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Publication numberCN101087899 A
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCN 200580044444
PCT numberPCT/US2005/040933
Publication date12 Dec 2007
Filing date10 Nov 2005
Priority date10 Nov 2004
Also published asCA2586965A1, CA2586966A1, CN101080511A, CN101094726A, CN101233260A, CN101410547A, CN101443929A, EP1809786A2, EP1810344A2, US7319190, US20060096635, US20060102230, WO2006053128A2, WO2006053128A3, WO2006053128A8, WO2006053129A2, WO2006053129A3
Publication number200580044444.4, CN 101087899 A, CN 101087899A, CN 200580044444, CN-A-101087899, CN101087899 A, CN101087899A, CN200580044444, CN200580044444.4, PCT/2005/40933, PCT/US/2005/040933, PCT/US/2005/40933, PCT/US/5/040933, PCT/US/5/40933, PCT/US2005/040933, PCT/US2005/40933, PCT/US2005040933, PCT/US200540933, PCT/US5/040933, PCT/US5/40933, PCT/US5040933, PCT/US540933
Inventors约翰R塔特尔
Applicant德斯塔尔科技公司
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: SIPO, Espacenet
Vertical production of photovoltaic devices
CN 101087899 A
Abstract  translated from Chinese
本发明提供一种通过以下方式生产的光电薄膜太阳能电池(310):将垂直定向的基于托盘(320)的衬底(310)提供到在其中可在所述托盘(320)上循序地形成多个层的一系列反应室(330、340)中。 The present invention provides a way by following the production of thin-film photovoltaic solar cell (310): Based on the vertically oriented tray (320) of the substrate (310) provided therein to be sequentially formed mostly in the tray (320) a series of layers of the reaction chamber (330, 340) in.
Claims(6)  translated from Chinese
1.一种用于制造光电装置的设备,其包括:用于将垂直定向的衬底提供到第一反应区域的构件;多个反应区域,其至少包含:能够提供用于沉积背部接触层的环境的区域;能够提供用于沉积p型半导体层的环境的区域;和能够提供用于沉积n型半导体层的环境的区域。 1. An apparatus for manufacturing a photovoltaic device, comprising: means for providing a vertically oriented substrate to the member of the first reaction zone; a plurality of reaction zones, at least comprising: the ability to provide for the deposition of the back contact layer regional environment; to provide regional sedimentary environment p-type semiconductor layer used; and to provide an n-type semiconductor layer deposition area of the environment for.
2.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其中所述用于提供垂直定向的衬底的构件是用于将托盘传输通过所述多个反应区域的基于托盘的系统和构件。 2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said means for providing a vertically oriented substrate is used for transmission over the plurality of trays tray systems and components based on the reaction zone.
3.根据权利要求1所述的设备,其进一步包括用于将垂直定向的衬底传输到所述多个反应区域的第二构件。 3. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising means for transferring the vertically oriented substrate to the second member of the plurality of the reaction zone.
4.一种用于制造光电装置的方法,其包括:将能够垂直地固持衬底的构件依次提供到多个反应器区域,其中所述多个区域包含至少一个沉积p型半导体层的区域。 A method of manufacturing a photovoltaic device, comprising: the substrate is capable of holding vertically a plurality of components are sequentially supplied to the reactor zone, wherein at least one of said plurality of regions comprises depositing a p-type semiconductor layer region.
5.一种用于制造光电电池的方法,其包括:a.提供多个垂直安置的衬底;b.在所述多个衬底的表面上沉积导电薄膜;c.其中所述导电薄膜包含由导电材料形成的多个离散层;和d.在p型吸收体层上沉积n型半导体层,从而形成pn结。 A method for producing a photovoltaic cell, comprising: a plurality of vertically disposed providing a substrate; b depositing a conductive film on surfaces of the plurality of the substrate; c wherein said conductive film comprises a... a plurality of discrete layers of a conductive material; and d. In the p-type absorber layer is deposited on the n-type semiconductor layer, thereby forming a pn junction.
6.根据权利要求5所述的方法,其进一步在所述导电薄膜上沉积至少一个p型半导体层,其中所述p型半导体层包含基于铜铟二硒的合金材料。 6. The method of claim 5, further depositing at least one p-type semiconductor layer on the conductive film, wherein the p-type semiconductor layer comprises an alloy material based on the copper indium diselenide.
Description  translated from Chinese
光电装置的垂直生产 Vertical production of optoelectronic devices

相关申请案的交叉参考本申请案主张2004年11月10日申请的序列号为60/626,843美国临时专利申请案的优先权。 CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS The present application claims November 10, 2004 Application Serial No. 60 / 626,843 US provisional patent application priority.

技术领域 FIELD

本文揭示的本发明大体上涉及制造光电装置,且更具体地说涉及一种用于制造薄膜的设备和使用垂直定向的基于托盘的系统制造薄膜太阳能电池的产品和方法。 The present invention disclosed herein relates generally to the manufacture of the photovoltaic device, and more particularly relates to a product and a method and apparatus for manufacturing a thin film using a vertically oriented tray system based manufacturing a thin film solar cell.

背景技术 BACKGROUND

可更新能量的益处尚未完全反映到市场价格中。 The benefits of renewable energy is not yet fully reflected in the market price. 虽然例如光电(PV)电池的替代能源提供清洁、可靠且可更新的能量,但高生产成本和生产可靠性的缺乏使得这些装置无法成为可实施的商业产品。 While alternative energy sources such as photovoltaic (PV) cells provide a clean, reliable and renewable energy, but the lack of high production costs and production reliability makes these devices can not become a commercial product that can be implemented. 随着对能量的需求的增长,全世界对提供能源的替代品的需求也随之增加。 With the growing demand for energy demand worldwide for providing energy alternatives increases.

虽然可在实验室里制造相对高效的薄膜PV电池,但已证明,难以将所述工艺发展成具有对于商业生存而言至关重要的重复能力和效率的商业规模制造工艺。 Although the film can be produced relatively efficient PV cells in the laboratory, it has been shown, it is difficult to develop the process to have commercial viability is critical for reproducibility and efficiency of commercial scale manufacturing process. 此外,与制造相关联的成本是阻止薄膜太阳能电池更广泛地被商业化的重要因素。 In addition, costs associated with the manufacture of thin film solar cells is to prevent more widely commercially important factor. 由于缺乏高效的薄膜制造工艺,使得PV电池无法有效地取代市场上的其它能量源。 Due to the lack of efficient film manufacturing processes, such that the PV cell can not effectively replace other energy sources on the market.

可根据不同的设计来制造薄膜PV电池。 According to different designs to manufacturing a thin film PV cell. 在薄膜PV电池中,将PV材料的薄型半导体层沉积在例如玻璃、金属或塑料薄片的支承层上。 In thin-film PV cells, a thin layer of semiconductor material deposited on the PV support layer such as glass, metal or plastic sheet. 由于薄膜材料的光吸收率高于晶体材料,所以以极薄的连续的原子、分子或离子层的形式沉积PV材料。 Since the light absorption rate of the film material in the crystal material, in the form of very thin continuous atoms, molecules or ions PV material layer is deposited. 典型的薄膜PV电池的活性区域仅若干微米厚。 Active region of typical thin film PV cell only several microns thick. 基本的光电堆叠设计示范了PV电池的典型结构。 Basic photovoltaic stack design demonstrates the typical structure of the PV cell. 在所述设计中,薄膜太阳能电池包括衬底、阻挡层、背部接触层、p型吸收体层、n型结缓冲层、本征透明氧化层和透明导电氧化层。 In the design, the thin film solar cell includes a substrate, a barrier layer, a back contact layer, p-type absorber layer, n-type junction buffer layer, an intrinsic transparent oxide layer and a transparent conductive oxide layer. 铜铟镓二硒(CIGS)化合物最适合用于薄膜电池的吸收体层中,且归入铜铟硒类(称为CIS材料)的分类。 Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) compound is best suited for thin-film battery absorber layer, and copper indium selenide classified class (called CIS material) classification. 通常通过基于真空的技术来沉积CIGS薄膜。 Usually based on vacuum technology CIGS thin film deposited by.

薄膜制造过程因沉积过程中出现的产品缺陷而遭受较低的良率。 A thin film deposition process due to defects that occur during the product suffered low yield. 具体地说,这些缺陷是因在处理和材料处置期间发生的污染以及玻璃、金属或塑料衬底的断裂导致的。 Specifically, these defects are due to contamination and breakage of glass, metal or plastic substrate during processing and disposal of material occurs caused. 因此,此项技术需要一种既能在处理期间限制潜在的污染同时又将衬底断裂的可能性最小化的薄膜太阳能电池制造过程。 Thus, this technique requires a not only during processing but will also limit the potential for contamination is minimized the possibility of breaking a substrate thin-film solar cell manufacturing process.

目前,使用多步骤批处理来制造电池,其中在各反应步骤之间转移每一产品零件。 Currently, the use of multi-step batch process for producing a battery, wherein the reaction step between the transfer of each product parts. 此类转移较为繁重而且需要在室内循环进行反应。 Such transfer is more arduous and requires indoor cycling reaction. 典型的过程由一系列个别的分批处理室组成,每一处理室特别针对电池中各层的形成而设计。 A typical process consists of a series of individual batch processing chambers, each processing chamber especially for forming the layers in the cell design. 问题在于,衬底被数次从真空转移到空气中再传回真空。 The problem is that the substrate is transferred from the vacuum several times before returning to the air vacuum. 这种真空破坏可能会导致产品受到污染。 This vacuum may cause damage to the product contamination. 因此,此项技术中需要一种将真空破坏的可能性最小化的工艺。 Therefore, the possibility of the art a need for a vacuum to minimize the damage process.

虽然替代的系统使用一系列个别的批处理室,其与用于每一室的卷式连续过程耦合,但系统的非连续性以及需要破坏真空仍然是主要缺点。 Although alternative system uses a series of individual batch processing chambers, with the formula for the volume of each chamber is coupled to a continuous process, but a non-continuous system, and the need to break the vacuum is still a major drawback. 此外,卷式过程可能会向玻璃或金属衬底施加弯曲应力,从而导致破裂和断裂。 In addition, the process may be applied to the roll bending stress to a glass or metal substrate, resulting in cracking and fracture. 这类缺陷使层的粘结性折衷,且可能导致零良率。 Such defects so compromise adhesion layer, and may result in a zero yield.

需要高温沉积过程也导致PV电池生产的低良率。 Requires a high temperature deposition process also leads to the production of the PV cell low yield. 所有目前已知的柔性聚酰亚胺或其它聚合物衬底材料一般都不能经受高温。 All presently known flexible polyimide or other polymer substrate materials generally can not withstand high temperatures.

举例来说,由Hollars在2004年4月1日公开的美国专利申请案2004/0063320揭示了一种用于使用卷式系统连续生产光电堆叠的一般方法。 For example, by Hollars patent applications in the United States April 1, 2004 the general public 2004/0063320 discloses a method for using a continuous production of photovoltaic systems roll stack. 如上所述,这一过程要求向衬底施加弯曲应力。 As described above, this process requires a bending stress is applied to the substrate. 在衬底材料为玻璃或金属的情况下,这一应力可能会导致破裂和断裂。 In the case where the substrate material is glass or metal, this stress may cause cracking and breaking. 破裂或断裂会削弱高质量堆叠结构,并降低制造良率。 Cracking or breaking weakens quality stacked structure, and reduce the manufacturing yield. 因此,为了成为商业上可实施的过程,所揭示的系统需要用于生产堆叠的柔性衬底。 Therefore, in order to become commercially available embodiment of the process, the disclosed system requires a flexible substrate for the production of the stack. 然而,目前已知的柔性聚合物材料均无法承受高温沉积过程。 However, currently known flexible polymeric material are unable to withstand the high temperature deposition process.

此外,Hollars未教示任何用于优化通过其连续系统的产品流的具体设备。 Furthermore, Hollars not taught any specific apparatus for optimizing the system, through its continuous product stream. 水平处理仍然被用作对被加工零件的基本沉积和反应定向,且并不使用任何用于使多个处理流通过区域中的每一者或任何一者的方案。 Level of processing is still used as part of the deposition process and the basic orientation of the reaction, and does not use any area of each or any one of a plurality of processing program for causing a flow through.

因此,此项技术中需要一种不会对衬底施加弯曲应力的过程,其中衬底可经受高温沉积过程。 Accordingly, a need in the art process without applying bending stress to the substrate, wherein the substrate may be subjected to high temperature deposition process. 因此,需要一种用于有效地制造PV工件且能够进行大规模生产的过程。 Therefore, a need exists for efficiently producing PV workpiece and capable of large-scale production process.

发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明提供一种通过以下方式生产的光电制品:将垂直定向的产品衬底通过连续反向、传送带构件或通过基于托盘的传输构件提供到一系列反应室,其中阻挡层、背部接触层、p型半导体层、碱性材料、n型结缓冲层、本征透明氧化层、透明导电氧化层和顶部金属栅格可循序形成在所述托盘上。 The present invention provides a photoelectric produced by the following article: The product of the substrate by successive reverse vertical orientation, or the belt member through the transmission member provided on the tray to a series of reaction chambers, wherein the barrier layer, the back contact layer, p type semiconductor layer, the alkaline material, n-type junction buffer layer, an intrinsic transparent oxide layer, a transparent conductive oxide layer and the top metal grid may be sequentially formed on the tray.

进一步揭示一种用于通过使用一系列基于托盘的固持装置来形成光电装置的方法,所述固持装置以垂直定向装载工件,且具有提供在每一托盘的正面和背面上的工件衬底,以使得受到控制的反应室生产的产品量大致为使用单侧托盘的产品量的两倍。 Further discloses a method of using a series of the holding tray based apparatus for forming a photovoltaic device, the holding means is loaded in a vertical orientation of the workpiece, and the workpiece substrate having provided on the front and back surface of each tray, and to such that the amount of product produced under control of the reaction chamber is substantially one-sided tray using double the amount of product. 在此实施例中,使一系列托盘以界定的速率通过具有多个处理区域的反应器,其中每个区域用于装置制造的一个生产步骤阶段。 In this embodiment, so that a series of trays through the reactor at a rate defined by having a plurality of processing regions, wherein each region of the apparatus for making a production step phase.

用于处理这个垂直定向的产品系列的特定生产步骤生产可包含:用于制备衬底的装载或隔离区域;用于沉积阻挡层、背部接触层、一个或一个以上半导体层和碱性材料的环境;用于对上述层中的一者或一者以上进行热处理的环境;用于沉积n型化合物半导体(其中此层充当结缓冲层)、本征透明氧化层和导电的透明氧化层的环境。 Is used for this particular production step of vertically oriented product series of production may comprise: an isolation region prepared for loading or substrate; means for depositing a barrier layer, a back contact layer, one or more alkaline environment of the semiconductor material layer and ; means for subjecting the layer of one or more of a heat treatment environment; for the deposition of n-type compound semiconductor (wherein this layer acts as a buffer layer junction), the environment intrinsic transparent oxide layer and a transparent conductive oxide layer. 在进一步的实施例中,所述过程可经调整而包括更多或更少的区域,以便制造具有更多或更少层的薄膜太阳能电池。 In a further embodiment, the process may be adjusted to include more or fewer regions, so as to produce thin-film solar cell having more or fewer layers.

可使用垂直定向的托盘型系统,其中将多个工件固持为托盘,且使多个托盘通过连续的反应器步骤设备进行处理。 Can be used vertically oriented tray-type system, in which a plurality of trays for holding a workpiece, and a plurality of pallets are processed through a continuous reactor step device. 这个基于托盘的系统允许对较小的工件进行连续处理,且允许替代的材料处置步骤,例如在中间或最终步骤中的托盘堆叠。 The tray-based system allows for smaller workpieces continuous treatment, and allows an alternative material disposal step, e.g., in the middle or the final step of the tray stack.

附图说明 Brief Description

图1展示通过本发明的生产技术生产的薄膜太阳能电池的实施例。 Figure 1 shows an embodiment of the present invention by the production technology of production of thin film solar cell.

图2示意性代表用于形成太阳能电池的反应器。 Figure 2 schematically representative for forming a solar cell of the reactor.

图3展示一装置上的多个工件衬底,所述装置能够将衬底附着到载体上,所述载体还具有允许将零件以精确方式前进并通过生产设备的构件。 Figure 3 shows a plurality of workpieces on a substrate, the apparatus can be attached to the carrier substrate, said carrier further having a precise manner to allow the forward part through the production equipment and components.

图4展示本发明中使用的板上组装有多个衬底工件的托盘的示意图。 Figure 4 shows a panel assembly for use in the present invention, a plurality of substrates workpieces schematic tray.

图5A展示处理方法的实施例,其中通过根据本发明的循序的溅镀-蒸镀过程来同时馈送和处理两个衬底。 Figure 5A shows an embodiment of a method of treatment, wherein by the present invention according to the sequential sputtering - to process two substrates simultaneously feeding and deposition processes.

图5B展示处理方法的的实施例的俯视图,其中通过循序的溅镀-蒸镀/溅镀-蒸镀过程同时馈送和处理两个衬底。 5B shows the processing method of a plan view of an example of embodiment in which by sequential sputtering - vapor deposition / sputter - vapor deposition process and the feeding process two substrates simultaneously.

图6说明根据本发明的过程的另一实施例,其中各区域进一步包括一个或一个以上子区域。 6 illustrates a procedure according to another embodiment of the present invention, wherein each region further comprises one or more sub-regions.

具体实施方式 DETAILED DESCRIPTION

一般的光电堆叠设计本发明使用一种新的生产设备来生产光电装置。 The general design of the present invention is the use of photovoltaic stack a new production apparatus to produce photovoltaic device. 当然,特定设备将取决于具体的光电装置设计,所述设计可能是不同的。 Of course, the particular apparatus will depend upon the specific photovoltaic device design, the design may be different.

参看图1,将所有层沉积在衬底105上,所述衬底可包括多种功能材料(例如玻璃、金属、陶瓷或塑料)中的一种。 Referring to Figure 1, all the layers deposited on the substrate 105, the substrate may comprise a variety of functional materials (such as glass, metal, ceramic, or plastic) in one. 直接沉积在衬底105上的是阻挡层110。 Deposited directly on the substrate 105 is a barrier layer 110. 阻挡层110包括薄型导体或非常薄的绝缘材料,并且用以阻挡不合需要的元素或化合物从衬底中向外扩散到电池的其余部分。 Barrier layer 110 comprises a thin conductor or very thin insulating material and a barrier to undesirable elements or compounds from diffusing from the substrate outwards into the rest of the battery. 此阻挡层110可包括铬、钛、氧化硅、氮化钛和相关的具有所需导电性和耐用性的材料。 This barrier layer 110 may include chromium, titanium, silicon oxide, titanium nitride and related materials having the desired conductivity and durability. 接下来沉积的层是背部接触层120,其包括非反应性金属,例如钼。 The next layer is deposited back contact layer 120, which includes a non-reactive metals, such as molybdenum. 下一层沉积在背部接触层120上,且为p型半导体层130,以便改进吸收体层155与背部接触120之间的粘附性。 The next layer is deposited on the back contact layer 120, and a p-type semiconductor layer 130, the absorber layer 155 in order to improve the adhesion to the back contact 120 between. P型半导体层130可为I-IIIa,b-VI同型半导体,但优选的成份为Cu:Ga:Se、Cu:Al:Se,或Cu:In:Se与前述化合物中的任一者的合金。 P-type semiconductor layer 130 may be a I-IIIa, b-VI with type semiconductor, but the preferred composition is Cu: Ga: Se, Cu: Al: Se, or Cu: In: Se aforementioned compound according to any one of the alloys .

在此实施例中,p型吸收体层的形成包含多个离散层的相互扩散。 In this embodiment, p-type absorber layer comprises forming a plurality of discrete mutual diffusion layers. 最终如图1所示,p型半导体层130与150组合成单个的复合层155,其充当太阳能的主要吸收体。 Shown, p-type semiconductor layer 130 and 150 into a single composite layer 155, which serves as the main absorbent body 1 solar final FIG. 在此实施例中,添加碱性材料140以便为后续层的生长播种,并增加吸收体层155的载流子浓度和晶粒大小,因而提高太阳能电池的转换效率。 In this embodiment, the addition of an alkaline material 140 for a subsequent layer growth sowing, the absorber layer and increase the carrier concentration and grain size of 155, thus improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. 一旦经沉积,便将所述层在约400℃℃-600℃的温度下进行热处理。 Once the deposited, the layer is put at a temperature of about 400 ℃℃ -600 ℃ heat-treated.

在热处理之后,通过沉积n型结缓冲层160来继续进行光电生产过程。 After the heat treatment, by depositing n-type junction buffer layer 160, photovoltaic production processes to proceed. 这一层160将最终与吸收体层155相互作用,以形成必要的pn结165。 This layer 160 will eventually interacting with the absorber layer 155 to form a pn junction 165 is necessary. 接下来沉积透明的本征氧化层170,以充当具有与CIGS吸收体的异质结。 The next deposition of intrinsic transparent oxide layer 170, to serve as an absorbent body having a CIGS heterojunction. 最后,沉积导电的透明氧化层180,以充当电池电极的顶部。 Finally, the deposition of the transparent conductive oxide layer 180 to serve as the top of the cell electrodes. 这最后一层是导电的,且可将电流载运到栅格载体,所述栅格载体允许带走所产生的电流。 This last layer is conductive, and a current may be carried to the grid carrier, said carrier grid allows the generated current away.

一般的设备配置本发明的第一实施例是一种用于制造光电装置的设备,其包括构件,所述构件用于提供向生产设备呈递工件的构件,其中工件的定向是垂直的。 The general configuration of the first embodiment of the apparatus of the present invention is an apparatus for manufacturing a photovoltaic device, comprising a member, the member for supplying workpieces to the production equipment presenting member, wherein the workpiece is oriented vertically. 生产系列的这一垂直定向允许将工件安置在产品系列的正面和背面上,且允许提高制造设备的容量。 The vertical orientation allows the production of the series will be placed on the front of the workpiece and the back of the product range, and allow an increase in the capacity of manufacturing equipment. 另人惊奇的是,已发现可通过使用若干要素来实现在垂直轴上提供工件衬底,所述因素包含:有限的衬底高度,以便可优化反应室技术每个沉积或反应室与下一沉积或反应室的充分隔离对反应材料和沉积源的充分监视和控制精确的温度控制然而,已发现系统需要垂直衬底,所述垂直衬底可使用目标衬底在垂直平面的两侧上的定位,借此可实现生产中的两倍实例,且可以更经济的方式实现对受到谨慎控制的反应参数的更好且更经济的使用,其中包含相对低的压力和较高的温度。 Another Surprisingly, it has been found that can be achieved through the use of a number of elements to provide a substrate on the vertical axis of the workpiece, the factors include: limited substrate height, so that you can optimize the reaction chamber technology • Each deposition or reaction chamber The next deposition or reaction chamber sufficiently isolated from the reaction deposition source material and full monitoring and control precise temperature control, however, been found that the system needs to perpendicular to the substrate, the substrate can be used vertically in the vertical plane of the target substrate positioned on both sides, whereby the production can be achieved twice example, and can be achieved by the use of reaction parameters carefully controlled better and more economical and more economical manner, which contains a relatively low pressure and higher temperature.

可将固持多个衬底零件的多个托盘用作用于在生产系列被循序传输并通过多个反应区域时固持衬底的构件。 Holding a plurality of substrates parts can be used as a plurality of trays in the production of the series are sequentially transmitted through multiple reaction regions of the substrate holding member. 这些反应区域至少包含能够提供用于沉积半导体层的环境的区域,和能够提供用于沉积前体材料以形成p型吸收体层的环境的区域。 The reaction zone comprises at least able to provide an area for deposition of the semiconductor layer of the environment, and to provide for the deposition material to form the front region of the p-type layer of the absorbent body environment.

图4展示托盘的示意图。 Figure 4 shows a schematic view of the pallet. 托盘为多个小型PV工件衬底410提供固持基座400,或加工衬底以预定方式固定地附接到托盘,以便以精确且可控制的方式在每个处理室中呈递各个工件。 A plurality of small workpieces tray PV substrate 410 to provide for holding base 400, or machining the substrate in a predetermined manner fixedly attached to the tray, in order to precise and controlled manner presenting respective workpiece at each processing chamber. 托盘本身经过设计,以便可精确地确定托盘的位置。 Tray itself is designed so that it can accurately determine the position of the tray. 托盘还具有构件420,其用于允许附接到驱动构件,以便使托盘前进并通过处理室。 Tray 420 also has a member which is attached to the drive member for allowing, in order to advance the tray and through the processing chamber. 托盘主体的材料经选择,使其具有热稳定性,并且不会与反应或沉积室中使用的处理或沉积材料相互作用。 Material selected pallet body, it has thermal stability, and does not deal with or deposited material used and the reaction or interaction of the deposition chamber.

此外,用于将工件固定到托盘的构件是可释放的。 Furthermore, for fixing the workpiece to the pallet member is releasable. 在有些实例中,用于附着工件的构件是磁性的,原因在于工件衬底本身是铁磁性的,或者其具有将各零件固持到托盘主体的覆层。 In some instances, the member for attaching the work piece is magnetic, because the workpiece substrate itself is ferromagnetic, or having each of the components to the tray main body holding the coating.

在优选实施例中,所述过程可进一步包括与所述衬底背对背行进的衬底。 In a preferred embodiment, the process may further comprise the substrate with the substrate travel back to back. 在此实施例中,衬底以背对背配置垂直定向,并且行进穿过执行相同过程操作的区域。 In this embodiment, the substrate back to back configuration with a vertical orientation, and travel through the area perform the same operation.

图5A展示反应器500的一部分的俯视图说明,所述反应器500以背对背方式处理衬底501和502,且还说明区域511隔离的循序性溅镀-蒸镀过程。 5A shows a portion of a top view of a reactor 500 described, the reactor 500 in back to back manner substrate 501 and 502, and also illustrating the sequential isolation region 511 of sputtering - vapor deposition process. 为了实现背对背处理,将衬底501的加热源503镜射为衬底502的加热源507。 In order to achieve the back to back treatment, the substrate 501 of the heating source as a heating source 503 to mirror 507 of the substrate 502. 同样,将衬底501的溅镀源504、加热源505和蒸镀源506镜射为衬底502的溅镀源508、加热源509和蒸镀源510。 Similarly, the substrate 501 by sputtering source 504, heat source 505 and the deposition source 506 to mirror 502 to the substrate sputtering source 508, heat source 509 and the deposition source 510. 图5A展示两个衬底顶部的这个垂直的两侧制造过程,其中在这两个衬底中制造光电装置。 5A shows a manufacturing process of the two sides of the top of the vertical substrate, wherein the photovoltaic device manufactured in both substrates. 将衬底501和502从左向右处理,通过装置的加热、溅镀和蒸镀室,从而将层形成为PV装置的薄膜。 The substrate 501 and 502 are processed from left to right, by the heating apparatus, sputtering and vapor deposition chamber, whereby the layer is formed as a thin film PV devices. 所述衬底由循序的加热器503和507传递,并接着在1e-3-1e-2托的大气中暴露于溅镀目标503和509。 The substrate heater by 503 and 507 sequential transmission, and then at 1e-3-1e-2 Torr atmosphere sputtering target exposed to 503 and 509. 接着将衬底在1e-7-1e-6托下传输并通过差分抽吸室,且接着呈递到蒸镀沉积室,在所述蒸镀沉积室中,用加热器505和509来加热各个衬底501和502中的每一者,并分别提供气体蒸镀源506和510。 Next, the substrate 1e-7-1e-6 Torr by the differential transmission and the suction chamber, and then presented to the evaporation deposition chamber, the vapor deposition in the deposition chamber, and a heater 505 to heat the respective liner 509 bottom 501 and 502 each, and providing a gas evaporation source 506 and 510, respectively.

图5B展示展示以背对背方式用循序的溅镀-蒸镀/溅镀-蒸镀过程处理衬底521与522的反应器512的一部分的俯视图说明。 Figure 5B shows a back to back manner showing sequential sputter - vapor deposition / sputter - vapor deposition during the processing of the substrate 521 and the reactor 522 a portion 512 of the top view of Fig. 如图5A中所示,将衬底521的溅镀源534镜射为衬底522的溅镀源528。 Shown in Figure 5A, the substrate 521 is a sputtering source 534 to mirror 522 to the substrate 528 by sputtering source. 同样,将衬底521的加热源523和526、蒸镀源524和527以及溅镀源525镜射为衬底522的加热源529和532、蒸镀源530和533以及溅镀源531。 Similarly, the substrate 521 of the heating source 523 and 526, 524 and 527 and the evaporation source sputtering source 525 to mirror 522 to the substrate 529 and a heating source 532, 530 and 533 and the evaporation source sputtering source 531. 因此,通过加热和材料源的简单重复,可在相同的机器内将太阳能电池的产量有效地翻倍。 Accordingly, by simply repeating heating and material source, may be in the same machine solar cell production efficiently doubled.

替代性的基于托盘的制造方案图2示意性表示用于形成太阳能电池的反应器200。 Alternative manufacturing scheme based on FIG. 2 schematically shows a tray for forming a solar cell reactor 200. 衬底205从左到右馈送并穿过反应器。 Substrate 205 and fed from left to right across the reactor. 反应器200包含一个或一个以上处理区域,其在图2中表示为220、230、240和250,其中每个处理区域均包括用于在衬底205上沉积材料的环境。 Reactor 200 includes one or more processing regions, which is expressed as 220, 230 and 250 in FIG. 2, wherein each processing region includes a substrate 205 for deposition of material on the environment. 所述区域以机械方式或可操作地在反应器200内彼此连接。 The region mechanically or operatively within reactor 200 connected to each other. 如本文所使用,术语“环境”是指当衬底205位于特定区域中时用于在衬底205上沉积或反应材料层或材料混合物的条件曲线。 As used herein, the term "environment" refers to the condition when the substrate 205 is located at the curve for a specific area on the substrate 205 or a deposited layer of reactive material or material mixture.

根据太阳能电池正被处理的层来配置每个区域。 According to the solar cell layer being processed to configure each area. 举例来说,一区域可经配置以执行溅镀操作,其中包含加热源和一个或一个以上源目标。 For example, an area may be configured to perform the sputtering operation, which includes a heating source and the one or more source target.

优选的情况是,以可控制的速率使伸长的衬底205通过各种处理区域。 Preferred case, the rate can be controlled so that the elongated substrate 205 through various processing zones. 进一步设想,衬底205可具有0.5m/分到约2.m/分的位移速度。 It is further contemplated, the substrate 205 may have a 0.5m / minute to about 2.m / min displacement velocity. 因此,优选考虑到所需的传输速度、考虑到材料接近特定源材料的滞留时间而将每个区域内部的过程调整为形成所需的横截面。 Therefore, preferably taking into account the required transmission speed, taking into account the material close to the specific source material and the residence time within each region of the adjustment process for the formation of the desired cross-section. 因此,可考虑到由传输或位移速度确定的堆叠的滞留时间而选择每个过程的特征(例如材料和过程选择、温度、压力或溅镀传递速率等),以确保以适当方式传递组成材料。 Thus, taking into account the residence time can be stacked by the transport or displacement velocity determination of selected characteristics of each process (e.g., selection of materials and processes, temperature, sputtering pressure or transfer rate, etc.), in order to ensure an appropriate manner to pass the constituent materials.

根据本发明,可以垂直定向的托盘方式以“图片帧”类型装配将衬底205传输并通过过程,以便标引并传输通过过程,图3中说明了后一种方式。 According to the present invention, can be vertically oriented tray system to "picture frame" type assembly and the substrate 205 through the process of transmission, so that the indexing process, and transmitted through, Figure 3 illustrates the latter approach. 参看图3,将一个衬底或一组衬底310安装在托盘320上,所述托盘320平移通过轨道350上的一个或一个以上区域330和340。 Referring to Figure 3, a substrate or a group of the substrate 310 is mounted on the tray 320, the tray 320 is translated through one or more rails 350 on the regions 330 and 340. 在替代实施例中,所述过程可进一步包括第二衬底或第二组衬底,其以与衬底310成背对背的配置放置。 In an alternative embodiment, the process may further comprise a second substrate or a second set of substrate, and the substrate 310 to which the configuration back to back placement.

预期各种区域内的背景压力的范围将从10-6托到10-3托。 Background pressure is expected within the scope of regional care to 10-3 from 10-6 Torr. 可通过添加例如氩气、氮气或氧气等纯净气体来实现高于基准真空(10-6托)的压力。 By adding, for example argon, nitrogen, or pure oxygen gas to achieve a pressure higher than the reference vacuum (10-6 Torr). 优选的情况是,速率R是常数,以使得衬底205不停止地穿过反应器200从入口201行进到出口202。 Preferred is the case, the rate R is constant, so that the substrate 205 without stopping travels through the reactor 200 from the inlet 201 to the outlet 202. 所属领域的技术人员将了解,可因此以连续方式在衬底205上形成太阳能电池堆叠,而无需衬底205在反应器200内停止。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate, may thus be in a continuous manner on a substrate 205 to form a solar cell stack, without stopping the substrate 205 in the reactor 200.

图2中的反应器可进一步包括真空隔离子区域或狭缝阀(slit valve),其经配置以隔离相邻的处理区域。 Figure 2 reactor may further include a vacuum spacer region or a slit valve (slit valve), which is configured to isolate the adjacent treatment zone. 提供真空隔离子区域或狭缝阀以便在不同的压力环境之间连续传输衬底。 Providing vacuum isolation slit valve to the sub-region or between different pressure environments continuous transfer substrate.

图2中展示的反应器是多个N处理区域220、230、240和250。 Figure 2 shows the reactor is a plurality of N processing region 220, 230 and 250. 然而,所属领域的技术人员应了解,反应器可包括区域220、230、240、250……N个区域。 However, those skilled in the art will appreciate, the reactor may include an area 220,230,240,250 ...... N regions. 装载/卸载区域210/211包括可与反应器的其余部分隔离且可对空气开放的区域。 Loading / unloading region 210/211 includes isolation from the rest of the reactor and may be open to the atmosphere of the area.

在优选实施例中,所述过程可进一步包括衬底206,其与衬底205背对背地行进。 In a preferred embodiment, the process may further include a substrate 206, which travels back to back with the substrate 205. 在此实施例中,衬底206和205以背对背的配置垂直定向,且经过区域220、230、240和250,所述区域执行相同的处理操作222/221、232/231、242/241和252/251。 In this embodiment, the substrate 206 and 205 back to back configuration with a vertical orientation, and the passing area 220, 230 and 250, the area to perform the same processing operation 222 / 221,232 / 231,242 / 241, and 252 / 251.

具体处理步骤当然,用于生产特定PV物件的方法步骤取决于所述物件的具体设计。 Specific processing steps, of course, for the production of a specific object PV method steps dependent on the specific design of the object. 基于CIS的PV将具有与基于硅的系统的不同生产方法。 The CIS based PV having different production methods and systems based on silicon. 本发明并不局限于一种PV类型,且一般而言,可用本发明的技术制造任何PV。 The present invention is not limited to one PV type, and in general, the available technique of the present invention for producing any PV.

在CIGS的情况下,具体步骤可包含:将衬底装载通过隔离的装载区域或类似单元210。 In the case of CIGS, the specific steps may include: loading a substrate regions isolated by loading unit 210 or the like. 在各实施例中,反应器200内含有隔离区域210。 In various embodiments, the reactor 200 containing isolation region 210. 或者,可将隔离区域210附接到反应器200的外部部分。 Alternatively, the isolation region 210 is attached to the outside of the reactor section 200. 第一处理区域210可进一步包括衬底制备环境,以去除表面的原子级的任何残余的瑕疵。 First processing zone 210 may further include a substrate prepared environment, to remove any residual surface defects at the atomic level. 衬底制备可包含:离子束、沉积、加热或溅镀蚀刻。 Preparation of the substrate may comprise: an ion beam deposition, heating, or sputter etching. 这些方法是此项技术中已知的,且将不再进一步论述。 These methods are known in the art, and will not be further discussed.

第二处理区域可为用来沉积用于衬底杂质隔离的阻挡层的环境,其中阻挡层在衬底与后续层之间提供导电路径。 Second processing zone may be used to deposit the isolation environment for a substrate impurity barrier layer, wherein the barrier layer provides a conductive path between the substrate and subsequent layers. 在优选实施例中,阻挡层包括溅镀过程传递的例如铬或钛等元素。 In a preferred embodiment, the barrier layer comprises sputtering the delivery process, such as chromium or titanium and other elements. 优选的情况是,所述环境包括环境温度下在约10-3托到约10-2托范围内的压力。 Preferred is that the environment includes at ambient temperature from about 10-3 torr to about 10-2 torr pressure.

先前区域下游的第三处理区域包括用于沉积用作背部接触层的金属层的环境。 The third zone downstream of the previously treated area includes means for depositing a metal layer used as the environment back contact layer. 背部接触层包括为电流提供导电路径的厚度。 Back contact layer comprises a thickness to provide a current conducting path. 此外,背部接触层用作太阳能电池堆叠的第一导电层。 In addition, the back contact layer of the solar cell is used as the first conductive layer are stacked. 所述层可进一步用来防止例如杂质等化学化合物从衬底扩散到太阳能电池结构的其余部分,或者用作衬底层与太阳能电池结构的其余部分之间的热膨胀缓冲物。 The layer may further be used to prevent, for example a chemical compound and other impurities from the substrate diffuses into the remainder of the solar cell structure, or as a cushion liner thermal expansion and the rest of the underlying structure of the solar cell between. 优选的情况是,背部接触层包括钼,然而,背部接触层可包括其它导电金属,例如铝、铜或银。 Preferred is the case, the back contact layer comprises molybdenum, however, the back contact layer may comprise other conductive metals, such as aluminum, copper or silver.

第四区域提供用于沉积p型半导体层的环境。 Environment for the deposition of the p-type semiconductor layer providing a fourth region. 如本文所使用,所述p型半导体层可用作吸收体生长的外延模板。 As used herein, the p-type semiconductor layer may be used as the absorbent body grown using a template. 优选的情况是,p型半导体层为同型I-IIIVI2材料,其中此材料的光学带隙高于p型吸收体层的平均光学带隙。 Preferred is the case, p-type semiconductor layer is the same type of I-IIIVI2 material, wherein the optical band gap of this material is higher than an average optical band gap of the p-type absorber layer. 举例来说,半导体层可包括Cu:Ga:Se、Cu:Al:Se,或Cu:In:Se与前述化合物中的任一者的合金。 For example, the semiconductor layer may include Cu: Ga: Se, Cu: Al: Se, or Cu: In: Se aforementioned compound according to any one of the alloy. 优选的情况是,可在10-6到10-2托的背景压力下在从环境温度直到约300℃的温度下通过溅镀过程传递所述材料。 Preferred is the case may be in the 10-6 to 10-2 Torr at a background pressure of from ambient temperature up to a temperature of about 300 ℃ of the material passing through the sputtering process. 优选的情况是,温度范围为从环境温度到约200℃。 Preferred is the case, the temperature ranges from ambient to about 200 ℃.

先前区域下游的第五区域提供用于沉积碱性材料以增强p型吸收体的生长和电力性能的环境。 Previously provided downstream of the fifth region area for depositing a p-type alkaline material to enhance absorption and electrical properties of the growth environment of the body. 优选情况是,在环境温度下且在约10-6托到10-2托的压力范围下溅镀碱性材料。 Preferably, the at ambient temperature and at about 10-6 Torr to 10-2 Torr pressure range sputtering alkaline material. 优选情况是,所述材料包括NaF、Na2Se、Na2S或KCI等化合物,其中厚度范围为从约150nm到约500nm。 Preferably, said material comprises NaF, Na2Se, Na2S or the like KCI compound, wherein a thickness ranging from about 150nm to about 500nm.

也在先前区域下游的第六区域可包括用于沉积包括p型吸收体层的前体材料的额外半导体层的环境。 Also previously sixth region may comprise a region downstream of the additional environment for depositing a semiconductor layer including a p-type absorber layer of the precursor material. 在优选实施例中,第六区域可进一步包括一个或一个以上用于沉积前体层的子区域。 In a preferred embodiment, the sixth region may further comprise one or more sub-region prior to deposition for the layer. 在一个实施例中,所述层通过以下方式形成:首先在一个或一个以上连续子区域中传递前体材料,然后在下游热处理区域中将前体材料反应成为最终p型吸收体。 In one embodiment, the layer is formed by the following manner: First, the continuous sub-region transfer of the precursor material in one or more, and then heat-treated in the region in which the downstream reaction of the precursor material into the final p-type absorbent body. 因此,特别是对于CIGS系统而言,在层的格式中,可存在两个材料沉积步骤和第三热处理步骤。 Therefore, particularly for CIGS system, in the format layer, there may be two material deposition step and third heat treatment step.

在前体传递区域中,以多种方式沉积前体材料层,其中包含蒸镀、溅镀和化学气相沉积或其组合。 Precursor delivery area, in various ways deposition precursor material layer, which comprises vapor deposition, sputtering and chemical vapor deposition, or combinations thereof. 优选情况是,可在从约200℃-300℃的温度范围下传递前体材料。 Preferably, the precursor material can be passed at a temperature range of about 200 ℃ -300 ℃ from. 需要使前体材料反应以尽可能快速地形成最终p型吸收体。 Requires the precursor material to form a final p-type absorbent body quickly as possible. 如前所述,为此目的,可将前体层形成为薄层的混合物或形成为一系列薄层。 As mentioned earlier, the purpose, the precursor layer may be formed for this purpose a thin layer of the mixture or is formed as a series of thin layers.

制造装置也可具有先前处理区域下游的第七处理区域,其用于对一个或一个以上先前层进行热处理。 Manufacturing apparatus may also have a seventh processing region downstream of the previously processed region, which is used for one or more previous layer is subjected to heat treatment. 术语“多元物”包含二元物、三元物等。 The term "multiple things" include Binary, ternary and so on. 优选情况是,热处理使得先前不反应的元素或多元物发生反应。 Preferably, the heat makes the previously non-reactive elements or multi-material react. 举例来说,在一个实施例中,优选具有呈各种组合形式且具有元素的多元化合物的各种比率的铜、铟、硒和镓作为沉积在工件上的来源。 For example, in one embodiment, preferably having various ratios were various combinations of elements and having a polyhydric compound of copper, indium, gallium and selenium deposited on the workpiece as the source. 反应环境包含成不同比例的硒和硫,且温度范围为从约400℃到约600℃,具有或不具有背景惰性气体环境。 The reaction environment includes a different proportion of selenium and sulfur, and the temperature ranges from about 400 ℃ to about 600 ℃, with or without an inert gas atmosphere background. 在各种实施例中,可通过优化前体的混合方式来将处理时间最小化到一分钟或更少。 In various embodiments, the mixing can be optimized by way of precursor to minimize the processing time to a minute or less. 环境内的最佳压力取决于环境是反应性的还是惰性的。 Optimum pressure depends on the ambient environment within the reactive or inert. 根据本发明,在热处理区域内,压力范围为从约10-5到约10-2托。 According to the present invention, in the heat treatment zone, a pressure in the range of from about 10-5 to about 10-2 torr. 然而,应注意,这些范围在很大程度上取决于作为整体的阶段的反应器设计、光电装置的设计者以及设备的操作变量。 However, it should be noted that these ranges depending on the manipulated variable as a whole stage reactor design, the designer of the photovoltaic device and the device to a large extent.

反应器可具有用于形成n型半导体层或结伴体的第八处理区域。 The reactor may have a n-type semiconductor layer or an eighth processing zone for forming the body together. 结缓冲层从II-VI或IIIX VI族中选出。 Results of the buffer layer selected from II-VI or IIIX VI family. 举例来说,结缓冲层可包括通过蒸镀、升华或化学气相沉积方法沉积的ZnO、ZnSe、ZnS、In、Se或InNS。 For example, the buffer layer may include a junction by vapor deposition, sublimation or chemical vapor deposition method for deposition of ZnO, ZnSe, ZnS, In, Se or InNS. 温度范围为从约200℃到约400℃。 Temperature range is from about 200 ℃ to about 400 ℃.

此外,所述过程还可具有第九区域,其具有用于沉积透明氧化物(例如ZnO)的本征层的环境。 In addition, the process may also have the ninth region, having environment for depositing transparent oxide (e.g. ZnO) of the intrinsic layer. 根据本发明,所述本征透明氧化层可通过多种方法沉积,其中包含(例如)RF溅镀、CVD或MOCVD。 Can be deposited by a variety of methods according to the present invention, the intrinsic transparent oxide layer, which comprises (e.g.) RF sputtering, CVD or MOCVD.

在各实施例中,所述过程进一步具有第十区域,其具有用于沉积透明导电氧化层以用作太阳能电池的顶部电极的环境。 In various embodiments, the process further having a tenth region having the environment for depositing the transparent conductive oxide layer to serve as the top electrode of the solar cell. 在一个实施例中,举例来说,以溅镀方式沉积掺杂有铝的ZnO。 In one embodiment, for example, is deposited by sputtering Al-doped ZnO. 优选情况是,所述环境包括约200℃的温度和约5毫托的压力。 Preferably, said environment comprises a temperature of about 200 ℃ of about 5 mTorr. 或者,可使用ITO(氧化铟锡)或类似物。 Alternatively, using ITO (indium tin oxide) or the like.

如上所述,在一个实施例中,反应器可包括离散的区域,其中每个区域对应于光电装置的一层的形成。 As described above, in one embodiment, the reactor may comprise discrete regions, wherein each region corresponds to the formation of a layer of the photovoltaic device. 然而,在优选实施例中,可组合包括类似成份和/或环境条件的区域,因此减少反应器中的区域的总数。 However, in the preferred embodiment, may be combined include similar components and / or environmental conditions of the region, thereby reducing the total number of reactor area.

举例来说,在图6中,区域610包括子区域611和612,区域615包括子区域616和617,且区域620包括一个区域,其中每个区域和子区域包括预定的环境。 For example, in Figure 6, area 610 includes sub-regions 611 and 612, area 615 includes sub-regions 616 and 617, and region 620 includes a region in which each region and sub-region comprises a predetermined environment. 在此实例中,可在子区域611中沉积材料A,且可在子区域612中沉积不同的材料B,其中材料A下游的子区域612的环境不同于子区域611中的环境。 In this example, the material may be deposited in the sub-area 611 A and B of different materials may be deposited in the sub-region 612, wherein the sub-region 612 of material A downstream of the sub-region 611 is different from the environment in the environment. 因此,衬底605当在相同区域610的不同区域中时可经历不同的温度或其它过程曲线。 Thus, when the substrate 605 in different regions of the same area 610 may experience different temperatures when other processes or curve. 根据此实施例,区域可界定为具有预定压力,且区域可包含一个或一个以上区域、子区域或其中的阶段,其中每个子区域经配置以在相同的压力环境内使所要材料沉积或反应。 According to this embodiment, the region may be defined as having a predetermined pressure, and the region may include one or more regions, sub-regions, or wherein the stage, wherein each sub-area configured to the same pressure environment so that the desired material is deposited or reaction.

接着,可将衬底605传递到室615,其中在子区域616内沉积材料C,且在子区域617内沉积材料D。 Subsequently, the substrate 605 may be transmitted to the chamber 615, wherein the sub-region 616 within the deposition material C, and the deposition material in the sub-region 617 D. 最终,衬底605到达区域620,在其中沉积单个材料E。 Finally, the substrate 605 reaches the region 620, in which a single material is deposited E.

所属领域的技术人员将了解,反应器600可如所述般具有沿着衬底的平移所界定的路径安置在反应器的入口与出口之间的一系列区域。 Those skilled in the art will appreciate, the reactor 600 may be as described as having a path along a translation of the substrate arranged in a series of defined areas of the inlet and outlet of the reactor between. 在每个区域内,可提供一个或一个以上组成环境或子区域,以使选定的靶材沉积或反应,从而形成用于形成太阳能电池堆叠的连续过程。 Within each zone, may provide one or more than one component or sub-area environment, so that the selected target material is deposited or reacted to form a continuous process for forming a solar cell stack. 一旦衬底进入反应器,太阳能堆叠的各层便以循序方式沉积和形成,其中连续的每个下游过程用于形成太阳能电池堆叠,直到在反应器的出口处提供完成的薄膜太阳能电池为止。 Once the substrate into the reactor, then the solar stacked layers are formed in a sequential manner and deposition, wherein each successive downstream process for forming a solar cell stack, at the outlet of the reactor until the completion of the thin film solar cell provided so far.

虽然依据基于CIGS的光电堆叠设计表述了本项技术,但应当了解,也可使用此项技术来生产其它光电设计,其中包含生产基于硅的系统,例如现有技术中论述的系统。 Although CIGS based photovoltaic stack design based on the expression of this technology, it is to be understood that this technology may also be used to produce other photovoltaic design, which includes the production of silicon-based systems, such as discussed in the prior art system. 举例来说,将可能在氢化的非晶硅合金中使用或包含碳或锗原子,以便调整其光学带隙。 For example, the use or may contain a carbon or germanium atoms in hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys in order to adjust their optical bandgap. 举例来说,碳的带隙大于硅,且因此在氢化的非晶硅合金中包含碳会增大合金的带隙。 For example, carbon is greater than the silicon band gap, and thus increases the alloy contains carbon in bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy in. 相反,锗的带隙小于硅,且因此在氢化的非晶硅合金中包含锗会减小合金的带隙。 In contrast, less than the band gap of silicon germanium, and thus reduces the alloy containing germanium bandgap hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy in.

类似地,可在氢化的非晶硅合金中并入硼或磷原子,以便调整其导电属性。 Similarly, boron or phosphorus atoms may be incorporated in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys in order to adjust their conductive properties. 在氢化的非晶硅合金中包含硼会形成正性掺杂的导电区域。 In the hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy contains boron dopant will form positive conductive regions. 相反,在氢化的非晶硅合金中包含磷会形成负性掺杂的导电区域。 In contrast, in the hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy contains phosphorus doped negative form conductive regions.

通过在沉积室中进行沉积来制备氢化的非晶硅合金薄膜。 By deposition in a deposition chamber to prepare a hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy films. 至此,在通过在沉积室中进行沉积来制备氢化的非晶硅合金的过程中,通过在沉积气体混合物中包含含有碳、锗、硼或磷的气体(例如甲烷(CH4)、锗烷(GeH4)、四氟化锗(GeF4)、高价锗烷,例如乙锗烷(Ge2H6)、乙硼烷(B2H6)或磷化氢(PH3))来在合金中并入碳、锗、硼或磷。 Thus, in amorphous silicon alloy by deposition in the deposition chamber to prepare hydrogenated in the process, by including in the deposition gas mixture containing carbon, germanium, boron or phosphorus gas (e.g., methane (CH4), germane (GeH4 ), germanium tetrafluoride (GeF4), germane high, e.g. Digermane (Ge2H6), diborane (B2H6) or phosphine (PH3)) to be incorporated into the carbon, germanium, boron or phosphorus in the alloy. 参看(例如第4,491,626号、第4,142,195号、第4,363,828号、第4,504,518号、第4,344,984号、第4,435,445号和第4,394,400号美国专利。然而,此项实践的缺点在于,无法控制将碳、锗、硼或磷原子并入氢化的非晶硅合金的方式。也就是说,这些元素以高度随机的方式并入所得合金中,从而增加了不合需要的化学键的可能性。 See (such as No. 4,491,626, No. 4,142,195, No. 4,363,828, No. 4,504,518, No. 4,344,984, No. 4,435,445 and US Patent No. 4,394,400. However, the disadvantage of this practice is that, beyond the control of carbon, germanium, boron or phosphorus atoms incorporated way hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloy. That is, these elements are incorporated in a highly random manner resulting alloy, thereby increasing the likelihood of undesirable chemical bonds.

因此,在制造PV装置且需要用特定的且受控制的反应和/或沉积条件来生产PV的薄膜时,本发明的技术将是有用的。 Therefore, when manufacturing a PV device with a specific and need and the reaction and / or deposition conditions controlled to produce a thin film PV technique of the present invention will be useful.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
CN102084500B16 Apr 20098 Oct 2014东电电子太阳能股份公司用于光伏器件的装配线
Classifications
International ClassificationH01L31/00, C23C16/00, C23C14/34
Cooperative ClassificationH01L31/072, C23C14/568, Y02E10/541, H01L31/1876, H01L31/0749, H01L31/0322, Y02P70/521
European ClassificationH01L31/0749, H01L31/072, H01L31/18H, H01L31/032C, C23C14/56F
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