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Publication numberCA2473450 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberCA 2473450
PCT numberPCT/US2003/016230
Publication date10 Jun 2004
Filing date25 Jun 2003
Priority date25 Nov 2002
Also published asCA2473450C, US7560160, US20040105980, WO2004049358A2, WO2004049358A3
Publication numberCA 2473450, CA 2473450 A1, CA 2473450A1, CA-A1-2473450, CA2473450 A1, CA2473450A1, PCT/2003/16230, PCT/US/2003/016230, PCT/US/2003/16230, PCT/US/3/016230, PCT/US/3/16230, PCT/US2003/016230, PCT/US2003/16230, PCT/US2003016230, PCT/US200316230, PCT/US3/016230, PCT/US3/16230, PCT/US3016230, PCT/US316230
InventorsTirumalai S. Sudarshan, Sanjay Kotha, Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
ApplicantMaterials Modification, Inc., Tirumalai S. Sudarshan, Sanjay Kotha, Ramachandran Radhakrishnan
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: CIPO, Espacenet
Multifunctional particulate material, fluid, and composition
CA 2473450 A1
Abstract
A multifunctional particulate material, fluid, or composition includes a predetermined amount of core particles with a plurality of coatings. The core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 ~m. The particulate material, fluid, or composition is capable of exhibiting one or more properties, such as magnetic, thermal, optical, electrical, biological, chemical, lubrication, and rheological.
Description  available in
Claims(195)
1. A particulate material, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of core particles with a plurality of coatings; and b) said core particles having an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500m.
2. The particulate material of Claim 1, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a member selected from the group consisting of a metal, a polymer, a ceramic material, an intermetallic material, an alloy, and a combination thereof.
3. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the metal is selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
4. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyphenylene vinylene, and a combination thereof.
5. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the ceramic material is selected from the group consisting of iron oxide, zinc ferrite, manganese ferrite, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, carbon, indium oxide, titanic, aluminum nitride, zirconia, tin oxide, chromium oxide, yttrium oxide, niobium oxide, hafnium oxide, tantalum oxide, tungsten oxide, magnesium oxide, boron nitride, silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, iron nitride, vanadium nitride, titanium, silicon carbide, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide, titanium carbide, iron carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, hafnium carbide, tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium diboride, vanadium boride, iron boride, zirconium diboride, hafnium diboride, tantalum diboride, nickel boride, cobalt boride, chromium boride and a combination thereof.
6. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the intermetallic material is selected from the group consisting of titanium aluminide, niobium aluminide, iron aluminide, nickel aluminide, ruthenium aluminide, iridium aluminide, chromium aluminide, titanium silicide, niobium silicide, zirconium silicide, molybdenum silicide, hafnium silicide, tantalum silicide, tungsten silicide, iron silicide, cobalt silicide, nickel silicide, magnesium silicide, yttrium silicide, cadmium silicide, berryllium oxide, nickel berryllide, niobium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, yttrium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, zirconium berryllide, and a combination thereof.
7. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the alloy is selected from the group consisting of indium tin oxide, cadmium selenide, iron-cobalt, ferro-nickel, ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, ferro-magnesium, brass, bronze, steel, and a combination thereof.
8. The particulate material of Claim 1, wherein:
a) one of said coatings has a thickness of about 1 nm to 10m.
9. The particulate material of Claim 8, wherein:
a) a portion of said core particles includes up to ten of said coatings.
10. The particulate material of Claim 8, wherein:
a) said coatings have varying thickness.
11. The particulate material of Claim 8, wherein:
a) said coatings have generally the same thickness.
12. The particulate material of Claim 1, wherein:
a) one of said coatings comprises a member selected from the group consisting of a metal, a polymer, a ceramic material, an intermetallic material, and an alloy or a combination thereof.
13. The particulate material of Claim 1, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
14. The particulate material of Claim 12, wherein:
a) the metal is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, gold, silver, tungsten, silicon, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, indium, bismuth, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, and a combination thereof.
15. The particulate material of Claim 12, wherein:
a) the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, manitol, starch, dextran, poly methyl methacrylate, polyaniline, polystyrene, poly pyrolle, N-isopropyl acrylamide, acrylamide, lecithin, and a combination thereof.
16. The particulate material of Claim 12, wherein:
a) the ceramic material is selected from the group consisting of iron oxide, zinc ferrite, manganese ferrite, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, carbon, indium oxide, titanic, aluminum nitride, zirconia, tin oxide, chromium oxide, yttrium oxide, niobium oxide, hafnium oxide, tantalum oxide, tungsten oxide, magnesium oxide, boron nitride, silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, iron nitride, vanadium nitride, titanium, silicon carbide, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide, titanium carbide, iron carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, hafnium carbide, tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium diboride, vanadium boride, iron boride, zirconium diboride, hafnium diboride, tantalum diboride, nickel boride, cobalt boride, chromium boride and a combination thereof.
17. The particulate material of Claim 12, wherein:
a) the intermetallic material is selected from the group consisting of titanium aluminide, niobium aluminide, iron aluminide, nickel aluminide, ruthenium aluminide, iridium aluminide, chromium aluminide, titanium silicide, niobium silicide, zirconium silicide, molybdenum silicide, hafnium silicide, tantalum silicide, tungsten silicide, iron silicide, cobalt silicide, nickel silicide, magnesium silicide, yttrium silicide, cadmium silicide, berryllium oxide, nickel berryllide, niobium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, yttrium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, zirconium berryllide, and a combination thereof.
18. The particulate material of Claim 12, wherein:
a) the alloy is selected from the group consisting of ferro-nickel, ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, ferro-magnesium, brass, bronze, steel, and a combination thereof.
19. The particulate material of Claim 1, wherein:
a) said core particles with said plurality of coatings selectively interact with one or more of an external stimulus selected from the group consisting of an electric field, a magnetic field, a thermal field, an optical field, and a combination thereof.
20. The particulate material of Claim 19, wherein:
a) said core particles interact with one or more of said external stimulus individually or simultaneously.
21. A particulate composition, comprising:
a) a carrier medium;
b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said medium;
c) said particulate material comprising core particles with a plurality of coatings; and d) said core particles having an average particle size of about 1nm to 500m.
22. The particulate composition of Claim 21, wherein:
a) said carrier medium comprises a fluid.
23. The particulate composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a member selected from the group consisting of a metal, a polymer, a ceramic material, an intermetallic material, an alloy, and a combination thereof.
24. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the metal is selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, copper, tungsten, zinc, silicon, molybdenum, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
25. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl alcohol, polyphenylene vinylene, and a combination thereof.
26. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the ceramic material is selected from the group consisting of iron oxide, zinc ferrite, manganese ferrite, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, carbon, indium oxide, titanic, aluminum nitride, zirconia, tin oxide, chromium oxide, yttrium oxide, niobium oxide, hafnium oxide, tantalum oxide, tungsten oxide, magnesium oxide, boron nitride, silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, iron nitride, vanadium nitride, titanium, silicon carbide, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide, titanium carbide, iron carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, hafnium carbide, tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium diboride, vanadium boride, iron boride, zirconium diboride, hafnium diboride, tantalum diboride, nickel boride, cobalt boride, chromium boride, and a combination thereof.
27. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the intermetallic material is selected from the group consisting of titanium aluminide, niobium aluminide, iron aluminide, nickel aluminide, ruthenium aluminide, iridium aluminide, chromium aluminide, titanium silicide, niobium silicide, zirconium silicide, molybdenum silicide, hafnium silicide, tantalum silicide, tungsten silicide, iron silicide, cobalt silicide, nickel silicide, magnesium silicide, yttrium silicide, cadmium silicide, berryllium oxide, nickel berryllide, niobium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, yttrium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, zirconium berryllide, and a combination thereof.
28. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the alloy is selected from the group consisting of indium tin oxide, cadmium selenide, iron-cobalt, ferro-nickel, ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, ferro-magnesium, brass, bronze, steel, and a combination thereof.
29. The particulate composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) one of said coatings has a thickness of about 1nm to 10m.
30. The particulate composition of Claim 29, wherein:
a) a portion of said core particles includes up to ten of said coatings.
31. The particulate composition of Claim 29, wherein:
a) said coatings have varying thicknesses.
32. The particulate composition of Claim 29, wherein:
a) said coatings have generally the same thickness.
33. The particulate composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) one of said coatings comprises a member selected from the group consisting of a metal, a polymer, a ceramic material, an intermetallic material, an alloy, and a combination thereof.
34. The particulate composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
35. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the metal is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, gold, silver, tungsten, silicon, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, indium, bismuth, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, and a combination thereof.
36. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the polymer is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, sorbitol, manitol, starch, dextran, poly methyl methacrylate, polyaniline, polystyrene, poly pyrolle, N-isopropyl acrylamide, acrylamide, lecithin, and a combination thereof.
37. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the ceramic material is selected from the group consisting of iron oxide, zinc ferrite, manganese ferrite, zinc oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, silicon carbide, boron carbide, carbon, indium oxide, titanic, aluminum nitride, zirconia, tin oxide, chromium oxide, yttrium oxide, niobium oxide, hafnium oxide, tantalum oxide, tungsten oxide, magnesium oxide, boron nitride, silicon nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, tungsten nitride, iron nitride, vanadium nitride, titanium, silicon carbide, chromium carbide, vanadium carbide, titanium carbide, iron carbide, zirconium carbide, niobium carbide, hafnium carbide, tungsten carbide, tantalum carbide, titanium diboride, vanadium boride, iron boride, zirconium diboride, hafnium diboride, tantalum diboride, nickel boride, cobalt boride, chromium boride, and a combination thereof.
38. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the intermetallic material is selected from the group consisting of titanium aluminide, niobium aluminide, iron aluminide, nickel aluminide, ruthenium aluminide, iridium aluminide, chromium aluminide, titanium silicide, niobium silicide, zirconium silicide, molybdenum silicide, hafnium silicide, tantalum silicide, tungsten silicide, iron silicide, cobalt silicide, nickel silicide, magnesium silicide, yttrium silicide, cadmium silicide, berryllium oxide, nickel berryllide, niobium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, yttrium berryllide, tantalum berryllide, zirconium berryllide, and a combination thereof.
39. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the alloy is selected from the group consisting of ferro-nickel, ferro-silicon, ferro-manganese, ferro-magnesium, brass, bronze, steel, and a combination thereof.
40. The particulate composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) said core particles with said plurality of coatings selectively interact with one or more of an external stimulus selected from the group consisting of an electric field, a magnetic field, a thermal field, an optical field, and a combination thereof.
41. The particulate composition of Claim 40, wherein:
a) said core particles interact with one or more of said external stimulus individually or simultaneously.
42. The composition of Claim 22, wherein:
a) said fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, a water and oil mixture, oil, wax, a lubricant, a metallic fluid, a polymer, an organic solvent, and a combination thereof.
43. The particulate composition of Claim 22, further comprising:
a) a dispersant or surfactant.
44. The particulate composition of Claim 43, wherein:
a) said surfactant is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, dextran, starch, lecithin, and a combination thereof.
45. A magneto-responsive fluid, comprising:
a) a carrier fluid;
b) a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material in said carrier fluid; and c) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material.
46. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 45, wherein:
a) said heat absorbing material is selected from the group consisting of copper, aluminum, silica, aluminum oxide, tungsten, and a combination thereof.
47 47. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 46, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a member selected from the group consisting of iron, iron oxide, cobalt, nickel, a ferrite, and a combination thereof.
48. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 47, wherein:
a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, oil, glycerol, an elastomer, a polymer, an organic solvent, and a combination thereof.
49. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 48, wherein:
a) the concentration of said particulate material is about 2 to 90% by volume of said carrier fluid.
50. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 49, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 25nm to 150nm.
51. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 49, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, polyethylene glycol, and a combination thereof.
52. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 45, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
53. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 45, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise super-paramagnetic particles.
54. A magneto-responsive fluid, comprising:
a) a generally optically clear carrier fluid; and b) a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material in said carrier fluid.
55. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 54, wherein:
a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of polymethyl methacrylate, titanium dioxide, a polycarbonate, and indium oxide.
56. A method of varying turbidity of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a generally optically clear carrier fluid and a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material dispersed in the carrier fluid; and b) applying a magnetic field to the fluid thereby varying the turbidity of the fluid.
57. The method of Claim 56, wherein:
the fluid becomes less turbid when the magnetic field is applied and returns to its initial general turbidity level when the magnetic field is removed.
58. A magneto-responsive fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material in a polymer matrix; and b) said matrix is selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene vinylene, polyaniline, and a combination thereof.
59. The magneto-responsive fluid of Claim 58, wherein:
a) said particulate material comprises particles selected from the group consisting of iron, iron oxide, nickel, cobalt, a ferrite, and a combination thereof.
60. A method of varying conductivity of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material in a polymer matrix, the matrix having been selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, poly phenylene vinylene, polyaniline, and a combination thereof; and b) applying a magnetic field to the fluid thereby varying the conductivity of the fluid.
61. The method of Claim 60, wherein:
the magnetic particulate material gets aligned along a generally linear path when the magnetic field is applied.
62. The method of Claim 60, wherein:
the fluid becomes more conductive when the magnetic field is applied and returns to its initial general conductivity level when the magnetic field is removed.
63. An optical fluid, comprising:
a) a carrier fluid;

b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said carrier fluid; and c) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material.
64. The optical fluid of Claim 63, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
65. The optical fluid of Claim 64, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
66. The optical fluid of Claim 65, wherein:
a) the coating has a thickness of about 10nm to 100nm.
67. The optical fluid of Claim 64, wherein:
a) the heat absorbing material is selected from the group consisting of copper, aluminum, silica, aluminum oxide, tungsten, and a combination thereof.
68. The optical fluid of Claim 64, wherein:
a) said particulate material comprises ceramic particles selected from the group consisting of zinc oxide, indium oxide, silica, and a combination thereof.
69. A method of varying optical clarity of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a predetermined amount of a particulate material, the particulate material including core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material; and b) raising the temperature of the fluid thereby varying the optical clarity of the fluid.
70. The method of Claim 69, wherein:
the fluid becomes more clear as the temperature is raised.
71. An optical fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a semiconductor particulate material in an index matching fluid; and b) said semiconductor material comprising core particles selected from the group consisting of gallium arsenide, silicon carbide, silicon, germanium, cadmium selenide, and a combination thereof.
72. The optical fluid of Claim 71, wherein:
a) the index matching fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, oil, mixture of water and oil, poly ethylene glycol, polymethylmethacrylate, polyacrylamide, polystyrene, and a combination thereof.
73. The optical fluid of Claim 72, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
74. The optical fluid of Claim 73, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
75. The optical fluid of Claim 74, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
76. The optical fluid of Claim 73, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise semiconductor nanodots.
77. The optical fluid of Claim 73, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise nanocrystalline particles.
78. A method of varying transparency of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a predetermined amount of a semiconductor particulate material in an index matching fluid; and b) subjecting the fluid to an electromagnetic radiation thereby varying the transparency of the fluid.
79. The method of Claim 78, wherein:
the fluid becomes less transparent as the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation is increased and becomes more transparent as the intensity of the electromagnetic radiation is decreased.
80. An electro-optical fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a semiconductor particulate material in a conducting fluid;

b) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material; and c) said core particles selected from the group consisting of indium oxide, zinc oxide, and a combination thereof.
81. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 80, wherein:
a) said coating has a thickness of about 10 nm-10 m.
82. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 80, wherein:
a) the conducting fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, mineral oil, polypyrole, polyaniline, and a combination thereof.
83. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 82, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
84. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 83, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
85. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 84, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
86. The electro-optical fluid of Claim 85, wherein:
a) said heat absorbing material is selected from the group consisting of copper, aluminum, silica, aluminum oxide, tungsten, and a combination thereof.
87. A method of varying transparency of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a predetermined amount of a semiconductor particulate material in a conducting fluid, the particulate material including core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material; and b) subjecting the fluid to an electric field thereby varying the transparency of the fluid.
88. The method of Claim 87, wherein:
the fluid becomes less transparent as the intensity of the electric field is increased and becomes more transparent as the intensity of the electric field is decreased.
89. A thermo-optical fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a luminescent particulate material in a thermally switchable polymer; and b) the particulate material comprising core particles having an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
90. The thermo-optical fluid of Claim 89, further comprising:
a) a carrier medium selected from the group consisting of water, oil, and a combination thereof.
91. The thermo-optical fluid of Claim 90, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
92. The thermo-optical fluid of Claim 91, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
93. The thermo-optical fluid of Claim 89, wherein:
a) said core particles are selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, indium oxide, zinc oxide, and a combination thereof.
94. The thermo-optical fluid of Claim 93, wherein:
a) the polymer is selected from the group consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, polyalkelene glycol, and a combination thereof.
95. A method of varying the chromicity of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid including a predetermined amount of a luminescent particulate material in a thermally sensitive polymer; and b) raising the temperature of the fluid thereby varying the chromicity of the fluid.
96. The method of Claim 95, wherein:
the luminescent particulate material comprises core particles having an average particle size of about 10 nm to 10 m.
97. The method of Claim 96, wherein:
the core particles comprise particles selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, and a combination thereof.
98. An electro-responsive fluid, comprising:
a) a dieelectric fluid:
b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said fluid; and c) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material.
99. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 98, wherein:
a) the dieelectric fluid is selected from the group consisting of water and ethylene glycol.
100. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 99, wherein:
a) said coating has a thickness of about 10nm to 100m.
101. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 100, wherein:
a) said core particles are selected from the group consisting of copper, silica, and a combination thereof.
102. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 98, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
103. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 102, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
104. The electro-responsive fluid of Claim 103, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
105. A method of varying viscosity of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a dieelectric fluid including a predetermined amount of a particulate material, the particulate material including core particles with a coating of a heat absorbing material; and b) subjecting the fluid to an electric field thereby varying the viscosity of the fluid.
106. The method of Claim 105, wherein:
the fluid becomes more viscous as the intensity of the electric field is increased and becomes less viscous as the intensity of the electric field is decreased.
107. The method of Claim 105, wherein:
the coating of a heat absorbing material absorbs heat generated due to the electric field.
108. A particle for delivery of an agent to a desired location in a system, comprising:
a) a magneto-responsive core for assisting in transport of the particle to a desired location in a system;
b) said core including a coating of a fluorescent material for tracking the movement of the particle in the system; and c) said fluorescent material comprising gold, silver, or a combination thereof.
109. The particle of Claim 108, wherein:
a) said core has a size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
110. The particle of Claim 109, wherein:
a) said core comprises a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
111. The particle of Claim 110, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
112. The particle of Claim 108, wherein:
a) said core comprises a member selected from the group consisting of iron, iron oxide, a ferrite, cobalt, nickel, and a combination thereof.
113. The particle of Claim 112, wherein:
a) the agent comprises a biological, a pharmaceutical, or a chemical agent, or a combination thereof.
114. A method for delivery of an agent to a desired location in a system, comprising the steps of:

a) providing a magneto-responsive core including a coating of a fluorescent material selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, and a combination thereof, the coating including an agent to be delivered to a desired location in a system;
b) introducing the core in the system;
c) tracking the movement of the particle in the system by sensing the fluorescent material;
d) applying a magnetic field to move the particle to the desired location; and e) releasing the agent from the particle.
115. The method of Claim 114, wherein:
the agent comprises a biological, a pharmaceutical, or a chemical agent, or a combination thereof.
116. An abrasive thermal fluid, comprising:
a) a carrier fluid;
b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said carrier fluid; and c) said particulate material comprising core particles of an abrasive material with a coating of a heat conducting material.
117. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 116, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
118. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 117, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
119. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 118, wherein:
a) said abrasive material is selected from the group consisting of silicon carbide, boron carbide, titanium carbide, iron carbide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, titanium diboride, silica, yittrium-aluminum-garnet, and a combination thereof.
120. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 119, wherein:
a) said heat conducting material is selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, copper, nickel, and a combination thereof.
121. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 120, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
122. The abrasive thermal fluid of Claim 121, wherein:
a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of oil, water, wax, a lubricant, and a combination thereof.
123. A magneto-responsive particulate material, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material; and b) said particulate material comprising core particles with a chemical or biological antagonist material.
124. The particulate material of Claim 123, wherein:
a) said biological material is antagonist to a molecule selected from the group consisting of a toxin, pathogen, DNA, RNA, protein, a biochemical, and a combination thereof.
125. The particulate material of Claim 123, wherein:
a) said core particles are selected from the group consisting of iron, iron oxide, and a combination thereof.
126. The particulate material of Claim 123, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise super-paramagnetic particles.
127. The particulate material of Claim 125, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
128. The particulate material of Claim 127, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
129. The particulate material of Claim 128, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycol, starch, dextran, and a combination thereof.
130. A method of separating a target molecule from a sample, comprising the steps of:
a) provided a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a material antagonist to the target molecule;
b) subjecting the sample to the magnetic particulate material thereby allowing the antagonist to bind with the target molecule; and c) applying a magnetic field thereby separating the target molecule bound to the core particles.
131. A radiofrequency-sensitive fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in a matrix;
b) said particulate material comprising core particles selected from the group consisting of a magnetic, conducting, semi-conductor, and a polymer material.
132. The radiofrequency-sensitive fluid of Claim 131, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a member selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, silver, gold, polyaniline, polypyrolle, polystyrene, polymethyl metha crylate, a metal oxide, cadmium selenide, and a combination thereof.
133. The radiofrequency-sensitive fluid of Claim 132, wherein:
a) said matrix is selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyaniline, polypyrolle, silica, alumina, titanium oxide, a dye, and a combination thereof.
134. The radiofrequency-sensitive fluid of Claim 133, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
135. The radiofrequency-sensitive fluid of Claim 134, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
136. An article comprising the fluid of Claim 131.
137. A preceramic fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in a matrix; and b) said particulate material comprising core particles of an abrasive material with a coating of a preceramic polymer.
138. The preceramic fluid of Claim 137, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
139. The preceramic fluid of Claim 138, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
140. The preceramic fluid of Claim 139, wherein:
a) said polymer is selected from the group consisting of polysilsesquioxane, polycarbosilane, and a combination thereof.
141. The preceramic fluid of Claim 140, wherein:
a) said abrasive material comprises silicon carbide.
142. The preceramic fluid of Claim 141, wherein:
a) said matrix is selected from the group consisting of silica, titanic, alumina, and a combination thereof.
143. An article comprising the fluid of Claim 137.
144. The article of Claim 143, comprising:
a) a substrate selected from the group consisting of steel, wood, cement, and a combination thereof.
145. A self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid, comprising:
a) a carrier fluid;
b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said fluid;
c) said particulate material comprising core particles of a metal material; and d) a surfactant.
146. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 145, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a coating of indium or polytetrafluroethene.
147. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 146, wherein:
a) said metal material is selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, nickel, and a combination thereof.
148. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 147, wherein:
a) said surfactant is selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
149. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 147, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
150. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 149, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
151. The self-lubricating, high-temperature fluid of Claim 150, wherein:
a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of oil, water, wax, lubricant, and a combination thereof.
152. An electrochromic fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a particulate material comprising core particles of a metal oxide in a matrix material;
b) said core particles including a coating of a chromic material; and c) a surfactant.
153. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 152, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
154. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 153, wherein:
a) said metal oxide comprises tin oxide.
155. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 154, wherein:
a) said coating comprises antimony.
156. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 155, wherein:
a) said matrix is selected from the group consisting of titania, alumina, silica, and a combination thereof.
157. The fluid of Claim 156, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
158. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 157, wherein:
a) said surfactant is selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
159. The electrochromic fluid of Claim 158, wherein:
a) the fluid changes color when an electric filed is applied thereto.
160. A photochromic fluid, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a semiconductor particulate material in a matrix; and b) said particulate material comprising core particles having an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
161. The photochromic fluid of Claim 160, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a general shape selected from the group consisting of a sphere, a needle, a cube, an oval, irregular, a cylinder, a diamond, a lamella, a polyhedron, and a combination thereof.
162. The photochromic fluid of Claim 161, further comprising:
a) a surfactant selected from the group consisting of oleic acid, lecithin, polyethylene glycol, starch, glycerol, sorbitol, manitol, and a combination thereof.
163. The photochromic fluid of Claim 162, wherein:
a) the semiconductor material comprises cadmium selenide.
164. The photochromic fluid of Claim 163, wherein:
a) said matrix is selected from the group consisting of polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene, and a combination thereof.
165. The photochromic fluid of Claim 164, wherein:
a) the photochromic fluid changes color when subjected to an optical field.
166. The photochromic fluid of Claim 164, wherein:
a) the photochromic fluid changes color when subjected to a different light intensity.
167. A method of varying radiofrequency absorption property of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid with a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material in a polymer matrix; and b) subjecting the fluid to a magnetic field thereby varying the radiofrequency absorption property thereof.
168. A method of varying radiofrequency absorption property of a fluid, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid with a predetermined amount of a conducting particulate material in a polymer matrix; and b) subjecting the fluid to an electric field thereby varying the radiofrequency absorption property thereof.
169. A fluid sensor, comprising:
a) a predetermined amount of a magnetic particulate material; and b) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a material sensitive to a chemical or biological stimulus.
170. The fluid sensor of Claim 169, wherein:
a) the chemical stimulus is selected from the group consisting of a solid, a liquid, a gas, and a combination thereof.
171. A quenching fluid, comprising:
a) a carrier fluid;
b) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in said carrier fluid; and c) said particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a polymer material.
172. The quenching fluid of Claim 171, wherein:
a) said core particles have an average particle size of about 1 nm to 500 m.
173. The quenching fluid of Claim 172, wherein:
a) said core particles comprise a member selected from the group consisting of a metal, a ceramic material, an intermetallic material, and a combination thereof.
174. The quenching fluid of Claim 173, wherein:
a) the coating has a thickness of about 1 nm to 100m.
175. The quenching fluid of Claim 174, wherein:
a) the polymer material is selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene, polyvinyl alcohol, and a combination thereof.
176. The quenching fluid of Claim 175, wherein:
a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, oil, an emulsion, and a combination thereof.
177. The quenching fluid of Claim 175, wherein:
a) a portion of said core particles includes up to ten of said coatings.
178. The quenching fluid of Claim 177, wherein:
a) said coatings have varying thickness.
179. The quenching fluid of Claim 178, wherein:
a) said coatings have generally the same thickness.
180. The quenching fluid of Claim 173, wherein:
a) the metal is selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, bismuth, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, titanium, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
181. The quenching fluid of Claim 173, wherein:
a) the ceramic material is selected from the group consisting of graphite, aluminium oxide, silicon oxide, beryllium oxide, titanium boride, molybdenum boride, silicon carbide, boron carbide, zirconium boride, hafnium boride, aluminium nitride, iron oxide, and a combination thereof.
182. The quenching fluid of Claim 173, wherein:
a) the intermetallic material is selected from the group consisting of molybdenum silicide, titanium aluminides, nickel aluminides, berrylides, and a combination thereof.
183. The quenching fluid of Claim 175, wherein:

a) said carrier fluid is selected from the group consisting of water, mineral oil, silicone oil, hydraulic oil, synthetic oil, sodium dodecyl sulfate in water, polyethylene glycol in water, polyvinyl alcohol in water, oil in water, polystyrene in water, polyacrylamide in water, and a combination thereof.
184. The quenching fluid of Claim 171, wherein:
a) the quenching fluid comprises a thermal conductivity of about 0 to 400 W/mK.
185. The quenching fluid of Claim 171, wherein:
a) the particulate material comprises about 1 to 90% by volume of said carrier fluid.
186. A method of cooling a material, comprising the steps of:
a) providing a fluid, comprising:
i) a carrier fluid;
ii) a predetermined amount of a particulate material in the carrier fluid; and iii) the particulate material comprising core particles with a coating of a polymer material;
b) subjecting the material to the fluid for cooling thereof.
187. The method of Claim 186, wherein:
the fluid comprises a thermal conductivity of about 0 to 400 W/mK.
188. The method of Claim 186, wherein:
the particulate material comprises about 1 to 90% by volume of the carrier fluid.
189. The method of Claim 186, wherein:
the coating has a thickness of about 1 nm to 100m.
190. The method of Claim 189, wherein:
the polymer material is selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene, polyvinyl alcohol, and a combination thereof.
191. The method of Claim 186, wherein:
the material comprises a metal.
192. The particulate material of Claim 2, wherein:
a) the alloy comprises one or more metals selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
193. The particulate material of Clam 12, wherein:
a) the alloy comprises one or more metals selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
194. The particulate composition of Claim 23, wherein:
a) the alloy comprises one or more metals selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
195. The particulate composition of Claim 33, wherein:
a) the alloy comprises one or more metals selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, iron, tin, gold, silver, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, zinc, silicon, magnesium, titanium, vanadium, magnesium, germanium, zirconium, niobium, rhenium, iridium, cadmium, indium, hafnium, tantalum, platinum, neodymium, gallium, zinc, an alloy, an oxide, and a combination thereof.
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
14 Jul 2004EEERExamination request