理器可经配置以执行一个或一个以上软件应用程序,包含网络浏览器、电话应用程序、电子邮件程序或任何其它软件应用程序。 In addition to executing an operating system, the processor may be configured to execute one or more software applications, including a web browser, a telephone application, an email program, or any other software application. 在一个实施例中,处理器21还经配置以与阵列驱动器22连通。 In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicated with the array driver 22. 在一个实施例中, 所述阵列驱动器22包含将信号提供到显示器阵列或面板30的行驱动器电路24和列驱动器电路26。 In one embodiment, the array driver 22 includes a signal supplied to a display array or panel 30. The row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26. 在图2中以线1-1展示图1中说明的阵列的横截面。 In Figure 2, a cross-section of the array to the line 1-1 illustrated in Figure 1 shows. 对于MEMS干涉式调制器来说,行/列激活协议可利用图3中说明的这些装置的滞后性质。 For MEMS interferometric modulators, the row / column actuation protocol may take advantage of a hysteresis property of these devices illustrated in Figure 3. 可能需要(例如) IO伏的电位差来促使可移动层从松弛状态变形为激活状态。 You may need (for example) IO volt potential difference to cause a movable layer is deformed from the relaxed state to an active state. 然而,当电压从所述值减小时,可移动层在电压降回IO伏以下时维持其状态。 However, when the voltage is reduced from that value, the movable layer when the voltage drops back IO volts to maintain its status. 在图3的示范性实施例中,可移动层直到电压降到2伏以下时才完全松弛。 Example, the movable layer until the voltage drops below 2 volts does not relax completely in view of an exemplary embodiment 3. 因此在图3中说明的实例中存在约3到7 V的所施加电压的窗口,在所述窗口内装置在松弛状态或激活状态中均是稳定的。 Thus examples illustrated in Figure 3 in the applied voltage window from about 3 to 7 V presence within the window means relaxed or active state are stable. 此窗口在本文中称为"滞后窗口"或"稳定窗口"。 This window is referred to herein as "hysteresis window" or "stability window." 对于具有图3的滞后特性的显示器阵列来说, 可设计行/列激活协议使得在行选通期间,已选通行中待激活的像素暴露于约IO伏的电压差,且待松弛的像素暴露于接近零伏的电压差。 For a display array having the hysteresis characteristics of the 3, it can design the row / column actuation protocol so that during row strobing, has been selected to be active in the passage pixels are exposed to a voltage difference of about IO volts, the pixels are exposed to be relaxed near zero volts difference. 在选通之后,所述像素暴露于约5伏的稳态电压差使得其维持在行选通使其所处的任何状态中。 After the strobe, the pixels are exposed to a steady state voltage difference of about 5 volts such that they remain in the row selected any state in which through it. 在此实例中,每一像素在被写入之后经历3-7伏的"稳定窗口"内的电位差。 In this example, each pixel sees a potential after being written 3-7 volt "stability window" of the difference. 此特征使图1中说明的像素设计在相同的施加电压条件下在激活或松弛预存在状态下均是稳定的。 This feature makes the pixel illustrated in Figure 1 designed at the same applied voltage conditions in either an actuated or relaxed pre-existing state are stable. 因为干涉式调制器的每一像素(不论处于激活还是松弛状态)本质上是由固定反射层和移动反射层形成的电容器, 所以可在滞后窗口内的一电压下维持此稳定状态而几乎无功率消耗。 Because the interferometric modulator per pixel capacitor (whether in the actuated or relaxed state) is essentially composed of a fixed and a movable reflective layer reflecting layer is formed, so that this stable state can be maintained at a voltage within the hysteresis window with almost no power consumption. 本质上,如果所施加的电压是固定的,那么没有电流流入像素中。 Essentially, if the applied voltage is fixed, so no current flows into the pixel. 在典型应用中,可通过根据第一行中所需组的激活像素确认所述组列电极来产生显示帧。 In typical applications, a display frame may be generated by activating the desired pixels of the first row in the group to confirm the set of column electrodes in accordance with. 接着将行脉冲施加到行1电极,从而激活对应于所确认的列线的像素。 Row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, corresponding to the activation confirmation to the column lines of pixels. 接着改变所述组已确认列电极以对应于第二行中所需组的激活像素。 Then change the group has confirmed to correspond to the desired set of column electrodes in the second row of pixels is activated. 接着将脉冲施加到行2电极, 从而根据已确认的列电极而激活行2中的适当像素。 A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, according to the confirmed column electrodes and activate the appropriate pixels in row 2. 行1像素不受行2脉冲影响,且维持在其在行1脉冲期间被设定的状态中。 Row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in their row 1 pulse is set during the state. 可以连续方式对整个系列的行重复此过程以产生帧。 Continuous mode for the entire series of rows Repeat this process to produce the frame. 通常,通过以每秒某一所需数目的帧的速度连续地重复此过程来用新的显示数据刷新且/或更新所述帧。 Typically, by the desired number of frames per second, the speed of a continuously repeating this process with new display data refresh and / or update the frame. 用于驱动像素阵列的行和列电极以产生显示帧的广泛种类的协议也是众所周知的且可结合本发明使用。 Row and column electrodes for driving the pixel array to produce a wide variety of display frames are also well known protocols and can be combined with the present invention. 图4、 5A和5B说明用于在图2的3X3阵列上形成显示帧的一个可能的激活协议。 Figure 4, 5A and 5B illustrate one possible actuation protocol for forming a display frame on the chart 3X3 array 2. 图4说明可用于使像素展示出图3的滞后曲线的一组可能的列和行电压电平。 Figure 4 illustrates the pixels can be used to show the hysteresis curves of Figure 3 of a possible set of column and row voltage levels. 在图4实施例中,激活像素涉及将适当列设定为-VbiM,且将适当行设定为+AV,其分别可对应于-5伏和+5伏。 In Figure 4 embodiment, actuating a pixel involves setting the appropriate column to -VbiM, and the appropriate row to + AV, which may correspond to -5 volts and +5 volts. 松弛像素是通过将适当列设定为+VbiM,且将适当行设定为相同的+AV, 从而在像素上产生零伏电位差而实现的。 Relaxing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to + VbiM, and the appropriate row to the same + AV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel. 在行电压维持在零伏的那些行中,不管列处于+¥1)^还是-¥^!!,像素在任何其最初所处的状态中均是稳定的。 In those rows where the row voltage is held to zero volts, regardless of the column is at + ¥ 1) ^ or - ¥ ^ !!, any pixel in the initial state in which both are stable. 同样如图4中所说明, 将了解,可使用具有与上述电压的极性相反的极性的电压,例如,激活像素可涉及将适当列设定为+Vbias,且将适当行设定为-AV。 Also illustrated in FIG. 4, will be appreciated, may be used having a polarity opposite to a polarity of the voltage of the voltage, e.g., actuating a pixel can involve setting the appropriate column to + Vbias, and the appropriate row to - AV. 在此实施例中,释放像素是通过将适当列设定为-VbiM,且将适当行设定为相同的-AV,从而在像素上产生零伏电位差而实现的。 In this embodiment, releasing the pixel is accomplished by setting the appropriate column to -VbiM, and the appropriate row to the same -AV, producing a zero volt potential difference across the pixel. 图5B是展示施加到图2的3X3阵列的一系列行和列信号的时序图,所述系列的行和列信号将产生图5A中说明的显示器布置,其中被激活像素为非反射的。 5B is a timing diagram showing a series of row 3X3 array is applied to the 2 and the column signals, row and column signals of the series will result in the display arrangement illustrated in Figure 5A, where actuated pixels are non-reflective. 在对图5A 中说明的帧进行写入之前,像素可处于任何状态,且在本实例中所有行均处于O伏,且所有列均处于+5伏。 Before the frame illustrated in Figure 5A are written, the pixels can be in any state, and in this example, all the rows are at O volts, and all the columns are at +5 volts. 在这些所施加的电压的情况下,所有像素在其既有的激活或松弛状态中均是稳定的。 In the case of these applied voltages, all of the pixels in their existing actuated or relaxed states are stable. 在图5A的帧中,像素(1,1)、 (1,2)、 (2,2)、 (3,2)和(3,3)被激活。 5A, the frame, the pixel (1,1), (1,2), (2,2), (3,2) and (3,3) is activated. 为了实现此目的,在行1的"线时间(line time)"期间,将列1和2设定为-5伏,且将列3设定为+5伏。 To achieve this purpose, the line "line time (line time)" During columns 1 and 2 set 1 -5 volts, and column 3 is set to +5 volts. 因为所有像素均保留在3-7伏的稳定窗口中,所以这并不改变任何像素的状态。 Because all the pixels remain in the 3-7 volt stability window, so it does not change the status of any pixels. 接着用从0升到5伏且返回零的脉冲选通行1。 Followed by from 0 up to 5 volts, and back to zero pulse selected passage 1. 这激活了(l,l)和(1,2)像素且松弛了(1,3)像素。 This activates the (l, l) and (1,2) pixels and relaxes the (1,3) pixel. 阵列中其它像素均不受影响。 Other pixels in the array are affected. 为了视需要设定行2,将列2设定为-5伏, 且将列1和3设定为+5伏。 To set the line as needed 2, column 2 is set to -5 volts, and columns 1 and 3 are set to +5 volts. 施加到行2的相同选通接着将激活像素(2,2)且松弛像素(2,1)和(2,3)。 The same strobe applied to row 2 will then actuate pixel (2,2) and relax pixels (2,1) and (2,3). 同样,阵列中其它像素均不受影响。 Similarly, other pixels in the array are affected. 通过将列2和3设定为-5伏且将列1设定为+5伏来类似地设定行3。 By columns 2 and 3 are set to -5 volts, and column 1 is set to +5 volts is similarly set row 3. 行3选通设定行3像素,如图5A中所示。 The row 3 strobe sets the row 3 pixels as shown in Figure 5A. 在对帧进行写入之后,行电位为零,且列电位可维持在+5或-5伏,且接着显示器在图5A的布置中是稳定的。 After writing the frame, the row potentials are zero, and the column potentials can remain at either +5 or -5 volts, and the display is then stable in the arrangement of Figure 5A. 将了解,可将相同程序用于数十或数百个行和列的阵列。 It will be appreciated that the same procedure used for arrays of dozens or hundreds of rows and columns. 还将应了解, 用于执行行和列激活的电压的时序、序列和电平可在上文所概述的一般原理内广泛变化,且上文的实例仅为示范性的,且任何激活电压方法均可与本文描述的系统和方法一起使用。 Will be understood, used to perform row and column actuation voltage timing, sequence, and levels can be varied widely within the general principles outlined above, and the above example is exemplary only, and any actuation voltage method the systems and methods described herein can be used together. 图6A和6B是说明显示装置40的实施例的系统方框图。 6A and 6B are system block diagram of an embodiment of the display device 40. 显示装置40可为(例如) 蜂窝式电话或移动电话。 The display device 40 may be (for example) a cellular or mobile telephone. 然而,显示装置40的相同组件或其稍微变化形式也说明例如电视和便携式媒体播放器的各种类型的显示装置。 However, the same components of display device 40 or slight variations thereof are also illustrative of various types of display devices such as televisions and portable media players. 显示装置40包含外壳41、显示器30、天线43、扬声器45、输入装置48和麦克风46。 The display device 40 includes a housing 41, a display 30, an antenna 43, a speaker 45, an input device 48 and a microphone 46. 外壳41通常由所属领域的技术人员众所周知的多种制造工艺的任一者形成,所述工艺包含注射模制和真空成形。 Housing 41 is usually made well known to those skilled in the art variety of manufacturing processes any of a form, the process including injection molding and vacuum forming. 另外,外壳41可由多种材料的任一者制成,所述材料包含(但不限于)塑料、金属、玻璃、橡胶和陶瓷,或其组合。 Further, the housing 41 may be any of a variety of materials made of a material comprising (but not limited to) plastic, metal, glass, rubber, and ceramic, or a combination thereof. 在一个实施例中,外壳41包含可去除部分(未图示),所述可去除部分可与其它具有不同颜色或含有不同标记、 图画或符号的可去除部分互换。 In one embodiment, the housing 41 includes removable portions (not shown), which can be used with other removable portions of different color, or containing different logos, pictures, or symbols interchangeable removable portion. 如本文中所描述,示范性显示装置40的显示器30可为包含双稳态显示器(bi-stable display)在内的多种显示器的任一者。 As described herein, the exemplary display device 40. The display 30 may contain any of the bi-stable display (bi-stable display), including a variety of displays, one. 在其它实施例中,如所属领域的技术人员众所周知,显示器30包含例如如上所述的等离子、EL、 OLED、 STN LCD或TFT LCD的平板显示器,或例如CRT或其它电子管装置的非平板显示器。 In other embodiments, as well known to persons skilled in the art, e.g., a plasma display comprising 30 as described above, EL, OLED, STN LCD, or TFT LCD flat panel display, or a non-flat-panel display such as a CRT or other tube device. 然而,出于描述本实施例的目的,如本文中所描述,显示器30包含干涉式调制器显示器。 However, for the purpose of describing the present embodiment, as described herein, the display 30 includes an interferometric modulator display. 图6B中示意说明示范性显示装置40的一个实施例的组件。 FIG. 6B schematically illustrates an exemplary display device 40 are components of one embodiment. 所说明的示范性显示装置40包含外壳41且可包含至少部分封围在所述外壳41中的额外组件。 The illustrated exemplary display device 40 includes a housing 41 and can include at least partially enclosed in the housing 41 of the additional components. 举例来说,在一个实施例中,示范性显示装置40包含网络接口27,所述网络接口27包含耦合到收发器47的天线43。 For example, in one embodiment, the exemplary display device 40 includes a network interface 27, the network interface 27 includes the antenna 47 coupled to transceiver 43. 收发器47连接到处理器21,处理器21连接到调节硬件52。 Transceiver 47 is connected to the processor 21, the processor 21 is connected to conditioning hardware 52. 调节硬件52可经配置以调节信号(例如,对信号进行滤波)。 The conditioning hardware 52 may be configured to adjust the signal (for example, signal filtering). 调节硬件52连接到扬声器45和麦克风46。 The conditioning hardware 52 is connected to a speaker 45 and a microphone 46. 处理器21也连接到输入装置48和驱动器控制器29。 The processor 21 is also connected to an input device 48 and the drive controller 29. 驱动器控制器29耦合到帧缓冲器28且耦合到阵列驱动器22,所述阵列驱动器22进而耦合到显示器阵列30。 Coupled to a frame buffer 28 and drive controller 29 is coupled to the array driver 22, the array driver 22 in turn is coupled to a display array 30. 根据特定示范性显示装置40设计的要求,电源50将功率提供到所有组件。 Device 40 design requirements, power supply 50 provides power to all components according to the particular exemplary display. 网络接口27包含天线43和收发器47使得示范性显示装置40可经由网络与一个或一个以上装置通信。 The network interface 27 includes the antenna 43 and the transceiver 47 so that the exemplary display device 40 can communicate via a network with one or more devices. 在一个实施例中,网络接口27也可具有某些处理能力以减轻对处理器21的要求。 In one embodiment, the network interface 27 may also have some processing capabilities to relieve requirements of the processor 21. 天线43是所属领域的技术人员已知的用于传输和接收信号的任何天线。 The antenna 43 is known to those skilled in the art of any antenna for transmitting and receiving signals. 在一个实施例中,所述天线根据正EE 802.11标准(包含IEEE 802.11 (a)、 (b)或(g)) 来传输和接收RF信号。 In one embodiment, the antenna according to the positive EE 802.11 standards (including IEEE 802.11 (a), (b) or (g)) to transmit and receive RF signals. 在另一实施例中,所述天线根据BLUETOOTH标准来传输和接收RF信号。 In another embodiment, according to the BLUETOOTH standard to transmit and receive RF signals to the antenna. 在蜂窝式电话的情况下,所述天线经设计以接收CDMA、 GSM、 AMPS或其它用于在无线手机网络内通信的已知信号。 In the case of a cellular telephone, the antenna is designed to receive CDMA, GSM, AMPS or other known signals to communicate within a wireless cell phone network. 收发器47预处理从天线43接收到的信号, 使得处理器21可接收所述信号并进一步对所述信号进行处理。 Transceiver receives a signal from the antenna 43 to the preprocessing 47, such that the processor 21 may receive the signal and the further signal processing. 收发器47还处理从处理器21接收到的信号使得可经由天线43从示范性显示装置40传输所述信号。 Transceiver 47 also processes the received signal from the processor 21 to the antenna 43 makes it possible from the exemplary display device 40 via the transmission of the signal. 在一替代实施例中,收发器47可由接收器代替。 In an alternative embodiment, the transceiver 47 can be replaced by a receiver. 在又一替代实施例中,网络接口27可由可存储或产生待发送到处理器21的图像数据的图像源代替。 In yet another alternative embodiment, network interface 27 can be sent to can store or generate image data source in place of the image processor 21. 举例来说,所述图像源可为数字视频光盘(DVD)或含有图像数据的硬盘驱动器,或产生图像数据的软件模块。 For example, the image source can be a digital video disc (DVD) or a hard disk drive containing the image data, or a software module that generates image data. 处理器21大体上控制示范性显示装置40的全部操作。 The processor 21 generally controls the overall operation of the exemplary display device 40. 处理器21接收例如来自网络接口27或图像源的压缩图像数据的数据,并将所述数据处理成原始图像数据或处理成易被处理成原始图像数据的格式。 E.g., processor 21 receives the compressed image data from the network interface 27 or an image source data, and processes the data into raw image data or processed into readily processed into raw image data format. 处理器21接着将已处理的数据发送到驱动器控制器29或发送到帧缓冲器28以供存储。 The processor 21 then sends the data processed to the driver controller 29 or to frame buffer 28 for storage. 原始数据通常是指识别图像内每一位置处的图像特性的信息。 Raw data typically refers to the information of the image characteristics at each location within an image recognition. 举例来说,这些图像特性可包含颜色、饱和度和灰度级。 For example, such image characteristics can include color, saturation, and gray levels. 在一个实施例中,处理器21包含微控制器、CPU或逻辑单元以控制示范性显示装置40的操作。 In one embodiment, the processor 21 includes a microcontroller, CPU, or logic unit to control operation of the exemplary display device 40. 调节硬件52通常包含放大器和滤波器,以用于将信号传输到扬声器45, 且用于从麦克风46接收信号。 The conditioning hardware 52 generally includes amplifiers and filters for transmitting signals to the speaker 45, and for receiving signals from the microphone 46. 调节硬件52可为示范性显示装置40内的离散组件,或可并入在处理器21或其它组件内。 The conditioning hardware 52 may be displayed as discrete components within the exemplary device 40, or may be incorporated within the processor 21 or other components. 驱动器控制器29直接从处理器21或从帧缓冲器28取得由处理器21产生的原始图像数据,并适当地重新格式化所述原始图像数据以供高速传输到阵列驱动器22。 Drive controller 29 of the original image data directly from the processor 21 or obtain raw image data generated by the processor 21 from the frame buffer 28 and reformats appropriately for high speed transmission to the array driver 22. 具体来说,驱动器控制器29将原始图像数据重新格式化为具有类似光栅的格式的数据流,使得其具有适于在显示器阵列30上进行扫描的时间次序。 Specifically, the driver controller 29 reformats the raw image data for the data stream having a raster-like format, such that it has adapted for scanning the array 30 on the display time order. 接着,驱动器控制器29将已格式化的信息发送到阵列驱动器22。 Then the driver controller 29 sends the formatted information to the array driver 22. 尽管驱动器控制器29 (例如LCD控制器)通常与系统处理器21关联而作为独立的集成电路(IC),但可以许多方式实施这些控制器。 Although a driver controller 29 (e.g., LCD controller) is typically associated with the system processor 21 as a stand-alone Integrated Circuit (IC), such controllers may be implemented in many ways. 其可作为硬件嵌入处理器21中,作为软件嵌入处理器21中,或与阵列驱动器22完全集成在硬件中。 Which can be embedded in the processor 21 as hardware, embedded in the processor 21 as software, or fully integrated with the array driver in hardware. 通常,阵列驱动器22从驱动器控制器29接收己格式化的信息且将视频数据重新格式化为一组平行波形,所述波形以每秒多次的速度被施加到来自显示器的xy像素矩阵的数百且有时数千个引线。 Typically, the array driver 22 drive controller 29 receives the formatted information from hexyl and reformats the video data into a parallel set of waveforms that hundreds of times per second speed is applied to the xy matrix of pixels from the display of the one hundred and sometimes thousands of leads. 在一个实施例中,驱动器控制器29、阵列驱动器22和显示器阵列30适用于本文描述的任意类型的显示器。 In one embodiment, the driver controller 29, array driver 22, and display array 30 are appropriate for any type of display described herein. 举例来说,在一个实施例中,驱动器控制器29是常规显示器控制器或双稳态显示器控制器(例如,干涉式调制器控制器)。 For example, in one embodiment, driver controller 29 is a conventional display controller or a bi-stable display controller (e.g., an interferometric modulator controller). 在另一实施例中,阵列驱动器22是常规驱动器或双稳态显示器驱动器(例如,干涉式调制器显示器)。 In another embodiment, array driver 22 is a conventional driver or a bi-stable display driver (e.g., an interferometric modulator display). 在一个实施例中,驱动器控制器29与阵列驱动器22集成。 In one embodiment, the drive controller 22 integrated with the array driver 29. 此实施例在例如蜂窝式电话、手表和其它小面积显示器的高度集成系统中是普遍的。 This embodiment is common in such as cellular phones, watches, and other small area displays highly integrated systems. 在又一实施例中,显示器阵列30是典型的显示器阵列或双稳态显示器阵列(例如,包含干涉式调制器阵列的显示器)。 In yet another embodiment, display array 30 is a typical display array or a bi-stable display array (e.g., an interferometric modulator array comprising a display). 输入装置48允许用户控制示范性显示装置40的操作。 The input device 48 allows a user to control operation of the exemplary display device 40. 在一个实施例中,输入装置48包含例如QWERTY键盘或电话键区的键区、按钮、开关、触敏屏幕、压敏或热敏薄膜。 In one embodiment, input device 48 includes a keypad, such as a QWERTY keyboard or a telephone keypad, a button, a switch, a touch-sensitive screen, a pressure- or heat-sensitive membrane. 在一个实施例中,麦克风46是用于示范性显示装置40的输入装置。 In one embodiment, the microphone 46 is an input device for the exemplary display device 40. 当使用麦克风46将数据输入到所述装置时,用户可提供声音命令以便控制示范性显示装置40的操作。 When the microphone 46 to input data to the device, the user may provide voice commands to control the operation of the exemplary display device 40. 电源50可包含此项技术中众所周知的多种能量存储装置。 Power supply 50 may comprise a variety of well known in the art of energy storage devices. 举例来说,在一个实施例中,电源50是例如镍镉电池或锂离子电池的可再充电电池。 For example, in one embodiment, power supply 50 is such as a nickel-cadmium battery or a lithium ion battery may be a rechargeable battery. 在另一实施例中,电源50是可再生能源、电容器或太阳能电池,包含塑料太阳能电池和太阳能电池涂料。 In another embodiment, power supply 50 is a renewable energy, a capacitor, or a solar cell, including a plastic solar cell, and solar-cell paint. 在另一实施例中,电源50经配置以从壁式插座接收功率。 In another embodiment, the power supply 50 is configured to receive power from a wall outlet. 在某些实施例中,如上文中所描述,控制可编程性驻存在驱动器控制器中,其可位于电子显示器系统中的若干位置中。 In some embodiments, as described above, control programmability resides drive controller, which can be located in the electronic display system in a number of locations. 在某些实施例中,控制可编程性驻存在阵列驱动器22中。 In some embodiments, control programmability resides in the array driver 22. 所属领域的技术人员将了解,上述优化可实施在任何数目的硬件和/或软件组件中且可以各种配置实施。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the above-described optimization may be implemented in any number of hardware and / or software components and in various configurations. 根据上文陈述的原理而操作的干涉式调制器的结构的细节可广泛变化。 Details of the structure of interferometric modulators accordance with the principles set forth above operations can vary widely. 举例来说, 图7A-7E说明可移动反射层14及其支撑结构的五个不同实施例。 For example, Figures 7A-7E illustrate five different moveable Example 14 and its supporting structures reflective layer. 图7A是图1的实施例的横截面,其中金属材料条带14沉积在垂直延伸的支撑件18上。 Figure 7A is a cross-sectional view of the embodiment of Figure 1, wherein the strip of metal material 14 is deposited on a vertically extending support member 18. 支撑件18可包括隔离的柱或连续的壁。 Support member 18 may include isolation or continuous wall column. 举例来说,支撑件18可包含支撑机械或可移动材料的交叉条带的线性轨道,和/或隔离的柱。 For example, the support 18 may include a linear track support mechanical or movable cross strips of material, and / or isolation of the column. 在一个实例中,轨道提供主要的支撑且每个腔内的柱用以加强机械层。 In one example, the track provides the main support and the cavity of each pillar to strengthen the mechanical layer. 在图7B中,可移动反射层14在系链(tether) 32上仅在隅角处附接到支撑件。 In Fig. 7B, the moveable reflective layer 14 in the tether (tether) 32 only at the corners attached to supports. 在图7C中,可移动反射层14从可包括柔性金属的可变形层34悬垂下来。 In Fig. 7C, the moveable reflective layer 14 may comprise a flexible metal from a deformable layer 34 hanging down. 所述可变形层34直接或间接地连接到围绕可变形层34的周边的衬底20。 The deformable layer 34 connects, directly or indirectly to surround the periphery of the deformable layer 20 of the substrate 34. 这些连接在本文中称为支柱。 These connections are called pillars in this article. 图7D中说明的实施例具有支柱插塞42,可变形层34搁置在所述支柱插塞42上。 The embodiment illustrated in Figure 7D has support post plugs 42, the deformable layer 34 rests on the pillars of the plug 42. 如图7A-7C所示,可移动反射层14保持悬浮在间隙上方,但可变形层34并不通过填充可变形层34与光学堆叠16之间的孔而形成所述支柱。 FIG. 7A-7C, the movable reflective layer 14 remains suspended over the gap, but the deformable layer 34 does not pass through the deformable layer 34 is filled and the optical stack hole 16 is formed between the pillars. 确切地说,支柱由用于形成支柱插塞42的平坦化材料形成。 Specifically, for the formation of a pillar from the pillars of the plug 42 is formed planarization material. 图7E中说明的实施例是基于图7D中展示的实施例,但也可适于与图7A-7C中说明的实施例以及未图示的额外实施例的任一者一起发挥作用。 The embodiment illustrated in Figure 7E is based on the embodiment shown in Figure 7D, but may also be adapted to any one of the embodiment and additional embodiments not shown in FIG. 7A-7C are described together play a role. 在图7E中所示的实施例中,己使用金属或其它导电材料的额外层来形成总线结构44。 In the embodiment shown in FIG. 7E, an extra layer of metal or have other conductive material to form a bus structure 44. 这允许信号沿着干涉式调制器的背面进行路由,从而消除许多原本可能必须形成在衬底20 上的电极。 This allows signal routing along the back of the interferometric modulators, eliminating a number of electrodes that may otherwise be formed on the substrate 20. 在例如图7中所示的那些实施例的实施例中,干涉式调制器充当直接观看装置,其中从透明衬底20的前侧观看图像,所述侧与上面布置有调制器的一侧相对。 In those embodiments such as the embodiment shown in Figure 7, the interferometric modulators function as direct-view devices, in which the front side of the transparent substrate 20 from the viewing image is arranged above the side of the side opposite to the modulator . 在这些实施例中,反射层14以光学方式遮蔽在反射层的与衬底20相对侧的干涉式调制器部分, 其包含可变形层34。 In these embodiments, the reflective layer 14 optically shields the opposite side of the substrate 20 in the interferometric modulator partially reflective layer comprising the deformable layer 34. 这允许对遮蔽区域进行配置和操作而不会消极地影响图像质量。 This allows the shielded areas to be configured and operated upon without negatively affecting the image quality. 这种遮蔽允许实现图7E中的总线结构44,所述总线结构44提供使调制器的光学性质与调制器的机电性质(例如,寻址与由所述寻址导致的移动)分离的能力。 Such shielding allows the implementation of the bus structure 44 in Figure 7E, the bus structure 44 provides the modulation of the optical properties of the modulator electromechanical properties (e.g., addressing and moved by the resulting address) separation capacity. 这种可分离的调制器结构允许选择用于调制器的机电方面和光学方面的结构设计和材料且使其彼此独立而发挥作用。 This separable modulator architecture allows the structural design and materials used to modulate the electromechanical aspects and the optical aspects and allowed to function independently of each other. 此外,图7C-7E中所示的实施例具有源自反射层14的光学性质与其机械性质脱离的额外益处,所述益处由可变形层34执行。 Further, in the embodiment shown in FIG 7C-7E have additional benefits deriving from the optical properties of its mechanical properties from the reflective layer 14, 34 is performed by the benefits of the deformable layer. 这允许用于反射层14的结构设计和材料在光学性质方面得以优化,且用于可变形层34的结构设计和材料在期望的机械性质方面得以优化。 This allows the structural design and materials used for the reflective layer 14 to be optimized in terms of optical properties, and the structural design for the deformable layer 34 and the material in the desired mechanical properties to be optimized. 本文可能将层、材料和/或其它结构元件描述为相对于其它结构元件而处于"上方"、 "之上"、"之间"等。 In this paper, the layer may, materials and / or other structural elements described with respect to the other structural element is in the "top", "above", "between" and so on. 如本文使用,这些术语可指直接或间接处于上、上方、之上、之间等,因为多个中间层、材料和/或其它结构元件可插入在本文描述的结构元件之间。 As used herein, these terms may refer directly or indirectly on at the top, above, between, etc., as a plurality of intermediate layers, material, and / or other structural elements may be inserted between the structural elements described herein. 类似地,本文描述的结构元件(例如衬底或层)可包括单个组件(例如,单层)或多组件结构(例如,包括所陈述材料的多个层的层压物,其中具有或不具有额外材料层)。 Similarly, structural elements (e.g. a substrate or layers) described herein may comprise a single component (e.g., a single-layer) structure or component (e.g., including a plurality of layers of laminate material is stated, wherein with or without additional material layer). 关于物体或元件使用术语"一个或一个以上"不以任何方式指示针对未使用所述术语的物体或元件不存在可能的复数配置。 Objects or elements on use of the term "one or more" does not in any way indicate an object or element is not used for the term of complex configuration may not exist. 本文使用的术语"微机电装置"通常指处于制造的任一阶段的任何此种装置。 As used herein, the term "microelectromechanical device" generally refers to any such device at any stage of manufacture. 图8A-8C以及8E-8H是说明形成具有受保护而不受后续处理影响的支撑结构的干涉式调制器的示范性方法的横截面图。 Figure 8A-8C and 8E-8H is a cross-sectional view of a formation that is protected from the impact of the subsequent processing of the interferometric modulator of an exemplary support structure method. 举例来说,保护衬里可保护支撑结构不受形成MEMS腔的"释放"蚀刻的影响。 For example, the protective lining to protect against the formation of a support structure MEMS cavity "release" effect etching. 在此实例中,支撑结构可由在释放蚀刻之前填充腔的相同的牺牲材料形成。 In this example, the support structure may be formed before the sacrificial release etch the same material filling the cavity is formed. 根据此实施例,光学堆叠16 (例如图7A-7E所示的光学堆叠)形成于透明衬底20 上。 According to this embodiment, the optical stack 16 (e.g., the optical stack shown in FIG. 7A-7E) is formed on the transparent substrate 20. 如上文论述,光学堆叠16通常包括若干集成或熔合层,其包含例如ITO的第一电极层110、例如铬的部分反射层120和介电层130。 As discussed above, the optical stack 16 typically comprises a plurality of integrated or fused layer, e.g., comprising a first electrode layer 110 ITO, for example, chromium partially reflective layer 120 and the dielectric layer 130. 光学堆叠16的层优选经图案化成为平行条带以形成行电极。 Optical stack layer 16 is preferably patterned into parallel strips to form the row electrodes. 通常,如图8A所示,优选通过常规沉积技术,例如某种形式的溅镀、物理气相沉积(PVD)、化学气相沉积(CVD)、旋涂电介质(SOD)和旋涂玻璃(SOG),将光学堆叠16的层沉积到透明衬底20上。 Typically, it is shown in Figure 8A, preferably by conventional deposition techniques, such as some form of sputtering, physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), spin-on dielectric (SOD) and spin-on glass (SOG), The optical stack layer 16 is deposited onto a transparent substrate 20. 光学堆叠16的介电层130优选由二氧化硅(Si02)形成。 The optical stack 16 of the dielectric layer 130 is preferably formed of silicon dioxide (Si02). 在其它布置中,介电层130由其它绝缘材料形成,且可视需要包含一个或一个以上蚀刻停止层以保护光学堆叠16不受后续蚀刻步骤影响。 In other arrangements, the dielectric layer 130 is formed of other insulating materials, and may optionally contain one or more etch stop layer to protect the optical stack 16 from subsequent etching steps of. 如熟练的技术人员所了解,蚀刻停止层对某些蚀刻技术具有高度抵抗性,从而保护上面形成有蚀刻停止层的材料。 As understood by the skilled artisan, some of the etch stop layer is highly resistant to etching, is formed to protect the upper material of the etch stop layer. 用于蚀刻停止层的合适材料包含(例如)A1203、钛、钨、非晶硅、 锗及其组合。 Suitable materials for the etch stop layer comprises (e.g.) A1203, titanium, tungsten, amorphous silicon, germanium and combinations thereof. 根据此实施例,光学堆叠16的形成之后是牺牲材料1.40在介电层130上的沉积, 如图8B所示。 After According to this embodiment, the optical stack 16 is formed on the sacrificial material 1.40 depositing dielectric layer 130, shown in Figure 8B. 牺牲材料140优选沉积(且稍后选择性移除)在光学堆叠16上以在光学堆叠16与将沉积在牺牲材料140上的可移动层170 (图8H)之间界定谐振光学腔180 (图8H)。 Defined between the sacrificial material 140 is preferably deposited (and later selectively removed) on the optical stack 16 to the optical stack 16 and deposited on the sacrificial material 140 movable layer 170 (FIG. 8H) resonant optical cavity 180 (FIG. 8H). 因此牺牲材料140的厚度经选择以用于松弛条件下所反射颜色的特定选择。 Thus, the thickness of the sacrificial material 140 are selected to be used under a relaxed condition reflected the particular choice of colors. 在其它布置中,沉积多种厚度以产生多种不同颜色,例如用于RGB显示系统的红色、 绿色和蓝色。 In other arrangements, the deposition thickness to produce a variety of different colors, such as RGB display system for red, green and blue. 在示范性实施例中,带有具有最大高度的腔(由具有最大厚度的牺牲层形成)的调制器反射红光,带有具有中间高度的腔(由具有中间厚度的牺牲层形成)的调制器反射绿光,且带有具有最小高度(由具有最小厚度的牺牲层形成)的调制器反射蓝光。 Examples modulated by a modulator with a cavity having a maximum height (formed by a sacrificial layer having a maximum thickness) in the exemplary embodiment reflects red light, with a cavity having an intermediate height (formed by a sacrificial layer having an intermediate thickness) of reflected green and blue with reflection modulator with a minimum height (formed by the sacrificial layer having a minimum thickness) of. 尽管没有单独说明,但所属领域的技术人员将容易了解,本文揭示的柱形成技术同等地适用于单色装置和具有多种不同的牺牲材料厚度的多色干涉式调制器。 Although not described separately, but one of ordinary skill in the art will readily understand, column formation techniques disclosed herein are equally applicable to monochrome device having a plurality of different material thickness of the sacrificial polychromatic interferometric modulator. 牺牲材料140优选包括无机材料。 Sacrificial material 140 preferably comprises an inorganic material. 在干涉式调制器显示器中已经提供有机支撑结构, 因为可使有机支撑结构与牺牲层完全共面。 In the interferometric modulator display already offers organic support structure, because organic support structure allows the sacrificial layer is completely coplanar. 然而所属领域的技术人员将了解,在干涉式调制器中,有机支撑结构可导致与热稳定性和蠕变相关联的色移和图像保持问题。 However, those skilled in the art will appreciate that, in the interferometric modulator, the organic support structure may cause problems with the color shift and maintain the image of the thermal stability and creep associated with it. 因此, 可被制成与牺牲层共面的无机支撑结构将有助于最小化有机支撑结构的色移和图像保持问题。 Thus, the sacrificial layer may be formed with inorganic coplanar support structure will help minimize color shift and image organic support structure to keep the issue. 然而所属领域的技术人员将了解,牺牲材料140可以包括有机材料。 However, those skilled in the art will appreciate, the sacrificial material 140 may include an organic material.如果牺牲材料140是有机的,那么02等离子或下游02可用于移除有机牺牲材料140。根据一个实施例,牺牲材料140可包括硅(Si)。在其它实施例中,此牺牲材料140 可由例如钼(Mo)、钩(W)、钛(Ti)和钽(Ta)的金属形成。在又一实施例中,牺牲材料140可由富含硅的氮化硅形成。可相对于暴露的电介质和电极材料通过基于氟的蚀刻剂选择性蚀刻所有这些牺牲材料,但所属领域的技术人员将容易了解,其它牺牲材料可与其它选择性蚀刻化学物质一起使用。有利地,上文列出的硅和金属提供比光致抗蚀剂更稳健的支撑,且尤其容易通过暴露于XeF2而进行选择性蚀刻。如图8C所示,在此实施例中,通过在牺牲材料140中图案化并蚀刻开口150来继续干涉式调制器结构的制造。开口150优选具有环形孔的形式,如图8D所示,图8D 为开口150的俯视图。尽管所说明的形状为圆形,但熟练的技术人员了解,可以其它封闭或连续的形状形成所述开口以包围牺牲材料140的将形成装置的支撑结构(包含柱和细长轨道)的一部分,如下文更详细描述。将了解,如图8C所示,开口150的凹槽的宽度比将形成的支撑结构的直径或宽度小得多。然而熟练的技术人员将了解,对于具有较小直径或宽度(例如,<4-5微米)的支撑结构,开口150的凹槽的宽度将与支撑结构的直径或宽度大体上在相同的数量级上。如图8E所说明,在结构上沉积保护材料160以用保护材料160填充开口150。用于保护材料的合适材料包含(但不限于)自平面化材料,例如光致抗蚀剂、旋涂电介质(SOD)等。这些材料是自平面化的,因为其通过旋涂沉积工艺来沉积。而且,光致抗蚀剂材料与基于氧化硅的SOD两者均对基于氟的蚀刻剂具有抵抗性。用于保护材料160 的其它合适材料包含光敏聚酰亚胺、用于滤色器应用的彩色颜料、BCB (苯并环丁烯, 可从Dow Chemical Co. of Midland, Michigan购得)和旋涂低k材料。如图8E所示,由于此沉积,除了填充开口150以外还在结构上形成保护材料层160。熟练的技术人员将了解,由例如光致抗蚀剂的光反应性聚合物形成的保护材料160可经照射,从而使保护材料160对适于蚀刻、灰化或以另外方式移除牺牲材料140的条件具有抵抗性,牺牲材料140将在下文中更详细描述。保护材料160和牺牲材料140优选经选择以使得可在保护材料160上选择性和/或优先蚀刻牺牲材料140。选择性使得保护材料160在释放蚀刻(取决于几何形状、蚀刻剂、 材料等)的过程中将不会磨损而暴露牺牲材料140的受保护部分(此部分将形成支撑结构)。如果蚀刻剂可以大体上大于保护材料160的速率(例如,以大于保护材料160的蚀刻速率约5倍的速率、优选大于其约10倍、且更优选大于其约40倍的速率)蚀刻牺牲材料140,那么可相对于保护材料160选择性或优先蚀刻牺牲材料140。因此保护材料160对在牺牲材料140大体上容易受到蚀刻的条件下的蚀刻大体上具有抵抗性。所属领域的技术人员将了解,牺牲材料140和保护材料160的选择将取决于多种因素,包含用于沉积材料的方法和条件(可影响材料的物理和/或化学性质)以及在移除牺牲材料期间的蚀刻条件(包含蚀刻工艺的特性和所使用的特定蚀刻剂)。所属领域的技术人员还将了解,所有材料均可在适当条件下蚀刻,且本文将材料描述为可选择性或优先蚀刻或者对蚀刻具有抵抗性是与在材料所暴露于的特定条件下装置中存在的其它材料进行的比较。因此,在许多实例中,可相对于保护材料选择性或优先蚀刻的牺牲材料的选择是在受控条件下以经验确定的。或者,提供所关注材料的选择性蚀刻的广范围的蚀刻方法、系统和材料是此项技术中已知的且/或可购买到的。熟练的技术人员将了解,可通过此项技术中已知的各种方法(包含例如,CVD、 PVD和溅镀)来沉积保护材料160。熟练的技术人员将了解,保护材料层160的厚度(通过环形开口150的尺寸来选择) 取决于牺牲材料140的厚度。举例来说,如果牺牲材料140较厚,那么保护材料层160 优选也较厚。如上文提到,牺牲材料140的厚度将影响所产生的颜色,且所产生的颜色还取决于牺牲材料140的其它材料性质。根据优选实施例,保护材料层160具有牺牲材料140厚度的1/2到两倍的厚度。保护材料层160优选具有的厚度(从牺牲材料140的顶表面到保护材料160的顶表面)在500 A到1微米的范围内,较优选在1000-3000 A 的范围内,且更优选为约2000A。图8F-8H中说明根据此方法的额外步骤。根据此实施例,将保护材料160完全回蚀到牺牲材料140的顶表面,使得保护材料160仅留在开口150中,如图8F所示。将了解,牺牲材料140的由保护材料160包围的部分将用作装置的支撑结构或轨道。熟练的技术人员将了解,优选地,牺牲材料140 (尤其是由保护材料160包围的部分) 在蚀刻保护材料160时不受损害,因为牺牲材料140的厚度不仅决定支撑结构或柱的高度,而且决定将产生的谐振光学腔180(图8H)的高度。腔180的高度的改变将影响装置所反射的颜色。熟练的技术人员将了解,举例来说,如果保护材料160包括光致抗蚀剂,那么可使用选择性蚀刻来从牺牲材料140的顶表面选择性移除保护材料160而不会损害典型的牺牲材料140 (例如,硅、钼)。或者,可沉积蚀刻停止层以保护牺牲层140。也可对蚀刻进行定时以避免蚀刻开口150中的保护材料160。视需要,优选使用光致抗蚀剂掩模来覆盖开口150,使得不会蚀刻掉开口150中的平面化材料160。举例来说,可使用分划板来选择性显影开口150中的抗蚀剂(或开口150外的抗蚀剂),并接着从牺牲材料140 的顶表面选择性移除保护材料160。或者,可通过使用相同的分划板用负性光致抗蚀剂而不是用于界定开口150的正性光致抗蚀剂来形成用于界定开口150的掩模的反掩模图案,反过来也是这样。上方或下方暴露确保完全的覆盖,但存在小的未对准。或者,熟练的技术人员将了解,背侧暴露工艺可与负性光致抗蚀剂掩模一起使用, 从而获得图8F所示的结构。根据此实施例,开口150中优选由负性光致抗蚀剂形成的保护材料160暴露于穿过衬底20的来自结构背侧的光。光使开口150中的保护材料160 硬化。保护材料160的在牺牲材料顶表面上方的部分没有暴露于光,因为牺牲材料140 优选不是透明的,因而屏蔽保护材料160的所述部分使其不暴露于光。牺牲材料140的顶表面上的未暴露保护材料160接着经显影以进行移除,从而获得图8F所示的结构。熟练的技术人员将了解,在此实施例中,钼是用于牺牲材料140的优选材料,因为它不是透明的,而硅较不优选作为负性光致抗蚀剂材料,因为它是半透明的。用于牺牲材料140的其它优选材料包含Ti、 W和Ta。根据一个实施例,开口150具有均匀的高度以形成具有均匀高度的支撑结构。根据另一实施例,开口150具有变化的高度以形成针对多色显示器具有变化的高度的支撑结构。熟练的技术人员将了解,描绘的附图说明本文描述的步骤的顺序,且并没有按比例绘制。在蚀刻保护材料160之后,在结构上优选沉积可移动层170 (并随后图案化并蚀刻) 以形成图8G说明的预释放或未释放结构。 .将了解,图8G中说明的实施例展示在图8F 所示的结构上沉积的可移动层170。在所说明的实施例中,可移动层170充当可移动反射层或第二电极以及机械层,且因此可称为机械层、可移动层、可变形层和/或电极。可移动层170可包括全反射的挠性金属,如图7A、 7B和8H所示,或者其可支撑单独的镜,如图7C-7E所示。用于可移动层170的其它合适的材料包含(但不限于)铝、铝合金、铬和镍。在其它实施例中,可移动层170可包括多个层,例如A1/Si02、 Ni/Al/A10x 和Ni/Al/Si02。将了解,在多层实施例中,可移动层170具有反射层,所述反射层具有由对蚀刻剂具有抵抗性的材料组成的背侧。可移动层170优选在可移动层170的周边周围直接或间接连接到衬底20。在沉积可移动层170以及用以完成装置的其它步骤(例如,对列进行图案化以与行交叉)之后,选择性移除牺牲材料140。熟练的技术人员将了解,可移动层170也可经蚀刻而具有开口或孔172,使得用于牺牲层移除的蚀刻气体可到达牺牲材料140。熟练的技术人员将了解,可通过用由例如光致抗蚀剂形成的掩模(未图示)遮蔽可移动层170 并蚀刻穿过所述掩模来蚀刻开口172。在蚀刻开口172之后移除掩模。将了解,作为总封装过程的一部分,干涉式调制器随后经密封和保护以防止受包围含有所述干涉式调制器的封装的环境的影响。优选地,此类孔或开口具有与光刻系统将允许的直径一样小的直径。在一实施例中,孔或开口具有在约2-6微米范围内的直径。将了解,可使用步进器工具来形成较小的、小于1微米、且较优选小于0.5微米的开口。熟练的技术人员将了解,开口的大小、间距和数目将影响牺牲材料140移除的速率。如图8H所示,优选使用选择性气体蚀刻工艺(例如,对镜或可移动层170、电介质130和保护材料160具有选择性)在由保护材料160形成的"盖"所包围的支撑件18 之间移除牺牲材料140,以在光学堆叠16的可移动层170与介电层130之间产生光学腔180。在牺牲材料140的选择性蚀刻之后,可移动层170被由牺牲材料140形成的支撑件18支撑,并搁置在其上。可使用各种蚀刻工艺(包含湿式方法和干式方法)和蚀刻剂来移除牺牲材料140。可使用此项技术中众所周知的标准蚀刻技术来移除牺牲材料140。合适的蚀刻技术包含(例如)湿式蚀刻方法和干式蚀刻方法。特定的蚀刻工艺将取决于待移除的材料。化学干式蚀刻方法通常涉及将气态的化学反应性蚀刻剂暴露于牺牲材料140,从而将材料转换为例如通过真空源移除的挥发性产物。干式蚀刻方法中有用的蚀刻剂的实例包含一种或一种以上气体的混合物,例如惰性气体(例如,Xe或Ar)与例如N2、 F2、 H2、 CO、 Cl2、 NxFy (例如,NF3)、 CxFy (例如,C2F6)和/或SixFy (例如,SiF4)的混合物。举例来说,二氟化氙(XeF2)产生用于相对于保护材料160选择性移除硅、钼、 钛或钩牺牲层的干式蚀刻剂释放气体,包含(但不限于)氧化硅、氮化硅、氧化铝、光致抗蚀剂和铝,因为XeF2 —点也不能蚀刻这些材料。将了解,此蚀刻工艺是选择性蚀刻工艺,其并不蚀刻介电的、半反射的或电极材料,例如所说明的可移动层170、保护材料160和下部介电层130,或这些结构上的任何蚀刻停止材料。示范性湿式蚀刻剂是磷酸/乙酸/硝酸或"PAN"蚀刻剂,其可相对于各种材料选择性移除例如Mo、 Al或Ge,所述材料包含(但不限于)氧化硅、氮化硅、钛、镍、铬、 ITO、碳化硅和非晶硅。熟练的技术人员将了解,例如可通过湿式或干式蚀刻化学物质来移除包括钽和钛的牺牲材料140,包含(但不限于)通过例如XeF2、氟等离子(CF4、 NF3、 SF6)和Cl2的蚀刻剂进行的蚀刻。优选使用湿式蚀刻化学物质移除包括镁的牺牲材料140,包含(但不限于)通过例如HC1和HN03的蚀刻剂进行的蚀刻。优选使用湿式蚀刻化学物质而不是干式蚀刻化学物质来移除包括铝的牺牲材料140。用于铝牺牲材料140的合适的湿式蚀刻剂包含(但不限于)例如氢氧化铵(NH40H) 和TMAH有机碱、磷酸、HC1、 PAN蚀刻剂、NaOH和KOH。尽管对于铝的移除来说湿式蚀刻剂是优选的,但例如Cl2等离子的干式蚀刻剂可用于移除铝。熟练的技术人员将了解,用于蚀刻铝牺牲材料的湿式蚀刻剂也可移除可移动层170背侧上的铝(如果有), 且可移动层170背侧上的任何此种铝均应受保护以防止关于薄(例如,<100A)介电层的蚀刻的影响。熟练的技术人员将了解,对于可移动层170在背侧上具有铝的实施例, 镍(或任何对蚀刻剂具有抵抗性的金属)可用作可移动层170背侧上的反射材料,因为镍对用于铝的蚀刻剂具有抵抗性。在一些实施例中,例如通过监视装置的反射率或释放的蚀刻产物来监视蚀刻。在其它实施例中,将蚀刻进行历时预定的时间段。所属领域的技术人员将了解,层的蚀刻速率取决于层的厚度。大体上,较厚的层将比较薄的层较慢地蚀刻。如上文所述,可移动层170也可经图案化以提供开口或孔172,使得用于牺牲层移除的蚀刻气体可到达牺牲材料140。熟练的技术人员将了解,蚀刻速率还取决于开口172的数目和开口172的大小。根据此实施例,图8H展示干涉式调制器的所得最终结构。如图8H所示,顶表面上的可移动层170和侧壁上的保护材料160共同囊封牺牲材料140,以保护其不受产生光学腔180的释放蚀刻的影响。在尤其优选的实施例中,牺牲材料140包括钼,且干涉式调制器的最终所得结构具有带有直线侧壁的支撑件18。在此实施例中,保护材料160 可包括光致抗蚀剂或SOD。图9说明根据替代实施例制造的干涉式调制器的所得最终结构。根据此实施例,在从图8G所示的结构选择性移除牺牲材料140之后,还移除了开口150中包围支撑件的保护材料160。可通过任何类型的选择性蚀刻工艺(湿式或干式)执行选择性移除,只要没有Si02暴露于蚀刻剂。举例来说,熟练的技术人员了解,光学堆叠16上的A1203 蚀刻停止件可用作用于光学堆叠16的替代电介质。或者,可使用灰化工艺来移除开口150中的剩余保护材料160。熟练的技术人员将容易了解,使用灰化工艺来移除包括光致抗蚀剂的保护材料160。根据另一实施例,在如图8E所说明沉积保护材料160之后,接着将保护材料160 回蚀到牺牲材料140的顶表面以在牺牲材料140的某些部分上形成"盖",如图IOA所示。优选地,在用光刻工艺进行掩蔽之后蚀刻保护材料160。在此实施例中,这些在"盖" 下的牺牲材料160的部分将充当支撑件18 (图IOD)。优选地,保护材料160经回蚀而留下比支撑区域略宽的"盖",以确保在掩模未对准的情况下覆盖支撑区域,如图10A 所示的实施例中所说明。或者,如图IOB所示,将"盖"形成为仅在开口150中的保护材料160上的环。如图IOC所示的未释放结构所说明,在蚀刻保护材料160以形成"盖" 之后在结构上沉积可移动层170。尽管图IOC将可移动层170说明为沉积在图IOA所示的结构上,但熟练的技术人员将了解,在替代实施例中,可移动层170可沉积在图10B 所示的结构上。熟练的技术人员将了解,如上所述的图案化、选择性移除等后续步骤跟随在沉积可移动层170之后以完成装置,从而获得图10D中示意性展示的此实施例的最终结构。或者,在保护材料160为光致抗蚀剂的实施例中,在图IOA所示的牺牲材料140的选择性移除之后,可使用灰化工艺来移除开口150中的剩余保护材料160,从而仅在牺牲材料140的顶表面上用于形成支撑结构的区域中留下保护材料160。熟练的技术人员将了解,可在牺牲材料140的选择性蚀刻之后使用灰化工艺来移除图IOB所示结构中的剩余保护材料160。根据一个实施例,可在沉积可移动层170之前在图IOA和IOB所示的结构上旋涂光致抗蚀剂层200,如图IIA所说明。从牺牲层140的顶表面上移除保护材料160以及此额外的光致抗蚀剂层200形成具有甚至更平面化的可移动层170的装置。此光致抗蚀剂层200具有优选与保护材料160的厚度在相同数量级上的厚度。因此,熟练的技术人员将了解,举例来说,如果保护材料具有约1000 A的厚度,那么光致抗蚀剂层200的厚度优选在约500-2000人的范围内。根据此实施例,接着光致抗蚀剂层200经图案化和蚀刻,使得其仅覆盖保护材料160,如图11B所示。光致抗蚀剂层200和保护材料160接着均优选通过等离子蚀刻而移除,以产生图IIC所示的结构。光致抗蚀剂层200有助于在移除保护材料160时最小化开口150内的保护材料160的顶表面的凹陷。如图IIC所示,可移动层170具有在开口150上填充有保护材料160的部分中仅略微凹陷的顶表面。根据此实施例,可移动层170比图8H和IOD所示实施例中的可移动层170甚至更平面化。在另一实施例中,为了形成支撑结构,可使用例如光致抗蚀剂的自平面化材料来隔离牺牲材料的一部分,直到执行牺牲材料的选择性移除为止。图12A-12I描绘用于形成包括此种支撑结构的装置的过程。如上所述,熟练的技术人员将了解,描绘的附图说明本文描述的步骤的顺序,且并没有按比例绘制。在图12A中可见,牺牲材料140已沉积在光学堆叠16上,且机械层(在此实施例中为可移动反射层170)已形成于牺牲材料140上。将牺牲材料140沉积到优选在约1000-4000人范围内的厚度。如图12A所示,在可移动反射层170中蚀刻孔口322,其包围可移动反射层170的一部分324。可移动层170的此部分324位于牺牲材料140的将形成支撑结构的区域上。图12B是处于图12A的阶段的部分制造装置的俯视图。 (图12A是沿着线12A-12A截取的装置的横截面。)如图12B可见,孔口322并没有完全隔离可移动反射层170的部分324与层170的其余部分。在图12C中可见,直接在孔口322下方的牺牲材料140己经蚀刻而形成包围牺牲材料140的残余柱体328的腔326。优选使用定时的蚀刻工艺来蚀刻牺牲材料140。形成腔326的蚀刻工艺也可部分地底切所述可移动反射层170。腔326的形状可较清楚地见于图12D,图12D是处于图12C的阶段的部分制造装置的俯视图。剩余牺牲材料的边缘由虚线指示。可见,腔326是围绕牺牲材料的柱体328的环形腔。在图12E中可见,已沉积自平面化材料330层,从而填充腔326并在可移动反射层170上延伸。在一实施例中,平面化材料330可包括光致抗蚀剂。平面化材料330的厚度(从可移动层170的顶表面到平面化材料330的顶表面)优选在约3000人到5微米的范围内,且较优选为约l微米。在图12F中,平面化材料330已经图案化和蚀刻,且下伏的可移动反射层170已经图案化和蚀刻,从而形成延伸穿过平面化层330和可移动层170而到达牺牲材料140的蚀刻孔334。将了解,提供蚀刻孔334以用于选择性移除牺牲材料140。在其中平面化层330包括光致抗蚀剂的实施例中,不蚀刻平面化材料330 可能是必要的。在所说明的实施例中,腔326内的平面化材料330也已经蚀刻,但柱体328保持由平面化材料330绝缘,如图12F所示。有利地,此图案化将便于稍后例如通过抗蚀剂灰化移除平面化材料330。在图12G中,执行蚀刻工艺以经由蚀刻孔334选择性移除牺牲材料140。可见,牺牲材料的柱体328保留,其通过平面化材料330而受到保护以不受蚀刻影响。在图12H 中,例如通过灰化工艺移除平面化材料,留下充当支撑结构的牺牲材料的柱体328。图121是图12H的装置的俯视图,其中可见柱体328下伏在可移动反射层170的部分324 下,从而为整个层提供支撑。在可移动机械层170沉积在平面牺牲层上时可见,可移动层170有利地保持大体上平坦。此大体上的平坦使层170内的残余应力将层170从平坦位置向上或向下拉动的可能性最小化,且还使任何残余应力将引起分层从而拉开充当支撑结构的柱体328的可能性最小化。因此,所沉积的可移动层170的平坦特性既使残余应力的作用最小化,又使残余应力本身的量值最小化。此外,因为可使柱体大体上为圆柱形,所以可移动层向抵靠光学堆叠16的塌焰位置的致动较不可能导致支撑结构边缘附近的机械故障,所述机械故障在具有无支撑的翼的支撑结构中可能随着时间而发生。所属领域的技术人员将了解,上述装置和制造技术的改变是可能的。举例来说,可增加和/或去除组件和/或步骤,且也可改变步骤的顺序。而且,本文描述的方法、结构和系统可用于制造其它电子装置,包含其它类型的MEMS装置和其它类型的光学调制器。尽管以上详细描述已展示、描述并指出应用于各种实施例的本发明的新颖特征,但将了解,在不脱离本发明精神的情况下,所属领域的技术人员可对所说明的装置或过程进行形式和细节上的各种省略、替换和改动。将认识到,本发明可体现为并不提供本文陈述的特征和益处中的所有特征和益处的形式,因为某些特征可与其它特征分离而使用或实践。

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN102809813A *1 Jun 20125 Dec 2012株式会社日立显示器Display device
CN102918638A *19 Apr 20106 Feb 2013惠普发展公司,有限责任合伙企业Nanoscale switching devices with partially oxidized electrodes
US902428519 Apr 20105 May 2015Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Nanoscale switching devices with partially oxidized electrodes
International ClassificationB81B3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB81B2203/0307, B81B2201/042, G02B26/0841, B81C2201/014, G02B26/001, B81C1/00595
European ClassificationG02B26/00C, B81C1/00F8G, G02B26/08M4E
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